BitPAl: a bit-parallel, general integer-scoring sequence alignment algorithm.
Loving, Joshua; Hernandez, Yozen; Benson, Gary
2014-11-15
Mapping of high-throughput sequencing data and other bulk sequence comparison applications have motivated a search for high-efficiency sequence alignment algorithms. The bit-parallel approach represents individual cells in an alignment scoring matrix as bits in computer words and emulates the calculation of scores by a series of logic operations composed of AND, OR, XOR, complement, shift and addition. Bit-parallelism has been successfully applied to the longest common subsequence (LCS) and edit-distance problems, producing fast algorithms in practice. We have developed BitPAl, a bit-parallel algorithm for general, integer-scoring global alignment. Integer-scoring schemes assign integer weights for match, mismatch and insertion/deletion. The BitPAl method uses structural properties in the relationship between adjacent scores in the scoring matrix to construct classes of efficient algorithms, each designed for a particular set of weights. In timed tests, we show that BitPAl runs 7-25 times faster than a standard iterative algorithm. Source code is freely available for download at http://lobstah.bu.edu/BitPAl/BitPAl.html. BitPAl is implemented in C and runs on all major operating systems. jloving@bu.edu or yhernand@bu.edu or gbenson@bu.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.
Jankovskij, Robert
2018-01-01
In this paper the author looks into an eight bit computer structure and the computers components, their structure, pros and cons. An eight bit computer which can execute basic instructions and arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction of eight bit numbers is built out of integrated circuits. Data transfers between computer components are monitored and reviewed.
Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2015-07-17
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and Bob each split into several agents exchanging classical information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. In this Letter we first revisit a previously proposed scheme [C. Crépeau et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7073, 407 (2011)] that realizes bit commitment using only classical communication. We prove that the protocol is secure against quantum adversaries for a duration limited by the light-speed communication time between the locations of the agents. We then propose a novel multiround scheme based on finite-field arithmetic that extends the commitment time beyond this limit, and we prove its security against classical attacks. Finally, we present an implementation of these protocols using dedicated hardware and we demonstrate a 2 ms-long bit commitment over a distance of 131 km. By positioning the agents on antipodal points on the surface of Earth, the commitment time could possibly be extended to 212 ms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blossom, J.M.; Hong, J.P.; Kellner, R.G.
1985-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory is building a 32-bit FASTBUS computer using the NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR 32032 central processing unit (CPU) and containing 16 million bytes of memory. The board can act both as a FASTBUS master and as a FASTBUS slave. It contains a custom direct memory access (DMA) channel which can perform 80 million bytes per second block transfers across the FASTBUS
low bit rate video coding low bit rate video coding
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
Variable length bit rate (VLBR) ariable length bit rate (VLBR) ariable length bit rate (VLBR) broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses video coding which mandates a temporal frequency of 10 mandates a temporal frequency of 10 frames per frames per ...
Quantum dynamics of quantum bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Bich Ha
2011-01-01
The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)
Sensitivity Analysis in Observational Research: Introducing the E-Value.
VanderWeele, Tyler J; Ding, Peng
2017-08-15
Sensitivity analysis is useful in assessing how robust an association is to potential unmeasured or uncontrolled confounding. This article introduces a new measure called the "E-value," which is related to the evidence for causality in observational studies that are potentially subject to confounding. The E-value is defined as the minimum strength of association, on the risk ratio scale, that an unmeasured confounder would need to have with both the treatment and the outcome to fully explain away a specific treatment-outcome association, conditional on the measured covariates. A large E-value implies that considerable unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. A small E-value implies little unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. The authors propose that in all observational studies intended to produce evidence for causality, the E-value be reported or some other sensitivity analysis be used. They suggest calculating the E-value for both the observed association estimate (after adjustments for measured confounders) and the limit of the confidence interval closest to the null. If this were to become standard practice, the ability of the scientific community to assess evidence from observational studies would improve considerably, and ultimately, science would be strengthened.
Quantum bit commitment protocol without quantum memory
Ramos, Rubens Viana; Mendonca, Fabio Alencar
2008-01-01
Quantum protocols for bit commitment have been proposed and it is largely accepted that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is not possible; however, it can be more secure than classical bit commitment. In despite of its usefulness, quantum bit commitment protocols have not been experimentally implemented. The main reason is the fact that all proposed quantum bit commitment protocols require quantum memory. In this work, we show a quantum bit commitment protocol that does not requir...
A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz
2011-01-01
This thesis presents three main results for a holistic approach to bit preservation, where the ultimate goal is to find the optimal bit preservation strategy for specific digital material that must be digitally preserved. Digital material consists of sequences of bits, where a bit is a binary digit...... which can have the value 0 or 1. Bit preservation must ensure that the bits remain intact and readable in the future, but bit preservation is not concerned with how bits can be interpreted as e.g. an image. A holistic approach to bit preservation includes aspects that influence the final choice of a bit...... preservation strategy. This can be aspects of how the permanent access to the digital material must be ensured. It can also be aspects of how the material must be treated as part of using it. This includes aspects related to how the digital material to be bit preserved is represented, as well as requirements...
Bits and q-bits as versatility measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José R.C. Piqueira
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Using Shannon information theory is a common strategy to measure any kind of variability in a signal or phenomenon. Some methods were developed to adapt information entropy measures to bird song data trying to emphasize its versatility aspect. This classical approach, using the concept of bit, produces interesting results. Now, the original idea developed in this paper is to use the quantum information theory and the quantum bit (q-bit concept in order to provide a more complete vision of the experimental results.Usar a teoria da informação de Shannon é uma estratégia comum para medir todo tipo de variabilidade em um sinal ou fenômeno. Alguns métodos foram desenvolvidos para adaptar a medida de entropia informacional a dados de cantos de pássaro, tentando enfatizar seus aspectos de versatilidade. Essa abordagem clássica, usando o conceito de bit, produz resultados interessantes. Agora, a idéia original desenvolvida neste artigo é usar a teoria quântica da informação e o conceito de q-bit, com a finalidade de proporcionar uma visão mais completa dos resultados experimentais.
Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld
2012-01-01
In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...
Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment
Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian
1999-01-01
We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian
2004-04-16
We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.
... of a sesame seed, and are tan to gray in color. Lice need to suck a tiny bit of blood to survive, and they sometimes live on people's heads and lay eggs in the hair , on the back of the neck, or behind ...
Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.
Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J
2011-12-01
The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.
Research on bit synchronization based on GNSS
Yu, Huanran; Liu, Yi-jun
2017-05-01
The signals transmitted by GPS satellites are divided into three components: carrier, pseudocode and data code. The processes of signal acquisition are acquisition, tracking, bit synchronization, frame synchronization, navigation message extraction, observation extraction and position speed calculation, among which bit synchronization is of greatest importance. The accuracy of bit synchronization and the shortening of bit synchronization time can help us to use satellite to realize positioning and acquire the information transmitted by satellite signals more accurately. Even under the condition of weak signal, how to improve bit synchronization performance is what we need to research. We adopt a method of polymorphic energy accumulation minima so as to find the bit synchronization point, as well as complete the computer simulation to conclude that under the condition of extremely weak signal power, this method still has superior synchronization performance, which can achieve high bit edge detection rate and the optimal bit error rate.
A holistic approach to bit preservation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zierau, Eld
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which...... is to keep bits intact and readable, is far more complex than first anticipated, even in this narrow definition. This paper takes a more holistic approach to bit preservation, and looks at how an optimal bit preservation strategy can be found, when requirements like confidentiality, availability and costs...... are taken into account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the various findings from previous research which have led to the holistic approach to bit preservation. This paper also includes an introduction to digital preservation with a focus on the role of bit preservation, which sets...
Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld
2012-01-01
In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often....... The findings in this paper are contextualized through a qualitative ethnographic research design based on Danish cemetery users and mourners and their different experiences with and attitudes towards new online grief, mourning and remembrance designs, platforms, services and initiatives. Additionally...... constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with digital and symbolic 'death...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Kesheng
2007-08-02
An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.
Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durrand, Christopher J. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Skeem, Marcus R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Crockett, Ron B. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Hall, David R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States)
2013-04-29
The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.
Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings
Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.
2010-01-01
This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.
Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! (For Kids)
... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth / For Kids / Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Print en español ¡ ...
Calibrating E-values for hidden Markov models using reverse-sequence null models.
Karplus, Kevin; Karchin, Rachel; Shackelford, George; Hughey, Richard
2005-11-15
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) calculate the probability that a sequence was generated by a given model. Log-odds scoring provides a context for evaluating this probability, by considering it in relation to a null hypothesis. We have found that using a reverse-sequence null model effectively removes biases owing to sequence length and composition and reduces the number of false positives in a database search. Any scoring system is an arbitrary measure of the quality of database matches. Significance estimates of scores are essential, because they eliminate model- and method-dependent scaling factors, and because they quantify the importance of each match. Accurate computation of the significance of reverse-sequence null model scores presents a problem, because the scores do not fit the extreme-value (Gumbel) distribution commonly used to estimate HMM scores' significance. To get a better estimate of the significance of reverse-sequence null model scores, we derive a theoretical distribution based on the assumption of a Gumbel distribution for raw HMM scores and compare estimates based on this and other distribution families. We derive estimation methods for the parameters of the distributions based on maximum likelihood and on moment matching (least-squares fit for Student's t-distribution). We evaluate the modeled distributions of scores, based on how well they fit the tail of the observed distribution for data not used in the fitting and on the effects of the improved E-values on our HMM-based fold-recognition methods. The theoretical distribution provides some improvement in fitting the tail and in providing fewer false positives in the fold-recognition test. An ad hoc distribution based on assuming a stretched exponential tail does an even better job. The use of Student's t to model the distribution fits well in the middle of the distribution, but provides too heavy a tail. The moment-matching methods fit the tails better than maximum-likelihood methods
High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren
Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped...... with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth...... images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed...
PERBANDINGAN APLIKASI MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMELLIA 128 BIT KEY DAN 256 BIT KEY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lanny Sutanto
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The rapid development of the Internet today to easily exchange data. This leads to high levels of risk in the data piracy. One of the ways to secure data is using cryptography camellia. Camellia is known as a method that has the encryption and decryption time is fast. Camellia method has three kinds of scale key is 128 bit, 192 bit, and 256 bit.This application is created using the C++ programming language and using visual studio 2010 GUI. This research compare the smallest and largest key size used on the file extension .Txt, .Doc, .Docx, .Jpg, .Mp4, .Mkv and .Flv. This application is made to comparing time and level of security in the use of 128-bit key and 256 bits. The comparison is done by comparing the results of the security value of avalanche effect 128 bit key and 256 bit key.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1990-01-29
We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1990-01-01
We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc 2 in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are ''born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc 2 our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G πN 2 ) 2 = (2m N /m π ) 2 - 1. 21 refs., 1 fig
Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid
1987-08-01
The recognition of ICAO spelling alphabet words (ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, etc.) is compared with diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) scores for the same conditions. The voice conditions include unprocessed speech; speech processed through the DOD standard linear-predictive-coding algorithm operating at 2400 bit/s with random error rates of 0, 2, 5, 8, and 12 percent; and speech processed through an 800-bit/s pattern-matching algorithm. The results suggest that, with distinctive vocabularies, word intelligibility can be expected to remain high even when DRT scores fall into the poor range. However, once the DRT scores fall below 75 percent, the intelligibility can be expected to fall off rapidly; at DRT scores below 50, the recognition of a distinctive vocabulary should also fall below 50 percent.
Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gui Bo
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.
FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming
2009-06-23
As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.
Criteria for core sampling bit temperature monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francis, P.M.
1994-08-01
A temperature monitoring device needs to be developed for the tank core sampling trucks. It will provide an additional indication of safe drill bit temperatures and give the operator a better feel for the effects of changing drill settings. This document defines the criteria for the bit monitoring system, including performance requirements, information on the core sampling system, and other conditions that may be encountered
Bit-Grooming: Shave Your Bits with Razor-sharp Precision
Zender, C. S.; Silver, J.
2017-12-01
Lossless compression can reduce climate data storage by 30-40%. Further reduction requires lossy compression that also reduces precision. Fortunately, geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that can be eliminated without sacrificing scientifically meaningful data. We introduce Bit Grooming, a lossy compression algorithm that removes the bloat due to false-precision, those bits and bytes beyond the meaningful precision of the data.Bit Grooming is statistically unbiased, applies to all floating point numbers, and is easy to use. Bit-Grooming reduces geoscience data storage requirements by 40-80%. We compared Bit Grooming to competitors Linear Packing, Layer Packing, and GRIB2/JPEG2000. The other compression methods have the edge in terms of compression, but Bit Grooming is the most accurate and certainly the most usable and portable.Bit Grooming provides flexible and well-balanced solutions to the trade-offs among compression, accuracy, and usability required by lossy compression. Geoscientists could reduce their long term storage costs, and show leadership in the elimination of false precision, by adopting Bit Grooming.
High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs
Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren
2017-08-01
Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed by an image or video codec with 8 bits per pixel input format. We analyze how the compression parameters for both MSB and LSB images should be chosen to provide the maximum objective quality for a given compression ratio. Finally, we apply the proposed infrared image compression method utilizing JPEG and H.264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can achieve similar result as 16 bit HEVC codec.
Stochastic p-Bits for Invertible Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kerem Yunus Camsari
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40–60 kT. In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call “p-bits,” can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p-bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p-bits, showing that p-bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM with a symmetric connection matrix [J] (J_{ij}=J_{ji} that implements a given truth table with p-bits. The [J] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (J_{ij}≠J_{ji} to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p-bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 2^{33} (≈8×10^{9} possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect
Stochastic p -Bits for Invertible Logic
Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Faria, Rafatul; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo
2017-07-01
Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40 - 60 kT . In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call "p -bits," can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p -bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p -bits, showing that p -bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM) with a symmetric connection matrix [J ] (Ji j=Jj i) that implements a given truth table with p -bits. The [J ] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (Ji j≠Jj i) to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p -bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 233 (≈8 ×1 09) possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect directivity (Jj i=0 ) a small
Framed bit error rate testing for 100G ethernet equipment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert
2010-01-01
of performing bit error rate testing at 100Gbps. In particular, we show how Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) can be performed over an aggregated 100G Attachment Unit Interface (CAUI) by encapsulating the test data in Ethernet frames at line speed. Our results show that framed bit error rate testing can...... functionality besides the bit error rate tester....
Using magnetic permeability bits to store information
Timmerwilke, John; Petrie, J. R.; Wieland, K. A.; Mencia, Raymond; Liou, Sy-Hwang; Cress, C. D.; Newburgh, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.
2015-10-01
Steps are described in the development of a new magnetic memory technology, based on states with different magnetic permeability, with the capability to reliably store large amounts of information in a high-density form for decades. The advantages of using the permeability to store information include an insensitivity to accidental exposure to magnetic fields or temperature changes, both of which are known to corrupt memory approaches that rely on remanent magnetization. The high permeability media investigated consists of either films of Metglas 2826 MB (Fe40Ni38Mo4B18) or bilayers of permalloy (Ni78Fe22)/Cu. Regions of films of the high permeability media were converted thermally to low permeability regions by laser or ohmic heating. The permeability of the bits was read by detecting changes of an external 32 Oe probe field using a magnetic tunnel junction 10 μm away from the media. Metglas bits were written with 100 μs laser pulses and arrays of 300 nm diameter bits were read. The high and low permeability bits written using bilayers of permalloy/Cu are not affected by 10 Mrad(Si) of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. An economical route for writing and reading bits as small at 20 nm using a variation of heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.
The best bits in an iris code.
Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J
2009-06-01
Iris biometric systems apply filters to iris images to extract information about iris texture. Daugman's approach maps the filter output to a binary iris code. The fractional Hamming distance between two iris codes is computed and decisions about the identity of a person are based on the computed distance. The fractional Hamming distance weights all bits in an iris code equally. However, not all the bits in an iris code are equally useful. Our research is the first to present experiments documenting that some bits are more consistent than others. Different regions of the iris are compared to evaluate their relative consistency, and contrary to some previous research, we find that the middle bands of the iris are more consistent than the inner bands. The inconsistent-bit phenomenon is evident across genders and different filter types. Possible causes of inconsistencies, such as segmentation, alignment issues, and different filters are investigated. The inconsistencies are largely due to the coarse quantization of the phase response. Masking iris code bits corresponding to complex filter responses near the axes of the complex plane improves the separation between the match and nonmatch Hamming distance distributions.
Bits extraction for palmprint template protection with Gabor magnitude and multi-bit quantization
Mu, Meiru; Shao, X.; Ruan, Qiuqi; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose a method of fixed-length binary string extraction (denoted by LogGM_DROBA) from low-resolution palmprint image for developing palmprint template protection technology. In order to extract reliable (stable and discriminative) bits, multi-bit equal-probability-interval
Managing the Number of Tag Bits Transmitted in a Bit-Tracking RFID Collision Resolution Protocol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Landaluce
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology faces the problem of message collisions. The coexistence of tags sharing the communication channel degrades bandwidth, and increases the number of bits transmitted. The window methodology, which controls the number of bits transmitted by the tags, is applied to the collision tree (CT protocol to solve the tag collision problem. The combination of this methodology with the bit-tracking technology, used in CT, improves the performance of the window and produces a new protocol which decreases the number of bits transmitted. The aim of this paper is to show how the CT bit-tracking protocol is influenced by the proposed window, and how the performance of the novel protocol improves under different conditions of the scenario. Therefore, we have performed a fair comparison of the CT protocol, which uses bit-tracking to identify the first collided bit, and the new proposed protocol with the window methodology. Simulations results show that the proposed window positively decreases the total number of bits that are transmitted by the tags, and outperforms the CT protocol latency in slow tag data rate scenarios.
Managing the number of tag bits transmitted in a bit-tracking RFID collision resolution protocol.
Landaluce, Hugo; Perallos, Asier; Angulo, Ignacio
2014-01-08
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology faces the problem of message collisions. The coexistence of tags sharing the communication channel degrades bandwidth, and increases the number of bits transmitted. The window methodology, which controls the number of bits transmitted by the tags, is applied to the collision tree (CT) protocol to solve the tag collision problem. The combination of this methodology with the bit-tracking technology, used in CT, improves the performance of the window and produces a new protocol which decreases the number of bits transmitted. The aim of this paper is to show how the CT bit-tracking protocol is influenced by the proposed window, and how the performance of the novel protocol improves under different conditions of the scenario. Therefore, we have performed a fair comparison of the CT protocol, which uses bit-tracking to identify the first collided bit, and the new proposed protocol with the window methodology. Simulations results show that the proposed window positively decreases the total number of bits that are transmitted by the tags, and outperforms the CT protocol latency in slow tag data rate scenarios.
Bit-padding information guided channel hopping
Yang, Yuli
2011-02-01
In the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we propose a bit-padding information guided channel hopping (BP-IGCH) scheme which breaks the limitation that the number of transmit antennas has to be a power of two based on the IGCH concept. The proposed scheme prescribes different bit-lengths to be mapped onto the indices of the transmit antennas and then uses padding technique to avoid error propagation. Numerical results and comparisons, on both the capacity and the bit error rate performances, are provided and show the advantage of the proposed scheme. The BP-IGCH scheme not only offers lower complexity to realize the design flexibility, but also achieves better performance. © 2011 IEEE.
Ultra low bit-rate speech coding
Ramasubramanian, V
2015-01-01
"Ultra Low Bit-Rate Speech Coding" focuses on the specialized topic of speech coding at very low bit-rates of 1 Kbits/sec and less, particularly at the lower ends of this range, down to 100 bps. The authors set forth the fundamental results and trends that form the basis for such ultra low bit-rates to be viable and provide a comprehensive overview of various techniques and systems in literature to date, with particular attention to their work in the paradigm of unit-selection based segment quantization. The book is for research students, academic faculty and researchers, and industry practitioners in the areas of speech processing and speech coding.
Color characters for white hot string bits
Curtright, Thomas L.; Raha, Sourav; Thorn, Charles B.
2017-10-01
The state space of a generic string bit model is spanned by N ×N matrix creation operators acting on a vacuum state. Such creation operators transform in the adjoint representation of the color group U (N ) [or S U (N ) if the matrices are traceless]. We consider a system of b species of bosonic bits and f species of fermionic bits. The string, emerging in the N →∞ limit, identifies P+=m M √{2 } where M is the bit number operator and P-=H √{2 } where H is the system Hamiltonian. We study the thermal properties of this string bit system in the case H =0 , which can be considered the tensionless string limit: the only dynamics is restricting physical states to color singlets. Then the thermal partition function Tr e-β m M can be identified, putting x =e-β m, with a generating function χ0b f(x ), for which the coefficient of xn in its expansion about x =0 is the number of color singlets with bit number M =n . This function is a purely group theoretic object, which is well studied in the literature. We show that at N =∞ this system displays a Hagedorn divergence at x =1 /(b +f ) with ultimate temperature TH=m /ln (b +f ). The corresponding function for finite N is perfectly finite for 0
Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Dam, A.
1981-01-01
Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)
Linear, Constant-rounds Bit-decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reistad, Tord; Toft, Tomas
2010-01-01
When performing secure multiparty computation, tasks may often be simple or difficult depending on the representation chosen. Hence, being able to switch representation efficiently may allow more efficient protocols. We present a new protocol for bit-decomposition: converting a ring element x ∈ ℤ M...
Entropy of a bit-shift channel
Baggen, Stan; Balakirsky, Vladimir; Denteneer, Dee; Egner, Sebastian; Hollmann, Henk; Tolhuizen, Ludo; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
2006-01-01
We consider a simple transformation (coding) of an iid source called a bit-shift channel. This simple transformation occurs naturally in magnetic or optical data storage. The resulting process is not Markov of any order. We discuss methods of computing the entropy of the transformed process, and
Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me!
... as soon as you can because they can make you very sick. With an adult's help, wash the bite well with soap and water. Then apply an ice pack to the bite, and try to elevate the area and keep it still to help prevent the ... black widows, you'll want to make sure that's the kind of spider that bit ...
Bit corruption correlation and autocorrelation in a stochastic binary nano-bit system
Sa-nguansin, Suchittra
2014-10-01
The corruption process of a binary nano-bit model resulting from an interaction with N stochastically-independent Brownian agents (BAs) is studied with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations and analytic continuum theory to investigate the data corruption process through the measurement of the spatial two-point correlation and the autocorrelation of bit corruption at the origin. By taking into account a more realistic correlation between bits, this work will contribute to the understanding of the soft error or the corruption of data stored in nano-scale devices.
1983-12-01
Environment 52 34. Comparison of Regression Lines Estimating Scores for the Sustention Intelligibility Feature vs Bit Error Rate for the DOD LPC-10 Vocoder in...both conditions, the feature "sibilation" obtained the highest scores, and the features "graveness" and " sustention " received the poorest scores, but...were under much greater impairment in the noise environment. Details of the variations in scores for sustention are shown in Figure 34, and, for
Two research contributions in 64-bit computing: Testing and Applications
Chang, Victor
2005-01-01
Following the release of Windows 64-bit and Redhat Linux 64-bit operating systems (OS) in late April 2005, this is the one of the first 64-bit OS research project completed in a British university. The objective is to investigate (1) the increase/decrease in performance compared to 32-bit computing; (2) the techniques used to develop 64-bit applications; and (3) how 64-bit computing should be used in IT and research organizations to improve their work. This paper summarizes research discoveri...
Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration
Bjørndal, Øystein
2017-01-01
Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...
A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit
Xiujie Qu; Zhongkai Cao; Zhanjie Yang
2013-01-01
In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB) first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB) first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical...
Method to manufacture bit patterned magnetic recording media
Raeymaekers, Bart; Sinha, Dipen N
2014-05-13
A method to increase the storage density on magnetic recording media by physically separating the individual bits from each other with a non-magnetic medium (so-called bit patterned media). This allows the bits to be closely packed together without creating magnetic "cross-talk" between adjacent bits. In one embodiment, ferromagnetic particles are submerged in a resin solution, contained in a reservoir. The bottom of the reservoir is made of piezoelectric material.
Development of an RSFQ 4-bit ALU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J. Y.; Baek, S. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, K. R.; Jung, K. R.; Lim, H. Y.; Park, J. H.; Han, T. S.
2005-01-01
We have developed and tested an RSFQ 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) based on half adder cells and de switches. ALU is a core element of a computer processor that performs arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words. The designed ALU had limited operation functions of OR, AND, XOR, and ADD. It had a pipeline structure. We have simulated the circuit by using Josephson circuit simulation tools in order to reduce the timing problem, and confirmed the correct operation of the designed ALU. We used simulation tools of XIC TM ,WRspice TM , and Julia. The fabricated 4-bit ALU circuit had a size of 3000 calum X 1500, and the chip size was 5 mm X 5 mm. The test speeds were 1000 kHz and 5 GHz. For high-speed test, we used an eye-diagram technique. Our 4-bit ALU operated correctly up to 5 GHz clock frequency. The chip was tested at the liquid-helium temperature.
Bit selection using field drilling data and mathematical investigation
Momeni, M. S.; Ridha, S.; Hosseini, S. J.; Meyghani, B.; Emamian, S. S.
2018-03-01
A drilling process will not be complete without the usage of a drill bit. Therefore, bit selection is considered to be an important task in drilling optimization process. To select a bit is considered as an important issue in planning and designing a well. This is simply because the cost of drilling bit in total cost is quite high. Thus, to perform this task, aback propagation ANN Model is developed. This is done by training the model using several wells and it is done by the usage of drilling bit records from offset wells. In this project, two models are developed by the usage of the ANN. One is to find predicted IADC bit code and one is to find Predicted ROP. Stage 1 was to find the IADC bit code by using all the given filed data. The output is the Targeted IADC bit code. Stage 2 was to find the Predicted ROP values using the gained IADC bit code in Stage 1. Next is Stage 3 where the Predicted ROP value is used back again in the data set to gain Predicted IADC bit code value. The output is the Predicted IADC bit code. Thus, at the end, there are two models that give the Predicted ROP values and Predicted IADC bit code values.
Study of the laws governing wear of cutter bits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potrovka, S.
1979-01-01
A study was made of the laws governing the change in drilling of a bit in the process of ramming depending on the wear of the cutter bit. Experiments were conducted on the drilling stand ZIF-1200A by 3-cutter bits V-140T with cemented fittings and surfacing of the rear part of the external cutter bit crowns. Experimental data are presented from studying the laws governing the change in the current drilling of the bit and the corresponding wear depending on the total number of bit rotations during drilling of gray granite. Dependences are also indicated for drilling on the bit of the current mechanical drilling velocity and the mechanical drilling velocity during one rotation on the total number of bit rotations, as well as the mechanical drilling velocity on drilling per bit during drilling of gray granite. It was established that the efficient time for stay of the bit on the face both with minimum cost of 1 m of drilling, and with maximum per-trip velocity depends on the parameters of the drilling regime, the strength of the rocks, the depth of drilling and the standard indicators for the cost of rolling the equipment in 1 min, and the cost of the drill bit. Experimental data were obtained which make it possible to rapidly determine the efficient time for lifting the bit and to use for this purpose simple resources of computers.
A novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm.
Yao, Bin; He, Lifeng; Kang, Shiying; Chao, Yuyan; Zhao, Xiao
2015-01-01
The Euler number of a binary image is an important topological property in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper proposes a novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm. Based on graph theory and analysis on bit-quad patterns, our algorithm only needs to count two bit-quad patterns. Moreover, by use of the information obtained during processing the previous bit-quad, the average number of pixels to be checked for processing a bit-quad is only 1.75. Experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms significantly conventional Euler number computing algorithms.
Entangled solitons and stochastic Q-bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rybakov, Yu.P.; Kamalov, T.F.
2007-01-01
Stochastic realization of the wave function in quantum mechanics with the inclusion of soliton representation of extended particles is discussed. Two-solitons configurations are used for constructing entangled states in generalized quantum mechanics dealing with extended particles, endowed with nontrivial spin S. Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the 1/2-spin particles. The concept of stochastic q-bits is used for quantum computing modelling
Huang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Dou; Xie, Bing; Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Fuxiao; He, Lei
2018-03-01
The undesired stick-slip vibration is the main source of PDC bit failure, such as tooth fracture and tooth loss. So, the study of PDC bit failure base on stick-slip vibration analysis is crucial to prolonging the service life of PDC bit and improving ROP (rate of penetration). For this purpose, a piecewise-smooth torsional model with 4-DOF (degree of freedom) of drilling string system plus PDC bit is proposed to simulate non-impact drilling. In this model, both the friction and cutting behaviors of PDC bit are innovatively introduced. The results reveal that PDC bit is easier to fail than other drilling tools due to the severer stick-slip vibration. Moreover, reducing WOB (weight on bit) and improving driving torque can effectively mitigate the stick-slip vibration of PDC bit. Therefore, PDC bit failure can be alleviated by optimizing drilling parameters. In addition, a new 4-DOF torsional model is established to simulate torsional impact drilling and the effect of torsional impact on PDC bit's stick-slip vibration is analyzed by use of an engineering example. It can be concluded that torsional impact can mitigate stick-slip vibration, prolonging the service life of PDC bit and improving drilling efficiency, which is consistent with the field experiment results.
Object tracking based on bit-planes
Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng
2016-01-01
Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.
Berezin, Alexander A.
2003-04-01
Why there is Something rather than Nothing? From Pythagoras ("everything is number") to Wheeler ("it from bit") theme of ultimate origin stresses primordiality of Ideal Platonic World (IPW) of mathematics. Even popular "quantum tunnelling out of nothing" can specify "nothing" only as (essentially) IPW. IPW exists everywhere (but nowhere in particular) and logically precedes space, time, matter or any "physics" in any conceivable universe. This leads to propositional conjecture (axiom?) that (meta)physical "Platonic Pressure" of infinitude of numbers acts as engine for self-generation of physical universe directly out of mathematics: cosmogenesis is driven by the very fact of IPW inexhaustibility. While physics in other quantum branches of inflating universe (Megaverse)can be(arbitrary) different from ours, number theory (and rest of IPW)is not (it is unique, absolute, immutable and infinitely resourceful). Let (infinite) totality of microstates ("its") of entire Megaverse form countable set. Since countable sets are hierarchically inexhaustible (Cantor's "fractal branching"), each single "it" still has infinite tail of non-overlapping IPW-based "personal labels". Thus, each "bit" ("it") is infinitely and uniquely resourceful: possible venue of elimination ergodicity basis for eternal return cosmological argument. Physics (in any subuniverse) may be limited only by inherent impossibilities residing in IPW, e.g. insolvability of Continuum Problem may be IPW foundation of quantum indeterminicity.
Video Synchronization With Bit-Rate Signals and Correntropy Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Pereira
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We propose an approach for the synchronization of video streams using correntropy. Essentially, the time offset is calculated on the basis of the instantaneous transfer rates of the video streams that are extracted in the form of a univariate signal known as variable bit-rate (VBR. The state-of-the-art approach uses a window segmentation strategy that is based on consensual zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC. This strategy has an elevated computational complexity, making its application to synchronizing online data streaming difficult. Hence, our proposal uses a different window strategy that, together with the correntropy function, allows the synchronization to be performed for online applications. This provides equivalent synchronization scores with a rapid offset determination as the streams come into the system. The efficiency of our approach has been verified through experiments that demonstrate its viability with values that are as precise as those obtained by ZNCC. The proposed approach scored 81 % in time reference classification against the equivalent 81 % of the state-of-the-art approach, requiring much less computational power.
Video Synchronization With Bit-Rate Signals and Correntropy Function.
Pereira, Igor; Silveira, Luiz F; Gonçalves, Luiz
2017-09-04
We propose an approach for the synchronization of video streams using correntropy. Essentially, the time offset is calculated on the basis of the instantaneous transfer rates of the video streams that are extracted in the form of a univariate signal known as variable bit-rate (VBR). The state-of-the-art approach uses a window segmentation strategy that is based on consensual zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC). This strategy has an elevated computational complexity, making its application to synchronizing online data streaming difficult. Hence, our proposal uses a different window strategy that, together with the correntropy function, allows the synchronization to be performed for online applications. This provides equivalent synchronization scores with a rapid offset determination as the streams come into the system. The efficiency of our approach has been verified through experiments that demonstrate its viability with values that are as precise as those obtained by ZNCC. The proposed approach scored 81 % in time reference classification against the equivalent 81 % of the state-of-the-art approach, requiring much less computational power.
A digital divider with extension bits for position-sensitive detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koike, Masaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi
1988-01-01
Digitizing errors produced in a digital divider for position-sensitive detectors have been reduced by adding extension bits to data bits. A relation between the extension bits and the data bits to obtain perfect position uniformity is also given. A digital divider employing 10 bit ADCs and 6 bit extension circuits has been constructed. (orig.)
A fixed/variable bit-rate data compression architecture
Zweigle, Gregary C.; Venbrux, Jack; Yeh, Pen-Shu
1993-01-01
A VLSI architecture for an adaptive data compression encoder capable of sustaining fixed or variable bit-rate output has been developed. There are three modes of operation: lossless with variable bit-rate, lossy with fixed bit-rate and lossy with variable bit-rate. For lossless encoding, the implementation is identical to the USES chip designed for Landsat 7. Obtaining a fixed bit-rate is achieved with a lossy DPCM algorithm using adaptive, nonuniform scalar quantization. In lossy mode, variable bit-rate coding uses the lossless sections of the encoder for post-DPCM entropy coding. The encoder shows excellent compression performance in comparison to other current data compression techniques. No external tables or memory are required for operation.
Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad
2013-01-01
This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing institutions technical and organisational requirements for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined by the OAIS...... Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements e.g. for bit safety, accessibility...
Logic Operators on Delta-Sigma Bit-Streams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Axel Klein
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamental logic operations NOT, OR, AND, and XOR processing bit-streams of Δ Σ -modulators are discussed herein. The resulting bit-streams are evaluated on the basis of their mean values and their standard deviations. Mathematical expressions are presented for their mean values; i.e., the logic function XOR results in the negative multiplication of two bipolar bit-streams, and the logic function AND results in the multiplication of two unipolar bit-streams. As the results are valid for bit-streams with independent high-frequency components, the normed cross-product is utilized for evaluation of the independence of the high-frequency components. In order to achieve a high independence between the input bit-streams, representing the same value, the quantization noise is affected. Multiple strategies are examined and Δ Σ -modulators with different designs are chosen as the best-suited solution. The operations are evaluated on a testbench.
Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.
2005-01-01
Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…
Development and testing of a Mudjet-augmented PDC bit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Black, Alan (TerraTek, Inc.); Chahine, Georges (DynaFlow, Inc.); Raymond, David Wayne; Matthews, Oliver (Security DBS); Grossman, James W.; Bertagnolli, Ken (US Synthetic); Vail, Michael (US Synthetic)
2006-01-01
This report describes a project to develop technology to integrate passively pulsating, cavitating nozzles within Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits for use with conventional rig pressures to improve the rock-cutting process in geothermal formations. The hydraulic horsepower on a conventional drill rig is significantly greater than that delivered to the rock through bit rotation. This project seeks to leverage this hydraulic resource to extend PDC bits to geothermal drilling.
Bit-commitment-based quantum coin flipping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nayak, Ashwin; Shor, Peter
2003-01-01
In this paper we focus on a special framework for quantum coin-flipping protocols, bit-commitment-based protocols, within which almost all known protocols fit. We show a lower bound of 1/16 for the bias in any such protocol. We also analyze a sequence of multiround protocols that tries to overcome the drawbacks of the previously proposed protocols in order to lower the bias. We show an intricate cheating strategy for this sequence, which leads to a bias of 1/4. This indicates that a bias of 1/4 might be optimal in such protocols, and also demonstrates that a more clever proof technique may be required to show this optimality
Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing
Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie
2015-04-01
This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.
Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pranata Sugiri
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.
Détection homodyne pour mémoires holographiques à stockage bit à bit
Maire, G.; Pauliat, G.; Roosen, G.
2006-10-01
Les mémoires holographiques à stockage bit à bit sont une alternative intéressante à l'approche holographique conventionnelle par pages de données du fait de leur architecture optique simplifiée. Nous proposons et validons ici une procédure de lecture adaptée à de telles mémoires et basée sur une détection homodyne de l'amplitude diffractée par les hologrammes. Ceci permet d'augmenter la quantité de signal utile détecté et s'avère donc prometteur pour accroître le taux de transfert de données de ces mémoires.
The Deliverability of the BIT Programme at Lahti UAS in Training BIT Experts
Nghiem, Duc Long
2014-01-01
Information Technology has become a vital and indispensable part of business in every industry. In fact, IT is the primary factor that differentiates many businesses from their competitors. Organizations usually rely on IT for several strategic business solutions such as communication, information management, customer relationship management, and marketing. In the near future, the business labor force will anticipate a rising demand in BIT experts who possess both business expertise and IT sk...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. K. L. B. Adikaram
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With the increasing demand for online/inline data processing efficient Fourier analysis becomes more and more relevant. Due to the fact that the bit reversal process requires considerable processing time of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT algorithm, it is vital to optimize the bit reversal algorithm (BRA. This paper is to introduce an efficient BRA with multiple memory structures. In 2009, Elster showed the relation between the first and the second halves of the bit reversal permutation (BRP and stated that it may cause serious impact on cache performance of the computer, if implemented. We found exceptions, especially when the said index mapping was implemented with multiple one-dimensional memory structures instead of multidimensional or one-dimensional memory structure. Also we found a new index mapping, even after the recursive splitting of BRP into equal sized slots. The four-array and the four-vector versions of BRA with new index mapping reported 34% and 16% improvement in performance in relation to similar versions of Linear BRA of Elster which uses single one-dimensional memory structure.
Bit-Wise Arithmetic Coding For Compression Of Data
Kiely, Aaron
1996-01-01
Bit-wise arithmetic coding is data-compression scheme intended especially for use with uniformly quantized data from source with Gaussian, Laplacian, or similar probability distribution function. Code words of fixed length, and bits treated as being independent. Scheme serves as means of progressive transmission or of overcoming buffer-overflow or rate constraint limitations sometimes arising when data compression used.
Support research for development of improved geothermal drill bits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendrickson, R.R.; Barker, L.M.; Green, S.J.; Winzenried, R.W.
1977-06-01
Progress in background research needed to develop drill bits for the geothermal environment is reported. Construction of a full-scale geothermal wellbore simulator and geothermal seal testing machine was completed. Simulated tests were conducted on full-scale bits. Screening tests on elastometric seals under geothermal conditions are reported. (JGB)
Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad
2010-01-01
This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation in order to use their resources for preservation n in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...
Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications
Veenstra, H.
2006-01-01
This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate
APL portability in 16 bits microprocessors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordova Costa, Felisa
1981-01-01
The present work deals with an automatic program translation method as a solution to the software portability problem. The source machine is a minicomputer of the SEMS MITRA range; the target machines are three 16 bits microprocessors: INTEL 8086, MOTOROLA 68000 and ZILOG Z-8000. The software to be translated is written in macro-assembly language (MAS) and consist of an operating system, an APL interpreter and some other software tools. The translation method uses a machine-free intermediate language describing the program in source language. This intermediate language consisting of a set of macro-instructions, is then assembled using a link library; this library defines the macro-instructions which create the target microprocessor object code. The whole translation operation work is carried out by the source machine which produces, after linkage editing, a table memory map (IME). Thereafter the load object code will be removed to target machine. Concerning optimization problems or inputs-outputs, some module can be written using the target machine assembly language and processed by a specific assembler in target machine or source machine, if the latter processes a cross-assembler; then the resulting binary codes are merged with the binary codes issued during the automatic translation phase. The method proposed here may be extended to any 16 bits computer, by a simple change of the macro-instruction library. This work allows an APL machine creation with microprocessors, preserving the original software and so maintaining its initial reliability. This work has led to a closer examination of hardware problems connected with the various target machines configurations. Difficulties met during this work mainly arise from different operations of the target machines specially indicators or flags setting, addressing modes and interruption mechanisms. This shows up the necessity to design new microprocessors either partially user's micro-programmable, or with some functions
CAMAC based 4-channel 12-bit digitizer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, Amit K; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Reddy, D Chenna
2010-01-01
With the development in Fusion research a large number of diagnostics are being used to understand the complex behaviour of plasma. During discharge, several diagnostics demand high sampling rate and high bit resolution to acquire data for rapid changes in plasma parameters. For the requirements of such fast diagnostics, a 4-channel simultaneous sampling, high-speed, 12-bit CAMAC digitizer has been designed and developed which has several important features for application in CAMAC based nuclear instrumentation. The module has independent ADC per channel for simultaneous sampling and digitization, and 512 Ksamples RAM per channel for on-board storage. The digitizer has been designed for event based acquisition and the acquisition window gives post-trigger as well as pre-trigger (software selectable) data that is useful for analysis. It is a transient digitizer and can be operated either in pre/post trigger mode or in burst mode. The record mode and the active memory size are selected through software commands to satisfy the current application. The module can be used to acquire data at high sampling rate for short time discharge e.g. 512 ms at 1MSPS. The module can also be used for long time discharge at low sampling rate e.g. 512 seconds at 1KSPS. This paper describes the design of digitizer module, development of VHDL code for hardware logic, Graphical User Interface (GUI) and important features of module from application point of view. The digitizer has CPLD based hardware logic, which provides flexibility in configuring the module for different sampling rates and different pre/post trigger samples through GUI. The digitizer can be operated with either internal (for testing/acquisition) or external (synchronized acquisition) clock and trigger. The digitizer has differential inputs with bipolar input range ±5V and it is being used with sampling rate of 1 MSamples Per Second (MSPS) per channel but it also supports higher sampling rate up to 3MSPS per channel. A
A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiujie Qu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical deduction. The recursive formula is applicable to any number of bits processed in parallel and any series of generator polynomial. According to the formula, we present the parallel circuit of CRC calculation and implement it with VHDL on FPGA. The results verify the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.
A Memristor as Multi-Bit Memory: Feasibility Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Bass
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The use of emerging memristor materials for advanced electrical devices such as multi-valued logic is expected to outperform today's binary logic digital technologies. We show here an example for such non-binary device with the design of a multi-bit memory. While conventional memory cells can store only 1 bit, memristors-based multi-bit cells can store more information within single device thus increasing the information storage density. Such devices can potentially utilize the non-linear resistance of memristor materials for efficient information storage. We analyze the performance of such memory devices based on their expected variations in order to determine the viability of memristor-based multi-bit memory. A design of read/write scheme and a simple model for this cell, lay grounds for full integration of memristor multi-bit memory cell.
IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY DENGAN METODE LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT (LSB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Miftakul Amin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Security in delivering a secret message is an important factor in the spread of information in cyberspace. Protecting that message to be delivered to the party entitled to, should be made a message concealment mechanism. The purpose of this study was to hide a secret text message into digital images in true color 24 bit RGB format. The method used to insert a secret message using the LSB (Least Significant Bit by replacing the last bit or 8th bit in each RGB color component. RGB image file types option considering that messages can be inserted capacity greater than if use a grayscale image, this is because in one pixel can be inserted 3 bits message. Tests provide results that are hidden messages into a digital image does not reduce significantly the quality of the digital image, and the message has been hidden can be extracted again, so that messages can be delivered to the recipient safely.
Installation of MCNP on 64-bit parallel computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meginnis, A.B.; Hendricks, J.S.; McKinney, G.W.
1995-01-01
The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP has been successfully ported to two 64-bit workstations, the SGI and DEC Alpha. We found the biggest problem for installation on these machines to be Fortran and C mismatches in argument passing. Correction of these mismatches enabled, for the first time, dynamic memory allocation on 64-bit workstations. Although the 64-bit hardware is faster because 8-bytes are processed at a time rather than 4-bytes, we found no speed advantage in true 64-bit coding versus implicit double precision when porting an existing code to the 64-bit workstation architecture. We did find that PVM multiasking is very successful and represents a significant performance enhancement for scientific workstations
2010-01-01
On Monday 18 October, a little bit of legal history will be made when the first international tripartite agreement between CERN and its two Host States is signed. This agreement, which has been under negotiation since 2004, clarifies the working conditions of people employed by companies contracted to CERN. It will facilitate the management of service contracts both for CERN and its contractors. Ever since 1965, when CERN first crossed the border into France, the rule of territoriality has applied. This means that anyone working for a company contracted to CERN whose job involves crossing the border is subject to the employment legislation of both states. The new agreement simplifies matters by making only one legislation apply per contract, that of the country in which most of the work is carried out. This is good for CERN, it’s good for the companies, and it’s good for their employees. It is something that all three parties to the agreement have wanted for some time, and I...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fabián, Zdeněk
2010-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 6 (2010), s. 793-798 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : score function * correlation * rank correlation coefficient * heavy tails Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010
Modern X86 assembly language programming 32-bit, 64-bit, SSE, and AVX
Kusswurm, Daniel
2014-01-01
Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming shows the fundamentals of x86 assembly language programming. It focuses on the aspects of the x86 instruction set that are most relevant to application software development. The book's structure and sample code are designed to help the reader quickly understand x86 assembly language programming and the computational capabilities of the x86 platform. Major topics of the book include the following: 32-bit core architecture, data types, internal registers, memory addressing modes, and the basic instruction setX87 core architecture, register stack, special
Integer Representations towards Efficient Counting in the Bit Probe Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Greve, Mark; Pandey, Vineet
2011-01-01
Abstract We consider the problem of representing numbers in close to optimal space and supporting increment, decrement, addition and subtraction operations efficiently. We study the problem in the bit probe model and analyse the number of bits read and written to perform the operations, both...... in the worst-case and in the average-case. A counter is space-optimal if it represents any number in the range [0,...,2 n − 1] using exactly n bits. We provide a space-optimal counter which supports increment and decrement operations by reading at most n − 1 bits and writing at most 3 bits in the worst......-case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such representation which supports these operations by always reading strictly less than n bits. For redundant counters where we only need to represent numbers in the range [0,...,L] for some integer L bits, we define the efficiency...
Test results judgment method based on BIT faults
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Gang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Built-in-test (BIT is responsible for equipment fault detection, so the test data correctness directly influences diagnosis results. Equipment suffers all kinds of environment stresses, such as temperature, vibration, and electromagnetic stress. As embedded testing facility, BIT also suffers from these stresses and the interferences/faults are caused, so that the test course is influenced, resulting in incredible results. Therefore it is necessary to monitor test data and judge test failures. Stress monitor and BIT self-diagnosis would redound to BIT reliability, but the existing anti-jamming researches are mainly safeguard design and signal process. This paper focuses on test results monitor and BIT equipment (BITE failure judge, and a series of improved approaches is proposed. Firstly the stress influences on components are illustrated and the effects on the diagnosis results are summarized. Secondly a composite BIT program is proposed with information integration, and a stress monitor program is given. Thirdly, based on the detailed analysis of system faults and forms of BIT results, the test sequence control method is proposed. It assists BITE failure judge and reduces error probability. Finally the validation cases prove that these approaches enhance credibility.
The Economics of BitCoin Price Formation
Ciaian, Pavel; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Kancs, d'Artis
2014-01-01
This is the first article that studies BitCoin price formation by considering both the traditional determinants of currency price, e.g., market forces of supply and demand, and digital currencies specific factors, e.g., BitCoin attractiveness for investors and users. The conceptual framework is based on the Barro (1979) model, from which we derive testable hypotheses. Using daily data for five years (2009–2015) and applying time-series analytical mechanisms, we find that market forces and Bit...
Fitness Probability Distribution of Bit-Flip Mutation.
Chicano, Francisco; Sutton, Andrew M; Whitley, L Darrell; Alba, Enrique
2015-01-01
Bit-flip mutation is a common mutation operator for evolutionary algorithms applied to optimize functions over binary strings. In this paper, we develop results from the theory of landscapes and Krawtchouk polynomials to exactly compute the probability distribution of fitness values of a binary string undergoing uniform bit-flip mutation. We prove that this probability distribution can be expressed as a polynomial in p, the probability of flipping each bit. We analyze these polynomials and provide closed-form expressions for an easy linear problem (Onemax), and an NP-hard problem, MAX-SAT. We also discuss a connection of the results with runtime analysis.
Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld
2011-01-01
This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital...... library tasks. Different hardware platforms as basis for mass processing will usually already exist for libraries as part of a bit preservation solution for long term bit preservation. The investigation of a general mass processing service shows that different aspects of mass processing are too dependent...
Bit Manipulation Accelerator for Communication Systems Digital Signal Processor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Sug H
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes application-specific instructions and their bit manipulation unit (BMU, which efficiently support scrambling, convolutional encoding, puncturing, interleaving, and bit stream multiplexing. The proposed DSP employs the BMU supporting parallel shift and XOR (exclusive-OR operations and bit insertion/extraction operations on multiple data. The proposed architecture has been modeled by VHDL and synthesized using the SEC 0.18 m standard cell library and the gate count of the BMU is only about 1700 gates. Performance comparisons show that the number of clock cycles can be reduced about for scrambling, convolutional encoding, and interleaving compared with existing DSPs.
Bit Error Rate Minimizing Channel Shortening Equalizers for Single Carrier Cyclic Prefixed Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Martin, Richard K; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert
2007-01-01
.... Previous work on channel shortening has largely been in the context of digital subscriber lines, a wireline system that allows bit allocation, thus it has focused on maximizing the bit rate for a given bit error rate (BER...
2015 Big Windy, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Big Windy project area. The imagery coverage is...
2014 Metro, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Portland project area. The imagery coverage is...
Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.
Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H
2013-11-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.
Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS), Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and critically test the Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS), a novel system for in-situ, rapid analyses of planetary subsurface...
2012 Sandy River, Oregon Natural Color 8 Bit Imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Sandy River project area. The imagery coverage is...
Pseudo-random bit generator based on Chebyshev map
Stoyanov, B. P.
2013-10-01
In this paper, we study a pseudo-random bit generator based on two Chebyshev polynomial maps. The novel derivative algorithm shows perfect statistical properties established by number of statistical tests.
Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers
Uchida, Atsushi; Amano, Kazuya; Inoue, Masaki; Hirano, Kunihito; Naito, Sunao; Someya, Hiroyuki; Oowada, Isao; Kurashige, Takayuki; Shiki, Masaru; Yoshimori, Shigeru; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2008-12-01
Random number generators in digital information systems make use of physical entropy sources such as electronic and photonic noise to add unpredictability to deterministically generated pseudo-random sequences. However, there is a large gap between the generation rates achieved with existing physical sources and the high data rates of many computation and communication systems; this is a fundamental weakness of these systems. Here we show that good quality random bit sequences can be generated at very fast bit rates using physical chaos in semiconductor lasers. Streams of bits that pass standard statistical tests for randomness have been generated at rates of up to 1.7 Gbps by sampling the fluctuating optical output of two chaotic lasers. This rate is an order of magnitude faster than that of previously reported devices for physical random bit generators with verified randomness. This means that the performance of random number generators can be greatly improved by using chaotic laser devices as physical entropy sources.
Content Progressive Coding of Limited Bits/pixel Images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren
1999-01-01
A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF.......A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF....
8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups
NIST 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups (Web, free access) The NIST database of fingerprint images contains 2000 8-bit gray scale fingerprint image pairs. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.
Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horodecki, Pawel; Augusiak, Remigiusz
2006-01-01
It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on a distillable cryptographic key in a bipartite scenario
VCSEL Scaling, Laser Integration on Silicon, and Bit Energy
2017-03-01
Silicon Photonics: Figure 1 shows the electronic circuitry and comparison key to analyzing photonic bit energies for transceivers used in data centers...VCSEL Scaling, Laser Integration on Silicon , and Bit Energy D.G. Deppe,1,2 Ja. Leshin,1 and Je. Leshin1 1CREOL, College of Optics & Photonics...laser; (000.0000) General [For codes, see www.opticsinfobase.org/submit/ocis.] Keywords: VCSELs, Nanoscale lasers, optical interconnects, silicon
Comparison and status of 32 bit backplane bus architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muller, K.D.
1985-01-01
With the introduction of 32 bit microprocessors several new 32 bit backplane bus architectures have been developed and are in the process for standardization. Among these are Future Bus (IEEE P896.1), VME-Bus (IEEE 1014), MULTIBUS II, Nu-Bus and Fastbus (IEEE 960). The paper describes and compares the main features of these bus architectures and mentions the status of national and international standardization efforts
Comparison of statistical sampling methods with ScannerBit, the GAMBIT scanning module
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez, Gregory D. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McKay, James; Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Farmer, Ben; Conrad, Jan [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Roebber, Elinore [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Scanner Workgroup
2017-11-15
We introduce ScannerBit, the statistics and sampling module of the public, open-source global fitting framework GAMBIT. ScannerBit provides a standardised interface to different sampling algorithms, enabling the use and comparison of multiple computational methods for inferring profile likelihoods, Bayesian posteriors, and other statistical quantities. The current version offers random, grid, raster, nested sampling, differential evolution, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and ensemble Monte Carlo samplers. We also announce the release of a new standalone differential evolution sampler, Diver, and describe its design, usage and interface to ScannerBit. We subject Diver and three other samplers (the nested sampler MultiNest, the MCMC GreAT, and the native ScannerBit implementation of the ensemble Monte Carlo algorithm T-Walk) to a battery of statistical tests. For this we use a realistic physical likelihood function, based on the scalar singlet model of dark matter. We examine the performance of each sampler as a function of its adjustable settings, and the dimensionality of the sampling problem. We evaluate performance on four metrics: optimality of the best fit found, completeness in exploring the best-fit region, number of likelihood evaluations, and total runtime. For Bayesian posterior estimation at high resolution, T-Walk provides the most accurate and timely mapping of the full parameter space. For profile likelihood analysis in less than about ten dimensions, we find that Diver and MultiNest score similarly in terms of best fit and speed, outperforming GreAT and T-Walk; in ten or more dimensions, Diver substantially outperforms the other three samplers on all metrics. (orig.)
Comparison of statistical sampling methods with ScannerBit, the GAMBIT scanning module
Martinez, Gregory D.; McKay, James; Farmer, Ben; Scott, Pat; Roebber, Elinore; Putze, Antje; Conrad, Jan
2017-11-01
We introduce ScannerBit, the statistics and sampling module of the public, open-source global fitting framework GAMBIT. ScannerBit provides a standardised interface to different sampling algorithms, enabling the use and comparison of multiple computational methods for inferring profile likelihoods, Bayesian posteriors, and other statistical quantities. The current version offers random, grid, raster, nested sampling, differential evolution, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and ensemble Monte Carlo samplers. We also announce the release of a new standalone differential evolution sampler, Diver, and describe its design, usage and interface to ScannerBit. We subject Diver and three other samplers (the nested sampler MultiNest, the MCMC GreAT, and the native ScannerBit implementation of the ensemble Monte Carlo algorithm T-Walk) to a battery of statistical tests. For this we use a realistic physical likelihood function, based on the scalar singlet model of dark matter. We examine the performance of each sampler as a function of its adjustable settings, and the dimensionality of the sampling problem. We evaluate performance on four metrics: optimality of the best fit found, completeness in exploring the best-fit region, number of likelihood evaluations, and total runtime. For Bayesian posterior estimation at high resolution, T-Walk provides the most accurate and timely mapping of the full parameter space. For profile likelihood analysis in less than about ten dimensions, we find that Diver and MultiNest score similarly in terms of best fit and speed, outperforming GreAT and T-Walk; in ten or more dimensions, Diver substantially outperforms the other three samplers on all metrics.
A Heuristic Optimal Discrete Bit Allocation Algorithm for Margin Maximization in DMT Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Shi-Wei
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A heuristic optimal discrete bit allocation algorithm is proposed for solving the margin maximization problem in discrete multitone (DMT systems. Starting from an initial equal power assignment bit distribution, the proposed algorithm employs a multistaged bit rate allocation scheme to meet the target rate. If the total bit rate is far from the target rate, a multiple-bits loading procedure is used to obtain a bit allocation close to the target rate. When close to the target rate, a parallel bit-loading procedure is used to achieve the target rate and this is computationally more efficient than conventional greedy bit-loading algorithm. Finally, the target bit rate distribution is checked, if it is efficient, then it is also the optimal solution; else, optimal bit distribution can be obtained only by few bit swaps. Simulation results using the standard asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL test loops show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for practical DMT transmissions.
A Heuristic Optimal Discrete Bit Allocation Algorithm for Margin Maximization in DMT Systems
Zhu, Li-Ping; Yao, Yan; Zhou, Shi-Dong; Dong, Shi-Wei
2007-12-01
A heuristic optimal discrete bit allocation algorithm is proposed for solving the margin maximization problem in discrete multitone (DMT) systems. Starting from an initial equal power assignment bit distribution, the proposed algorithm employs a multistaged bit rate allocation scheme to meet the target rate. If the total bit rate is far from the target rate, a multiple-bits loading procedure is used to obtain a bit allocation close to the target rate. When close to the target rate, a parallel bit-loading procedure is used to achieve the target rate and this is computationally more efficient than conventional greedy bit-loading algorithm. Finally, the target bit rate distribution is checked, if it is efficient, then it is also the optimal solution; else, optimal bit distribution can be obtained only by few bit swaps. Simulation results using the standard asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) test loops show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for practical DMT transmissions.
Athron, Peter; Balázs, Csaba; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Kvellestad, Anders; McKay, James; Putze, Antje; Rogan, Chris; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin
2018-01-01
We present the GAMBIT modules SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit. Together they provide a new framework for linking publicly available spectrum generators, decay codes and other precision observable calculations in a physically and statistically consistent manner. This allows users to automatically run various combinations of existing codes as if they are a single package. The modular design allows software packages fulfilling the same role to be exchanged freely at runtime, with the results presented in a common format that can easily be passed to downstream dark matter, collider and flavour codes. These modules constitute an essential part of the broader GAMBIT framework, a major new software package for performing global fits. In this paper we present the observable calculations, data, and likelihood functions implemented in the three modules, as well as the conventions and assumptions used in interfacing them with external codes. We also present 3-BIT-HIT, a command-line utility for computing mass spectra, couplings, decays and precision observables in the MSSM, which shows how the three modules can easily be used independently of GAMBIT.
Relating drilling parameters at the bit-rock interface: theoretical and field studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinkala, T. (Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mining Equipment Engineering)
1991-01-01
An explicit expression relating drilling parameters at the bit-rock contact is derived. The expression estimates the minimum torque, related to bit-rock contact only, required to maintain constant bit rotation. Theoretical results from the developed bit-rock contact relation agree very satisfactorily with those obtained from field tests and other previous experience. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francis, P.M.
1994-01-01
At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system
DSC and universal bit-level combining for HARQ systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lv Tiejun
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a Dempster -Shafer theory based combining scheme for single-input single-output (SISO systems with hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ, referred to as DSC, in which two methods for soft information calculations are developed for equiprobable (EP and non-equiprobable (NEP sources, respectively. One is based on the distance from the received signal to the decision candidate set consisting of adjacent constellation points when the source bits are equiprobable, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-D. The other is based on the posterior probability of the transmitted signals when the priori probability for the NEP source bits is available, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-APP. For the diverse EP and NEP source cases, both DSCD and DSC-APP are superior to maximal ratio combining, the so-called optimal combining scheme for SISO systems. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed DSC is illustrated by the simulations performed in Rayleigh channel and AWGN channel, respectively. The results show that the proposed DSC is insensitive to and especially applicable to the fading channels. In addition, a DS detection-aided bit-level DS combining scheme is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output--HARQ systems. The bit-level DS combining is deduced to be a universal scheme, and the traditional log-likelihood-ratio combining is a special case when the likelihood probability is used as bit-level soft information.
Very low bit rate video coding of moving targets
Garcia, Jose A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Rosa; Fdez-Valdivia, Joaquin; Martinez-Baena, Javier
2006-03-01
We propose a video coding scheme to improve moving-target detection at very low bit rate, based on two key features: energy-based quantizer formation, and optimized interquantizer and intraquantizer prioritization. Rational Embedded Wavelet Video Coding (REVIC) is a fully implemented software video codec of low complexity and without motion compensated filtering to provide additional simplicity, adaptivity, and error resilience. It is shown to be quite effective in video coding of moving targets (e.g., military vehicles) at very low bit rates, while retaining the attributes of complete embeddedness for progressive transmission and scalability by fidelity and resolution. The proposed coding technique improves the explanatory power of decoded sequences (to achieve maximum target detection versus bit-rate performance) for a video compression system. The explanatory power of compressed sequences is important in surveillance applications, where trained video analysts may utilize decoded sequences to support decision processes in strategic, operational, and tactical tasks.
BitCube: A Bottom-Up Cubing Engineering
Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Puglisi, Piera Laura; Pulvirenti, Alfredo
Enhancing on line analytical processing through efficient cube computation plays a key role in Data Warehouse management. Hashing, grouping and mining techniques are commonly used to improve cube pre-computation. BitCube, a fast cubing method which uses bitmaps as inverted indexes for grouping, is presented. It horizontally partitions data according to the values of one dimension and for each resulting fragment it performs grouping following bottom-up criteria. BitCube allows also partial materialization based on iceberg conditions to treat large datasets for which a full cube pre-computation is too expensive. Space requirement of bitmaps is optimized by applying an adaption of the WAH compression technique. Experimental analysis, on both synthetic and real datasets, shows that BitCube outperforms previous algorithms for full cube computation and results comparable on iceberg cubing.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-23
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2015-03-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.
Low Bit Rate Motion Video Coder/Decoder For Teleconferencing
Koga, T.; Niwa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Iinuma, K.
1987-07-01
This paper describes motion video compression transmission for teleconferencing at a subprimary rate, i.e., at 384 kbits/s, including audio signal through the integrated services digital network (ISDN) HO channel. A subprimary rate video coder/decoder (codec), NETEC-XV, is available commercially that can operate at any bit rate (in multiples of 64 kbits/s) from 384 to 2048 kbits/s. In this paper, new algorithms are described that have been very useful in lowering the bit rate to 384 kbits/s. These algorithms are (1) separation of moving and still parts, followed by encoding of the two parts using different sets of parameters, and (2) scene change detection and its application to encoding parameter control. According to a brief subjective evaluation, the codec provides good picture quality even at a transmission bit rate of 384 kbits/s.
The Cryptographic Security of the Sum of Bits
1984-06-01
Shamir, "On the Cryptographic Security of Single RSA bits," 15th STOC, lg83, pp.421-430. 3. L. Blum , M. Blum , and M. Shub , "A Simple Secure Pseudo...our paper we consider the sum of bits predicate and show that it is secure in the same sense. Blum , Blum , and Shub3 have designed a pseudo-random...Combining these two facts we obtain the following: Fact 3: E(x)=E(x2-1 mod N) if and only if E(r)+ 1 = E(r+ k). If x and y are non-negative integers, let C
Foldable Instrumented Bits for Ultrasonic/Sonic Penetrators
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Iskenderian, Theodore; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Linderman, Randel
2010-01-01
Long tool bits are undergoing development that can be stowed compactly until used as rock- or ground-penetrating probes actuated by ultrasonic/sonic mechanisms. These bits are designed to be folded or rolled into compact form for transport to exploration sites, where they are to be connected to their ultrasonic/ sonic actuation mechanisms and unfolded or unrolled to their full lengths for penetrating ground or rock to relatively large depths. These bits can be designed to acquire rock or soil samples and/or to be equipped with sensors for measuring properties of rock or soil in situ. These bits can also be designed to be withdrawn from the ground, restowed, and transported for reuse at different exploration sites. Apparatuses based on the concept of a probe actuated by an ultrasonic/sonic mechanism have been described in numerous prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most recent and relevant being "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Impacting Penetrators" (NPO-41666) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), page 58. All of those apparatuses are variations on the basic theme of the earliest ones, denoted ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). To recapitulate: An apparatus of this type includes a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven actuator in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary twist drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. Examples of properties that could be measured by use of an instrumented tool bit include electrical conductivity, permittivity, magnetic
Transistor device for multi-bit non-volatile storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Kumar, Vimal; Liew, Thomas; Teo, K.L.; Chong, T.C.
2006-01-01
We propose a transistor model that incorporates multiple storage elements within a single transistor device. This device is thus smaller in size compared to the magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) with the same number of storage bits. The device model can function in both the current as well as voltage detection mode. Simulations were carried out at higher temperature, taking into consideration the spread of electron density above the Fermi level. We found that linear detection of conductance variation with the stored binary value can be achieved for a 3-bit storage device up to a temperature of 350 K
How to deal with malleability of BitCoin transactions
Andrychowicz, Marcin; Dziembowski, Stefan; Malinowski, Daniel; Mazurek, Łukasz
2013-01-01
BitCoin transactions are malleable in a sense that given a transaction an adversary can easily construct an equivalent transaction which has a different hash. This can pose a serious problem in some BitCoin distributed contracts in which changing a transaction's hash may result in the protocol disruption and a financial loss. The problem mostly concerns protocols, which use a "refund" transaction to withdraw a deposit in a case of the protocol interruption. In this short note, we show a gener...
How to Convert a Flavor of Quantum Bit Commitment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crepeau, Claude; Legare, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis
2001-01-01
In this paper we show how to convert a statistically binding but computationally concealing quantum bit commitment scheme into a computationally binding but statistically concealing QBC scheme. For a security parameter n, the construction of the statistically concealing scheme requires O(n2......) executions of the statistically binding scheme. As a consequence, statistically concealing but computationally binding quantum bit commitments can be based upon any family of quantum one-way functions. Such a construction is not known to exist in the classical world....
Modeling of Bit Error Rate in Cascaded 2R Regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper
2006-01-01
This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate in a cascade of optical 2R-regenerators. The model includes the influences of of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments and the rege......This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate in a cascade of optical 2R-regenerators. The model includes the influences of of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments...
Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.
1997-12-31
A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.
Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rey, D.
1995-05-01
Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks
Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir
2004-01-01
It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone
Architecture of 32 bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) microprocessors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jove, T.M.; Ayguade, E.; Valero, M.
1988-01-01
In this paper we describe the main topics about the architecture of the best known 32-bit CISC microprocessors; i80386, MC68000 family, NS32000 series and Z80000. We focus on the high level languages support, operating system design facilities, memory management, techniques to speed up the overall performance and program debugging facilities. (Author)
Parity Bit Replenishment for JPEG 2000-Based Video Streaming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
François-Olivier Devaux
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper envisions coding with side information to design a highly scalable video codec. To achieve fine-grained scalability in terms of resolution, quality, and spatial access as well as temporal access to individual frames, the JPEG 2000 coding algorithm has been considered as the reference algorithm to encode INTRA information, and coding with side information has been envisioned to refresh the blocks that change between two consecutive images of a video sequence. One advantage of coding with side information compared to conventional closed-loop hybrid video coding schemes lies in the fact that parity bits are designed to correct stochastic errors and not to encode deterministic prediction errors. This enables the codec to support some desynchronization between the encoder and the decoder, which is particularly helpful to adapt on the fly pre-encoded content to fluctuating network resources and/or user preferences in terms of regions of interest. Regarding the coding scheme itself, to preserve both quality scalability and compliance to the JPEG 2000 wavelet representation, a particular attention has been devoted to the definition of a practical coding framework able to exploit not only the temporal but also spatial correlation among wavelet subbands coefficients, while computing the parity bits on subsets of wavelet bit-planes. Simulations have shown that compared to pure INTRA-based conditional replenishment solutions, the addition of the parity bits option decreases the transmission cost in terms of bandwidth, while preserving access flexibility.
2015 Florida Panhandle RCD30 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain imagery data collected with an RCD30 camera as 8-bit RGBN TIFF images. Imagery was required 1000m seaward of the land/water interface or to laser...
2015 Southwest Florida RCD30 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain imagery data collected with an RCD30 camera as 8-bit RGBN TIFF images. Imagery was required 1000m seaward of the land/water interface or to laser...
Some observations on the Bit-Search Generator
Mitchell, Chris J.
2005-01-01
In this short note an alternative definition of the Bit-Search Generator (BSG) is provided. This leads to a discussion of both the security of the BSG and ways in which it might be modified to either improve its rate or increase its security.
KEAMANAN CITRA DENGAN WATERMARKING MENGGUNAKAN PENGEMBANGAN ALGORITMA LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurniawan Kurniawan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Image security is a process to save digital. One method of securing image digital is watermarking using Least Significant Bit algorithm. Main concept of image security using LSB algorithm is to replace bit value of image at specific location so that created pattern. The pattern result of replacing the bit value of image is called by watermark. Giving watermark at image digital using LSB algorithm has simple concept so that the information which is embedded will lost easily when attacked such as noise attack or compression. So need modification like development of LSB algorithm. This is done to decrease distortion of watermark information against those attacks. In this research is divided by 6 process which are color extraction of cover image, busy area search, watermark embed, count the accuracy of watermark embed, watermark extraction, and count the accuracy of watermark extraction. Color extraction of cover image is process to get blue color component from cover image. Watermark information will embed at busy area by search the area which has the greatest number of unsure from cover image. Then watermark image is embedded into cover image so that produce watermarked image using some development of LSB algorithm and search the accuracy by count the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio value. Before the watermarked image is extracted, need to test by giving noise and doing compression into jpg format. The accuracy of extraction result is searched by count the Bit Error Rate value.
Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld
2011-01-01
This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital...
Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack
Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao
2015-01-01
We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.
An efficient parallel pseudorandom bit generator based on an ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
complicated floating-point computation and multiplication computation transform into simple shift bit operations are ..... Based on the asymmetric CML combining some simple digital algebraic operations, a new PRBG was ... are identical, they are perturbed by the transformation x0(i) = x0(1) + 10000 × i, i = 2, 3, ..., N. 622.
"Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vallgårda, Anna
and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish...
Quantum measurement and entanglement of spin quantum bits in diamond
Pfaff, W.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a set of experiments that explore the possible realisation of a macroscopic quantum network based on solid-state quantum bits. Such a quantum network would allow for studying quantum mechanics on large scales (meters, or even kilometers), and can open new possibilities for
Designing the optimal bit: balancing energetic cost, speed and reliability.
Deshpande, Abhishek; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Jones, Nick S
2017-08-01
We consider the challenge of operating a reliable bit that can be rapidly erased. We find that both erasing and reliability times are non-monotonic in the underlying friction, leading to a trade-off between erasing speed and bit reliability. Fast erasure is possible at the expense of low reliability at moderate friction, and high reliability comes at the expense of slow erasure in the underdamped and overdamped limits. Within a given class of bit parameters and control strategies, we define 'optimal' designs of bits that meet the desired reliability and erasing time requirements with the lowest operational work cost. We find that optimal designs always saturate the bound on the erasing time requirement, but can exceed the required reliability time if critically damped. The non-trivial geometry of the reliability and erasing time scales allows us to exclude large regions of parameter space as suboptimal. We find that optimal designs are either critically damped or close to critical damping under the erasing procedure.
Radiation hardened COTS-based 32-bit microprocessor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, N.; Brown, R.; Cronauer, T.; Phan, H.
1999-01-01
A high performance radiation hardened 32-bit RISC microprocessor based upon a commercial single chip CPU has been developed. This paper presents the features of radiation hardened microprocessor, the methods used to radiation harden this device, the results of radiation testing, and shows that the RAD6000 is well-suited for the vast majority of space applications. (authors)
Analysis of bit-rock interaction during stick-slip vibrations using PDC cutting force model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patil, P.A.; Teodoriu, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE
2013-08-01
Drillstring vibration is one of the limiting factors maximizing the drilling performance and also causes premature failure of drillstring components. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit enhances the overall drilling performance giving the best rate of penetrations with less cost per foot but the PDC bits are more susceptible to the stick slip phenomena which results in high fluctuations of bit rotational speed. Based on the torsional drillstring model developed using Matlab/Simulink for analyzing the parametric influence on stick-slip vibrations due to drilling parameters and drillstring properties, the study of relations between weight on bit, torque on bit, bit speed, rate of penetration and friction coefficient have been analyzed. While drilling with the PDC bits, the bit-rock interaction has been characterized by cutting forces and the frictional forces. The torque on bit and the weight on bit have both the cutting component and the frictional component when resolved in horizontal and vertical direction. The paper considers that the bit is undergoing stick-slip vibrations while analyzing the bit-rock interaction of the PDC bit. The Matlab/Simulink bit-rock interaction model has been developed which gives the average cutting torque, T{sub c}, and friction torque, T{sub f}, values on cutters as well as corresponding average weight transferred by the cutting face, W{sub c}, and the wear flat face, W{sub f}, of the cutters value due to friction.
Optical Switching and Bit Rates of 40 Gbit/s and above
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ackaert, A.; Demester, P.; O'Mahony, M.
2003-01-01
Optical switching in WDM networks introduces additional aspects to the choice of single channel bit rates compared to WDM transmission systems. The mutual impact of optical switching and bit rates of 40 Gbps and above is discussed....
Small digital recording head has parallel bit channels, minimizes cross talk
Eller, E. E.; Laue, E. G.
1964-01-01
A small digital recording head consists of closely spaced parallel wires, imbedded in a ferrite block to concentrate the magnetic flux. Parallel-recorded information bits are converted into serial bits on moving magnetic tape and cross talk is suppressed.
Efficient biased random bit generation for parallel processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slone, Dale M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
1994-09-28
A lattice gas automaton was implemented on a massively parallel machine (the BBN TC2000) and a vector supercomputer (the CRAY C90). The automaton models Burgers equation ρt + ρρ_{x} = vρ_{xx} in 1 dimension. The lattice gas evolves by advecting and colliding pseudo-particles on a 1-dimensional, periodic grid. The specific rules for colliding particles are stochastic in nature and require the generation of many billions of random numbers to create the random bits necessary for the lattice gas. The goal of the thesis was to speed up the process of generating the random bits and thereby lessen the computational bottleneck of the automaton.
Modular trigger processing The GCT muon and quiet bit system
Stettler, Matthew; Hansen, Magnus; Iles, Gregory; Jones, John; PH-EP
2007-01-01
The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger system's HCAL Muon and Quiet bit reformatting function is being implemented with a novel processing architecture. This architecture utilizes micro TCA, a modern modular communications standard based on high speed serial links, to implement a processing matrix. This matrix is configurable in both logical functionality and data flow, allowing far greater flexibility than current trigger processing systems. In addition, the modular nature of this architecture allows flexibility in scale unmatched by traditional approaches. The Muon and Quiet bit system consists of two major components, a custom micro TCA backplane and processing module. These components are based on Xilinx Virtex5 and Mindspeed crosspoint switch devices, bringing together state of the art FPGA based processing and Telcom switching technologies.
Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique
Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul
2018-03-01
Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.
Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben
1999-01-01
It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...
Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Martin D.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben
1999-01-01
It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slopebe utilised in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However,comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of themasking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated withthe...... same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be theaudio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise.Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noisemaskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths arefixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of500Hz, 1kHz and 2kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure toneprobes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker.Modulation frequencies between 6Hz and 20Hz were used with a modulationdepth of 0.75. CMR of up...
The design method of diamond bit in hardest formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Long
2010-01-01
In the case of diamond bit drill* 1, * 2 of formation drillability that is the hardest formation,Fine, soft matrix, the low concentration of diamond dril should be chosen by Traditional design theory .Here describes a basic design with this completely different method. Proved through practice, Good performance of this drill, the drilling in extremely hard when the only limitation is high and life expectancy has increased a lot, have a good ground for such adaptability. (authors)
Feasibility Study of 8-Bit Microcontroller Applications for Ethernet
Lech Gulbinovič
2011-01-01
Feasibility study of 8-bit microcontroller applications for Ethernet is presented. Designed device is based on ATmega32 microcontroller and 10 Mbps Ethernet controller ENC28J60. Device is simulated as mass queuing theoretical model with ticket booking counter. Practical explorations are accomplished and characteristics are determined. Practical results are compared to theoretical ones. Program code and device packet processing speed optimization are discussed. Microcontroller packet processin...
Capped bit patterned media for high density magnetic recording
Li, Shaojing; Livshitz, Boris; Bertram, H. Neal; Inomata, Akihiro; Fullerton, Eric E.; Lomakin, Vitaliy
2009-04-01
A capped composite patterned medium design is described which comprises an array of hard elements exchange coupled to a continuous cap layer. The role of the cap layer is to lower the write field of the individual hard element and introduce ferromagnetic exchange interactions between hard elements to compensate the magnetostatic interactions. Modeling results show significant reduction in the reversal field distributions caused by the magnetization states in the array which is important to prevent bit errors and increase achievable recording densities.
SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535
I Wayan Sutaya; Ketut Udy Ariawan
2016-01-01
prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 ...
High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC
Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata
2016-03-01
A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design.
A short introduction to bit-string physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1997-06-01
This paper starts with a personal memoir of how some significant ideas arose and events took place during the period from 1972, when the author first encountered Ted Bastin, to 1979, when the author proposed the foundation of ANPA. He then discusses program universe, the fine structure paper and its rejection, the quantitative results up to ANPA 17 and take a new look at the handy-dandy formula. Following the historical material is a first pass at establishing new foundations for bit-string physics. An abstract model for a laboratory notebook and a historical record are developed, culminating in the bit-string representation. The author set up a tic-toc laboratory with two synchronized clocks and shows how this can be used to analyze arbitrary incoming data. This allows him to discuss (briefly) finite and discrete Lorentz transformations, commutation relations, and scattering theory. Earlier work on conservation laws in 3- and 4-events and the free space Dirac and Maxwell equations is cited. The paper concludes with a discussion of the quantum gravity problem from his point of view and speculations about how a bit-string theory of strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational unification could take shape
Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Chen
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.
Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation
Chen, C.; Veldhuis, R. N. J.; Kevenaar, T. A. M.; Akkermans, A. H. M.
2009-12-01
Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP) approach and a greedy search (GS) approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.
Digital Signal Processing For Low Bit Rate TV Image Codecs
Rao, K. R.
1987-06-01
In view of the 56 KBPS digital switched network services and the ISDN, low bit rate codecs for providing real time full motion color video are under various stages of development. Some companies have already brought the codecs into the market. They are being used by industry and some Federal Agencies for video teleconferencing. In general, these codecs have various features such as multiplexing audio and data, high resolution graphics, encryption, error detection and correction, self diagnostics, freezeframe, split video, text overlay etc. To transmit the original color video on a 56 KBPS network requires bit rate reduction of the order of 1400:1. Such a large scale bandwidth compression can be realized only by implementing a number of sophisticated,digital signal processing techniques. This paper provides an overview of such techniques and outlines the newer concepts that are being investigated. Before resorting to the data compression techniques, various preprocessing operations such as noise filtering, composite-component transformation and horizontal and vertical blanking interval removal are to be implemented. Invariably spatio-temporal subsampling is achieved by appropriate filtering. Transform and/or prediction coupled with motion estimation and strengthened by adaptive features are some of the tools in the arsenal of the data reduction methods. Other essential blocks in the system are quantizer, bit allocation, buffer, multiplexer, channel coding etc.
High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata
2016-01-01
A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design. (paper)
Surgical drill system and surgical drill bit to be used therein
Margallo Balbas, E.; Wieringa, P.A.; French, P.J.; Lee, R.A.; Breedveld, P.
2007-01-01
Surgical drill system comprising a mechanical drill bit and means for imaging the vicinity of the drill bit tip, said means comprising: at least one optical fiber having a distal end and a proximal end, said distal end being located adjacent said drill bit tip, an optical processing unit, said
The digital agenda of virtual currencies: Can BitCoin become a global currency?
CIAIAN PAVEL; RAJCANIOVA MIROSLAVA; KANCS D'ARTIS
2015-01-01
This paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate BitCoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such e...
Annual Report: Support Research for Development of Improved Geothermal Drill Bits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendrickson, R.R.; Winzenried, R.W.; Jones, A.H.; Green, S.J.
1978-07-01
The work reported herein is a continuation of the program initiated under DOE contract E(10-1)-1546* entitled "Program to Design and Experimentally Test an Improved Geothermal Bit"; the program is now DOE Contract EG-76-C-1546*. The objective of the program has been to accelerate the commercial availability of a tolling cutter drill bit for geothermal applications. Data and experimental tests needed to develop a bit suited to the harsh thermal, abrasive, and chemical environment of the more problematic geothermal wells, including those drilled with air, have been obtained. Efforts were directed at the improvement of both the sealed (lubricated) and unsealed types of bits. The unsealed bit effort included determination of the rationale for materials selection, the selection of steels for the bit body, cutters, and bearings, the selection of tungsten carbide alloys for the friction bearing, and preliminary investigation of optimized tungsten carbide drilling inserts. Bits build** with the new materials were tested under stimulated wellbore conditions. The sealed bit effort provided for the evaluation of candidate high temperature seals and lubricants, utilizing two specially developed test apparatus which simulate the conditions found in a sealed bit operating in a geothermal wellbore. Phase I of the program was devoted largely to (1) the study of the geothermal environment and the failure mechanisms of existing geothermal drill bits, (2) the design and construction of separate facilities for testing both drill-bit seals and full-scale drill bits under simulated geothermal drilling conditions, and (3) fabrication of the MK-I research drill bits from high-temperature steels, and testing in the geothermal drill-bit test facility. The work accomplished in Phase I is reported in References 1 through 9. In Phase II, the first generation experimental bits were tested in the geothermal drill-bit test facility. Test results indicated that hardness retention at temperature
Universality and clustering in 1 + 1 dimensional superstring-bit models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1996-01-01
We construct a 1+1 dimensional superstring-bit model for D=3 Type IIB superstring. This low dimension model escapes the problem encountered in higher dimension models: (1) It possesses full Galilean supersymmetry; (2) For noninteracting Polymers of bits, the exactly soluble linear superpotential describing bit interactions is in a large universality class of superpotentials which includes ones bounded at spatial infinity; (3) The latter are used to construct a superstring-bit model with the clustering properties needed to define an S-matrix for closed polymers of superstring-bits
Heat Generation During Bone Drilling: A Comparison Between Industrial and Orthopaedic Drill Bits.
Hein, Christopher; Inceoglu, Serkan; Juma, David; Zuckerman, Lee
2017-02-01
Cortical bone drilling for preparation of screw placement is common in multiple surgical fields. The heat generated while drilling may reach thresholds high enough to cause osteonecrosis. This can compromise implant stability. Orthopaedic drill bits are several orders more expensive than their similarly sized, publicly available industrial counterparts. We hypothesize that an industrial bit will generate less heat during drilling, and the bits will not generate more heat after multiple cortical passes. We compared 4 4.0 mm orthopaedic and 1 3.97 mm industrial drill bits. Three types of each bit were drilled into porcine femoral cortices 20 times. The temperature of the bone was measured with thermocouple transducers. The heat generated during the first 5 drill cycles for each bit was compared to the last 5 cycles. These data were analyzed with analysis of covariance. The industrial drill bit generated the smallest mean increase in temperature (2.8 ± 0.29°C) P industrial bit generated less heat during drilling than its orthopaedic counterparts. The bits maintained their performance after 20 drill cycles. Consideration should be given by manufacturers to design differences that may contribute to a more efficient cutting bit. Further investigation into the reuse of these drill bits may be warranted, as our data suggest their efficiency is maintained after multiple uses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, Jong Young; Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sub
2008-01-01
Boron Injection Tank(BIT) is a component of the Safety Injection System, which its sole function is to provide concentrated boric acid to the reactor coolant in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated main steamline break accidents. Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, clog of precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. For the removal of BIT, benchmarking analysis is performed between COPATTA code used in final safety analysis report and CONTEMPT code to be used this study. CONTEMPT is well compatible with COPATTA. The sensitivity study for integrity is performed for the three cases of full double ended rupture at 102% power with diesel generator failure, 3.4m 3 and 2400ppm BIT, 3.4m 3 and 0ppm BIT and no volume of BIT. The results show that the deactivation of BIT is plausible for success
Power analysis data set for 4-Bit MOCLA adder.
Nehru, K
2018-02-01
In order to reduce the silicon area of the chip and optimize the power of arithmetic circuits, this paper proposes a low power carry look-ahead BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) adder which uses a four bit MOCLA (Multiplexer and Or gate based Carry Look Ahead Adder) that forms the basic building block. This proposed MOCLA style uses a 2 input MUX, OR gate and GDI (Gate Diffusion Input) based full adder and PG units and it is used for achieving low power in BCD adder circuits.
Distribution of digital games via BitTorrent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.
2011-01-01
distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents the first large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the BitTorrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three......The practice of illegally copying and distributing digital games is at the heart of one of the most heated and divisive debates in the international games environment. Despite the substantial interest in game piracy, there is very little objective information available about its magnitude or its...
"Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vallgårda, Anna
This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme "It's the experience", for the CHI2012 conference by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers. We take a series of questions as a joint point of departure to consider the nature and character...... and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish...
Extending Landauer's bound from bit erasure to arbitrary computation
Wolpert, David
The minimal thermodynamic work required to erase a bit, known as Landauer's bound, has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. However, when viewed as a computation that maps inputs to outputs, bit erasure has a very special property: the output does not depend on the input. Existing analyses of thermodynamics of bit erasure implicitly exploit this property, and thus cannot be directly extended to analyze the computation of arbitrary input-output maps. Here we show how to extend these earlier analyses of bit erasure to analyze the thermodynamics of arbitrary computations. Doing this establishes a formal connection between the thermodynamics of computers and much of theoretical computer science. We use this extension to analyze the thermodynamics of the canonical ``general purpose computer'' considered in computer science theory: a universal Turing machine (UTM). We consider a UTM which maps input programs to output strings, where inputs are drawn from an ensemble of random binary sequences, and prove: i) The minimal work needed by a UTM to run some particular input program X and produce output Y is the Kolmogorov complexity of Y minus the log of the ``algorithmic probability'' of Y. This minimal amount of thermodynamic work has a finite upper bound, which is independent of the output Y, depending only on the details of the UTM. ii) The expected work needed by a UTM to compute some given output Y is infinite. As a corollary, the overall expected work to run a UTM is infinite. iii) The expected work needed by an arbitrary Turing machine T (not necessarily universal) to compute some given output Y can either be infinite or finite, depending on Y and the details of T. To derive these results we must combine ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics with fundamental results from computer science, such as Levin's coding theorem and other theorems about universal computation. I would like to ackowledge the Santa Fe Institute, Grant No
Digital sound: Subjective tests on low bit-rate codecs
Gilchrist, N. H. C.
At the beginning of 1990, BBC Research Department tested four experimental high-quality low bit-rate audio codecs which were under development as part of the Eureka 147 Digital Audio Broadcasting project. The work involved preliminary listening tests to identify critical test material, followed by formal subjective tests to determine audio quality and error performance. The listeners could detect some loss of audio quality with all of the codecs using the most critical material. There were also indications that one of the codecs did not always reproduce the phantom sound sources in their correct position.
Power analysis data set for 4-Bit MOCLA adder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nehru
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In order to reduce the silicon area of the chip and optimize the power of arithmetic circuits, this paper proposes a low power carry look-ahead BCD (Binary Coded Decimal adder which uses a four bit MOCLA (Multiplexer and Or gate based Carry Look Ahead Adder that forms the basic building block. This proposed MOCLA style uses a 2 input MUX, OR gate and GDI (Gate Diffusion Input based full adder and PG units and it is used for achieving low power in BCD adder circuits.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...
Device-independent bit commitment based on the CHSH inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharon, N; Massar, S; Pironio, S; Silman, J
2016-01-01
Bit commitment and coin flipping occupy a unique place in the device-independent landscape, as the only device-independent protocols thus far suggested for these tasks are reliant on tripartite GHZ correlations. Indeed, we know of no other bipartite tasks, which admit a device-independent formulation, but which are not known to be implementable using only bipartite nonlocality. Another interesting feature of these protocols is that the pseudo-telepathic nature of GHZ correlations—in contrast to the generally statistical character of nonlocal correlations, such as those arising in the violation of the CHSH inequality—is essential to their formulation and analysis. In this work, we present a device-independent bit commitment protocol based on CHSH testing, which achieves the same security as the optimal GHZ-based protocol, albeit at the price of fixing the time at which Alice reveals her commitment. The protocol is analyzed in the most general settings, where the devices are used repeatedly and may have long-term quantum memory. We also recast the protocol in a post-quantum setting where both honest and dishonest parties are restricted only by the impossibility of signaling, and find that overall the supra-quantum structure allows for greater security. (paper)
Guaranteed energy-efficient bit reset in finite time.
Browne, Cormac; Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Vedral, Vlatko
2014-09-05
Landauer's principle states that it costs at least kBTln2 of work to reset one bit in the presence of a heat bath at temperature T. The bound of kBTln2 is achieved in the unphysical infinite-time limit. Here we ask what is possible if one is restricted to finite-time protocols. We prove analytically that it is possible to reset a bit with a work cost close to kBTln2 in a finite time. We construct an explicit protocol that achieves this, which involves thermalizing and changing the system's Hamiltonian so as to avoid quantum coherences. Using concepts and techniques pertaining to single-shot statistical mechanics, we furthermore prove that the heat dissipated is exponentially close to the minimal amount possible not just on average, but guaranteed with high confidence in every run. Moreover, we exploit the protocol to design a quantum heat engine that works near the Carnot efficiency in finite time.
Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.
2007-01-01
Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory
Giga-bit optical data transmission module for Beam Instrumentation
Roedne, L T; Cenkeramaddi, L R; Jiao, L
Particle accelerators require electronic instrumentation for diagnostic, assessment and monitoring during operation of the transferring and circulating beams. A sensor located near the beam provides an electrical signal related to the observable quantity of interest. The front-end electronics provides analog-to-digital conversion of the quantity being observed and the generated data are to be transferred to the external digital back-end for data processing, and to display to the operators and logging. This research project investigates the feasibility of radiation-tolerant giga-bit data transmission over optic fibre for beam instrumentation applications, starting from the assessment of the state of the art technology, identification of challenges and proposal of a system level solution, which should be validated with a PCB design in an experimental setup. Radiation tolerance of 10 kGy (Si) Total Ionizing Dose (TID) over 10 years of operation, Bit Error Rate (BER) 10-6 or better. The findings and results of th...
Learning may need only a few bits of synaptic precision
Baldassi, Carlo; Gerace, Federica; Lucibello, Carlo; Saglietti, Luca; Zecchina, Riccardo
2016-05-01
Learning in neural networks poses peculiar challenges when using discretized rather then continuous synaptic states. The choice of discrete synapses is motivated by biological reasoning and experiments, and possibly by hardware implementation considerations as well. In this paper we extend a previous large deviations analysis which unveiled the existence of peculiar dense regions in the space of synaptic states which accounts for the possibility of learning efficiently in networks with binary synapses. We extend the analysis to synapses with multiple states and generally more plausible biological features. The results clearly indicate that the overall qualitative picture is unchanged with respect to the binary case, and very robust to variation of the details of the model. We also provide quantitative results which suggest that the advantages of increasing the synaptic precision (i.e., the number of internal synaptic states) rapidly vanish after the first few bits, and therefore that, for practical applications, only few bits may be needed for near-optimal performance, consistent with recent biological findings. Finally, we demonstrate how the theoretical analysis can be exploited to design efficient algorithmic search strategies.
Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.
2007-09-01
Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed “honest” strategy, so that “anonymous state protocols,” which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver’s laboratory.
Energy-Efficient Hybrid Spintronic-Straintronic Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Equality Bit Comparator
Biswas, Ayan K.; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo
We propose and analyze a “spintronic/straintronic” reconfigurable equality bit comparator implemented with a nanowire spin valve whose two contacts are two-phase multiferroic nanomagnets and possess bistable magnetization. A reference bit is “written” into a stable magnetization state of one contact and an input bit in that of the other with electrically generated strain. The spin-valve’s resistance is lowered (raised) if the bits match (do not match). Multiple comparators can be interfaced in parallel with a magneto-tunneling junction to determine if an N-bit input stream matches an N-bit reference stream bit by bit. The system is robust against thermal noise at room temperature and a 16-bit comparator can operate at ˜743MHz while dissipating ˜28fJ per cycle. This implementation is more energy-efficient than CMOS-based implementations and the reference bits can be stored in the comparator itself without the need for refresh cycles or the need to fetch them from a remote memory for comparison. That improves reliability, speed and security.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamad Ali Sadikin
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This research addresses the implementation of encryption and digital signature technique for electronic health record to prevent cybercrime such as robbery, modification and unauthorised access. In this research, RSA 2048-bit algorithm, AES 256-bit and SHA 256 will be implemented in Java programming language. Secure Electronic Health Record Information (SEHR application design is intended to combine given services, such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. Cryptography is used to ensure the file records and electronic documents for detailed information on the medical past, present and future forecasts that have been given only to the intended patients. The document will be encrypted using an encryption algorithm based on NIST Standard. In the application, there are two schemes, namely the protection and verification scheme. This research uses black-box testing and whitebox testing to test the software input, output, and code without testing the process and design that occurs in the system.We demonstrated the implementation of cryptography in SEHR. The implementation of encryption and digital signature in this research can prevent archive thievery.
Scaling vectors of attoJoule per bit modulators
Sorger, Volker J.; Amin, Rubab; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Ma, Zhizhen; Dalir, Hamed; Khan, Sikandar
2018-01-01
Electro-optic modulation performs the conversion between the electrical and optical domain with applications in data communication for optical interconnects, but also for novel optical computing algorithms such as providing nonlinearity at the output stage of optical perceptrons in neuromorphic analog optical computing. While resembling an optical transistor, the weak light-matter-interaction makes modulators 105 times larger compared to their electronic counterparts. Since the clock frequency for photonics on-chip has a power-overhead sweet-spot around tens of GHz, ultrafast modulation may only be required in long-distance communication, not for short on-chip links. Hence, the search is open for power-efficient on-chip modulators beyond the solutions offered by foundries to date. Here, we show scaling vectors towards atto-Joule per bit efficient modulators on-chip as well as some experimental demonstrations of novel plasmonic modulators with sub-fJ/bit efficiencies. Our parametric study of placing different actively modulated materials into plasmonic versus photonic optical modes shows that 2D materials overcompensate their miniscule modal overlap by their unity-high index change. Furthermore, we reveal that the metal used in plasmonic-based modulators not only serves as an electrical contact, but also enables low electrical series resistances leading to near-ideal capacitors. We then discuss the first experimental demonstration of a photon-plasmon-hybrid graphene-based electro-absorption modulator on silicon. The device shows a sub-1 V steep switching enabled by near-ideal electrostatics delivering a high 0.05 dB V-1 μm-1 performance requiring only 110 aJ/bit. Improving on this demonstration, we discuss a plasmonic slot-based graphene modulator design, where the polarization of the plasmonic mode aligns with graphene’s in-plane dimension; where a push-pull dual-gating scheme enables 2 dB V-1 μm-1 efficient modulation allowing the device to be just 770 nm
Influence of Bit Depth on Subjective Video Quality Assessment for High Resolutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juraj Bienik
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of bit depth on the subjective video quality assessment. To achieve this goal, eight video sequences, each representing a different content prototype, were analysed. Subjective evaluation was performed using the ACR method. The analysed video sequences were encoded to 8 and 10-bit bit depth. Two most used compression standards H.264 and H.265 were evaluated with 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 Mbps bitrate in Full HD and UHD resolution. Finally, the perceived quality of both compression standards using the subjective tests with emphasis on bit-depth was compared. From the results we can state, that the practical application of 10-bit bit depth is not appropriate for Full HD resolution in the range of bitrate from 1 to 15 Mbps, for Ultra HD resolution, it is appropriate only for videos encoded by H.265/HEVC compression standard.
Patent search and review on roller-bit bearings seals and lubrication systems. [State-of-the-art
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurer, W.C.
1975-10-14
Over 300 patents on bit design were reviewed, and the more important ones were abstracted. These patents were divided into three groups dealing with roller bit bearings, seals, and lubrication systems. Review of these patents helps identify the problems encountered by previous bit designers and establishes the current state-of-the-art of roller bit design. This report can be used as a reference for designing improved bits both for the petroleum and the geothermal industries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David S. Pixton
1999-09-20
Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.
Optimal finite-time erasure of a classical bit
Zulkowski, Patrick R.; DeWeese, Michael R.
2014-05-01
Information erasure inevitably leads to the generation of heat. Minimizing this dissipation will be crucial for developing small-scale information processing systems, but little is known about the optimal procedures required. We have obtained closed-form expressions for maximally efficient erasure cycles for deletion of a classical bit of information stored by the position of a particle diffusing in a double-well potential. We find that the extra heat generated beyond the Landauer bound is proportional to the square of the Hellinger distance between the initial and final states divided by the cycle duration, which quantifies how far out of equilibrium the system is driven. Finally, we demonstrate close agreement between the exact optimal cycle and the protocol found using a linear response framework.
Bitlis Etnografya Müzesi'nde Bulunan Geleneksel Giysiler
Sökmen, Sultan
2016-01-01
Bu çalışmada, Bitlis Etnografya Müzesi'nde sergilenmekte olan geleneksel giysilerin kumaş, renk, süsleme ve teknik özelliklerinin tanıtımı amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda ilgili makamlardan yazılı izin alınarak müze vitrinlerinde sergilenmekte olan ve depolarda koruma altına alınan giysilerin fotoğrafları çekilmiş, gerekli ölçümleri yapılarak teknik özellikleri belirlenmiş, hammadde ve süsleme özellikleri incelenmiştir. Müzede bulunan geleneksel giysi örnekleri yeterince zengin olma...
Numerical optimization of writer geometries for bit patterned magnetic recording
Kovacs, A.; Oezelt, H.; Bance, S.; Fischbacher, J.; Gusenbauer, M.; Reichel, F.; Exl, L.; Schrefl, T.; Schabes, M. E.
2014-05-01
A fully-automated pole-tip shape optimization tool, involving write head geometry construction, meshing, micromagnetic simulation, and evaluation, is presented. Optimizations have been performed for three different writing schemes (centered, staggered, and shingled) for an underlying bit patterned media with an areal density of 2.12 Tdots/in.2. Optimizations were performed for a single-phase media with 10 nm thickness and a mag spacing of 8 nm. From the computed write field and its gradient and the minimum energy barrier during writing for islands on the adjacent track, the overall write error rate is computed. The overall write errors are 0.7, 0.08, and 2.8×10-5 for centered writing, staggered writing, and shingled writing.
Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew
2003-01-01
A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the
A Fast Dynamic 64-bit Comparator with Small Transistor Count
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chua-Chin Wang
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a 64-bit fast dynamic CMOS comparator with small transistor count. Major features of the proposed comparator are the rearrangement and re-ordering of transistors in the evaluation block of a dynamic cell, and the insertion of a weak n feedback inverter, which helps the pull-down operation to ground. The simulation results given by pre-layout tools, e.g. HSPICE, and post-layout tools, e.g. TimeMill, reveal that the delay is around 2.5 ns while the operating clock rate reaches 100 MHz. A physical chip is fabricated to verify the correctness of our design by using UMC (United Microelectronics Company 0.5 μm (2P2M technology.
Contador asincrónico de cuatro bits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iván Jaramillo J.
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Este artículo describe el diseño e implementación del conttulor asincrónico de cuatro bits, realizado a partir de experiencias académicas en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Primero se menciona la estructura del contador, al igual que la caracterización de las celdas básicas (con base en las cuales se hizo este proyecto, y se muestran los resultados de la simulación eléctrica. Después, se describen las pruebas efectuadas al chip, y se hace una comparación entre estos datos experimentales y los obtenidos en la simulación.
Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey's quaternions, and RRQM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1995-01-01
The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive's open-quotes Menshevikclose quotes position); (2) the author's bit-string open-quotes Theory of Everythingclose quotes (which Clive has dubbed open-quotes Bolshevikclose quotes); (3) Manthey's cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence
Geneva University - Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects
2007-01-01
Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 29 janvier 2007 COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE 17 heures - Auditoire Stueckelberg Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects Prof. Hans Mooij / Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology The quantum conjugate variables of a superconductor are the charge or number of Cooper pairs, and the phase of the order parameter. In circuits that contain small Josephson junctions, these quantum properties can be brought forward. In Delft we study so-called flux qubits, superconducting rings that contain three small Josephson junctions. When a magnetic flux of half a flux quantum is applied to the loop, there are two states with opposite circulating current. For suitable junction parameters, a quantum superposition of those macroscopic states is possible. Transitions can be driven with resonant microwaves. These quantum ...
ALAT SOLAR TRACKER BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Wayan Sutaya
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Penelitian yang telah dilakukan ini adalah membuat prototipe alat solar tracker. Alat ini berfungsi untuk menggerakkan modul sel surya sehingga permukaan sel surya bisa terkena sinar matahari secara maksimal. Saat ini sel surya di Indonesia banyak terpasang secara statis atau tidak dilengkapi alat solar tracker sehingga energi matahari tidak diterima secara maksimal. Hal ini menyebabkan sel surya yang terpasang di beberapa daerah di Indonesia tidak memberikan manfaat yang optimal. Alat solar tracker yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini diharapkan sebagai solusi dari permasalahan yang ada saat ini. Mikrokontroler 8 bit ATMega8535 yang digunakan sebagai otak utama dari alat solar tracker menjadikan alat ini menjadi berbiaya murah. Serta teknik memprogram dengan bahasa assembly menjadikan alat ini tahan terhadap kegagalan sistem. Solar tracker ini sudah bisa beroperasi dengan baik dan cocok digunakan pada modul sel surya berukuran kecil.
Bit-string physics: A novel theory of everything
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1994-08-01
We encode the quantum numbers of the standard model of quarks and leptons using constructed bitstrings of length 256. These label a grouting universe of bit-strings of growing length that eventually construct a finite and discrete space-time with reasonable cosmological properties. Coupling constants and mass ratios, computed from closure under XOR and a statistical hypothesis, using only {h_bar}, c and m{sub p} to fix our units of mass, length and time in terms of standard (meterkilogram-second) metrology, agree with the first four to seven significant figures of accepted experimental results. Finite and discrete conservation laws and commutation relations insure the essential characteristics of relativistic quantum mechanics, including particle-antiparticle pair creation. The correspondence limit in (free space) Maxwell electromagnetism and Einstein gravitation is consistent with the Feynman-Dyson-Tanimura ``proof.``
A low power 12-bit ADC for nuclear instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, R.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.; Silver, E.; LeGros, M.
1992-10-01
A low power, successive approximation, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for low rate, low cost, battery powered applications is described. The ADC is based on a commercial 50 mW successive approximation CMOS device (CS5102). An on-chip self-calibration circuit reduces the inherent differential nonlinearity to 7%. A further reduction of the differential nonlinearity to 0.5% is attained with a four bit Gatti function. The Gatti function is distributed to minimize battery power consumption. All analog functions reside with the ADC while the noisy digital functions reside in the personal computer based histogramming memory. Fiber optic cables carry afl digital information between the ADC and the personal computer based histogramming memory
A one-bit approach for image registration
Nguyen, An Hung; Pickering, Mark; Lambert, Andrew
2015-02-01
Motion estimation or optic flow computation for automatic navigation and obstacle avoidance programs running on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging task. These challenges come from the requirements of real-time processing speed and small light-weight image processing hardware with very limited resources (especially memory space) embedded on the UAVs. Solutions towards both simplifying computation and saving hardware resources have recently received much interest. This paper presents an approach for image registration using binary images which addresses these two requirements. This approach uses translational information between two corresponding patches of binary images to estimate global motion. These low bit-resolution images require a very small amount of memory space to store them and allow simple logic operations such as XOR and AND to be used instead of more complex computations such as subtractions and multiplications.
Proposed first-generation WSQ bit allocation procedure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.
1993-09-08
The Wavelet/Scalar Quantization (WSQ) gray-scale fingerprint image compression algorithm involves a symmetric wavelet transform (SWT) image decomposition followed by uniform scalar quantization of each subband. The algorithm is adaptive insofar as the bin widths for the scalar quantizers are image-specific and are included in the compressed image format. Since the decoder requires only the actual bin width values -- but not the method by which they were computed -- the standard allows for future refinements of the WSQ algorithm by improving the method used to select the scalar quantizer bin widths. This report proposes a bit allocation procedure for use with the first-generation WSQ encoder. In previous work a specific formula is provided for the relative sizes of the scalar quantizer bin widths in terms of the variances of the SWT subbands. An explicit specification for the constant of proportionality, q, that determines the absolute bin widths was not given. The actual compression ratio produced by the WSQ algorithm will generally vary from image to image depending on the amount of coding gain obtained by the run-length and Huffman coding, stages of the algorithm, but testing performed by the FBI established that WSQ compression produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20 to 1. The bit allocation procedure described in this report possesses a control parameter, r, that can be set by the user to achieve a predetermined amount of lossy compression, effectively giving the user control over the amount of distortion introduced by quantization noise. The variability observed in final compression ratios is thus due only to differences in lossless coding gain from image to image, chiefly a result of the varying amounts of blank background surrounding the print area in the images. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the proposed method`s effectiveness.
Bit-depth scalable video coding with new inter-layer prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiang Jui-Chiu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The rapid advances in the capture and display of high-dynamic range (HDR image/video content make it imperative to develop efficient compression techniques to deal with the huge amounts of HDR data. Since HDR device is not yet popular for the moment, the compatibility problems should be considered when rendering HDR content on conventional display devices. To this end, in this study, we propose three H.264/AVC-based bit-depth scalable video-coding schemes, called the LH scheme (low bit-depth to high bit-depth, the HL scheme (high bit-depth to low bit-depth, and the combined LH-HL scheme, respectively. The schemes efficiently exploit the high correlation between the high and the low bit-depth layers on the macroblock (MB level. Experimental results demonstrate that the HL scheme outperforms the other two schemes in some scenarios. Moreover, it achieves up to 7 dB improvement over the simulcast approach when the high and low bit-depth representations are 12 bits and 8 bits, respectively.
The Digital Agenda of Virtual Currencies. Can BitCoin Become a Global Currency?
KANCS D'ARTIS; CIAIAN PAVEL; MIROSLAVA RAJCANIOVA
2015-01-01
This paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate Bitcoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such e...
Field drilling tests on improved geothermal unsealed roller-cone bits. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.
1980-05-01
The development and field testing of a 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bit are described. Increased performance was gained by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Six of the experimental bits were subjected to air drilling at 240/sup 0/C (460/sup 0/F) in Franciscan graywacke at the Geysers (California). Performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling time was increased by 70%. All bits at the Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole drilled, compared with the conventional bits. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction per wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. These tests indicate a potential well cost savings of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.
Designing embedded systems with 32-bit PIC microcontrollers and MikroC
Ibrahim, Dogan
2013-01-01
The new generation of 32-bit PIC microcontrollers can be used to solve the increasingly complex embedded system design challenges faced by engineers today. This book teaches the basics of 32-bit C programming, including an introduction to the PIC 32-bit C compiler. It includes a full description of the architecture of 32-bit PICs and their applications, along with coverage of the relevant development and debugging tools. Through a series of fully realized example projects, Dogan Ibrahim demonstrates how engineers can harness the power of this new technology to optimize their embedded design
EnhancedBit: Unleashing the potential of the unchoking policy in the BitTorrent protocol
Atlidakis, V; Delis, A
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a modification to the BitTorrent protocol related to its peer unchoking policy. In particular, we apply a novel optimistic unchoking approach that improves the quality of inter-connections amongst peers, i.e., increases the number of directly-connected and interested-in-cooperation peers without penalizing underutilized and/or idle peers. Our optimistic unchoking policy takes into consideration the number of clients currently interested in downloading from a peer that is to be unchoked. Our conjecture is that peers having few clients interested in downloading data from them, should be favored with optimistic unchoke intervals. This enables the peers in question to receive data since they become unchoked faster and in turn, they will trigger the interest of additional clients. In contrast, peers with plenty of "interested" clients should enjoy a lower priority to be selected as planned optimistic unchoked, since these peers likely have enough data to forward; nevertheless, they receiv...
Metastasis of tumor cells is enhanced by downregulation of Bit1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Priya Prakash Karmali
Full Text Available Resistance to anoikis, which is defined as apoptosis induced by loss of integrin-mediated cell attachment to the extracellular matrix, is a determinant of tumor progression and metastasis. We have previously identified the mitochondrial Bit1 (Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription protein as a novel anoikis effector whose apoptotic function is independent from caspases and is uniquely controlled by integrins. In this report, we examined the possibility that Bit1 is suppressed during tumor progression and that Bit1 downregulation may play a role in tumor metastasis.Using a human breast tumor tissue array, we found that Bit1 expression is suppressed in a significant fraction of advanced stages of breast cancer. Targeted disruption of Bit1 via shRNA technology in lowly aggressive MCF7 cells conferred enhanced anoikis resistance, adhesive and migratory potential, which correlated with an increase in active Extracellular kinase regulated (Erk levels and a decrease in Erk-directed phosphatase activity. These pro-metastasis phenotypes were also observed following downregulation of endogenous Bit1 in Hela and B16F1 cancer cell lines. The enhanced migratory and adhesive potential of Bit1 knockdown cells is in part dependent on their high level of Erk activation since down-regulating Erk in these cells attenuated their enhanced motility and adhesive properties. The Bit1 knockdown pools also showed a statistically highly significant increase in experimental lung metastasis, with no differences in tumor growth relative to control clones in vivo using a BALB/c nude mouse model system. Importantly, the pulmonary metastases of Bit1 knockdown cells exhibited increased phospho-Erk staining.These findings indicate that downregulation of Bit1 conferred cancer cells with enhanced anoikis resistance, adhesive and migratory properties in vitro and specifically potentiated tumor metastasis in vivo. These results underscore the therapeutic importance of restoring Bit1
Song, Youngjun; Kim, Sejung; Heller, Michael J; Huang, Xiaohua
2018-01-18
DNA has been employed to either store digital information or to perform parallel molecular computing. Relatively unexplored is the ability to combine DNA-based memory and logical operations in a single platform. Here, we show a DNA tri-level cell non-volatile memory system capable of parallel random-access writing of memory and bit shifting operations. A microchip with an array of individually addressable electrodes was employed to enable random access of the memory cells using electric fields. Three segments on a DNA template molecule were used to encode three data bits. Rapid writing of data bits was enabled by electric field-induced hybridization of fluorescently labeled complementary probes and the data bits were read by fluorescence imaging. We demonstrated the rapid parallel writing and reading of 8 (2 3 ) combinations of 3-bit memory data and bit shifting operations by electric field-induced strand displacement. Our system may find potential applications in DNA-based memory and computations.
Study of nonlinear phenomena in a multi-bit bandpass sigma delta modulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iu, H.H.C. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley (Australia)]. E-mail: herbert@ee.uwa.edu.au
2006-11-15
Bandpass sigma delta modulators (SDMs) have applications in areas such as digital radio demodulation. It is well known that bandpass SDMs with single bit quantizers can exhibit nonlinear and complex state space dynamics like elliptical fractal patterns. These fractal patterns are usually confined in trapezoidal regions. In this paper, we consider bandpass SDMs with multi-bit quantizers. Their nonlinear dynamics is studied.
Bit and Power Loading Approach for Broadband Multi-Antenna OFDM System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra S.; Wang, Yuanye
2007-01-01
In this work, we have studied bit and power allocation strategies for multi-antenna assisted Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems and investigated the impact of different rates of bit and power allocations on various multi-antenna diversity schemes. It is observed that, if we...... allocations across OFDM sub-channels are required together for efficient exploitation of wireless channel....
Enhanced bit rate-distance product impulse radio ultra-wideband over fiber link
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio
2010-01-01
We report on a record distance and bit rate-wireless impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link with combined transmission over a 20 km long fiber link. We are able to improve the compliance with the regulated frequency emission mask and achieve bit rate-distance products as high as 16 Gbit/s·m....
Application of time-hopping UWB range-bit rate performance in the UWB sensor networks
Nascimento, J.R.V. do; Nikookar, H.
2008-01-01
In this paper, the achievable range-bit rate performance is evaluated for Time-Hopping (TH) UWB networks complying with the FCC outdoor emission limits in the presence of Multiple Access Interference (MAI). Application of TH-UWB range-bit rate performance is presented for UWB sensor networks.
Possibility, impossibility, and cheat sensitivity of quantum-bit string commitment
Buhrman, H.; Christandl, M.; Hayden, P.; Lo, H.-K.; Wehner, S.
2008-01-01
Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum worlds. But when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this paper, we introduce a framework for quantum schemes where Alice commits
0.5 ns resolution, 8-bit time-to-digital converter with flash ADC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobczynski, C.
1987-01-01
A two-channel time-to-digital converter based on an 8-bit flash ADC is presented. The full scale time range of 127.5 ns is digitized to 8 bits providing 500 ps time resolution. The conversion time per channel is less than 800 ns. The design is foreseen to be implemented into Fastbus. (orig.)
On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2015-01-01
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2014-01-01
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
FlavBit : a GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods
Bernlochner, F.U.; Chrząszcz, M.; Dal, L.A.; Farmer, B.; Jackson, P.; Kvellestad, A.; Mahmoudi, F.; Putze, A.; Rogan, C.; Scott, P.; Serra, N.; Weniger, C.; White, M.
2017-01-01
Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour
Dispersion Tolerance of 40 Gbaud Multilevel Modulation Formats with up to 3 bits per Symbol
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan
2006-01-01
We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud......We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud...
Perez, Santiago; Karakus, Murat; Pellet, Frederic
2017-05-01
The great success and widespread use of impregnated diamond (ID) bits are due to their self-sharpening mechanism, which consists of a constant renewal of diamonds acting at the cutting face as the bit wears out. It is therefore important to keep this mechanism acting throughout the lifespan of the bit. Nonetheless, such a mechanism can be altered by the blunting of the bit that ultimately leads to a less than optimal drilling performance. For this reason, this paper aims at investigating the applicability of artificial intelligence-based techniques in order to monitor tool condition of ID bits, i.e. sharp or blunt, under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, topologically invariant tests are carried out with sharp and blunt bits conditions while recording acoustic emissions (AE) and measuring-while-drilling variables. The combined output of acoustic emission root-mean-square value (AErms), depth of cut ( d), torque (tob) and weight-on-bit (wob) is then utilized to create two approaches in order to predict the wear state condition of the bits. One approach is based on the combination of the aforementioned variables and another on the specific energy of drilling. The two different approaches are assessed for classification performance with various pattern recognition algorithms, such as simple trees, support vector machines, k-nearest neighbour, boosted trees and artificial neural networks. In general, Acceptable pattern recognition rates were obtained, although the subset composed by AErms and tob excels due to the high classification performances rates and fewer input variables.
Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-01-01
Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser
Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael
2010-06-01
Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.
Up to 20 Gbit/s bit-rate transparent integrated interferometric wavelength converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave
1996-01-01
We present a compact and optimised multiquantum-well based, integrated all-active Michelson interferometer for 26 Gbit/s optical wavelength conversion. Bit-rate transparent operation is demonstrated with a conversion penalty well below 0.5 dB at bit-rates ranging from 622 Mbit/s to 20 Gbit/s....
Sikora, Jamie; Selby, John
2018-04-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob such that she cannot later change the value of the bit, while, simultaneously, the bit is hidden from Bob. It is known that ideal bit commitment is impossible within quantum theory. In this work, we show that it is also impossible in generalized probabilistic theories (under a small set of assumptions) by presenting a quantitative trade-off between Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities. Our proof relies crucially on a formulation of cheating strategies as cone programs, a natural generalization of semidefinite programs. In fact, using the generality of this technique, we prove that this result holds for the more general task of integer commitment.
Changes realized from extended bit-depth and metal artifact reduction in CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glide-Hurst, C.; Chen, D.; Zhong, H.; Chetty, I. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)
2013-06-15
Purpose: High-Z material in computed tomography (CT) yields metal artifacts that degrade image quality and may cause substantial errors in dose calculation. This study couples a metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm with enhanced 16-bit depth (vs standard 12-bit) to quantify potential gains in image quality and dosimetry. Methods: Extended CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were derived from a tissue characterization phantom with titanium and stainless steel inserts scanned at 90-140 kVp for 12- and 16-bit reconstructions. MAR was applied to sinogram data (Brilliance BigBore CT scanner, Philips Healthcare, v.3.5). Monte Carlo simulation (MC-SIM) was performed on a simulated double hip prostheses case (Cerrobend rods embedded in a pelvic phantom) using BEAMnrc/Dosxyz (400 000 0000 histories, 6X, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} beam traversing Cerrobend rod). A phantom study was also conducted using a stainless steel rod embedded in solid water, and dosimetric verification was performed with Gafchromic film analysis (absolute difference and gamma analysis, 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement) for plans calculated with Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA, Eclipse v11.0) to elucidate changes between 12- and 16-bit data. Three patients (bony metastases to the femur and humerus, and a prostate cancer case) with metal implants were reconstructed using both bit depths, with dose calculated using AAA and derived CT-ED curves. Planar dose distributions were assessed via matrix analyses and using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm. Results: For 12-bit images, CT numbers for titanium and stainless steel saturated at 3071 Hounsfield units (HU), whereas for 16-bit depth, mean CT numbers were much larger (e.g., titanium and stainless steel yielded HU of 8066.5 {+-} 56.6 and 13 588.5 {+-} 198.8 for 16-bit uncorrected scans at 120 kVp, respectively). MC-SIM was well-matched between 12- and 16-bit images except downstream of the Cerrobend rod, where 16-bit dose was {approx}6
All-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSELs.
Hayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Kazuya; Katayama, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi
2015-04-06
We propose and evaluate an all-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching method using two 1.55-µm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and three optical switches. Polarization bistable VCSELs acted as flip-flop devices by using AND-gate operations of the header and set pulses, together with the reset pulses. Optical packets including 40-Gb/s non-return-to-zero pseudo-random bit-sequence payloads were successfully sent to one of four ports according to the state of two bits in the headers with a 4-bit 500-Mb/s return-to-zero format. The input pulse powers were 17.2 to 31.8 dB lower than the VCSEL output power. We also examined an extension of this method to multi-bit header recognition and packet switching.
Warped Discrete Cosine Transform-Based Low Bit-Rate Block Coding Using Image Downsampling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ertürk Sarp
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents warped discrete cosine transform (WDCT-based low bit-rate block coding using image downsampling. While WDCT aims to improve the performance of conventional DCT by frequency warping, the WDCT has only been applicable to high bit-rate coding applications because of the overhead required to define the parameters of the warping filter. Recently, low bit-rate block coding based on image downsampling prior to block coding followed by upsampling after the decoding process is proposed to improve the compression performance for low bit-rate block coders. This paper demonstrates that a superior performance can be achieved if WDCT is used in conjunction with image downsampling-based block coding for low bit-rate applications.
High Bit-Depth Medical Image Compression With HEVC.
Parikh, Saurin S; Ruiz, Damian; Kalva, Hari; Fernandez-Escribano, Gerardo; Adzic, Velibor
2018-03-01
Efficient storing and retrieval of medical images has direct impact on reducing costs and improving access in cloud-based health care services. JPEG 2000 is currently the commonly used compression format for medical images shared using the DICOM standard. However, new formats such as high efficiency video coding (HEVC) can provide better compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Furthermore, JPEG 2000 is not suitable for efficiently storing image series and 3-D imagery. Using HEVC, a single format can support all forms of medical images. This paper presents the use of HEVC for diagnostically acceptable medical image compression, focusing on compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Diagnostically acceptable lossy compression and complexity of high bit-depth medical image compression are studied. Based on an established medically acceptable compression range for JPEG 2000, this paper establishes acceptable HEVC compression range for medical imaging applications. Experimental results show that using HEVC can increase the compression performance, compared to JPEG 2000, by over 54%. Along with this, a new method for reducing computational complexity of HEVC encoding for medical images is proposed. Results show that HEVC intra encoding complexity can be reduced by over 55% with negligible increase in file size.
A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiribella, Giulio, E-mail: gchiribella@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University (China); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro, E-mail: dariano@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Perinotti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.perinotti@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Schlingemann, Dirk, E-mail: d.schlingemann@tu-bs.de [ISI Foundation, Quantum Information Theory Unit, Viale S. Severo 65, 10133 Torino (Italy); Werner, Reinhard, E-mail: Reinhard.Werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)
2013-06-17
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C{sup ⁎}-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.
Bit Level Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multireader RFID Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Namboodiri Vinod
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The operation of multiple RFID readers in close proximity results in interference between the readers. This issue is termed the reader collision problem and cannot always be solved by assigning them to different frequency channels due to technical and regulatory limitations. The typical solution is to separate the operation of such readers across time. This sequential operation, however, results in a long delay to identify all tags. We present a bit level synchronized (BLSync MAC protocol for multi-reader RFID networks that allows multiple readers to operate simultaneously on the same frequency channel. The BLSync protocol solves the reader collision problem by allowing all readers to transmit the same query at the same time. We analyze the performance of using the BLSync protocol and demonstrate benefits of 40%–50% in terms of tag reading delay for most settings. The benefits of BLSync, first demonstrated through analysis, are then validated and quantified through simulations on realistic reader-tag layouts.
Transnational exchange of scientific data: The ``Bits of Power'' report
Berry, R. Stephen
1998-07-01
In 1994, the U.S. National Committee for the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), organized under the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Applications of the National Research Council established the Committee on Issues in the Transborder Flow of Scientific Data. The purpose of this Committee was to examine the current state of global access to scientific data, to identify strengths, problems and challenges confronting scientists now, or likely to arise in the next few years, and to make recommendations on building the strengths and ameliorating or avoiding the problems. The Committee's report appeared as the book Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997). This presentation is a brief summary of that report, particularly as it pertains to atomic and molecular data. The context is necessarily the evolution toward increasing electronic acquisition, archiving and distribution of scientific data. Thus the central issues were divided into the technological infrastructure, the issues for the sciences and scientists in the various disciplines, the economic aspects and the legal issues. For purposes of this study, the sciences fell naturally into four groups: the laboratory physical sciences, the biological sciences, the earth sciences and the astronomical and planetary sciences. Some of the substantive scientific aspects are specific to particular groups of sciences, but the matters of infrastructure, economic questions and legal issues apply, for the most part, to all the sciences.
A CAMAC display module for fast bit-mapped graphics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Aal, R.E.
1992-01-01
In many data acquisition and analysis facilities for nuclear physics research, utilities for the display of two-dimensional (2D) images and spectra on graphics terminals suffer from low speed, poor resolution, and limit accuracy. Developed of CAMAC bit-mapped graphics modules for this purpose has been discouraged in the past by the large device count needed and the long times required to load the image data from the host computer into the CAMAC hardware; particularly since many such facilities have been designed to support fast DMA block transfers only for data acquisition into the host. This paper describes the design and implementation of a prototype CAMAC graphics display module with a resolution of 256x256 pixels at eight colours for which all components can be easily accommodated in a single-width package. Employed is a hardware technique which reduces the number of programmed CAMAC data transfer operations needed for writing 2D images into the display memory by approximately an order of magnitude, with attendant improvements in the display speed and CPU time consumption. Hardware and software details are given together with sample results. Information on the performance of the module in a typical VAX/MBD data acquisition environment is presented, including data on the mutual effects of simultaneous data acquisition traffic. Suggestions are made for further improvements in performance. (orig.)
Modeling for write synchronization in bit patterned media recording
Lin, Maria Yu; Chan, Kheong Sann; Chua, Melissa; Zhang, Songhua; Kui, Cai; Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid
2012-04-01
Bit patterned media recording (BPMR) is a contender for next generation technology after conventional granular magnetic recording (CGMR) can no longer sustain the continued areal density growth. BPMR has several technological hurdles that need to be overcome, among them is solving the problem of write synchronization. With CGMR, grains are randomly distributed and occur almost all over the media. In contrast, BPMR has grains patterned into a regular lattice on the media with an approximate 50% duty cycle. Hence only about a quarter of the area is filled with magnetic material. During writing, the clock must be synchronized to the islands or the written in error rate becomes unacceptably large and the system fails. Maintaining synchronization during writing is a challenge as the system is not able to read and write simultaneously. Hence reading must occur periodically between the writing frequently enough to re-synchronize the writing clock to the islands. In this work, we study the requirements on the lengths of the synchronization and data sectors in a BPMR system using an advanced model for BPMR, and taking into consideration different spindle motor speed variations, which is the main cause of the mis-synchronization.
RAId_aPS: MS/MS analysis with multiple scoring functions and spectrum-specific statistics.
Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo
2010-11-16
Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an E-value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic E-value reported by any method into the textbook-defined E-value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific-values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign E-values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign E-values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-11-18
Nov 18, 2014 ... suitability of the rapid macroinvertebrate biomonitoring tool (the South African Scoring System) was investigated by determining the ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently ... et al., 2012), while settled sediments can alter habitat (Wood and Armitage ...
SLACK, CHARLES W.
REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…
Heo, Min-Suk; Han, Dong-Hun; An, Byung-Mo; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul
2008-02-01
To examine the effects of the luminance and bit depth of digital image on observer performance for determination of endodontic file positioning. Using extracted premolar teeth, no. 08 K-file was placed into the canal and positioned so that the tip was either flush or 1 mm short of the radiologic root apex. The samples were imaged with both conventional and digital radiographs at 8 and 12 bits. Eleven observers read the images under dark and bright condition, and receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed. Additionally, the interpreting time was measured. The 12-bit images showed similar observer performance compared with conventional images, and better than the 8-bit images. The interpretation time for bright condition and 8-bit images was longer than for dark condition and 12-bit images. Twelve-bit digital images were preferred to 8-bit for accurate determination of endodontic file position.
A multi-bit rate interface movement compensated multimode coder for video conferencing
1982-04-01
This report describes a multi-bit rate video coder for DARPA video conferencing applications. The coder can operate at any preselected transmission bit rate ranging from 1.5 Mb/s to 64 kb/s. The proposed National Command Authority Teleconferencing System (NCATS) is designed to connect several conferencing sites. The system provides shared audio, video and graphic spaces. The video conferencing system communicates dynamic images of participants to different conferencing sites. The system is designed to operate under different bandwidth constraints. Under emergency situations communications bandwidth can be drastically reduced to allow only for 64 kb/s to carry out the video conferencing system. Under normal conditions larger channel capacity is available for this service. In order to accommodate the above requirements, a video codec that can operate at different transmission bit rates is needed. This allows for upgrading of picture quality when there is sufficient bandwidth and a graceful reduction of picture quality under severe bandwidth limitations. The NTSC colour video signal sampled at 14.3 MHz (4 times the colour subcarrier frequency) and uniformly quantized to 8 bits per picture element, requires a transmission bit rate of 114 Mb/s. Such a high bit rate is economically prohibitive especially for video conferencing applications. In order to reduce the transmission bit rate, redundant information in the signal has to be removed and the specific video conferencing environment has to be exploited.
Use of One Time Pad Algorithm for Bit Plane Security Improvement
Suhardi; Suwilo, Saib; Budhiarti Nababan, Erna
2017-12-01
BPCS (Bit-Plane Complexity Segmentation) which is one of the steganography techniques that utilizes the human vision characteristics that cannot see the change in binary patterns that occur in the image. This technique performs message insertion by making a switch to a high-complexity bit-plane or noise-like regions with bits of secret messages. Bit messages that were previously stored precisely result the message extraction process to be done easily by rearranging a set of previously stored characters in noise-like region in the image. Therefore the secret message becomes easily known by others. In this research, the process of replacing bit plane with message bits is modified by utilizing One Time Pad cryptography technique which aims to increase security in bit plane. In the tests performed, the combination of One Time Pad cryptographic algorithm to the steganography technique of BPCS works well in the insertion of messages into the vessel image, although in insertion into low-dimensional images is poor. The comparison of the original image with the stegoimage looks identical and produces a good quality image with a mean value of PSNR above 30db when using a largedimensional image as the cover messages.
A Novel Digital Background Calibration Technique for 16 bit SHA-less Multibit Pipelined ADC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swina Narula
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a high resolution of 16 bit and high speed of 125MS/s, multibit Pipelined ADC with digital background calibration is presented. In order to achieve low power, SHA-less front end is used with multibit stages. The first and second stages are used here as a 3.5 bit and the stages from third to seventh are of 2.5 bit and last stage is of 3-bit flash ADC. After bit alignment and truncation of total 19 bits, 16 bits are used as final digital output. To precise the remove linear gain error of the residue amplifier and capacitor mismatching error, a digital background calibration technique is used, which is a combination of signal dependent dithering (SDD and butterfly shuffler. To improve settling time of residue amplifier, a special circuit of voltage separation is used. With the proposed digital background calibration technique, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR has been improved to 97.74 dB @30 MHz and 88.9 dB @150 MHz, and the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR has been improved to 79.77 dB @ 30 MHz, and 73.5 dB @ 150 MHz. The implementation of the Pipelined ADC has been completed with technology parameters of 0.18μm CMOS process with 1.8 V supply. Total power consumption is 300 mW by the proposed ADC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Young; Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2008-07-01
Boron Injection Tank(BIT) is a component of the Safety Injection System, which its sole function is to provide concentrated boric acid to the reactor coolant in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated main steamline break accidents. Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, clog of precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. For the removal of BIT, benchmarking analysis is performed between COPATTA code used in final safety analysis report and CONTEMPT code to be used this study. CONTEMPT is well compatible with COPATTA. The sensitivity study for integrity is performed for the three cases of full double ended rupture at 102% power with diesel generator failure, 3.4m{sup 3} and 2400ppm BIT, 3.4m{sup 3} and 0ppm BIT and no volume of BIT. The results show that the deactivation of BIT is plausible for success.
Autonomously stabilized entanglement between two superconducting quantum bits
Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K. M.; Narla, A.; Vool, U.; Girvin, S. M.; Frunzio, L.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.
2013-12-01
Quantum error correction codes are designed to protect an arbitrary state of a multi-qubit register from decoherence-induced errors, but their implementation is an outstanding challenge in the development of large-scale quantum computers. The first step is to stabilize a non-equilibrium state of a simple quantum system, such as a quantum bit (qubit) or a cavity mode, in the presence of decoherence. This has recently been accomplished using measurement-based feedback schemes. The next step is to prepare and stabilize a state of a composite system. Here we demonstrate the stabilization of an entangled Bell state of a quantum register of two superconducting qubits for an arbitrary time. Our result is achieved using an autonomous feedback scheme that combines continuous drives along with a specifically engineered coupling between the two-qubit register and a dissipative reservoir. Similar autonomous feedback techniques have been used for qubit reset, single-qubit state stabilization, and the creation and stabilization of states of multipartite quantum systems. Unlike conventional, measurement-based schemes, the autonomous approach uses engineered dissipation to counteract decoherence, obviating the need for a complicated external feedback loop to correct errors. Instead, the feedback loop is built into the Hamiltonian such that the steady state of the system in the presence of drives and dissipation is a Bell state, an essential building block for quantum information processing. Such autonomous schemes, which are broadly applicable to a variety of physical systems, as demonstrated by the accompanying paper on trapped ion qubits, will be an essential tool for the implementation of quantum error correction.
High bit rate optical transmission using midspan spectral inversion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
صﺧﻟﻣ. رﺎﺛآ نﻋ ﺔﺟﺗﺎﻧﻟا ءﺎﺿوﺿﻟا ﺔﻟﮐﺷﻣﻟ نﮐﻣﯾ. ﻟا. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣ. ﻟا. تﺗﺷﺗﻟاو ﺔﯾطﺧ رﯾﻐ. اﻟﻟ. نﻣ دﺣﻟا ﻲﻧو. ﺔﻓﺎﺳﻣ. ثﺑﻟا. لدﻌﻣو ،. ﻲﺋﺎﻧﺛﻟا. ) bit. (. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣﻟ. -. لوﺣﺗﻟا. -. لﯾدﻌﺗﻟا تﻻﺎﺣ لﻔﻘﻟا .ﻓ. ﻲ. ذھا. ﻟا. لﺎﻘﻣ. ،. ﺎﻧﺳرد. ﺿﯾوﻌﺗ. ﻵا تﺎ. رﺎﺛ. ﻟا. ﺔﯾطﺧﻟاو ﺔﯾطﺧﻟا رﯾﻐ. ﻋن. قﯾرط. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣﻟا دادﺗﻣا فﺻﺗﻧﻣ. ﺔﯾرﺻﺑﻟا. ﺔﻘﻓرﻣﻟا. ) OPC .(. ،ﻻوأ. ﻧ. رﺎﺛآ رﮭظ. ﻟا. تﺗﺷﺗ. ا. ظﻧ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻧوﻟ. ﺎم. OD8PSK. ) ﺔﯾﻟﺿﺎﻔﺗ. ىوﺗﺳﻣﻟا ﺔﯾﺋوﺿ. -8. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣ. -. لوﺣﺗﻟا. -. لﻔﻘﻟا. (،.
The Virtual Solar Observatory at Eight and a Bit!
Davey, Alisdair R.; VSO Team
2011-05-01
The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) was the first virtual observatory in the solar and heliophysics data space. It first saw the light of day in 2003 with a mission to serve the solar physics community by enabling homogenous access to heterogeneous data, and hiding the gory details of doing so from the user. The VSO pioneered what was to become the "Small Box" methodology, setting out to provide only the services required to navigate the user to the data and then letting them directly transferred the data from the data providers. After eight and a bit years the VSO now serves data from 72 different instruments covering a multitude of space and ground based observatories, including data from SDO. Dealing with the volume of data from SDO has proved to be our most difficult challenge, forcing us from the small box approach to one where the various VSO sites not only serve SDO data, but are central to the distribution of the data within the US and to Europe and other parts of the world. With SDO data serving mostly in place we are now working on integration with the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) and including a number of new solar data sets in the VSO family. We have a complete VSO search interface in IDL now, enabling searching, downloading and processing solar data, all be done without leaving the IDL command line, and will be releasing a brand new web interface providing users and data providers, with the ability to create far more detailed and instrument specific searches. Eight years on and the VSO has plenty of work in front of it.
Sheldon, Robert
2013-01-01
The diagnosis of syncope poses unique challenges. Syncope has multiple etiologies, with most carrying benign prognoses, and a few less common causes carrying a risk of serious morbidity or death. The history at first glance carries few clues. Faced with this many patients are heavily investigated with tests known to be both useless and expensive. For these reasons considerable emphasis has been placed on developing evidence-based and quantitative histories that might distinguish among the main causes of syncope. Quantitative histories were first developed in populations of several hundred patients with definite diagnoses of various losses of consciousness. Their derivation and use mirror those of experienced clinicians. The first score - the Calgary Syncope Seizures Score - discriminates between epileptic convulsions and syncope with a sensitivity and specificity of about 94%. The second score, the Calgary Syncope Score for normal hearts, discriminates between vasovagal syncope and other causes of syncope with a sensitivity and specificity of about 90%. The third score, the Calgary Syncope Score for Structural Heart Disease, diagnoses ventricular tachycardia with 98% sensitivity and 71% specificity. It also accurately predicts serious arrhythmic outcomes and all cause death. Gaps in the accuracy of the second score have been identified and are being addressed. These scores are proving useful in the clinic, and as entry criteria for observation studies, genetic studies, and randomized clinical trials. A very simple score predicts vasovagal syncope recurrences, based on the number of faints in the preceding year. Work from several centres indicates that scores will distinguish among competing causes of syncope in select populations, such as those with bifascicular heart block, Brugada syndrome, and Long QT syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Model of Computation for Bit-Level Concurrent Computing and Programming: APEC
Ajiro, Takashi; Tsuchida, Kensei
A concurrent model of computation and a language based on the model for bit-level operation are useful for developing asynchronous and concurrent programs compositionally, which frequently use bit-level operations. Some examples are programs for video games, hardware emulation (including virtual machines), and signal processing. However, few models and languages are optimized and oriented to bit-level concurrent computation. We previously developed a visual programming language called A-BITS for bit-level concurrent programming. The language is based on a dataflow-like model that computes using processes that provide serial bit-level operations and FIFO buffers connected to them. It can express bit-level computation naturally and develop compositionally. We then devised a concurrent computation model called APEC (Asynchronous Program Elements Connection) for bit-level concurrent computation. This model enables precise and formal expression of the process of computation, and a notion of primitive program elements for controlling and operating can be expressed synthetically. Specifically, the model is based on a notion of uniform primitive processes, called primitives, that have three terminals and four ordered rules at most, as well as on bidirectional communication using vehicles called carriers. A new notion is that a carrier moving between two terminals can briefly express some kinds of computation such as synchronization and bidirectional communication. The model's properties make it most applicable to bit-level computation compositionally, since the uniform computation elements are enough to develop components that have practical functionality. Through future application of the model, our research may enable further research on a base model of fine-grain parallel computer architecture, since the model is suitable for expressing massive concurrency by a network of primitives.
Digital PSK to BiO-L demodulator for 2 sup nx(bit rate) carrier
Shull, T. A.
1979-01-01
A phase shift key (PSK) to BiO-L demodulator which uses standard digital integrated circuits is discussed. The demodulator produces NRZ-L, bit clock, and BiO-L outputs from digital PSK input signals for which the carrier is a 2 to the Nth multiple of the bit rate. Various bit and carrier rates which are accommodated by changing various component values within the demodulator are described. The use of the unit for sinusoidal inputs as well as digital inputs is discussed.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Optimization of rock-bit life based on bearing failure criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feav, M.J.; Thorogood, J.L.; Whelehan, O.P.; Williamson, H.S.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that recent advances in rock-bit seal technology have allowed greater predictability of bearing life. Cone loss following bearing failure incurs costs related to remedial activities. A risk analysis approach, incorporating bearing-life relationships and the inter-dependence of drilling events, is used to formulate a bit-run cost-optimization method. The procedure enables a choice to be made between elastomeric and metal seals on a lowest-replacement-cost basis. The technique also provides a formal method for assessing the opportunity cost for using a device to detect bit-bearing failures downhole
Inadvertently programmed bits in Samsung 128 Mbit flash devices: a flaky investigation
Swift, G.
2002-01-01
JPL's X2000 avionics design pioneers new territory by specifying a non-volatile memory (NVM) board based on flash memories. The Samsung 128Mb device chosen was found to demonstrate bit errors (mostly program disturbs) and block-erase failures that increase with cycling. Low temperature, certain pseudo- random patterns, and, probably, higher bias increase the observable bit errors. An experiment was conducted to determine the wearout dependence of the bit errors to 100k cycles at cold temperature using flight-lot devices (some pre-irradiated). The results show an exponential growth rate, a wide part-to-part variation, and some annealing behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude D'Amours
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We analytically derive the upper bound for the bit error rate (BER performance of a single user multiple input multiple output code division multiple access (MIMO-CDMA system employing parity-bit-selected spreading in slowly varying, flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is done for spatially uncorrelated links. The analysis presented demonstrates that parity-bit-selected spreading provides an asymptotic gain of 10log(Nt dB over conventional MIMO-CDMA when the receiver has perfect channel estimates. This analytical result concurs with previous works where the (BER is determined by simulation methods and provides insight into why the different techniques provide improvement over conventional MIMO-CDMA systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina
2013-01-01
Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...
Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun
2002-01-01
The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahmad Hidayat
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Bit-Plane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS is a fairly new steganography technique. The most important process in BPCS is the calculation of complexity value of a bit-plane. The bit-plane complexity is calculated by looking at the amount of bit changes contained in a bit-plane. If a bit-plane has a high complexity, the bi-plane is categorized as a noise bit-plane that does not contain valuable information on the image. Classification of the bit-plane using the set cripst set (noise/not is not fair, where a little difference of the value will significantly change the status of the bit-plane. The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of fuzzy sets to classify the bit-plane into three sets that are informative, partly informative, and the noise region. Classification of the bit-plane into a fuzzy set is expected to classify the bit-plane in a more objective approach and ultimately message capacity of the images can be improved by using the Mamdani fuzzy inference to take decisions which bit-plane will be replaced with a message based on the classification of bit-plane and the size of the message that will be inserted. This research is able to increase the capability of BPCS steganography techniques to insert a message in bit-pane with more precise so that the container image quality would be better. It can be seen that the PSNR value of original image and stego-image is only slightly different.
An electrically reprogrammable 1024 bits MNOS ROM using MNOS-SOS e/d technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackowiak, E.; Le Goascoz, V.
1976-01-01
A 1024 bits fully decoded electrically writable and erasable non volatile ROM is described. Memory cells and peripheral circuits are made using P channel silicon on sapphire enhancement depletion technology [fr
A Methodology and Tool for Investigation of Artifacts Left by the BitTorrent Client
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Algimantas Venčkauskas
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The BitTorrent client application is a popular utility for sharing large files over the Internet. Sometimes, this powerful utility is used to commit cybercrimes, like sharing of illegal material or illegal sharing of legal material. In order to help forensics investigators to fight against these cybercrimes, we carried out an investigation of the artifacts left by the BitTorrent client. We proposed a methodology to locate the artifacts that indicate the BitTorrent client activity performed. Additionally, we designed and implemented a tool that searches for the evidence left by the BitTorrent client application in a local computer running Windows. The tool looks for the four files holding the evidence. The files are as follows: *.torrent, dht.dat, resume.dat, and settings.dat. The tool decodes the files, extracts important information for the forensic investigator and converts it into XML format. The results are combined into a single result file.
A Novel Rate Control Scheme for Constant Bit Rate Video Streaming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Venkata Phani Kumar M
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel rate control mechanism is proposed for constant bit rate video streaming. The initial quantization parameter used for encoding a video sequence is determined using the average spatio-temporal complexity of the sequence, its resolution and the target bit rate. Simple linear estimation models are then used to predict the number of bits that would be necessary to encode a frame for a given complexity and quantization parameter. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed rate control mechanism significantly outperforms the existing rate control scheme in the Joint Model (JM reference software in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and consistent perceptual visual quality while achieving the target bit rate. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is validated through implementation on a miniature test-bed.
Bit and Power Loading Approach for Broadband Multi-Antenna OFDM System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra S.; Wang, Yuanye
2007-01-01
In this work, we have studied bit and power allocation strategies for multi-antenna assisted Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems and investigated the impact of different rates of bit and power allocations on various multi-antenna diversity schemes. It is observed that, if we......). Otherwise, it is possible to use adaptive power distribution to save power, which can be used for other purposes, or to increase the throughput of the system by transmitting higher number of bits. We also observed that in some scenarios and in some system conditions, some form of simultaneous bit and power...... cannot find the exact Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) thresholds due to different reasons, such as reduced Link Adaptation (LA) rate, Channel State Information (CSI) error, feedback delay etc., it is better to fix the transmit power across all sub-channels to guarantee the target Frame Error Rate (FER...
Frame, bit and chip error rate evaluation for a DSSS communication system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F.R. Castillo–Soria
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The relation between chips, bits and frames error rates in the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN channel for a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS system, in Multiple Access Interference (MAI conditions is evaluated. A simple error–correction code (ECC for the Frame Error Rate (FER evaluation is used. 64 bits (chips Pseudo Noise (PN sequences are employed for the spread spectrum transmission.An iterative Montecarlo (stochastic simulation is used to evaluate how many errors on chips are introduced for channel effects and how they are related to the bit errors. It can be observed how the bit errors may eventually cause a frame error, i. e. CODEC or communication error. These results are useful for academics, engineers, or professionals alike.
Ultimate DWDM format in fiber-true bit-parallel solitons on WDM beams
Yeh, C.; Bergman, L. A.
2000-01-01
Whether true solitons can exist on WDM beams (and in what form) is a question that is generally unknown. This paper will discuss an answer to this question and a demonstration of the bit-parallel WDM transmission.
Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, Fabio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana
2008-01-01
In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed
Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states
Mendonça, Fábio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana
2008-02-01
In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Ali Nematollahi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available There are various techniques for speech watermarking based on modifying the linear prediction coefficients (LPCs; however, the estimated and modified LPCs vary from each other even without attacks. Because line spectral frequency (LSF has less sensitivity to watermarking than LPC, watermark bits are embedded into the maximum number of LSFs by applying the least significant bit replacement (LSBR method. To reduce the differences between estimated and modified LPCs, a checking loop is added to minimize the watermark extraction error. Experimental results show that the proposed semifragile speech watermarking method can provide high imperceptibility and that any manipulation of the watermark signal destroys the watermark bits since manipulation changes it to a random stream of bits.
FastBit: an efficient indexing technology for accelerating data-intensive science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Kesheng
2005-01-01
FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only datasets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for onedimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods can not. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX
FastBit: An Efficient Indexing Technology For AcceleratingData-Intensive Science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Kesheng
2005-06-27
FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only data sets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for one-dimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods cannot. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX.
FastBit: an efficient indexing technology for accelerating data-intensive science
Wu, Kesheng
2005-01-01
FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only datasets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for onedimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods can not. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX.
20GSps 6-bit Low-Power Rad-Tolerant ADC, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project aims to develop a 20GSps 6-bit radiation hardened analog to digital converter (ADC) required for microwave radiometers being developed for space...
20GSps 6-bit Low-Power Rad-Tolerant ADC, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project aims to develop a 20GSps 6-bit ADC required for microwave radiometers being developed for space and airborne earth sensing applications and...
Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Suresh, T.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...
SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Wayan Sutaya
2016-08-01
Full Text Available prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 bit sebagai otak utama pada penelitian ini menjadikan produk ini berbiaya rendah. Pengujian yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa solar tracker cerdas dibandingkan dengan solar tracker biasa mempunyai perbedaan konsumsi daya baterai yang sangat signifikan yaitu terjadi penghematan sebesar 85 %. Besar penghematan konsumsi daya ini tentunya bukan sebuah angka konstan melainkan tergantung seberapa besar noise yang dikenakan pada alat solar tracker. Untuk sebuah perlakuan yang sama, maka semakin besar noise semakin besar pula perbedaan penghematan konsumsi daya pada solar tracker yang cerdas. Kata-kata kunci: solar tracker, filter digital, mikrokontroler 8 bit, konsumsi daya Abstract This research had made a prototype of smart solar tracker product based on microcontroller AVR 8 bit. The solar tracker used digital filter IIR (Infinite Impulse Response on its software. Filter programming needs 32 bit multiplication but the processor inside of the microcontroller that used in this research is 8 bit. This multiplication is only can be solved on microcontroller 8 bit by using assembly language in programming. The language is a hardware level language. The smart solar tracker using the microcontroller 8 bit as a main brain in this research made the product had a low cost. The test results show that the comparison in saving of baterai power consumption between the smart solar tracker and the normal one is 85 %. The percentage of the saving indubitably is not a constant
HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson
2008-03-31
Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole
Design and Demonstration of a 30 GHz 16-bit Superconductor RSFQ Microprocessor
2015-03-10
for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Design and Demonstration of a 30 GHz 16-bit Superconductor RSFQ Microprocessor The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Superconductor technology, RSFQ, RQL, processor design, arithmetic units, high-performance...Demonstration of a 30 GHz 16-bit Superconductor RSFQ Microprocessor Report Title The major objective of the project was to design and demonstrate operation
DOA Parameter Estimation with 1-bit Quantization - Bounds, Methods and the Exponential Replacement
Stein, Manuel; Barbé, Kurt; Nossek, Josef A.
2016-01-01
While 1-bit analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) allows to significantly reduce the analog complexity of wireless receive systems, using the exact likelihood function of the hard-limiting system model in order to obtain efficient algorithms in the digital domain can make 1-bit signal processing challenging. If the signal model before the quantizer consists of correlated Gaussian random variables, the tail probability for a multivariate Gaussian distribution with N dimensions (general orthant pr...
A 1 GHz sample rate, 256-channel, 1-bit quantization, CMOS, digital correlator chip
Timoc, C.; Tran, T.; Wongso, J.
1992-01-01
This paper describes the development of a digital correlator chip with the following features: 1 Giga-sample/second; 256 channels; 1-bit quantization; 32-bit counters providing up to 4 seconds integration time at 1 GHz; and very low power dissipation per channel. The improvements in the performance-to-cost ratio of the digital correlator chip are achieved with a combination of systolic architecture, novel pipelined differential logic circuits, and standard 1.0 micron CMOS process.
Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José
: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....
Support research for development of improved geothermal drill bits. Annual report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
hendrickson, R.R.; Barker, L.M.; Green, S.J.; Winzenried, R.W.
1977-06-01
A full-scale geothermal wellbore simulator and geothermal seal testing machine were constructed. The major emphasis in the Phase II program, in addition to constructing the above research simulators, includes: simulated tests on full-scale components, i.e., full-scale bits; screening tests on elastomeric seals under geothermal conditions; and initial considerations of research needs for development of sealed high-temperature bits. A detailed discussion of the work is presented. (MHR)
Nasution, Lidya Andiny
2014-01-01
Confidentiality of messages or data is owned by a person is an important thing. Safeguarding of confidentiality of the message can use a security message like Cryptography and steganography. This research used ElGamal algorithms for cryptographic and Least Significant Bit (LSB) techniques for Steganography. ElGamal algorithm use fermat's little theorem for checking prime numbers are used. Techniques least significant bit (LSB) of Steganography using a linear function to determine the location...
Euclidean Geometry Codes, minimum weight words and decodable error-patterns using bit-flipping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn; Jonsson, Bergtor
2005-01-01
We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns.......We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns....
Increasing the bit rate in OCDMA systems using pulse position modulation techniques.
Arbab, Vahid R; Saghari, Poorya; Haghi, Mahta; Ebrahimi, Paniz; Willner, Alan E
2007-09-17
We have experimentally demonstrated two novel pulse position modulation techniques, namely Double Pulse Position Modulation (2-PPM) and Differential Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) in Time-Wavelength OCDMA systems that will operate at a higher bit rate compared to traditional OOK-OCDMA systems with the same bandwidth. With 2-PPM technique, the number of active users will be more than DPPM while their bit rate is almost the same. Both techniques provide variable quality of service in OCDMA networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Elshafey
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method of error-correcting coding of digital information. Feature of this method is the treatment of cases of inversion and skip bits caused by a violation of the synchronization of the receiving and transmitting device or other factors. The article gives a brief overview of the features, characteristics, and modern methods of construction LDPC and convolutional codes, as well as considers a general model of the communication channel, taking into account the probability of bits inversion, deletion and insertion. The proposed coding scheme is based on a combination of LDPC coding and convolution coding. A comparative analysis of the proposed combined coding scheme and a coding scheme containing only LDPC coder is performed. Both of the two schemes have the same coding rate. Experiments were carried out on two models of communication channels at different probability values of bit inversion and deletion. The first model allows only random bit inversion, while the other allows both random bit inversion and deletion. In the experiments research and analysis of the delay decoding of convolutional coder is performed and the results of these experimental studies demonstrate the feasibility of planted coding scheme to improve the efficiency of data recovery that is transmitted over a communication channel with noises which allow random bit inversion and deletion without decreasing the coding rate.
Text Encryption Scheme Realized with a Chaotic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch. K. Volos
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this work a new encryption scheme, which is realized with a Chaotic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator (CPRBG based on a Logistic map, is presented. The proposed system is used for encrypting text files for the purpose of creating secure data bases. The Logistic map is the most studied discrete nonlinear map because it has been used in many scientific fields. Also, the fact, that this discrete map has a known algebraic distribution, made the Logistic map a good candidate for use in the design of random bit generators. The proposed CPRBG, which is very easily implemented, uses the X-OR function, in the bit sequences, that are produced by two Logistic maps with different initial conditions and system’s parameters, to achieve better results concerning the “randomness” of the produced bits sequence. The detailed results of the statistical testing on generated bit sequences, done by the most well known tests of randomness: the FIPS-140-2 suite tests, confirmed the specific characteristics expected of random bit sequences.
Sakuraba, Ryohsuke; Iwakawa, Kento; Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi
2015-01-26
We experimentally demonstrate fast physical random bit generation from bandwidth-enhanced chaos by using three-cascaded semiconductor lasers. The bandwidth-enhanced chaos is obtained with the standard bandwidth of 35.2 GHz, the effective bandwidth of 26.0 GHz and the flatness of 5.6 dB, whose waveform is used for random bit generation. Two schemes of single-bit and multi-bit extraction methods for random bit generation are carried out to evaluate the entropy rate and the maximum random bit generation rate. For single-bit generation, the generation rate at 20 Gb/s is obtained for physical random bit sequences. For multi-bit generation, the maximum generation rate at 1.2 Tb/s ( = 100 GS/s × 6 bits × 2 data) is equivalently achieved for physical random bit sequences whose randomness is verified by using both NIST Special Publication 800-22 and TestU01.
Mikami, Takuya; Kanno, Kazutaka; Aoyama, Kota; Uchida, Atsushi; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Arai, Ken-ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2012-01-01
We analyze the time for growth of bit entropy when generating nondeterministic bits using a chaotic semiconductor laser model. The mechanism for generating nondeterministic bits is modeled as a 1-bit sampling of the intensity of light output. Microscopic noise results in an ensemble of trajectories whose bit entropy increases with time. The time for the growth of bit entropy, called the memory time, depends on both noise strength and laser dynamics. It is shown that the average memory time decreases logarithmically with increase in noise strength. It is argued that the ratio of change in average memory time with change in logarithm of noise strength can be used to estimate the intrinsic dynamical entropy rate for this method of random bit generation. It is also shown that in this model the entropy rate corresponds to the maximum Lyapunov exponent.
Shinn, Maxwell
2013-01-01
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.
Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G
Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and
Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.
2000-01-01
We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike
We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-11-18
Nov 18, 2014 ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently, SASS ... further investigation: spatial analyses of macroinvertebrate assemblages; and the use of structural and functional metrics. Keywords: .... conductivity levels was assessed using multiple linear regres- sion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Semire DIKLI
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.
The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment
Becam, C; Delanghe, J; Fest, H M; Lecoq, J; Martin, H; Mencik, M; MerkeI, B; Meyer, J M; Perrin, M; Plothow, H; Rampazzo, J P; Schittly, A
1981-01-01
The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliot system crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer. It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 buses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point, as well as integer, multiplication of 24*24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: (a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL, process the information resulting in accepting or rejecting the event; (b) readout and analysis of the accepted data; (c) preprocess the data. The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hard...
ParBiBit: Parallel tool for binary biclustering on modern distributed-memory systems.
González-Domínguez, Jorge; Expósito, Roberto R
2018-01-01
Biclustering techniques are gaining attention in the analysis of large-scale datasets as they identify two-dimensional submatrices where both rows and columns are correlated. In this work we present ParBiBit, a parallel tool to accelerate the search of interesting biclusters on binary datasets, which are very popular on different fields such as genetics, marketing or text mining. It is based on the state-of-the-art sequential Java tool BiBit, which has been proved accurate by several studies, especially on scenarios that result on many large biclusters. ParBiBit uses the same methodology as BiBit (grouping the binary information into patterns) and provides the same results. Nevertheless, our tool significantly improves performance thanks to an efficient implementation based on C++11 that includes support for threads and MPI processes in order to exploit the compute capabilities of modern distributed-memory systems, which provide several multicore CPU nodes interconnected through a network. Our performance evaluation with 18 representative input datasets on two different eight-node systems shows that our tool is significantly faster than the original BiBit. Source code in C++ and MPI running on Linux systems as well as a reference manual are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/parbibit/.
The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becam, C.; Bernaudin, P.; Delanghe, J.; Mencik, M.; Merkel, B.; Plothow, H.; Fest, H.M.; Lecoq, J.; Martin, H.; Meyer, J.M.
1981-01-01
The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO, as it is proposed for use in the UA 2 data acquisition chain and trigger system, is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliott System crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer (ND, DEC). It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine (150 ns effective cycle time) with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64 K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 busses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2 K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point (as well as integer) multiplication of 24 x 24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL (fast ADC's = the hardware trigger in the experiment), process the information (effective mass calculation, etc.) resulting in accepting or rejecting the event. b) read out and analysis of the accepted data (collect statistical information). c) preprocess the data (calculation of pointers, address decoding, etc.). The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hardware and software will be tested with simulated data. First results are expected in about one year from now. (orig.)
A 12-bit 1-MS/s 26-μW SAR ADC for Sensor Applications
Chung, Yung-Hui; Yen, Chia-Wei; Tsai, Cheng-Hsun
2018-01-01
This chapter presents an energy-efficient 12-bit 1-MS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for sensor applications. A programmable dynamic comparator is proposed to suppress static current and maintain good linearity. A hybrid charge redistribution digital-to-analog converter is proposed to decrease the total capacitance, which would reduce the power consumption of the input and reference buffers. In the proposed ADC, its total input capacitance is only 700 fF, which greatly reduces the total power consumption of the analog frontend circuits. The 12-bit ADC is fabricated using 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor technology, and it consumes only 26 μW from a 1 V supply at 1-MS/s. The measured signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) and spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) are 60.1 and 72.6 dB, respectively. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) for a 100 kHz input frequency is 9.7 bits. At the Nyquist input frequency, the measured SNDR and SFDR are 59.7 and 71 dB, respectively. The ENOB is maintained at 9.6 bits and the figure-of-merit is 33.5 fJ/conversion-step.
A Self-adaptive Bit-level Color Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Generalized Arnold Map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ye Rui-Song
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A self-adaptive bit-level color image encryption algorithm based on generalized Arnold map is proposed. The red, green, blue components of the plain-image with height H and width W are decomposed into 8-bit planes and one three-dimensional bit matrix with size ze H×W×24 is obtained. The generalized Arnold map is used to generate pseudo-random sequences to scramble the resulted three-dimensional bit matrix by sort-based approach. The scrambled 3D bit matrix is then rearranged to be one scrambled color image. Chaotic sequences produced by another generalized Arnold map are used to diffuse the resulted red, green, blue components in a cross way to get more encryption effects. Self-adaptive strategy is adopted in both the scrambling stage and diffusion stage, meaning that the key streams are all related to the content of the plain-image and therefore the encryption algorithm show strong robustness against known/chosen plaintext attacks. Some other performances are carried out, including key space, key sensitivity, histogram, correlation coefficients between adjacent pixels, information entropy and difference attack analysis, etc. All the experimental results show that the proposed image encryption algorithm is secure and effective for practical application.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Wang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The increased track density in bit patterned media recording (BPMR causes increased inter-track interference (ITI, which degrades the bit error rate (BER performance. In order to mitigate the effect of the ITI, signals from multiple tracks can be equalized by a 2D equalizer with 1D target. Usually, the 2D fixed equalizer coefficients are obtained by using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS for training. In this study, a 2D variable equalizer is proposed, where various sets of 2D equalizer coefficients are predetermined and stored for different ITI patterns besides the usual PRBS training. For data detection, as the ITI patterns are unknown in the first global iteration, the main and adjacent tracks are equalized with the conventional 2D fixed equalizer, detected with Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR detector and decoded with low-density parity-check (LDPC decoder. Then using the estimated bit information from main and adjacent tracks, the ITI pattern for each island of the main track can be estimated and the corresponding 2D variable equalizers are used to better equalize the bits on the main track. This process is executed iteratively by feeding back the main track information. Simulation results indicate that for both single-track and two-track detection, the proposed 2D variable equalizer can achieve better BER and frame error rate (FER compared to that with the 2D fixed equalizer.
Video steganography based on bit-plane decomposition of wavelet-transformed video
Noda, Hideki; Furuta, Tomofumi; Niimi, Michiharu; Kawaguchi, Eiji
2004-06-01
This paper presents a steganography method using lossy compressed video which provides a natural way to send a large amount of secret data. The proposed method is based on wavelet compression for video data and bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. BPCS steganography makes use of bit-plane decomposition and the characteristics of the human vision system, where noise-like regions in bit-planes of a dummy image are replaced with secret data without deteriorating image quality. In wavelet-based video compression methods such as 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and Motion-JPEG2000, wavelet coefficients in discrete wavelet transformed video are quantized into a bit-plane structure and therefore BPCS steganography can be applied in the wavelet domain. 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography and Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS steganography are presented and tested, which are the integration of 3-D SPIHT video coding and BPCS steganography, and that of Motion-JPEG2000 and BPCS, respectively. Experimental results show that 3-D SPIHT-BPCS is superior to Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS with regard to embedding performance. In 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography, embedding rates of around 28% of the compressed video size are achieved for twelve bit representation of wavelet coefficients with no noticeable degradation in video quality.
A 9-Bit 50 MSPS Quadrature Parallel Pipeline ADC for Communication Receiver Application
Roy, Sounak; Banerjee, Swapna
2018-03-01
This paper presents the design and implementation of a pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for superheterodyne receiver application. Several enhancement techniques have been applied in implementing the ADC, in order to relax the target specifications of its building blocks. The concepts of time interleaving and double sampling have been used simultaneously to enhance the sampling speed and to reduce the number of amplifiers used in the ADC. Removal of a front end sample-and-hold amplifier is possible by employing dynamic comparators with switched capacitor based comparison of input signal and reference voltage. Each module of the ADC comprises two 2.5-bit stages followed by two 1.5-bit stages and a 3-bit flash stage. Four such pipeline ADC modules are time interleaved using two pairs of non-overlapping clock signals. These two pairs of clock signals are in phase quadrature with each other. Hence the term quadrature parallel pipeline ADC has been used. These configurations ensure that the entire ADC contains only eight operational-trans-conductance amplifiers. The ADC is implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process and supply voltage of 1.8 V. The proto-type is tested at sampling frequencies of 50 and 75 MSPS producing an Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of 6.86- and 6.11-bits respectively. At peak sampling speed, the core ADC consumes only 65 mW of power.
Corrected multiple upsets and bit reversals for improved 1-s resolution measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brucker, G.J.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Stauffer, C.A.
1994-01-01
Previous work has studied the generation of single and multiple errors in control and irradiated static RAM samples (Harris 6504RH) which were exposed to heavy ions for relatively long intervals of time (minute), and read out only after the beam was shut off. The present investigation involved storing 4k x 1 bit maps every second during 1 min ion exposures at low flux rates of 10 3 ions/cm 2 -s in order to reduce the chance of two sequential ions upsetting adjacent bits. The data were analyzed for the presence of adjacent upset bit locations in the physical memory plane, which were previously defined to constitute multiple upsets. Improvement in the time resolution of these measurements has provided more accurate estimates of multiple upsets. The results indicate that the percentage of multiples decreased from a high of 17% in the previous experiment to less than 1% for this new experimental technique. Consecutive double and triple upsets (reversals of bits) were detected. These were caused by sequential ions hitting the same bit, with one or two reversals of state occurring in a 1-min run. In addition to these results, a status review for these same parts covering 3.5 years of imprint damage recovery is also presented
Bounds on Minimum Energy per Bit for Optical Wireless Relay Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. D. Raza
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An optical wireless relay channel (OWRC is the classical three node network consisting of source, re- lay and destination nodes with optical wireless connectivity. The channel law is assumed Gaussian. This paper studies the bounds on minimum energy per bit required for reliable communication over an OWRC. It is shown that capacity of an OWRC is concave and energy per bit is monotonically increasing in square of the peak optical signal power, and consequently the minimum energy per bit is inversely pro- portional to the square root of asymptotic capacity at low signal to noise ratio. This has been used to develop upper and lower bound on energy per bit as a function of peak signal power, mean to peak power ratio, and variance of channel noise. The upper and lower bounds on minimum energy per bit derived in this paper correspond respectively to the decode and forward lower bound and the min-max cut upper bound on OWRC capacity
Yildiz, Bulent O; Bolour, Sheila; Woods, Keslie; Moore, April; Azziz, Ricardo
2010-01-01
Hirsutism is the presence of excess body or facial terminal (coarse) hair growth in females in a male-like pattern, affects 5-15% of women, and is an important sign of underlying androgen excess. Different methods are available for the assessment of hair growth in women. We conducted a literature search and analyzed the published studies that reported methods for the assessment of hair growth. We review the basic physiology of hair growth, the development of methods for visually quantifying hair growth, the comparison of these methods with objective measurements of hair growth, how hirsutism may be defined using a visual scoring method, the influence of race and ethnicity on hirsutism, and the impact of hirsutism in diagnosing androgen excess and polycystic ovary syndrome. Objective methods for the assessment of hair growth including photographic evaluations and microscopic measurements are available but these techniques have limitations for clinical use, including a significant degree of complexity and a high cost. Alternatively, methods for visually scoring or quantifying the amount of terminal body and facial hair growth have been in use since the early 1920s; these methods are semi-quantitative at best and subject to significant inter-observer variability. The most common visual method of scoring the extent of body and facial terminal hair growth in use today is based on a modification of the method originally described by Ferriman and Gallwey in 1961 (i.e. the mFG method). Overall, the mFG scoring method is a useful visual instrument for assessing excess terminal hair growth, and the presence of hirsutism, in women.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen
2006-01-01
Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramaswamy, S.; Alcom, C.; Haddad, N.; Lawson, D.; Page, T.; Scandalis, G.; Scott, T. [Lockheed Martin Federal Systems, Manassas, VA (United States); Robinson, P.; Bain, D. [Innovative Systems and Technologies Corp., Tampa, FL (United States)
1999-07-01
This paper describes the development of a radiation tolerant version of the Analog Devices Incorporated (ADI) ADSP-21020 (RH21020), a programmable 32/40-bit floating point DSP. Implementation of layout transfer and successful fabrication of RH21020 in a Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) radiation hardened process are discussed. Results of electrical and radiation characterization of the RH21020 are reported in this paper. (authors)
Architecture and performance of radiation-hardened 64-bit SOS/MNOS memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kliment, D.C.; Ronen, R.S.; Nielsen, R.L.; Seymour, R.N.; Splinter, M.R.
1976-01-01
This paper discusses the circuit architecture and performance of a nonvolatile 64-bit MNOS memory fabricated on silicon on sapphire (SOS). The circuit is a test vehicle designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-performance, high-density, radiation-hardened MNOS/SOS memory. The array is organized as 16 words by 4 bits and is fully decoded. It utilizes a two-(MNOS) transistor-per-bit cell and differential sensing scheme and is realized in PMOS static resistor load logic. The circuit was fabricated and tested as both a fast write random access memory (RAM) and an electrically alterable read only memory (EAROM) to demonstrate design and process flexibility. Discrete device parameters such as retention, circuit electrical characteristics, and tolerance to total dose and transient radiation are presented
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Wayan Sutaya
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengimplementasikan RTOS (Real Time Operating System pada perangkat elektronik berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit sehingga didapatkan peningkatan kinerja pada perangkat tersebut. RTOS yang digunakan adalah freeRTOS dimana RTOS ini mendukung mikrokontroler 8 bit, berukuran kecil, dan bersifat open source. Hasil penelitian ini berguna bagi praktisi-praktisi elektronika dalam hal menekan biaya produksi pembuatan perangkat elektronik berbasis mikrokontroler 8 bit karena resource yang digunakan bisa dikurangi. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian pengembangan (Research and development dengan cara membuat studi kasus perangkat elektronik yang berbasis mikrokontroler. Perangkat elektronik yang dibuat adalah unit kendali elektronik pada sepeda motor. Selanjutnya mikrokontroler pada perangkat ini diprogram dengan menggunakan dua skenario. Skenario pertama adalah tanpa menggunakan RTOS dan skenario kedua dengan menggunakan RTOS. Dari dua skenario ini dilakukan pengujian dan analisis untuk mengetahui besar peningkatan kinerja yang didapat.
Directed self-assembly of block copolymers for use in bit patterned media fabrication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, Rhys Alun; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Thomson, Thomas; Williams, Aled; Oakland, Chloe; Roberts, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Reduction of the bit size in conventional magnetic recording media is becoming increasingly difficult due to the superparamagnetic limit. Bit patterned media (BPM) has been proposed as a replacement technology as it will enable hard disk areal densities to increase past 1 Tb in −2 . Block copolymer directed self-assembly (BCP DSA) is the leading candidate for forming BPM due to its ability to create uniform patterns over macroscopic areas. Here we review the latest research into two different BCP DSA techniques: graphoepitaxy and chemoepitaxy (or chemical prepatterning). In addition to assessing their potential for forming high density bit patterns, we also review current approaches using these techniques for forming servo patterns, which are required for hard disk drive (HDD) operation. Finally, we review the current state of UV nanoimprint lithography, which is the favoured technique for enabling mass production of BPM HDDs. (topical review)
10-bit rapid single flux quantum digital-to-analog converter for ac voltage standard
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maezawa, M; Hirayama, F
2008-01-01
Digital-to-analog (D/A) converters based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) technology are under development for ac voltage standard applications. We present design and test results on a prototype 10-bit version integrated on a single chip. The 10-bit chip includes over 6000 Josephson junctions and consumes a bias current exceeding 1 A. To reduce the effects of the high bias current on circuit operation, a custom design method was employed in part and large circuit blocks were divided into smaller ones. The 10-bit chips were fabricated and tested at low speed. The test results suggested that our design approach could manage large bias currents on the order of 1 A per chip
An Information-Theoretic Perspective on the Quantum Bit Commitment Impossibility Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Nagy
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a different approach to pinpoint the causes for which an unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocol cannot be realized, beyond the technical details on which the proof of Mayers’ no-go theorem is constructed. We have adopted the tools of quantum entropy analysis to investigate the conditions under which the security properties of quantum bit commitment can be circumvented. Our study has revealed that cheating the binding property requires the quantum system acting as the safe to harbor the same amount of uncertainty with respect to both observers (Alice and Bob as well as the use of entanglement. Our analysis also suggests that the ability to cheat one of the two fundamental properties of bit commitment by any of the two participants depends on how much information is leaked from one side of the system to the other and how much remains hidden from the other participant.
Efficient bit sifting scheme of post-processing in quantum key distribution
Li, Qiong; Le, Dan; Wu, Xianyan; Niu, Xiamu; Guo, Hong
2015-10-01
Bit sifting is an important step in the post-processing of quantum key distribution (QKD). Its function is to sift out the undetected original keys. The communication traffic of bit sifting has essential impact on the net secure key rate of a practical QKD system. In this paper, an efficient bit sifting scheme is presented, of which the core is a lossless source coding algorithm. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the scheme is approaching the Shannon limit. The proposed scheme can greatly decrease the communication traffic of the post-processing of a QKD system, which means the proposed scheme can decrease the secure key consumption for classical channel authentication and increase the net secure key rate of the QKD system, as demonstrated by analyzing the improvement on the net secure key rate. Meanwhile, some recommendations on the application of the proposed scheme to some representative practical QKD systems are also provided.
A Josephson four-bit full adder using direct coupled functional gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matheron, G.; Migny, P.; Sie, O.
1984-09-01
A Josephson 4-bit full adder circuit using functional direct coupled gates has been designed and studied through computer simulations. The circuit consists of only 27 gates taken from a complete logic family composed of OR, AND, EXOR and MAJORITY gates. The proposed adder scheme needs 180 Josephson junctions and 150 thin film resistors. The computed critical path delay was found 180 ps/4bits for carry propagation, with a power dissipation estimated to be less than 100 μW on the basis of a Nb/Pb-In technology with 4 μm minimum linewidth and with a Josephson current density of 1000 A/cm 2 . The worst case total add time for the 4 bits has been found less than 300 ps
Nanocrystalline, superhard, ductile ceramic coatings for roller-cone bit bearings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Namavar, F.; Colter, P.; Karimy, H. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)] [and others
1997-12-31
The established method for construction of roller bits utilizes carburized steel, frequently with inserted metal bearing surfaces. This construction provides the necessary surface hardness while maintaining other desirable properties in the core. Protective coatings are a logical development where enhanced hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and surface properties are required. The wear properties of geothermal roller-cone bit bearings could be further improved by application of protective ceramic hard coatings consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites. Nanocrystalline protective coatings provide the required combination of hardness and toughness which has not been available thus far using traditional ceramics having larger grains. Increased durability of roller-cone bit bearings will ultimately reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells through increased durability.
Ternary and Multi-Bit FIR Filter Area-Performance Tradeoffs in FPGA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalil-Ur-Rahman Dayo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, performance and area of conventional FIR (Finite Impulse Responce filters versus ternary sigma delta modulated FIR filter is compared in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays using VHDL (Verilog Description Language. Two different approaches were designed and synthesized at same spectral performance by obtaining a TIR (Target Impulse Response. Both filters were synthesized on adaptive LUT (Look Up Table FPGA device in pipelined and non-pipelined modes. It is shown that the Ternary FIR filter occupies approximately the same area as the corresponding multi-bit filter, but for a given specification, the ternary FIR filter has 32% better performance in non-pipelined and 72% in pipelined mode, compared to its equivalent Multi-Bit filter at its optimum 12-bit coefficient quantization. These promising results shows that ternary logic based (i.e. +1,0,-1 filters can be used for huge chip area savings and higher performance.
Robust Face Recognition using Voting by Bit-plane Images based on Sparse Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongmei Wei
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Plurality voting is widely employed as combination strategies in pattern recognition. As a technology proposed recently, sparse representation based classification codes the query image as a sparse linear combination of entire training images and classifies the query sample class by class exploiting the class representation error. In this paper, an improvement face recognition approach using sparse representation and plurality voting based on the binary bit-plane images is proposed. After being equalized, gray images are decomposed into eight bit-plane images, sparse representation based classification is exploited respectively on the five bit-plane images that have more discrimination information. Finally, the true identity of query image is voted by these five identities obtained. Experiment results shown that this proposed approach is preferable both in recognition accuracy and in recognition speed.
FlavBit. A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernlochner, Florian U. [Physikalisches Institut der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Chrzaszcz, Marcin [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Dal, Lars A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Farmer, Ben [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Jackson, Paul; White, Martin [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Kvellestad, Anders [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Serra, Nicola [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Flavour Workgroup
2017-11-15
Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT. (orig.)
Design and development of CAMAC 12 bit ADC/DAC dual purpose module
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulkarni, S.G.; Gore, J.A.; Ramlal, V.; Matkar, U.V.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Ekambaram, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Datar, V.M.
2013-01-01
A dual function CAMAC module is designed for Pelletron Accelerator which can function as 12 bit 8 channels DAC or 12 bit 16 channels ADC. Spartan 2 series of FPGA is used for implementing the CAMAC interface logic as well as logic for ADC/DAC interface. The PCB has both the ADC and DAC mounted but the module can have only one function selected due to wiring constraint. Two different VHDL programs (one for the ADC and other for the DAC) reside on the EEPROM permitting selection of any one as per the functionality required. The module is working as a 12 bit DAC at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility, successfully. (author)
Twin-bit via resistive random access memory in 16 nm FinFET logic technologies
Shih, Yi-Hong; Hsu, Meng-Yin; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung
2018-04-01
A via resistive random access memory (RRAM) cell fully compatible with the standard CMOS logic process has been successfully demonstrated for high-density logic nonvolatile memory (NVM) modules in advanced FinFET circuits. In this new cell, the transition metal layers are formed on both sides of a via, given two storage bits per via. In addition to its compact cell area (1T + 14 nm × 32 nm), the twin-bit via RRAM cell features a low operation voltage, a large read window, good data retention, and excellent cycling capability. As fine alignments between mask layers become possible, the twin-bit via RRAM cell is expected to be highly scalable in advanced FinFET technology.
Image Watermarking Scheme for Specifying False Positive Probability and Bit-pattern Embedding
Sayama, Kohei; Nakamoto, Masayoshi; Muneyasu, Mitsuji; Ohno, Shuichi
This paper treats a discrete wavelet transform(DWT)-based image watermarking with considering the false positive probability and bit-pattern embedding. We propose an iterative embedding algorithm of watermarking signals which are K sets pseudo-random numbers generated by a secret key. In the detection, K correlations between the watermarked DWT coefficients and watermark signals are computed by using the secret key. L correlations are made available for the judgment of the watermark presence with specified false positive probability, and the other K-L correlations are corresponding to the bit-pattern signal. In the experiment, we show the detection results with specified false positive probability and the bit-pattern recovery, and the comparison of the proposed method against JPEG compression, scaling down and cropping.
arXiv FlavBit: A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods
Bernlochner, Florian U.; Dal, Lars A.; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Kvellestad, Anders; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Putze, Antje; Rogan, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin
2017-11-21
Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT.
Optimized H.264/AVC-Based Bit Stream Switching for Mobile Video Streaming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liebl Günther
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We show the suitability of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC extended profile for wireless video streaming applications. In particular, we exploit the advanced bit stream switching capabilities using SP/SI pictures defined in the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. For both types of switching pictures, optimized encoders are developed. We introduce a framework for dynamic switching and frame scheduling. For this purpose we define an appropriate abstract representation for media encoded for video streaming, as well as for the characteristics of wireless variable bit rate channels. The achievable performance gains over H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with constant bit rate (CBR encoding are shown for wireless video streaming over enhanced GPRS (EGPRS.
Worst-case residual clipping noise power model for bit loading in LACO-OFDM
Zhang, Zhenyu
2018-03-19
Layered ACO-OFDM enjoys better spectral efficiency than ACO-OFDM, but its performance is challenged by residual clipping noise (RCN). In this paper, the power of RCN of LACO-OFDM is analyzed and modeled. As RCN is data-dependent, the worst-case situation is considered. A worst-case indicator is defined for relating the power of RCN and the power of noise at the receiver, wherein a linear relation is shown to be a practical approximation. An LACO-OFDM bit-loading experiment is performed to examine the proposed RCN power model for data rates of 6 to 7 Gbps. The experiment\\'s results show that accounting for RCN has two advantages. First, it leads to better bit loading and achieves up to 59% lower overall bit-error rate (BER) than when the RCN is ignored. Second, it balances the BER across layers, which is a desired property from a channel coding perspective.
Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.
Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao
2013-12-01
Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76
Design and Simulation of 1-bit Sigma Delta ADC in 0.18um CMOS Technology
Jaydip H. Chaudhari
2013-01-01
This paper presents the design of a first order single bit Sigma-Delta ADC which is realized using CMOS technology. In this paper, a first Order Sigma-Delta ADC is implemented in a standard 0.18um CMOS technology. The Design and Simulation of the Modulator is done using Mentor Graphics Tool. First order single bit Sigma Delta ADC Modulator is implemented using ±1.8 power supply and simulation results are plotted using Mentor Graphics Tool. This paper firstly elaborate about ADC types and Clas...
Randomized OBDDs for the Most Significant Bit of Multiplication Need Exponential Size
Bollig, Beate; Gillé, Marc
Integer multiplication as one of the basic arithmetic functions has been in the focus of several complexity theoretical investigations and ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDDs) are one of the most common dynamic data structures for Boolean functions. Only two years ago, the question whether the deterministic OBDD complexity of the most significant bit of integer multiplication is exponential has been answered affirmatively. Since probabilistic methods have turned out to be useful in almost all areas of computer science, one may ask whether randomization can help to represent the most significant bit of integer multiplication in smaller size. Here, it is proved that the randomized OBDD complexity is also exponential.
Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, S.
2003-01-01
We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed.......We derive an approximate analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded fiber links containing all-optical 2R-regenerators. A general analysis of the interplay between noise due to amplification and the degree of reshaping (nonlinearity) of the regenerator is performed....
Adaptive Bit Rate Video Streaming Through an RF/Free Space Optical Laser Link
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Akbulut
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a channel-adaptive video streaming scheme which adjusts video bit rate according to channel conditions and transmits video through a hybrid RF/free space optical (FSO laser communication system. The design criteria of the FSO link for video transmission to 2.9 km distance have been given and adaptive bit rate video streaming according to the varying channel state over this link has been studied. It has been shown that the proposed structure is suitable for uninterrupted transmission of videos over the hybrid wireless network with reduced packet delays and losses even when the received power is decreased due to weather conditions.
Entropy of Bit-Stuffing-Induced Measures for Two-Dimensional Checkerboard Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Vaarby, Torben Strange
2007-01-01
A modified bit-stuffing scheme for two-dimensional (2-D) checkerboard constraints is introduced. The entropy of the scheme is determined based on a probability measure defined by the modified bit-stuffing. Entropy results of the scheme are given for 2-D constraints on a binary alphabet....... The constraints considered are 2-D RLL (d, infinity) for d = 2, 3 and 4 as well as for the constraint with a minimum 1-norm distance of 3 between Is. For these results the entropy is within 1-2% of an upper bound on the capacity for the constraint. As a variation of the scheme, periodic merging arrays are also...
A Novel Nondestructive Bit-Line Discharging Scheme for Deep Submicrometer STT-RAM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeinali, Behzad; Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Raghavan, Praveen
A combination of semiconductor integrated circuits (IC) and a dense array of scaled magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) makes promising Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM). This emerging memory minimizes the leakage power consumption and provides a high density at scaled technologies......, the sensing scheme is accomplished in one step. In this scheme, the Bit-Line is pre-charged and then discharged during read operation. The MTJ resistance state can be found by comparing the time constant of discharging. The simulation results show the overall sensing time is 4 ns when the Bit-Line capacitance...
Programming 16-Bit PIC Microcontrollers in C Learning to Fly the PIC 24
Di Jasio, Lucio
2011-01-01
New in the second edition: * MPLAB X support and MPLAB C for the PIC24F v3 and later libraries * I2C™ interface * 100% assembly free solutions * Improved video, PAL/NTSC * Improved audio, RIFF files decoding * PIC24F GA1, GA2, GB1 and GB2 support Most readers will associate Microchip's name with the ubiquitous 8-bit PIC microcontrollers but it is the new 16-bit PIC24F family that is truly stealing the scene. Orders of magnitude increases of performance, memory size and the rich peripheral set make programming these devices in C a must. This new guide by Microchip insid
Optimal multitone bit allocation for fixed-rate video transmission over ADSL
Antonini, Marc; Moureaux, Jean-Marie; Lecuire, Vincent
2002-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel approach for the bit allocation performed in an ADSL modulator. This new method is based on the observation that the transmission speed using ADSL strongly depends on the distance between the central office and the subscriber's side and does not permit real-time transmission for high bitrate video on long distances. The algorithm we develop takes into account the characteristics of a video sequence and distributes the channel error according to visual sensitivity. This method involves variable transmission Bit Error Rate.
Single-word multiple-bit upsets in static random access devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koga, R.; Pinkerton, S.D.; Lie, T.J.; Crawford, K.B.
1993-01-01
Energetic ions and protons can cause single event upsets (SEUs) in static random access memory (SRAM) cells. In some cases multiple bits may be upset as the result of a single event. Space-borne electronics systems incorporating high-density SRAM are vulnerable to single-word multiple-bit upsets (SMUs). The authors review here recent observations of SMU, present the results of a systematic investigation of the physical cell arrangements employed in several currently available SRAM device types, and discuss implications for the occurrence and mitigation of SMU
Honjo, Toshimori; Uchida, Atsushi; Amano, Kazuya; Hirano, Kunihito; Someya, Hiroyuki; Okumura, Haruka; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter; Tokura, Yasuhiro
2009-05-25
A high speed physical random bit generator is applied for the first time to a gigahertz clocked quantum key distribution system. Random phase-modulation in a differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) system is performed using a 1-Gbps random bit signal which is generated by a physical random bit generator with chaotic semiconductor lasers. Stable operation is demonstrated for over one hour, and sifted keys are successfully generated at a rate of 9.0 kbps with a quantum bit error rate of 3.2% after 25-km fiber transmission.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2009-01-01
We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal.......We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal....
Yousem, Ilyssa J; Liu, Li; Aygun, Nafi; Yousem, David M
2016-04-01
Many neuroradiology programs use United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores to assess fellowship candidates. The authors hypothesized that because they are taken several years before fellowship, USMLE scores would correlate poorly with success in fellowship training as measured by faculty evaluations. USMLE scores from 10 years of neuroradiology fellows (n = 73) were compared with their cumulative mean E*Value scores from their fellowship years and their best-to-worst rankings within their fellowship years. If available, subspecialty certification scores were also factored as an outcome. Linear correlation and regression analyses were performed adjusting for gender, medical school site, and practice setting after fellowship. USMLE Step 1, 2, and 3 scores were available for 69, 64, and 56 fellows, respectively. Fellowship E*Value scores and rankings showed statistically significant (P neuroradiology fellowship, measured by faculty assessments of the six core competencies. Using the scores as a means of assessing candidates for positions is justified. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.
Sahni, Vaibhav
2016-07-01
The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Formal Verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol in the Calculus of Constructions
Bezem, M.A.; Groote, J.F.
We report on a formal verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol (ABP) in the Calculus of Constructions. We outline a semi-formal correctness proof of the ABP with sufficient detail to be formalised. Thereafter we show by examples how the formalised proof has been verified by the automated proof
Increasing data distribution in BitTorrent networks by using network coding techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braun, Patrik János; Sipos, Marton A.; Ekler, Péter
2015-01-01
several measurements of different scenarios. We focus on the initial phase in the distribution of the data, when only one seeder exists along with several leechers. We define a metric for the state of a network to make measurements easily and clearly comparable. Through our results, we show that Bit...
A vertically integrated dynamic RAM-cell: Buried bit line memory cell with floating transfer layer
Mouthaan, A.J.; Vertregt, Maarten
1986-01-01
A charge injection device has been realized in which charge can be injected on to an MOS-capacitor from a buried layer via an isolated transfer layer. The cell is positioned vertically between word and bit line. LOCOS (local oxidation) is used to isolate the cells and (deep) ion implantation to
Mission 2 Solution: Requirements Engineering Education as a Central Theme in the BIT Programme
Huijs, C.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Wieringa, Roelf J.
Design of integrated business-IT solutions is the main theme in the Business Information Technology programme (BIT) at the University of Twente. Our mission is to teach students to design solutions that are needed instead of solutions that are asked for. This makes requirements engineering an
Low bit rates image compression via adaptive block downsampling and super resolution
Chen, Honggang; He, Xiaohai; Ma, Minglang; Qing, Linbo; Teng, Qizhi
2016-01-01
A low bit rates image compression framework based on adaptive block downsampling and super resolution (SR) was presented. At the encoder side, the downsampling mode and quantization mode of each 16×16 macroblock are determined adaptively using the ratio distortion optimization method, then the downsampled macroblocks are compressed by the standard JPEG. At the decoder side, the sparse representation-based SR algorithm is applied to recover full resolution macroblocks from decoded blocks. The experimental results show that the proposed framework outperforms the standard JPEG and the state-of-the-art downsampling-based compression methods in terms of both subjective and objective comparisons. Specifically, the peak signal-to-noise ratio gain of the proposed framework over JPEG reaches up to 2 to 4 dB at low bit rates, and the critical bit rate to JPEG is raised to about 2.3 bits per pixel. Moreover, the proposed framework can be extended to other block-based compression schemes.
Using an FPGA for Fast Bit Accurate SoC Simulation
Wolkotte, P.T.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
In this paper we describe a sequential simulation method to simulate large parallel homo- and heterogeneous systems on a single FPGA. The method is applicable for parallel systems were lengthy cycle and bit accurate simulations are required. It is particularly designed for systems that do not fit
2012-08-27
... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-844] Certain Drill Bits and Products Containing Same; Determination To Review an Initial Determination; on Review, Affirmance of Grant of Summary... determined to review an initial determination (``ID'') (Order No. 9) of the presiding administrative law...
Optimal One Bit Time Reversal For UWB Impulse Radio In Multi-User Wireless Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nguyen, Hung Tuan
2008-01-01
In this paper, with the purpose of further reducing the complexity of the system, while keeping its temporal and spatial focusing performance, we investigate the possibility of using optimal one bit time reversal (TR) system for impulse radio ultra wideband multi-user wireless communications...
Design and Implementation of Decimation Filter for 13-bit Sigma-Delta ADC Based on FPGA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalid Khaleel Mohammed
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A 13 bit Sigma-Delta ADC for a signal band of 40K Hz is designed in MATLAB Simulink and then implemented using Xilinx system generator tool. The first order Sigma-Delta modulator is designed to work at a signal band of 40 KHz at an oversampling ratio (OSR of 256 with a sampling frequency of 20.48 MHz. The proposed decimation filter design is consists of a second order Cascaded Integrator Comb filter (CIC followed by two finite impulse response (FIR filters. This architecture reduces the need for multiplication which is need very large area. This architecture implements a decimation ratio of 256 and allows a maximum resolution of 13 bits in the output of the filter. The decimation filter was designed and tested in Xilinx system generator tool which reduces the design cycle by directly generating efficient VHDL code. The results obtained show that the overall Sigma-Delta ADC is able to achieve an ENOB (Effective Number Of Bit of 13.71 bits and SNR of 84.3 dB
BetaBit: A fast generator of autocorrelated binary processes for geophysical research
Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico
2017-05-01
We introduce a fast and efficient non-iterative algorithm, called BetaBit, to simulate autocorrelated binary processes describing the occurrence of natural hazards, system failures, and other physical and geophysical phenomena characterized by persistence, temporal clustering, and low rate of occurrence. BetaBit overcomes the simulation constraints posed by the discrete nature of the marginal distributions of binary processes by using the link existing between the correlation coefficients of this process and those of the standard Gaussian processes. The performance of BetaBit is tested on binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions (ACFs) corresponding to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes, respectively. An application to real-world sequences describing rainfall intermittency and the occurrence of strong positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index shows that BetaBit can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical ACF as well as signals with autoregressive moving average (ARMA) dependence structures. Extensions to cyclo-stationary processes accounting for seasonal fluctuations are also discussed.
Scalable In-Band Optical Notch-Filter Labeling for Ultrahigh Bit Rate Optical Packet Switching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2014-01-01
We propose a scalable in-band optical notch-filter labeling scheme for optical packet switching of high-bit-rate data packets. A detailed characterization of the notch-filter labeling scheme and its effect on the quality of the data packet is carried out in simulation and verified by experimental...
0011-0030.IEEE 754: 64 Bit Double Precision FloatsThis.pdf | 01 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.IEEE 754: 64 Bit Double Precision FloatsThis.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 ...
Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate video transmission over 3G networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny; Wang, Le
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of the power consumption of video data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. The work includes the description of the radio resource control transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by a detailed power consumption analysis...
Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny
2011-01-01
This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...
On a constant arising in the analysis of bit comparisons in quickselect
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A (real) constant that appears as the factor of the leading term of the average number of bit comparisons required by quickselect, and was originally given in terms of complex numbers, is expressed using real numbers alone. A further representation is derived which is converging very quickly. Methods include residue ...
The effects of single bit quantization on direction of arrival estimation of UHF RFID tags
Huiting, J.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
2016-01-01
Phased arrays can be used to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of UHF RFID tags. To save on energy consumption and hardware costs, in this paper we explore the possibility of using single bit analog-to-digital converters for our phased array setup. This setup consists of an off-the-shelf
Mechanical performance analysis of hollow cylindrical roller bearing of cone bit by FEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuanjun Han
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Bearings are key components of cone bit, thus its rapid failure is a major cause of leading to lower life of the bit. To improve the bearing performance and prolong working life, contact mechanics of hollow cylindrical roller bearing of cone bit was simulated. Effects of hollow size, drilling pressure, friction coefficient and fitting clearance on mechanics performance of the bearing were studied. The results show that the maximum equivalent stress of the hollow cylindrical roller bearing appears on the claw journal, and the maximum contact stress appears on the contact pair of the hollow roller. Besides, hollow sizes have a greater impact on the equivalent stress and contact stress of the cylindrical roller, while the influence on the stress of the cone and claw journal is relatively small. With the increasing of the drilling pressure and fitting clearance, equivalent stress and contact stress of bearing parts increase. The friction coefficient has little impact on mechanical performance of the bearing. As the 121/4SWPI517 type hollow cylindrical roller bearing of cone bit an example, the optimal hollow size is 55%, the drilling pressure is 140 kN and the fitting clearance is 0–0.02 mm.
A Symmetric Plaintext-Related Color Image Encryption System Based on Bit Permutation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuting Cai
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Recently, a variety of chaos-based image encryption algorithms adopting the traditional permutation-diffusion structure have been suggested. Most of these algorithms cannot resist the powerful chosen-plaintext attack and chosen-ciphertext attack efficiently for less sensitivity to plain-image. This paper presents a symmetric color image encryption system based on plaintext-related random access bit-permutation mechanism (PRRABPM. In the proposed scheme, a new random access bit-permutation mechanism is used to shuffle 3D bit matrix transformed from an original color image, making the RGB components of the color image interact with each other. Furthermore, the key streams used in random access bit-permutation mechanism operation are extremely dependent on plain image in an ingenious way. Therefore, the encryption system is sensitive to tiny differences in key and original images, which means that it can efficiently resist chosen-plaintext attack and chosen-ciphertext attack. In the diffusion stage, the previous encrypted pixel is used to encrypt the current pixel. The simulation results show that even though the permutation-diffusion operation in our encryption scheme is performed only one time, the proposed algorithm has favorable security performance. Considering real-time applications, the encryption speed can be further improved.
Kombinasi Steganografi Berbasis Bit Matching dan Kriptografi DES untuk Pengamanan Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Budi Prasetiyo
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan kombinasi steganografi dan kriptografi untuk pengamanan data dengan tidak mengubah kualitas media cover. Metode steganografi yang digunakan dengan melakukan pencocokan bit pesan pada bit MSB citra. Proses pencocokan dilakukan secara divide and conquer. Hasil indeks posisi bit kemudian dienkripsi menggunakan algoritma kriptografi Data Encryption Standard (DES. Masukkan data berupa pesan teks, citra, dan kunci. Output yang dihasilkan berupa chiperteks posisi bit yang dapat digunakan untuk merahasiakan data. Untuk mengetahui isi pesan semula diperlukan kunci dan citra yang sama. Kombinasi yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan untuk pengamanan data. Kelebihan metode tersebut citra tidak mengalami perubahan kualitas dan kapasitas pesan yang disimpan dapat lebih besar dari citra. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan citra hitam putih maupun color dapat digunakan sebagai cover, kecuali citra 100% hitam dan 100% putih. Proses pencocokan pada warna citra yang bervariasi lebih cepat. Kerusakan pesan dengan penambahan noise salt and peper mulai terjadi pada nilai MSE 0,0067 dan gaussian mulai terjadi pada nilai MSE 0,00234.
Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geeta Kasana
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.
A Model for the Two-dimensional no Isolated Bits Constraint
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby
2006-01-01
A stationary model is presented for the two-dimensional (2-D) no isolated bits (n.i.b.) constraint over an extended alphabet defined by the elements within 1 by 2 blocks. This block-wise model is based on a set of sufficient conditions for a Pickard random field (PRF) over an m-ary alphabet...
Bit-Vector Search Filtering with Application to a Kanji Dictionary
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skala, Matthew
2016-01-01
dimensionality in geometric problems also causes their query languages to become expressive and inefficient. The IDSgrep kanji dictionary software approaches a highly expressive tree-matching query problem with a filtering technique set in 128-bit Hamming space. It can be a model for other highly expressive...
Müller, H; Yin, Z; Zhou, D; Cao, X; Li, Q; Liu, Y; Zou, F; Skaali, B; Awes, T C
2006-01-01
We describe the principles and measured performance characteristics of custom configurable 32-channel shaper/digitizer Front End Electronics (FEE) cards with 14-bit dynamic range for use with gain-adjustable photon detectors. The electronics has been designed for the PHOS calorimeter of ALICE with avalanche photodiode (APD) readout operated at -25 C ambient temperature and a signal shaping time of $1 {\\mu}s$. The electronics has also been adopted by the EMCal detector of ALICE with the same APD readout, but operated at an ambient temperature of +20 C and with a shaping time of 100ns. The CR-RC2 signal shapers on the FEE cards are implemented in discrete logic on a 10-layer board with two shaper sections for each input channel. The two shaper sections with gain ratio of 16:1 are digitized by 10-bit ADCs and provide an effective dynamic range of 14 bits. Gain adjustment for each individual APD is available through 32 bias voltage control registers of 10-bit range. The fixed gains and shaping times of the pole-z...
Bit Error Probability for Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Linear Block Codes
Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Rhee, Dojun
1996-01-01
In this paper, the bit error probability P(sub b) for maximum likelihood decoding of binary linear codes is investigated. The contribution of each information bit to P(sub b) is considered. For randomly generated codes, it is shown that the conventional approximation at high SNR P(sub b) is approximately equal to (d(sub H)/N)P(sub s), where P(sub s) represents the block error probability, holds for systematic encoding only. Also systematic encoding provides the minimum P(sub b) when the inverse mapping corresponding to the generator matrix of the code is used to retrieve the information sequence. The bit error performances corresponding to other generator matrix forms are also evaluated. Although derived for codes with a generator matrix randomly generated, these results are shown to provide good approximations for codes used in practice. Finally, for decoding methods which require a generator matrix with a particular structure such as trellis decoding or algebraic-based soft decision decoding, equivalent schemes that reduce the bit error probability are discussed.
A Wideband 2x13-bit All-Digital I/Q RF-DAC
Alavi, S.M.; Staszewski, R.B.; De Vreede, L.C.N.; Long, J.R.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a wideband 2 13-bit in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) RF digital-to-analog converter-based all-digital modulator realized in 65-nm CMOS. The isolation between I and Q paths is guaranteed employing 25% duty-cycle differential quadrature clocks. With a 1.3-V supply and an on-chip
A 10-bit 100 MSamples/s BiCMOS D/A Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ivan Herald Holger; Tunheim, Svein Anders
1997-01-01
This paper presents a 10-bit Digital-to-Analogue Converter (DAC) based on the current steering principle. The DAC is processed in a 0.8 micron BiCMOS process and is designed to operate at a sampling rate of 100MSamples/s. The DAC is intended for applications using direct digital synthesis...
Diseño de multiplicador de 64 bits utilizando la técnica de barrido superpuesto
Montalvo Ramírez, Luis
1987-01-01
Se presenta el desarrollo del novel algoritmo de multiplicación por barrido superpuesto de 3-bits, así como también los aspectos importantes del diseño de la arquitectura, redes lógicas y layout de un multiplicador de 64-bits utilizando como caso de estudio.
Hasan Krad; Aws Y. Al-Taie
2008-01-01
This study presents a performance analysis of two different multipliers for unsigned data, one uses a carry-look-ahead adder and the second one uses a ripple adder. The study's main focus is on the speed of the multiplication operation on these 32-bit multipliers which are modeled using VHDL, A hardware description language. The multiplier with a carry-look-ahead adder has shown a better performance over the multiplier with a ripple adder in terms of gate delays. Under the worst case, the mul...
Rojali, Salman, Afan Galih; George
2017-08-01
Along with the development of information technology in meeting the needs, various adverse actions and difficult to avoid are emerging. One of such action is data theft. Therefore, this study will discuss about cryptography and steganography that aims to overcome these problems. This study will use the Modification Vigenere Cipher, Least Significant Bit and Dictionary Based Compression methods. To determine the performance of study, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) method is used to measure objectively and Mean Opinion Score (MOS) method is used to measure subjectively, also, the performance of this study will be compared to other method such as Spread Spectrum and Pixel Value differencing. After comparing, it can be concluded that this study can provide better performance when compared to other methods (Spread Spectrum and Pixel Value Differencing) and has a range of MSE values (0.0191622-0.05275) and PSNR (60.909 to 65.306) with a hidden file size of 18 kb and has a MOS value range (4.214 to 4.722) or image quality that is approaching very good.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siana Halim
2014-01-01
Full Text Available It is generally easier to predict defaults accurately if a large data set (including defaults is available for estimating the prediction model. This puts not only small banks, which tend to have smaller data sets, at disadvantage. It can also pose a problem for large banks that began to collect their own historical data only recently, or banks that recently introduced a new rating system. We used a Bayesian methodology that enables banks with small data sets to improve their default probability. Another advantage of the Bayesian method is that it provides a natural way for dealing with structural differences between a bank’s internal data and additional, external data. In practice, the true scoring function may differ across the data sets, the small internal data set may contain information that is missing in the larger external data set, or the variables in the two data sets are not exactly the same but related. Bayesian method can handle such kind of problem.
ColliderBit. A GAMBIT module for the calculation of high-energy collider observables and likelihoods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balazs, Csaba [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Buckley, Andy [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dal, Lars A.; Krislock, Abram; Raklev, Are [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Jackson, Paul; Murnane, Daniel; White, Martin [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Kvellestad, Anders [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Putze, Antje [Universite de Savoie, LAPTh, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Saavedra, Aldo [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); The University of Sydney, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, Centre for Translational Data Science, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Scanner Workgroup
2017-11-15
We describe ColliderBit, a new code for the calculation of high energy collider observables in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). ColliderBit features a generic interface to BSM models, a unique parallelised Monte Carlo event generation scheme suitable for large-scale supercomputer applications, and a number of LHC analyses, covering a reasonable range of the BSM signatures currently sought by ATLAS and CMS. ColliderBit also calculates likelihoods for Higgs sector observables, and LEP searches for BSM particles. These features are provided by a combination of new code unique toColliderBit, and interfaces to existing state-of-the-art public codes. ColliderBit is both an important part of the GAMBIT framework for BSM inference, and a standalone tool for efficiently applying collider constraints to theories of new physics. (orig.)
McCluskey, Neal
2017-01-01
Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…
Polarization-basis tracking scheme for quantum key distribution using revealed sifted key bits
Ding, Yu-Yang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Hua; Wang, Chao; li, Ya-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2017-03-01
Calibration of the polarization basis between the transmitter and receiver is an important task in quantum key distribution (QKD). An effective polarization-basis tracking scheme will decrease the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and improve the efficiency of a polarization encoding QKD system. In this paper, we proposed a polarization-basis tracking scheme using only unveiled sifted key bits while performing error correction by legitimate users, rather than introducing additional reference light or interrupting the transmission of quantum signals. A polarization-encoding fiber BB84 QKD prototype was developed to examine the validity of this scheme. An average QBER of 2.32% and a standard derivation of 0.87% have been obtained during 24 hours of continuous operation.
A radiation-hardened 1K-bit dielectrically isolated random access memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandors, T.J.; Boarman, J.W.; Kasten, A.J.; Wood, G.M.
1982-01-01
Dielectric Isolation has been used for many years as the bipolar technology for latch-up free, radiation hardened integrated circuits in strategic systems. The state-of-the-art up to this point has been the manufacture of MSI functions containing a maximum of several hundred isolated components. This paper discusses a 1024 Bit Random Access Memory chip containing over 4000 dielectrically isolated components which has been designed for strategic radiation environments. The process utilized and the circuit design of the 1024 Bit RAM have been previously discussed. The techniques used are similar to those employed for the MX digital integrated circuits except for specific items required to make this a true LSI technology. These techniques, along with electrical and radiation data for the RAM, are presented
A perceptual-based approach to bit allocation for H.264 encoder
Ou, Tao-Sheng; Huang, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Homer H.
2010-07-01
Since the ultimate receivers of encoded video are human eyes, the characteristics of human visual system should be taken into consideration in the design of bit allocation to improve the perceptual video quality. In this paper, we incorporate the structural similarity index as a distortion metric and propose a novel rate-distortion model to characterize the relationship between rate and the structural similarity index. Based on the model, we develop an optimum bit allocation and rate control scheme for H.264 encoders. Experimental results show that up to 25% bitrate reduction over the JM reference software can be achieved. Subjective evaluation further confirms that the proposed scheme preserves more structural information and improves the perceptual quality of the encoded video.
Observational Evidence for Two Cosmological Predictions Made by Bit-String Physics; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H. Pierre
2001-01-01
A decade ago bit-string physics predicted that the baryon/photon ratio at the time of nucleogenesis(eta)= 1 1/256(sup 4) and that the dark matter/baryonic matter ratio(Omega)(sub DM)/(Omega)(sub B)= 12.7. Accepting that the normalized Hubble constant is constrained observationally to lie in the range 0.6 and lt; h(sub 0) and lt; 0.8, this translates into a prediction that 0.325 and gt;(Omega)(sub M) and gt; 0.183. This and a prediction by E.D. Jones, using a model-independent argument and ideas with which bit-string physics is not inconsistent, that the cosmological constant(Omega)(sub(Lambda))= 0.6(+-) 0.1 are in reasonable agreement with recent cosmological observations, including the BOOMERANG data
A hybrid bit-encoding for SAT planning based on clique-partitioning
Tapia, Cristóbal; San Segundo, Pablo; Galán, Ramón
2017-09-01
Planning as satisfiability is one of the most efficient ways to solve classic automated planning problems. In SAT planning, the encoding used to convert the problem to a SAT formula is critical for the performance of the SAT solver. This paper presents a novel bit-encoding that reduces the number of bits required to represent actions in a SAT-based automated planning problem. To obtain such encoding we first build a conflict graph, which represents incompatibilities of pairs of actions, and bitwise encode the subsets of actions determined by a clique partition. This reduces the number of Boolean variables and clauses of the SAT encoding, while preserving the possibility of parallel execution of compatible (non-neighbor) actions. The article also describes an appropriate algorithm for selecting the clique partition for this application and compares the new encodings obtained over some standard planning problems.
A new approach to quantum oblivious transfer and quantum bit commitment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dang, Minh-Dung; Bellot, P.
2005-01-01
Full text: In this communication, we present our works on building quantum OT and BC protocols. The starting idea is to use non-orthogonal instead of orthogonal quantum states (|0>, |1>) to encode classical bits. Based on this coding, we propose a Weak Quantum Oblivious Transfer protocol, and by extending Crepeau's works, we can create a Quantum One-out-of-two Oblivious Transfer protocol that is secure against Alice and Bob cheating. A regular Bit Commitment protocol can then be built from our OOT protocol. Although the unconditional security of our BC and OOT protocols seem to contradict Mayers and Lo-Chau theorems, we conjecture that our protocols do not fit in the models of Mayers and Lo-Chau. (author)
Patterns in the Distribution of Digital Games via BitTorrent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Rob
2013-01-01
The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic-The 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised-20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...
3.56-bits/cm Compact Inkjet Printed and Application Specific Chipless RFID Tag
Khan, Munawar M.
2015-10-26
© 2002-2011 IEEE. In this letter, a 28.5-bit chipless RFID tag, based on paper substrate and realized using inkjet printing technique is presented. Operating within ultrawideband, the tag occupies a compact size of 2 × 4 cm2. Focusing on applications requiring time and date identification, a novel encoding technique is presented that allows efficient frequency band allocation based on the number of required instances of time and date variables. A figure of merit (FOM) relating coding capacity and tag dimensions coined as code density is also introduced. A systematic design process followed by simulations and verified through measurements reveal a high code density of 3.56 bits/cm2 for the presented chipless tag.
Room temperature solid-state quantum bit with second-long memory
Kucsko, Georg; Maurer, Peter; Latta, Christian; Hunger, David; Jiang, Liang; Pastawski, Fernando; Yao, Norman; Bennet, Steven; Twitchen, Daniel; Cirac, Ignacio; Lukin, Mikhail
2012-02-01
Realization of stable quantum bits (qubits) that can be prepared and measured with high fidelity and that are capable of storing quantum information for long times exceeding seconds is an outstanding challenge in quantum science and engineering. Here we report on the realization of such a stable quantum bit using an individual ^13C nuclear spin within an isotopically purified diamond crystal at room temperature. Using an electronic spin associated with a nearby Nitrogen Vacancy color center, we demonstrate high fidelity initialization and readout of a single ^13C qubit. Quantum memory lifetime exceeding one second is obtained by using dissipative optical decoupling from the electronic degree of freedom and applying a sequence of radio-frequency pulses to suppress effects from the dipole-dipole interactions of the ^13C spin-bath. Techniques to further extend the quantum memory lifetime as well as the potential applications are also discussed.
Patterns in the distribution of digital games via BitTorrent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Robert W. D.
2013-01-01
The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic - the 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised - 20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DAOUD, A. A. D.
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The ability to store multiple bits in a single memristor based memory cell is a key feature for high-capacity memory packages. Studying multi-bit memristor circuits requires high accuracy in modelling the memristance change. A memristor model based on a novel definition of memristance is proposed. A design of a single memristor memory cell using the proposed model for the platinum electrodes titanium dioxide memristor is illustrated. A specific voltage pulse is used with varying its parameters (amplitude or pulse width to store different number of states in a single memristor. New state variation parameters associated with the utilized model are provided and their effects on write and read processes of memristive multi-states are analysed. PSPICE simulations are also held, and they show a good agreement with the data obtained from the analysis.
Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2011-11-01
Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.
Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2010-08-16
Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.
3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking using ambient illumination context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Nur Yilmaz
2014-09-01
Full Text Available 3-Dimensional (3D video adaptation decision taking is an open field in which not many researchers have carried out investigations yet compared to 3D video display, coding, etc. Moreover, utilizing ambient illumination as an environmental context for 3D video adaptation decision taking has particularly not been studied in literature to date. In this paper, a user perception model, which is based on determining perception characteristics of a user for a 3D video content viewed under a particular ambient illumination condition, is proposed. Using the proposed model, a 3D video bit rate adaptation decision taking technique is developed to determine the adapted bit rate for the 3D video content to maintain 3D video quality perception by considering the ambient illumination condition changes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is capable of exploiting the changes in ambient illumination level to use network resources more efficiently without sacrificing the 3D video quality perception.
Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.
2018-03-01
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Moustafa F
2009-01-01
This paper reports on the influence of the transmission bit rate on the performance of optical fibre communication systems employing laser diodes subjected to high-speed direct modulation. The performance is evaluated in terms of the bit error rate (BER) and power penalty associated with increasing the transmission bit rate while keeping the transmission distance. The study is based on numerical analysis of the stochastic rate equations of the laser diode and takes into account noise mechanisms in the receiver. Correlation between BER and the Q-parameter of the received signal is presented. The relative contributions of the transmitter noise and the circuit and shot noises of the receiver to BER are quantified as functions of the transmission bit rate. The results show that the power penalty at BER = 10 -9 required to keep the transmission distance increases moderately with the increase in the bit rate near 1 Gbps and at high bias currents. In this regime, the shot noise is the main contributor to BER. At higher bit rates and lower bias currents, the power penalty increases remarkably, which comes mainly from laser noise induced by the pseudorandom bit-pattern effect.
Li, Jiafu; Xiang, Shuiying; Wang, Haoning; Gong, Junkai; Wen, Aijun
2018-03-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm based on synchronization of physical random bit generated in a cascade-coupled semiconductor ring lasers (CCSRL) system is proposed, and the security analysis is performed. In both transmitter and receiver parts, the CCSRL system is a master-slave configuration consisting of a master semiconductor ring laser (M-SRL) with cross-feedback and a solitary SRL (S-SRL). The proposed image encryption algorithm includes image preprocessing based on conventional chaotic maps, pixel confusion based on control matrix extracted from physical random bit, and pixel diffusion based on random bit stream extracted from physical random bit. Firstly, the preprocessing method is used to eliminate the correlation between adjacent pixels. Secondly, physical random bit with verified randomness is generated based on chaos in the CCSRL system, and is used to simultaneously generate the control matrix and random bit stream. Finally, the control matrix and random bit stream are used for the encryption algorithm in order to change the position and the values of pixels, respectively. Simulation results and security analysis demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and able to resist various typical attacks, and thus is an excellent candidate for secure image communication application.
Exploring New Methods of Displaying Bit-Level Quality and Other Flags for MODIS Data
Khalsa, Siri Jodha Singh; Weaver, Ron
2003-01-01
The NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) archives and distributes snow and sea ice products derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. All MODIS standard products are in the Earth Observing System version of the Hierarchal Data Format (HDF-EOS). The MODIS science team has packed a wealth of information into each HDF-EOS file. In addition to the science data arrays containing the geophysical product, there are often pixel-level Quality Assurance arrays which are important for understanding and interpreting the science data. Currently, researchers are limited in their ability to access and decode information stored as individual bits in many of the MODIS science products. Commercial and public domain utilities give users access, in varying degrees, to the elements inside MODIS HDF-EOS files. However, when attempting to visualize the data, users are confronted with the fact that many of the elements actually represent eight different 1-bit arrays packed into a single byte array. This project addressed the need for researchers to access bit-level information inside MODIS data files. In an previous NASA-funded project (ESDIS Prototype ID 50.0) we developed a visualization tool tailored to polar gridded HDF-EOS data set. This tool,called the Polar researchers to access, geolocate, visualize, and subset data that originate from different sources and have different spatial resolutions but which are placed on a common polar grid. The bit-level visualization function developed under this project was added to PHDIS, resulting in a versatile tool that serves a variety of needs. We call this the EOS Imaging Tool.
Simulation of 64-bit MAC Unit using Kogge Stone Adder and Ancient Indian Mathematics
Aapurva Kaul; Abhijeet Kumar
2016-01-01
This paper describes that multiply and accumulate (MAC) unit plays a very vital role in various Digital Signal Processing applications. Speed of these applications depends on the speed of these three sub units of MAC multiply unit, adder unit and accumulator unit. In this paper the delay of 64-bit MAC unit is decreased as compared to the previous MAC units. In this Kogge Stone Adder is used as adder in design Vedic Multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra. The designing of MAC un...
Bit rate maximization for multicast LP-OFDM systems in PLC context
Maiga , Ali; Baudais , Jean-Yves; Hélard , Jean-François
2009-01-01
ISBN: 978-88-900984-8-2.; International audience; In this paper, we propose a new resource allocation algorithm based on linear precoding technique for multicast OFDM systems. Linear precoding technique applied to OFDM systems has already proved its ability to significantly increase the system throughput in a powerline communication (PLC) context. Simulations through PLC channels show that this algorithm outperforms the classical multicast method (up to 7.3% bit rate gain) and gives better pe...
Lee, J.; Kim, K.
1991-01-01
A Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) architecture for robot direct kinematic computation suitable for industrial robot manipulators was investigated. The Denavit-Hartenberg transformations are reviewed to exploit a proper processing element, namely an augmented CORDIC. Specifically, two distinct implementations are elaborated on, such as the bit-serial and parallel. Performance of each scheme is analyzed with respect to the time to compute one location of the end-effector of a 6-links manipulator, and the number of transistors required.
A 13-Bits wilkinson analog-digital converter for NIM acquisition system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acosta Toledo, R.; Osorio Deliz, J.; Arista Romeu, E.; Fernandez, J.
1994-01-01
A new 13-bits Wilkinson analog-digital converter is described. The aim of this work is to describe the circuits of sample and hold, memory condensator loading and releasing PROM based control memory logic, zero level detection and correction. The converter is designed for the digital measurement of the peak amplitudes of pulses with statistical or periodical time distribution. The analog-digital converter may be used in spectrometric systems, multi-channel analysers or any similar PC based system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Toft, Tomas
2006-01-01
We show that if a set of players hold shares of a value aFp for some prime p (where the set of shares is written [a] p ), it is possible to compute, in constant rounds and with unconditional security, sharings of the bits of a, i.e., compute sharings [a 0] p , ..., [a ℓ− − 1] p such that ℓ = ⌈ lo...
DarkBit: a GAMBIT module for computing dark matter observables and likelihoods
Bringmann, Torsten; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Kvellestad, Anders; Putze, Antje; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Wild, Sebastian
2017-12-01
We introduce DarkBit, an advanced software code for computing dark matter constraints on various extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics, comprising both new native code and interfaces to external packages. This release includes a dedicated signal yield calculator for gamma-ray observations, which significantly extends current tools by implementing a cascade-decay Monte Carlo, as well as a dedicated likelihood calculator for current and future experiments ( gamLike). This provides a general solution for studying complex particle physics models that predict dark matter annihilation to a multitude of final states. We also supply a direct detection package that models a large range of direct detection experiments ( DDCalc), and that provides the corresponding likelihoods for arbitrary combinations of spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering processes. Finally, we provide custom relic density routines along with interfaces to DarkSUSY, micrOMEGAs, and the neutrino telescope likelihood package nulike. DarkBit is written in the framework of the Global And Modular Beyond the Standard Model Inference Tool ( GAMBIT), providing seamless integration into a comprehensive statistical fitting framework that allows users to explore new models with both particle and astrophysics constraints, and a consistent treatment of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we describe its main functionality, provide a guide to getting started quickly, and show illustrative examples for results obtained with DarkBit (both as a stand-alone tool and as a GAMBIT module). This includes a quantitative comparison between two of the main dark matter codes ( DarkSUSY and micrOMEGAs), and application of DarkBit 's advanced direct and indirect detection routines to a simple effective dark matter model.
How to Split a Shared Secret into Shared Bits in Constant-Round
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus
We show that if a set of players hold shares of a value $a\\in Z_p$ for some prime $p$ (where the set of shares is written $[a]_p$), it is possible to compute, in constant round and with unconditional security, sharings of the bits of $a$, i.e.~compute sharings $[a_0]_p, \\ldots, [a_{l-1}]_p...
Temporal Masking for Bit-rate Reduction in Audio Codec Based on Frequency Domain Linear Prediction
Ganapathy, Sriram; Motlicek, Petr; Hermansky, Hynek; Garudadri, Harinath
2008-01-01
Audio coding based on Frequency Domain Linear Prediction (FDLP) uses auto-regressive model to approximate Hilbert envelopes in frequency sub-bands for relatively long temporal segments. Although the basic technique achieves good quality of the reconstructed signal, there is a need for improving the coding efficiency. In this paper, we present a novel method for the application of temporal masking to reduce the bit-rate in a FDLP based codec. Temporal masking refers to the hearing phenomenon, ...
Detection and Symbol Synchronization for Multiple-bit Per Photon Optical Communications
Marshall, W. K.
1985-01-01
Methods of detection and synchronization in a highly efficient direct detection optical communication system are reported. Results of measurements on this moderate-rate demonstration system capable of transmitting 2.5 bits/detected photon in low-background situations indicate that symbol slot synchronization is not a problem, and that a simple symbol detection scheme is adequate for this situation. This system is a candidate for interplanetary optical communications.
S-EMG signal compression based on domain transformation and spectral shape dynamic bit allocation.
Trabuco, Marcel Henrique; Costa, Marcus Vinícius Chaffim; Nascimento, Francisco Assis de Oliveira
2014-02-27
Surface electromyographic (S-EMG) signal processing has been emerging in the past few years due to its non-invasive assessment of muscle function and structure and because of the fast growing rate of digital technology which brings about new solutions and applications. Factors such as sampling rate, quantization word length, number of channels and experiment duration can lead to a potentially large volume of data. Efficient transmission and/or storage of S-EMG signals are actually a research issue. That is the aim of this work. This paper presents an algorithm for the data compression of surface electromyographic (S-EMG) signals recorded during isometric contractions protocol and during dynamic experimental protocols such as the cycling activity. The proposed algorithm is based on discrete wavelet transform to proceed spectral decomposition and de-correlation, on a dynamic bit allocation procedure to code the wavelets transformed coefficients, and on an entropy coding to minimize the remaining redundancy and to pack all data. The bit allocation scheme is based on mathematical decreasing spectral shape models, which indicates a shorter digital word length to code high frequency wavelets transformed coefficients. Four bit allocation spectral shape methods were implemented and compared: decreasing exponential spectral shape, decreasing linear spectral shape, decreasing square-root spectral shape and rotated hyperbolic tangent spectral shape. The proposed method is demonstrated and evaluated for an isometric protocol and for a dynamic protocol using a real S-EMG signal data bank. Objective performance evaluations metrics are presented. In addition, comparisons with other encoders proposed in scientific literature are shown. The decreasing bit allocation shape applied to the quantized wavelet coefficients combined with arithmetic coding results is an efficient procedure. The performance comparisons of the proposed S-EMG data compression algorithm with the established
DarkBit. A GAMBIT module for computing dark matter observables and likelihoods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bringmann, Torsten; Dal, Lars A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Conrad, Jan; Edsjoe, Joakim; Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cornell, Jonathan M. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kvellestad, Anders; Savage, Christopher [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Scott, Pat [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); White, Martin [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale, Parkville (Australia); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Dark Matter Workgroup
2017-12-15
We introduce DarkBit, an advanced software code for computing dark matter constraints on various extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics, comprising both new native code and interfaces to external packages. This release includes a dedicated signal yield calculator for gamma-ray observations, which significantly extends current tools by implementing a cascade-decay Monte Carlo, as well as a dedicated likelihood calculator for current and future experiments (gamLike). This provides a general solution for studying complex particle physics models that predict dark matter annihilation to a multitude of final states. We also supply a direct detection package that models a large range of direct detection experiments (DDCalc), and that provides the corresponding likelihoods for arbitrary combinations of spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering processes. Finally, we provide custom relic density routines along with interfaces to DarkSUSY, micrOMEGAs, and the neutrino telescope likelihood package nulike. DarkBit is written in the framework of the Global And Modular Beyond the Standard Model Inference Tool (GAMBIT), providing seamless integration into a comprehensive statistical fitting framework that allows users to explore new models with both particle and astrophysics constraints, and a consistent treatment of systematic uncertainties. In this paper we describe its main functionality, provide a guide to getting started quickly, and show illustrative examples for results obtained with DarkBit (both as a stand-alone tool and as a GAMBIT module). This includes a quantitative comparison between two of the main dark matter codes (DarkSUSY and micrOMEGAs), and application of DarkBit's advanced direct and indirect detection routines to a simple effective dark matter model. (orig.)
Bit-systolic arithmetic arrays using dynamic differential gallium arsenide circuits
Beagles, Grant; Winters, Kel; Eldin, A. G.
1992-01-01
A new family of gallium arsenide circuits for fine grained bit-systolic arithmetic arrays is introduced. This scheme combines features of two recent techniques of dynamic gallium arsenide FET logic and differential dynamic single-clock CMOS logic. The resulting circuits are fast and compact, with tightly constrained series FET propagation paths, low fanout, no dc power dissipation, and depletion FET implementation without level shifting diodes.
Linear optical implementation of perfect discrimination between single-bit unitary operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Pei; Peng Liang; Wang Zhiwei; Ren Xifeng; Liu Biheng; Huang Yunfeng; Guo Guangcan
2008-01-01
Discrimination of unitary operations is a fundamental task of quantum information. Assisted by linear optical elements, we experimentally demonstrate perfect discrimination between single-bit unitary operations using the sequential scheme which is proved by Duan et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007 98 100503). We also make a comparison with another perfect discrimination scheme called the parallel scheme. The complexity and resource consumed are analysed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ari Muzakir
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Audy Bazly
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views
Reducing Bits in Electrodeposition Process of Commercial Vehicle - A Case Study
Rahim, Nabiilah Ab; Hamedon, Zamzuri; Mohd Turan, Faiz; Iskandar, Ismed
2016-02-01
Painting process is critical in commercial vehicle manufacturing process for protection and decorative. The good quality on painted body is important to reduce repair cost and achieve customer satisfaction. In order to achieve the good quality, it is important to reduce the defect at the first process in painting process which is electrodeposition process. The Pareto graph and cause and effect diagram in the seven QC tools is utilized to reduce the electrodeposition defects. The main defects in the electrodeposition process in this case study are the bits. The 55% of the bits are iron filings. The iron filings which come from the metal assembly process at the body shop are minimised by controlling the spot welding parameter, defect control and standard body cleaning process. However the iron filings are still remained on the body and carry over to the paint shop. The remained iron filings on the body are settled inside the dipping tank and removed by filtration system and magnetic separation. The implementation of filtration system and magnetic separation improved 27% of bits and reduced 42% of sanding man hour with a total saving of RM38.00 per unit.
A 12-bit 500KSPS cyclic ADC for CMOS image sensor
Li, Zhaohan; Wang, Gengyun; Peng, Leli; Ma, Cheng; Chang, Yuchun
2015-03-01
At present, single-slope analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) is widely used in the readout circuits of CMOS image sensor (CIS) while its main drawback is the high demand for the system clock frequency. The more pixels and higher ADC resolution the image sensor system needs, the higher system clock frequency is required. To overcome this problem in high dynamic range CIS system, this paper presents a 12-bit 500-KS/s cyclic ADC, in which the system clock frequency is 5MHz. Therefore, comparing with the system frequency of 2N×fS for the single-slope ADC, where fS, N is the sampling frequency and resolution, respectively, the higher ADC resolution doesn't need the higher system clock frequency. With 0.18μm CMOS process, the circuit layout is realized and occupies an area of 8μm×374μm. Post simulation results show that Signal-to-Noise-and-Distortion-Ratio (SNDR) and Efficient Number of Bit (ENOB) reaches 63.7dB and 10.3bit, respectively.
Towards a string bit formulation of N = 4 super Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alday, Luis F.; David, Justin R.; Gava, Edi; Narain, Kumar S.
2006-01-01
We show that planar N = 4 Yang-Mills theory at zero 't Hooft coupling can be efficiently described in terms of 8 bosonic and 8 fermionic oscillators. We show that these oscillators can serve as world-sheet variables, the string bits, of a discretized string. There is a one to one correspondence between the on shell gauge invariant words of the free Y-M theory and the states in the oscillators' Hilbert space, obeying a local gauge and cyclicity constraints. The planar two-point functions and the three-point functions of all gauge invariant words are obtained by the simple delta-function overlap of the corresponding discrete string world sheet. At first order in the 't Hooft coupling, i.e. at one-loop in the Y-M theory, the logarithmic corrections of the planar two-point and the three-point functions can be incorporated by nearest neighbour interactions among the discretized string bits. In the SU(2) sub-sector we show that the one-loop corrections to the structure constants can be uniquely determined by the symmetries of the bit picture. For the SU(2) sub-sector we construct a gauged, linear, discrete world-sheet model for the oscillators, with only nearest neighbour couplings, which reproduces the anomalous dimension Hamiltonian up to two loops. This model also obeys BMN scaling to all loops
A Readout Chip for a 64 x 64 Pixel Matrix with 15-bit Single Photon Counting
Campbell, M; Meddeler, G; Pernigotti, E; Snoeys, W
1998-01-01
A single Photon Counting pixel detector readout Chip (PCC) has been derived from previous work in the CERN RD19 collaboration for particle physics tracking devices, recently developed for high energy physics experiments. The readout chip is a 64 x 64 matrix of identical 170mm x 170mm cells. It is to be bump-bonded to an equally segmented 1 cm2 matrix of semiconductor sensors, e.g. Si or GaAs. Each readout cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator and a 15-bit counter. The input noise is 170 e- rms. At the lowest nominal threshold of 1 400 e- (5.1 keV in Si) the cells exhibit a threshold di stribution with a spread before adjustment of 350 e- rms. Each cell has a 5-bit register which allows masking, test-enable and 3-bit individual threshold adjust. After adjustment the threshold spread is reduced to 80 e- rms. Absolute calibration of the electrically measured equivalent charge can be done once the readout chip is bump-bonded to a detector.
Compact FPGA-based beamformer using oversampled 1-bit A/D converters.
Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2005-05-01
A compact medical ultrasound beamformer architecture that uses oversampled 1-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters is presented. Sparse sample processing is used, as the echo signal for the image lines is reconstructed in 512 equidistant focal points along the line through its in-phase and quadrature components. That information is sufficient for presenting a B-mode image and creating a color flow map. The high sampling rate provides the necessary delay resolution for the focusing. The low channel data width (1-bit) makes it possible to construct a compact beamformer logic. The signal reconstruction is done using finite impulse reponse (FIR) filters, applied on selected bit sequences of the delta-sigma modulator output stream. The approach allows for a multichannel beamformer to fit in a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A 32-channel beamformer is estimated to occupy 50% of the available logic resources in a commercially available mid-range FPGA, and to be able to operate at 129 MHz. Simulation of the architecture at 140 MHz provides images with a dynamic range approaching 60 dB for an excitation frequency of 3 MHz.
A method of contrast enhancement processing on wide-bits image
Peng, Xiang; Xu, Zhiyong; Qi, Xiaoping
2012-11-01
In order to obtain high-quality images in a project, modern cameras with wide-bits (12, 14 or 16 bits width) are usually used to acquire enough original information. Nevertheless, some kinds of data selection and transform processing are necessary to display such images on PC (8 bits width). Besides, the output image should include both high general contrast and clear details. This paper proposed a method with two major steps: for the first step is on the basis of partially overlapped sub-block histogram equalization (POSHE), and change the way of equalizing sub-block image, separate each sub-block recursively with different gray ranges. The second step is taking a kind of pseudo-color processing based on HIS space to enhance the visual effects, so that the image has rich layers and consistent with human's perception. Experimental results show that the algorithm could keep the local details and the mean of the original brightness at the same time, enhanced the image effectively. Considered the adaptability on different scenarios, different objectives, and a reasonable amount of time complexity, this method could adapt the requirements of practical engineering applications.
An 8 bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-ENOB
Duan, Jihai; Zhu, Zhiyong; Deng, Jinli; Xu, Weilin
2017-08-01
This paper presents a low power 8-bit 1 MS/s SAR ADC with 7.72-bit ENOB. Without an op-amp, an improved segmented capacitor DAC is proposed to reduce the capacitance and the chip area. A dynamic latch comparator with output offset voltage storage technology is used to improve the precision. Adding an extra positive feedback in the latch is to increase the speed. What is more, two pairs of CMOS switches are utilized to eliminate the kickback noise introduced by the latch. The proposed SAR ADC was fabricated in SMIC 0.18 {{μ }}{{m}} CMOS technology. The measured results show that this design achieves an SFDR of 61.8 dB and an ENOB of 7.72 bits, and it consumes 67.5 μW with the FOM of 312 fJ/conversion-step at 1 MS/s sample under 1.8 V power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation Technology and Application Foundation (No. DH201501).
Research on the output bit error rate of 2DPSK signal based on stochastic resonance theory
Yan, Daqin; Wang, Fuzhong; Wang, Shuo
2017-12-01
Binary differential phase-shift keying (2DPSK) signal is mainly used for high speed data transmission. However, the bit error rate of digital signal receiver is high in the case of wicked channel environment. In view of this situation, a novel method based on stochastic resonance (SR) is proposed, which is aimed to reduce the bit error rate of 2DPSK signal by coherent demodulation receiving. According to the theory of SR, a nonlinear receiver model is established, which is used to receive 2DPSK signal under small signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) circumstances (between -15 dB and 5 dB), and compared with the conventional demodulation method. The experimental results demonstrate that when the input SNR is in the range of -15 dB to 5 dB, the output bit error rate of nonlinear system model based on SR has a significant decline compared to the conventional model. It could reduce 86.15% when the input SNR equals -7 dB. Meanwhile, the peak value of the output signal spectrum is 4.25 times as that of the conventional model. Consequently, the output signal of the system is more likely to be detected and the accuracy can be greatly improved.
Seasonal changes of house dust mite population in Bitlis and Muş provinces of Turkey.
Aykut, Medeni; Erman, Omer Köksal; Doğan, Salih
2013-01-01
This study was conducted to determine the dust mite fauna of houses in Bitlis and Muş provinces, the monthly value of mite numbers/g dust, as well as the impact of temperature, humidity and altitude on their numbers. Dust samples were collected monthly from May 2010 to April 2011 from six houses belonging to three settlements; two of the houses were located in Bitlis, while another four were in Muş province. All 72 examined dust samples were found to be positive with regard to mites. The number of mites found in 1 g dust varied from 25 to 2,740. Overall, 1,167 house dust mites belonging to the orders Astigmata, Mesostigmata and Prostigmata were isolated. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the predominant mite (83.2%), followed by Lepidoglyphus destructor (6.3%), Acarus siro (2.7%) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (1.9%). The mite numbers were higher in the warmer months of the year. The dominant mite in the Bitlis and Muş provinces is Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and the highest mite numbers were found in months in which the outside humidity was low.
Micromagnetic studies for bit patterned media above 2 Tbit/in.2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Kaiming; Wei Dan
2012-01-01
Bit patterned media (BPM) recording is a candidate for extremely high density magnetic recording. A micromagnetic model is built up to analyze the phase diagram of the correct-write-in condition in BPM above 2 Tb/in. 2 fabricated by lithography or ion irradiation methods. The target of the study is to acquire the relationship between the recording performance and the magnetic properties of the media. The medium includes the polycrystalline grains and grain boundary. In BPM fabricated by lithography with FCT structure, two phase diagrams of the correct-write-in condition are found for the anisotropy angular distribution Δθ, the ratio of tetragonal anisotropy K 22 to uniaxial anisotropy K 1 and the uniaxial anisotropy distribution ΔK 1 . In BPM fabricated by ion irradiation methods, two phase diagrams of the correct-write-in condition are analyzed for the ratio of saturation magnetization M' s /M s , anisotropy field H' k /H k and the exchange field H' ex /H ex in the ion irradiated region and the bit islands. - Research highlights: → Two types of BPM, regular or with irradiated regions, are studied using micromagnetics. → Optimum parameters are found for regular BPM with non-magnetic inter-bit spacing. → Recording phase diagrams versus M s , H k and A * in irradiated regions are found.
Towards constructing multi-bit binary adder based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
Zhang, Guo-Mao; Wong, Ieong; Chou, Meng-Ta; Zhao, Xin
2012-04-01
It has been proposed that the spatial excitable media can perform a wide range of computational operations, from image processing, to path planning, to logical and arithmetic computations. The realizations in the field of chemical logical and arithmetic computations are mainly concerned with single simple logical functions in experiments. In this study, based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, we performed simulations toward the realization of a more complex operation, the binary adder. Combining with some of the existing functional structures that have been verified experimentally, we designed a planar geometrical binary adder chemical device. Through numerical simulations, we first demonstrated that the device can implement the function of a single-bit full binary adder. Then we show that the binary adder units can be further extended in plane, and coupled together to realize a two-bit, or even multi-bit binary adder. The realization of chemical adders can guide the constructions of other sophisticated arithmetic functions, ultimately leading to the implementation of chemical computer and other intelligent systems.
Perancangan Program Aplikasi Kriptografi Menggunakan Algoritma Magenta Dengan Panjang Kunci 128 Bit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steffie Hugh Wibisono
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Along with the development of computer technology, the growing crimes against the computer. Crimes against the computer makes people increasingly competing to make the algorithms-algorithms that can maintain the confidentiality of data. Algorithms algorithm Magenta is one of the many algorithms that exist today. Magenta algorithms have been developed since 1990 by using a simple and transparent technique that can be implemented in hardware and software. First time algorithms are analyzed using the butterfly structure - the structure of the butterfly which was then replaced by a Fast Hadamard Transform (FHT shuffle structure which has the advantage of providing some structure in each level. In 1994 there was a slight change in the use of hardware that was not processed according to plan so that now the algorithm used by Deutsche Telekom Magenta for secure management of sensitive data with 128-bit key length. These algorithms break the 128-bit key length into 16 blocks with each block containing the 8-bit and one other advantage of this algorithm is the recursive part is calculated repeatedly at each iteration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otfinowski, P., E-mail: potfin@agh.edu.pl; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Kasinski, K.
2015-04-21
We report on a novel, two-stage 8-bit trimming solution dedicated for multichannel systems with reduced trim DAC area occupancy. The presented design was used for comparator offset correction in a 128-channel particle tracking, self-triggering readout system and manufactured in 180 nm CMOS process. The 8-bit trim DAC has a range of ±165 mV, current consumption of 3.2 µA and occupies an area of 37 µm×17 µm in each channel, which corresponds to a 6-bit conventional current steering DAC with similar linearity.
Demonstrating Multi-bit Magnetic Memory in the Fe8 High Spin Molecule by Muon Spin Rotation
Shafir, Oren; Keren, Amit; Maegawa, Satoru; Ueda, Miki; Amato, Alex; Baines, Chris
2005-01-01
We developed a method to detect the quantum nature of high spin molecules using muon spin rotation, and a three-step field cycle ending always with the same field. We use this method to demonstrate that the Fe8 molecule can remember 6 (possibly 8) different histories (bits). A wide range of fields can be used to write a particular bit, and the information is stored in discrete states. Therefore, Fe8 can be used as a model compound for Multi-bit Magnetic Memory. Our experiment also paves the w...
A Preliminary Study on the Containment Integrity following BIT Removal for Kori NPP Unit 3,4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sup [KEPRI, Nuclear Power Generation Laboratory, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jong Young [ENERGEO Inc., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)
2008-05-15
The Boron Injection Tank (BIT) is to provide high concentrated boric acid to the reactor in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated Main Steam Line Break accidents (MSLB). Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, pipe clog, precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. This paper is for the feasibility study of containment integrity using CONTEMPT code for BIT removal of Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 3, 4.
A Preliminary Study on the Containment Integrity following BIT Removal for Kori NPP Unit 3,4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sup; Jo, Jong Young
2008-01-01
The Boron Injection Tank (BIT) is to provide high concentrated boric acid to the reactor in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated Main Steam Line Break accidents (MSLB). Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, pipe clog, precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. This paper is for the feasibility study of containment integrity using CONTEMPT code for BIT removal of Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 3, 4
[Propensity score matching in SPSS].
Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli
2015-11-01
To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Foster, Kevin
1997-01-01
.... This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and analysis of the optical electronics at the front end of a prototype optimum SNS digital antenna with a desired accuracy of 14 bits and a bandwidth of 2.5 MHz...
NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code GLENHP: Compilation for 64- and 32-Bit Windows Platforms
Tower, Leonard K.; Geng, Steven M.
2016-01-01
A new version of the NASA Glenn Steady State Heat Pipe Code, designated "GLENHP," is introduced here. This represents an update to the disk operating system (DOS) version LERCHP reported in NASA/TM-2000-209807. The new code operates on 32- and 64-bit Windows-based platforms from within the 32-bit command prompt window. An additional evaporator boundary condition and other features are provided.
OFDM codée pour le haut débit en fibre optique avec les codes ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Les simulations sont réalisées au débit de 10Gbit/s sur 1000 Km dans un environnement de cosimulation avec les logiciels VPITransmissionMaker et Matlab. Les résultats ont révélé que ces codes correcteurs d'erreurs et en particulier les codes LDPC sont bien efficaces et adaptées au haut débit, ils constituent des ...
D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.
Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P
2013-03-01
While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Quadratic prediction of factor scores
Wansbeek, T
1999-01-01
Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic
Culp, Linda; Malone, Virginia
1992-01-01
Explains how peer scores can be used to constitute one part of students' grades on group projects. Contributions students make to a project are defined in four categories: creativity/ideas contributed, research/data collection, writing/typing/artwork, and organizing/collating. A scoring rubric for these categories is presented. (PR)
Matching score based face recognition
Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
2006-01-01
Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different
The Machine Scoring of Writing
McCurry, Doug
2010-01-01
This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…
Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weis, Christoph D.
2011-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.
Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weis, Christoph D.
2011-10-04
Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.
A 12-bit SAR ADC integrated on a multichannel silicon drift detector readout IC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Fiorini, C.
2016-01-01
A 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) addressed to Silicon-Drift Detectors (SDDs) multichannel readout ASICs for X- and gamma-ray applications is presented. Aiming at digitizing output multiplexed data from the upstream analog filters banks, the converter must ensure 11-bit accuracy and a sampling frequency of about 5 MS/s. The ADC architecture is the charge-redistribution (CR) successive-approximation register (SAR). A fully differential topology has also been chosen for better rejection of common-mode noise and disturbances. The internal DAC is made of binary-scaled capacitors, whose bottom plates are switched by the SAR logic to perform the binary search of the analog input value by means of the monotonic switching scheme. The A/D converter is integrated on SFERA, a multichannel ASIC fabricated in a standard CMOS 0.35 μm 3.3 V technology and it occupies an area of 0.42 mm 2 . Simulated static performance shows monotonicity over the whole input–output characteristic. The description of the circuit topology and of inner blocks architectures together with the experimental characterization is here presented. - Highlights: • X- and γ-ray spectroscopy front-ends need to readout a high number of detectors. • Design efforts are increasingly oriented to compact and low-power ASICs. • A possible solution is the on-chip integration of the analog-to-digital converter. • A 12-bit CR successive-approximation-register ADC has been developed. • It is a suitable candidate as the digitizer to be integrated in multichannel ASICs
Compact FPGA-based beamformer using oversampled 1-bit A/D converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2005-01-01
reconstruction is done using finite impulse response (FIR) filters, applied on selected bit sequences of the delta-sigma modulator output stream. The approach allows for a multichannel beamformer to fit in a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. A 32-channel beamformer is estimated to occupy 50......% of the available logic resources in a commercially available midrange FPGA, and to be able to operate at 129 MHz. Simulation of the architecture at 140 MHz provides images with a dynamic range approaching 60 dB for an excitation frequency of 3 MHz....
A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems
Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan
2012-05-01
In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Seokwon; Lee, Jinhyoung; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup
2014-01-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution. (paper)
Inclusive bit error rate analysis for coherent optical code-division multiple-access system
Katz, Gilad; Sadot, Dan
2002-06-01
Inclusive noise and bit error rate (BER) analysis for optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) using coherence techniques is presented. The analysis contains crosstalk calculation of the mutual field variance for different number of users. It is shown that the crosstalk noise depends deeply on the receiver integration time, the laser coherence time, and the number of users. In addition, analytical results of the power fluctuation at the received channel due to the data modulation at the rejected channels are presented. The analysis also includes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)-related noise effects of in-line amplifiers in a long-distance communication link.
1989-12-01
called differential pulse code modulator ( DPCM . [Ref. 3: pp. 62S-629] The exploitation of signal correlations in DPCM suggests the further possibility of...diagram of a basic DNI. Important difrerences between a basic DPCM and a I)M networks are the use of a 2-level (1-bit) quantizer in DM and replacement of a...1970. 3. B. Sklar, Digital Communications, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1988. 4. N.S. Jayant, "Digital Coding of Speech Waveforms: PCM, DPCM , and DM
A 10-bit 100 MSamples/s BiCMOS D/A Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Tunheim, Svein Anders
1996-01-01
A 10-bit 100 MSamples/s current-steering D/A converter (DAC) has been designed and processed in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The DAC is intended for applications using direct digital synthesis, and focus has been set on reducing dynamic nonlinearities to achieve a high spurious free dynamic range (SFDR......1) at high generated frequencies. The main part of the DAC consists of a matrix of current cells. Each current cell contains an emitter-coupled logic (ECL) flip-flop, clocked by a global ECL clock to ensure accurate clocking. A bipolar differential pair, steered by the differential output of the ECL...
Two-bit memory devices based on single-wall carbon nanotubes: demonstration and mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Ao; Fu Yunyi; Wang Chuan; Guan Lunhui; Liu Jia; Shi Zujin; Gu Zhennan; Huang Ru; Zhang Xing
2007-01-01
Two-bit memory devices of SWNTs, based on the hysteresis effect, have been demonstrated for the first time. The pertinent memory behaviours seem to originate from the capacitive effect due to polarization of molecules, especially the surface-bound water molecules on SiO 2 in close proximity to carbon nanotubes. Our investigations are intimately linked with ultrahigh-density memory applications, and possibly go a long way in broadening the memory applications of SWNTs, for example from nonvolatile to volatile cells
Bit-string physics a finite and discrete approach to natural philosophy
Noyes, H Pierre
2001-01-01
We could be on the threshold of a scientific revolution. Quantum mechanics is based on unique, finite, and discrete events. General relativity assumes a continuous, curved space-time. Reconciling the two remains the most fundamental unsolved scientific problem left over from the last century. The papers of H Pierre Noyes collected in this volume reflect one attempt to achieve that unification by replacing the continuum with the bit-string events of computer science. Three principles are used: physics can determine whether two quantities are the same or different; measurement can tell something
All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide
Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang
2017-12-01
A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.
Linear-Time Non-Malleable Codes in the Bit-Wise Independent Tampering Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Döttling, Nico
Non-malleable codes were introduced by Dziembowski et al. (ICS 2010) as coding schemes that protect a message against tampering attacks. Roughly speaking, a code is non-malleable if decoding an adversarially tampered encoding of a message m produces the original message m or a value m' (eventuall...... non-malleable codes of Agrawal et al. (TCC 2015) and of Cher- aghchi and Guruswami (TCC 2014) and improves the previous result in the bit-wise tampering model: it builds the first non-malleable codes with linear-time complexity and optimal-rate (i.e. rate 1 - o(1))....
Nie, Zhaogang; Lee, Heungyeol; Yoo, Hyeonggeun; Lee, Youlee; Kim, Younshil; Lim, Ki-Soo; Lee, Myeongkyu
2009-03-01
We report on the three-dimensional optical memory utilizing a photoluminescence (PL) change in polymethylmethacrylate. Irradiation with a femtosecond pulsed laser (800 nm, 1 kHz, 100 fs) induced a strong PL spectrum in the visible range, which may result from the photogeneration of emissive radicals. Multilayered patterns were recorded inside the bulk sample by tightly focusing a pulsed laser beam. The pattern images were read out by a reflection-type fluorescent confocal microscope which detected the blue-green emission at 410-510 nm. The stored bits were retrieved with a high signal-to-noise ratio in the absence of any cross-talk.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudeep Thepade
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A number of techniques have been proposed earlier for feature extraction using image binarization. Efficiency of the techniques was dependent on proper threshold selection for the binarization method. In this paper, a new feature extraction technique using image binarization has been proposed. The technique has binarized the significant bit planes of an image by selecting local thresholds. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a public dataset and has been compared with existing widely used techniques using binarization for extraction of features. It has been inferred that the proposed method has outclassed all the existing techniques and has shown consistent classification performance.
FPGA-based Bit-Error-Rate Tester for SEU-hardened Optical Links
Detraz, S; Moreira, P; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Seif El Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Stejskal, P; Troska, J; Versmissen, H
2009-01-01
The next generation of optical links for future High-Energy Physics experiments will require components qualified for use in radiation-hard environments. To cope with radiation induced single-event upsets, the physical layer protocol will include Forward Error Correction (FEC). Bit-Error-Rate (BER) testing is a widely used method to characterize digital transmission systems. In order to measure the BER with and without the proposed FEC, simultaneously on several devices, a multi-channel BER tester has been developed. This paper describes the architecture of the tester, its implementation in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device and discusses the experimental results.
From Rasch scores to regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Karl Bang
2006-01-01
Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....
Can score databanks help teaching?
de Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos; Andrade, Bruno Bezerril; Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel
2011-01-05
Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378-4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495-3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (pstudents with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance.
Low-Bit Rate Feedback Strategies for Iterative IA-Precoded MIMO-OFDM-Based Systems
Teodoro, Sara; Silva, Adão; Dinis, Rui; Gameiro, Atílio
2014-01-01
Interference alignment (IA) is a promising technique that allows high-capacity gains in interference channels, but which requires the knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) for all the system links. We design low-complexity and low-bit rate feedback strategies where a quantized version of some CSI parameters is fed back from the user terminal (UT) to the base station (BS), which shares it with the other BSs through a limited-capacity backhaul network. This information is then used by BSs to perform the overall IA design. With the proposed strategies, we only need to send part of the CSI information, and this can even be sent only once for a set of data blocks transmitted over time-varying channels. These strategies are applied to iterative MMSE-based IA techniques for the downlink of broadband wireless OFDM systems with limited feedback. A new robust iterative IA technique, where channel quantization errors are taken into account in IA design, is also proposed and evaluated. With our proposed strategies, we need a small number of quantization bits to transmit and share the CSI, when comparing with the techniques used in previous works, while allowing performance close to the one obtained with perfect channel knowledge. PMID:24678274
Bit-level plane image encryption based on coupled map lattice with time-varying delay
Lv, Xiupin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Bo
2018-04-01
Most of the existing image encryption algorithms had two basic properties: confusion and diffusion in a pixel-level plane based on various chaotic systems. Actually, permutation in a pixel-level plane could not change the statistical characteristics of an image, and many of the existing color image encryption schemes utilized the same method to encrypt R, G and B components, which means that the three color components of a color image are processed three times independently. Additionally, dynamical performance of a single chaotic system degrades greatly with finite precisions in computer simulations. In this paper, a novel coupled map lattice with time-varying delay therefore is applied in color images bit-level plane encryption to solve the above issues. Spatiotemporal chaotic system with both much longer period in digitalization and much excellent performances in cryptography is recommended. Time-varying delay embedded in coupled map lattice enhances dynamical behaviors of the system. Bit-level plane image encryption algorithm has greatly reduced the statistical characteristics of an image through the scrambling processing. The R, G and B components cross and mix with one another, which reduces the correlation among the three components. Finally, simulations are carried out and all the experimental results illustrate that the proposed image encryption algorithm is highly secure, and at the same time, also demonstrates superior performance.
Low-Bit Rate Feedback Strategies for Iterative IA-Precoded MIMO-OFDM-Based Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Teodoro
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA is a promising technique that allows high-capacity gains in interference channels, but which requires the knowledge of the channel state information (CSI for all the system links. We design low-complexity and low-bit rate feedback strategies where a quantized version of some CSI parameters is fed back from the user terminal (UT to the base station (BS, which shares it with the other BSs through a limited-capacity backhaul network. This information is then used by BSs to perform the overall IA design. With the proposed strategies, we only need to send part of the CSI information, and this can even be sent only once for a set of data blocks transmitted over time-varying channels. These strategies are applied to iterative MMSE-based IA techniques for the downlink of broadband wireless OFDM systems with limited feedback. A new robust iterative IA technique, where channel quantization errors are taken into account in IA design, is also proposed and evaluated. With our proposed strategies, we need a small number of quantization bits to transmit and share the CSI, when comparing with the techniques used in previous works, while allowing performance close to the one obtained with perfect channel knowledge.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF POWER GATING TECHNIQUES IN 4-BIT SISO SHIFT REGISTER CIRCUITS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. NEHRU
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The last few years have witnessed great deal of research activities in the area of reversible logic; the intrinsic functionality to reduce the power dissipation that has been the main requirement in the low power digital circuit design has garnered more attraction to this field. In this paper various power gating techniques for power minimization in adder and 4 bit serial in serial out (SISO shift register circuits is proposed. The work also analyze various leakage reduction approaches such as sleep approach, sleepy stack approach, dual sleep technique and zig-zag technique for gate diffusion input technique, self resetting gate diffusion input technique for complementary metal oxide semi conductor (CMOS technology and forced stack and multiplexer based SISO registers. A 4 bit SISO and full adder was designed in a cadence virtuoso 180 nm technology and the simulated results show the trade-off between power, delay and power for the sequential circuits and the results demonstrate that minimum power consumption can be achieved when the adder and SISO are designed for clock gating.
A single-channel 10-bit 160 MS/s SAR ADC in 65 nm CMOS
Yuxiao, Lu; Lu, Sun; Zhe, Li; Jianjun, Zhou
2014-04-01
This paper demonstrates a single-channel 10-bit 160 MS/s successive-approximation-register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in 65 nm CMOS process with a 1.2 V supply voltage. To achieve high speed, a new window-opening logic based on the asynchronous SAR algorithm is proposed to minimize the logic delay, and a partial set-and-down DAC with binary redundancy bits is presented to reduce the dynamic comparator offset and accelerate the DAC settling. Besides, a new bootstrapped switch with a pre-charge phase is adopted in the track and hold circuits to increase speed and reduce area. The presented ADC achieves 52.9 dB signal-to-noise distortion ratio and 65 dB spurious-free dynamic range measured with a 30 MHz input signal at 160 MHz clock. The power consumption is 9.5 mW and a core die area of 250 × 200 μm2 is occupied.
A 10-bit ratio-independent cyclic ADC with offset canceling for a CMOS image sensor
Kaiming, Nie; Suying, Yao; Jiangtao, Xu; Zhaorui, Jiang
2014-03-01
A 10-bit ratio-independent switch-capacitor (SC) cyclic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with offset canceling for a CMOS image sensor is presented. The proposed ADC completes an N-bit conversion in 1.5N clock cycles with one operational amplifier. Combining ratio-independent and polarity swapping techniques, the conversion characteristic of the proposed cyclic ADC is inherently insensitive both to capacitor ratio and to amplifier offset voltage. Therefore, the circuit can be realized in a small die area and it is suitable to serve as the column-parallel ADC in CMOS image sensors. A prototype ADC is fabricated in 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal CMOS technology. The measured results indicate that the ADC has a signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) of 53.6 dB and a DNL of +0:12/-0:14 LSB at a conversion rate of 600 kS/s. The standard deviation of the offset variation of the ADC is reduced from 2.5 LSB to 0.5 LSB. Its power dissipation is 250 μW with a 1.8 V supply, and its area is 0.03 × 0.8 mm2.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashid A. Fayadh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available When receiving high data rate in ultra-wideband (UWB technology, many users have experienced multiple-user interference and intersymbol interference in the multipath reception technique. Structures have been proposed for implementing rake receivers to enhance their capabilities by reducing the bit error probability (Pe, thereby providing better performances by indoor and outdoor multipath receivers. As a result, several rake structures have been proposed in the past to reduce the number of resolvable paths that must be estimated and combined. To achieve this aim, we suggest two maximal ratio combiners based on the pulse sign separation technique, such as the pulse sign separation selective combiner (PSS-SC and the pulse sign separation partial combiner (PSS-PC to reduce complexity with fewer fingers and to improve the system performance. In the combiners, a comparator was added to compare the positive quantity of positive pulses and negative quantities of negative pulses to decide whether the transmitted bit was 1 or 0. The Pe was driven by simulation for multipath environments for impulse radio time-hopping binary phase shift keying (TH-BPSK modulation, and the results were compared with those of conventional selective combiners (C-SCs and conventional partial combiners (C-PCs.
Efficient Region-of-Interest Scalable Video Coding with Adaptive Bit-Rate Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Grois
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This work relates to the regions-of-interest (ROI coding that is a desirable feature in future applications based on the scalable video coding, which is an extension of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. Due to the dramatic technological progress, there is a plurality of heterogeneous devices, which can be used for viewing a variety of video content. Devices such as smartphones and tablets are mostly resource-limited devices, which make it difficult to display high-quality content. Usually, the displayed video content contains one or more ROI(s, which should be adaptively selected from the preencoded scalable video bitstream. Thus, an efficient scalable ROI video coding scheme is proposed in this work, thereby enabling the extraction of the desired regions-of-interest and the adaptive setting of the desirable ROI location, size, and resolution. In addition, an adaptive bit-rate control is provided for the region-of-interest scalable video coding. The performance of the presented techniques is demonstrated and compared with the joint scalable video model reference software (JSVM 9.19, thereby showing significant bit-rate savings as a tradeoff for the relatively low PSNR degradation.
PEALL4: a 4-channel, 12-bit, 40-MSPS, Power Efficient and Low Latency SAR ADC
Rarbi, F.; Dzahini, D.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Bouvier, J.; Zeloufi, M.; Trocme, B.; Gabaldon Ruiz, C.
2015-01-01
The PEALL4 chip is a Power Efficient And Low Latency 4-channels, 12-bit and 40-MSPS successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. It was designed featuring a very short latency time in the context of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter phase I upgrade. Moreover this design could be a good option for ATLAS phase II and other High Energy Physics (HEP) projects. The full functionality of the converter is achieved by an embedded high-speed clock frequency conversion generated by the ADC itself. The design and testing results of the PEALL4 chip implemented in a commercial 130nm CMOS process are presented. The size of this 4-channel ADC with embedded voltage references and sLVS output serializer is 2.8x3.4 mm2. The chip presents a short latency time less than 25 ns defined from the very beginning of the sampling to the last conversion bit made available. A total power consumption below 27mW per channel is measured including the reference buffer and the sLVS serializer.
Spherical contact mechanical analysis of roller cone drill bits journal bearing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei He
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Fang contact model is introduced to analyze stress of the spherical fixed ring journal bearing. Developed calculation programs in the MATLAB software which are utilized to calculate the contact characteristics of roller cone drill bits spherical fixed ring journal bearing. In addition, effects of external load, radius clearance values, and material parameter on the mechanics performance were investigated. The results show that the value of external load has a direct pronounced effect on the contact characteristics of journal bearing. There is a significant positive correlation between contact pressure and external load, radius clearance value, and the Young's modulus of material. However, there is an evident negative correlation between contact radius of journal bearing and radius clearance value, and the Young's modulus of material. The smaller radius clearance value of journal bearing is, the more centralized contact region will be, so the corresponding contact pressure will be higher. From the perspective of reducing friction and wear, we need select the materials which have high strength and good toughness. Not only might this can improve the wear resistance, it also effectively decreases the contact pressure. In this case, we can prolong the service life of roller cone drill bits journal bearing.
An improved chaotic cryptosystem based on circular bit shift and XOR operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhang, Ru; Yang, Yi-Xian; Guo, Yu-Cui
2012-01-01
A type of chaotic encryption scheme by combining circular bit shift with XOR operations was proposed in 2006 based on iterating chaotic maps. Soon after the proposal, it was cryptanalyzed and improved. Unfortunately, there are still two drawbacks in the two improved schemes. To strengthen the performance of the focused type of scheme, a new improved scheme based on Chen's chaotic system is proposed in this Letter. Simulation results and theoretical analysis show that our improved scheme is immune to information extracting by chosen plaintext attack and has expected cryptographic properties. -- Highlights: ► There are 2 drawbacks in 2 improved chaos-based encryption schemes by bit shift and XOR operation. ► FIPS 140-2 test show the random number sequence generated by CCS is statistical random. ► The plaintext is first permuted byte by byte, and then masked in the inverse order. ► Small perturbation based on output ciphertext is given to c of CCS after iterating it every time.
Chaotic Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Bit Permutation and Dynamic DNA Encoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuncai Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the help of the fact that chaos is sensitive to initial conditions and pseudorandomness, combined with the spatial configurations in the DNA molecule’s inherent and unique information processing ability, a novel image encryption algorithm based on bit permutation and dynamic DNA encoding is proposed here. The algorithm first uses Keccak to calculate the hash value for a given DNA sequence as the initial value of a chaotic map; second, it uses a chaotic sequence to scramble the image pixel locations, and the butterfly network is used to implement the bit permutation. Then, the image is coded into a DNA matrix dynamic, and an algebraic operation is performed with the DNA sequence to realize the substitution of the pixels, which further improves the security of the encryption. Finally, the confusion and diffusion properties of the algorithm are further enhanced by the operation of the DNA sequence and the ciphertext feedback. The results of the experiment and security analysis show that the algorithm not only has a large key space and strong sensitivity to the key but can also effectively resist attack operations such as statistical analysis and exhaustive analysis.
Research on shape parameters of circular arc disc teeth for three-cone bit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin Hu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Through the single row drilling experiment, this paper studied the regularity of the tooth shape parameter's influence to the disc teeth's rock-breaking effect, which provided some basis for the composite teeth type roller bit's combined experimental study and the structure design of the tooth type. This experimental research is only for the circular arc disc teeth which is arranged on the composite teeth type roller bit's main tooth. The experiments were designed using the method of orthogonal design and the results were analyzed by the fuzzy optimization method. The results show that the disc tooth's drilling effect is the best when the tip diameter is 2 mm, taper angle is 30° and the groove number is 8, and the disc tooth's drilling effect is the second best when the tip diameter is 3 mm, taper angle is 30° and the groove number is 7. The above two combined ways of drilling effect's difference is very small (the difference of the degree of the membership is 0.003.
Bit and Power Allocation in Constrained Multicarrier Systems: The Single-User Case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodore Antonakopoulos
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Multicarrier modulation is a powerful transmission technique that provides improved performance in various communication fields. A fundamental topic of multicarrier communication systems is the bit and power loading, which is addressed in this article as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization problem. In particular, we present the main classes of loading problems, namely, rate maximization and margin maximization, and we discuss their optimal solutions for the single-user case. Initially, the classical water-filling solution subject to a total power constraint is presented using the Lagrange multipliers optimization approach. Next, the peak-power constraint is included and the concept of cup-limited waterfilling is introduced. The loading problem is also addressed subject to the integer-bit restriction and the optimal discrete solution is examined using combinatorial optimization methods. Furthermore, we investigate the duality conditions of the rate maximization and margin maximization problems and we highlight various ideas for low-complexity loading algorithms. This article surveys and reviews existing results on resource allocation in constrained multicarrier systems and presents new trends in this area.
Study on a New Steering Mechanism for Point-the-Bit Rotary Steerable System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanzhi Li
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel steering mechanism embedded in a point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS for oilfield exploitation. The new steering mechanism adopts a set of universal joints to alleviate the high alternative strain on drilling mandrel and employs a specially designed planetary gear small tooth number difference (PGSTD to achieve directional steering. Its principle and characteristics are explained and examined through a series of analyses. First, the eccentric displacement vector of the offset point on the drilling mandrel is formulated and kinematic solutions are established. Next, structural design for the new steering mechanism is addressed. Then, procedures and program architectures for simulating offset state of the drilling mandrel and motion trajectory of the whole steering mechanism are presented. After that, steering motion simulations of the new steering mechanism for both 2D and 3D well trajectories are then performed by combining LabVIEW and SolidWorks. Finally, experiments on the steering motion control of the new steering mechanism prototype are carried out. The simulations and experiments reveal that the steering performance of the new steering mechanism is satisfied. The research can provide good guidance for further research and engineering application of the point-the-bit RSS.
Beam-pointing error compensation method of phased array radar seeker with phantom-bit technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiuqiu WEN
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A phased array radar seeker (PARS must be able to effectively decouple body motion and accurately extract the line-of-sight (LOS rate for target missile tracking. In this study, the real-time two-channel beam pointing error (BPE compensation method of PARS for LOS rate extraction is designed. The PARS discrete beam motion principium is analyzed, and the mathematical model of beam scanning control is finished. According to the principle of the antenna element shift phase, both the antenna element shift phase law and the causes of beam-pointing error under phantom-bit conditions are analyzed, and the effect of BPE caused by phantom-bit technology (PBT on the extraction accuracy of the LOS rate is examined. A compensation method is given, which includes coordinate transforms, beam angle margin compensation, and detector dislocation angle calculation. When the method is used, the beam angle margin in the pitch and yaw directions is calculated to reduce the effect of the missile body disturbance and to improve LOS rate extraction precision by compensating for the detector dislocation angle. The simulation results validate the proposed method.
Simulasi Perubahan Energi Per Bit Dan Derau Terhadap Jumlah Kanal Dan Cakupan WCDMA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfin Hikmaturokhman
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Eb/No parameter is the measure of signal to noise ratio for a digital communication system, it is measured at the input to the receiver and is used as the basic measure of how strong the signal is, or in other words Eb/No indicates the fluctuation of received signal strength in the receiver. Eb/No is affected by several factors, such as speed of mobile station, propagation environment and bit rate. The variations of Eb/No value will affect to the number of offered channel and coverage in WCDMA. The impact of the variation of Eb/No value could be recognized in the result of the calculations. The purpose of this research is to build simulation models by using Delphi to view and analyze the influence of Eb/No of total channels and WCDMA coverage. The results from simulation analysis showed that the larger of Eb/No and bit rate used, the number of channels on offer will be smaller and the value of BS is low sensitivity, which means loads of traffic will also offer little that would cause the quality to be better systems and transmit power MS becomes more lower in order to maintain the value of Eb/No to avoid the drop call.
Experimental and numerical study of drill bit drop tests on Kuru granite
Fourmeau, Marion; Kane, Alexandre; Hokka, Mikko
2017-01-01
This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of Kuru grey granite impacted with a seven-buttons drill bit mounted on an instrumented drop test machine. The force versus displacement curves during the impact, so-called bit-rock interaction (BRI) curves, were obtained using strain gauge measurements for two levels of impact energy. Moreover, the volume of removed rock after each drop test was evaluated by stereo-lithography (three-dimensional surface reconstruction). A modified version of the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (MHJC) material model was calibrated using Kuru granite test results available from the literature. Numerical simulations of the single drop tests were carried out using the MHJC model available in the LS-DYNA explicit finite-element solver. The influence of the impact energy and additional confining pressure on the BRI curves and the volume of the removed rock is discussed. In addition, the influence of the rock surface shape before impact was evaluated using two different mesh geometries: a flat surface and a hyperbolic surface. The experimental and numerical results are compared and discussed in terms of drilling efficiency through the mechanical specific energy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.
A 12-bit SAR ADC integrated on a multichannel silicon drift detector readout IC
Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Fiorini, C.
2016-07-01
A 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) addressed to Silicon-Drift Detectors (SDDs) multichannel readout ASICs for X- and gamma-ray applications is presented. Aiming at digitizing output multiplexed data from the upstream analog filters banks, the converter must ensure 11-bit accuracy and a sampling frequency of about 5 MS/s. The ADC architecture is the charge-redistribution (CR) successive-approximation register (SAR). A fully differential topology has also been chosen for better rejection of common-mode noise and disturbances. The internal DAC is made of binary-scaled capacitors, whose bottom plates are switched by the SAR logic to perform the binary search of the analog input value by means of the monotonic switching scheme. The A/D converter is integrated on SFERA, a multichannel ASIC fabricated in a standard CMOS 0.35 μm 3.3 V technology and it occupies an area of 0.42 mm2. Simulated static performance shows monotonicity over the whole input-output characteristic. The description of the circuit topology and of inner blocks architectures together with the experimental characterization is here presented.
An Asynchronous Circuit Design Technique for a Flexible 8-Bit Microprocessor
Karaki, Nobuo; Nanmoto, Takashi; Inoue, Satoshi
This paper presents an asynchronous design technique, an enabler for the emerging technology of flexible microelectronics that feature low-temperature processed polysilicon (LTPS) thin-film transistors (TFT) and surface-free technology by laser annealing/ablation (SUFTLA®). The first design instance chosen is an 8-bit microprocessor. LTPS TFTs are good for realizing displays having integrated VLSI circuit at lower costs. However, LTPS TFTs have drawbacks, including substantial deviations in characteristics and the self-heating phenomenon. To solve these problems, the authors adopted the asynchronous circuit design technique and developed an asynchronous design language called Verilog+, which is based on a subset of Verilog HDL® and includes minimal primitives used for describing the communications between modules, and the dedicated tools including a translator called xlator and a synthesizer called ctrlsyn. The flexible 8-bit microprocessor stably operates at 500kHz, drawing 180μA from a 5V power source. The microprocessor's electromagnetic emissions are 21dB less than those of the synchronous counterpart.
DFT algorithms for bit-serial GaAs array processor architectures
Mcmillan, Gary B.
1988-01-01
Systems and Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) has developed an innovative array processor architecture for computing Fourier transforms and other commonly used signal processing algorithms. This architecture is designed to extract the highest possible array performance from state-of-the-art GaAs technology. SPEC's architectural design includes a high performance RISC processor implemented in GaAs, along with a Floating Point Coprocessor and a unique Array Communications Coprocessor, also implemented in GaAs technology. Together, these data processors represent the latest in technology, both from an architectural and implementation viewpoint. SPEC has examined numerous algorithms and parallel processing architectures to determine the optimum array processor architecture. SPEC has developed an array processor architecture with integral communications ability to provide maximum node connectivity. The Array Communications Coprocessor embeds communications operations directly in the core of the processor architecture. A Floating Point Coprocessor architecture has been defined that utilizes Bit-Serial arithmetic units, operating at very high frequency, to perform floating point operations. These Bit-Serial devices reduce the device integration level and complexity to a level compatible with state-of-the-art GaAs device technology.
Optimized bit extraction using distortion modeling in the scalable extension of H.264/AVC.
Maani, Ehsan; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K
2009-09-01
The newly adopted scalable extension of H.264/AVC video coding standard (SVC) demonstrates significant improvements in coding efficiency in addition to an increased degree of supported scalability relative to the scalable profiles of prior video coding standards. Due to the complicated hierarchical prediction structure of the SVC and the concept of key pictures, content-aware rate adaptation of SVC bit streams to intermediate bit rates is a nontrivial task. The concept of quality layers has been introduced in the design of the SVC to allow for fast content-aware prioritized rate adaptation. However, existing quality layer assignment methods are suboptimal and do not consider all network abstraction layer (NAL) units from different layers for the optimization. In this paper, we first propose a technique to accurately and efficiently estimate the quality degradation resulting from discarding an arbitrary number of NAL units from multiple layers of a bitstream by properly taking drift into account. Then, we utilize this distortion estimation technique to assign quality layers to NAL units for a more efficient extraction. Experimental results show that a significant gain can be achieved by the proposed scheme.
Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan
2014-04-01
The ever growing demand of higher data rates can now be addressed by exploiting cooperative diversity. This form of diversity has become a fundamental technique for achieving spatial diversity by exploiting the presence of idle users in the network. This has led to new challenges in terms of designing new protocols and detectors for cooperative communications. Among various amplify-and-forward (AF) protocols, the half duplex non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) protocol is superior to other AF schemes in terms of error performance and capacity. However, this superiority is achieved at the cost of higher receiver complexity. Furthermore, in order to exploit the full diversity of the system an optimal precoder is required. In this paper, an optimal joint linear transceiver is proposed for the NAF protocol. This transceiver operates on the principles of minimum bit error rate (BER), and is referred as joint bit error rate (JBER) detector. The BER performance of JBER detector is superior to all the proposed linear detectors such as channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, the biased maximum likelihood detectors, and the minimum mean square error. The proposed transceiver also outperforms previous precoders designed for the NAF protocol. © 2002-2012 IEEE.
Gerber, Florian; Mösinger, Kaspar; Furrer, Reinhard
2017-07-01
Software packages for spatial data often implement a hybrid approach of interpreted and compiled programming languages. The compiled parts are usually written in C, C++, or Fortran, and are efficient in terms of computational speed and memory usage. Conversely, the interpreted part serves as a convenient user-interface and calls the compiled code for computationally demanding operations. The price paid for the user friendliness of the interpreted component is-besides performance-the limited access to low level and optimized code. An example of such a restriction is the 64-bit vector support of the widely used statistical language R. On the R side, users do not need to change existing code and may not even notice the extension. On the other hand, interfacing 64-bit compiled code efficiently is challenging. Since many R packages for spatial data could benefit from 64-bit vectors, we investigate strategies to efficiently pass 64-bit vectors to compiled languages. More precisely, we show how to simply extend existing R packages using the foreign function interface to seamlessly support 64-bit vectors. This extension is shown with the sparse matrix algebra R package spam. The new capabilities are illustrated with an example of GIMMS NDVI3g data featuring a parametric modeling approach for a non-stationary covariance matrix.
0.5 V and 0.43 pJ/bit Capacitive Sensor Interface for Passive Wireless Sensor Systems.
Beriain, Andoni; Gutierrez, Iñigo; Solar, Hector; Berenguer, Roc
2015-08-28
This paper presents an ultra low-power and low-voltage pulse-width modulation based ratiometric capacitive sensor interface. The interface was designed and fabricated in a standard 90 nm CMOS 1P9M technology. The measurements show an effective resolution of 10 bits using 0.5 V of supply voltage. The active occupied area is only 0.0045 mm2 and the Figure of Merit (FOM), which takes into account the energy required per conversion bit, is 0.43 pJ/bit. Furthermore, the results show low sensitivity to PVT variations due to the proposed ratiometric architecture. In addition, the sensor interface was connected to a commercial pressure transducer and the measurements of the resulting complete pressure sensor show a FOM of 0.226 pJ/bit with an effective linear resolution of 7.64 bits. The results validate the use of the proposed interface as part of a pressure sensor, and its low-power and low-voltage characteristics make it suitable for wireless sensor networks and low power consumer electronics.
A 10-bit 200-kS/s SAR ADC IP core for a touch screen SoC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong Xingyuan; Yang Yintang; Zhu Zhangming; Sheng Wenfang
2010-01-01
Based on a 5 MSBs (most-significant-bits)-plus-5 LSBs (least-significant-bits) C-R hybrid D/A conversion and low-offset pseudo-differential comparison approach, with capacitor array axially symmetric layout topology and resistor string low gradient mismatch placement method, an 8-channel 10-bit 200-kS/s SAR ADC (successive-approximation-register analog-to-digital converter) IP core for a touch screen SoC (system-on-chip) is implemented in a 0.18 μm 1P5M CMOS logic process. Design considerations for the touch screen SAR ADC are included. With a 1.8 V power supply, the DNL (differential non-linearity) and INL (integral non-linearity) of this converter are measured to be about 0.32 LSB and 0.81 LSB respectively. With an input frequency of 91 kHz at 200-kS/s sampling rate, the spurious-free dynamic range and effective-number-of-bits are measured to be 63.2 dB and 9.15 bits respectively, and the power is about 136 μW. This converter occupies an area of about 0.08 mm 2 . The design results show that it is very suitable for touch screen SoC applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars
1994-01-01
Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...
A 10-bit 40MS/s Pipelined ADC in a 0.13μm CMOS Process
França-Santos, Hugo
2009-01-01
This paper presents a 10-bit analogue to digital converter (ADC) that will be integrated in a general purpose charge readout ASIC that is the new generation of mixed-mode integrated circuits for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout. It is based on a pipelined structure with double sampling and was implemented with switched capacitor circuits in eight 1.5-bit stages followed by a 2-bit stage. The power consumption is adjustable with the conversion rate and varies between 15 and 34mW for a 15 to 40MS/s conversion speed. The ADC occupies a silicon area of 0.7mm2 in a 0.13μm CMOS process and operates from a single 1.5V supply.
Liu, Yan; Fan, Xi; Chen, Houpeng; Wang, Yueqing; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhitang; Feng, Songlin
2017-08-01
In this brief, multilevel data storage for phase-change memory (PCM) has attracted more attention in the memory market to implement high capacity memory system and reduce cost-per-bit. In this work, we present a universal programing method of SET stair-case current pulse in PCM cells, which can exploit the optimum programing scheme to achieve 2-bit/ 4state resistance-level with equal logarithm interval. SET stair-case waveform can be optimized by TCAD real time simulation to realize multilevel data storage efficiently in an arbitrary phase change material. Experimental results from 1 k-bit PCM test-chip have validated the proposed multilevel programing scheme. This multilevel programming scheme has improved the information storage density, robustness of resistance-level, energy efficient and avoiding process complexity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roshan Duraisamy
2007-02-01
Full Text Available The secure establishment of cryptographic keys for symmetric encryption via key agreement protocols enables nodes in a network of embedded systems and remote agents to communicate securely in an insecure environment. In this paper, we propose a pure hardware implementation of a key agreement protocol, which uses the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellmann and digital signature algorithms and enables two parties, a remote agent and a networked embedded system, to establish a 128-bit symmetric key for encryption of all transmitted data via the advanced encryption scheme (AES. The resulting implementation is a protocol-on-chip that supports full 128-bit equivalent security (PoC-128. The PoC-128 has been implemented in an FPGA, but it can also be used as an IP within different embedded applications. As 128-bit security is conjectured valid for the foreseeable future, the PoC-128 goes well beyond the state of art in securing networked embedded devices.
Flexible Multi-Bit Feedback Design for HARQ Operation of Large-Size Data Packets in 5G
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khosravirad, Saeed; Mudolo, Luke; Pedersen, Klaus I.
2017-01-01
large-size data packet thanks to which the transmitter node can reduce the retransmission size to only include the initially failed segments of the packet. We study the effect of feedback size on retransmission efficiency through extensive link-level simulations over realistic channel models. Numerical......A reliable feedback channel is vital to report decoding acknowledgments in retransmission mechanisms such as the hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). While the feedback bits are known to be costly for the wireless link, a feedback message more informative than the conventional single......-bit feedback can increase resource utilization efficiency. Considering the practical limitations for increasing feedback message size, this paper proposes a framework for the design of flexible-content multi-bit feedback. The proposed design is capable of efficiently indicating the faulty segments of a failed...
Zhang, Ruimao; Lin, Liang; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, Lei
2015-12-01
Extracting informative image features and learning effective approximate hashing functions are two crucial steps in image retrieval. Conventional methods often study these two steps separately, e.g., learning hash functions from a predefined hand-crafted feature space. Meanwhile, the bit lengths of output hashing codes are preset in the most previous methods, neglecting the significance level of different bits and restricting their practical flexibility. To address these issues, we propose a supervised learning framework to generate compact and bit-scalable hashing codes directly from raw images. We pose hashing learning as a problem of regularized similarity learning. In particular, we organize the training images into a batch of triplet samples, each sample containing two images with the same label and one with a different label. With these triplet samples, we maximize the margin between the matched pairs and the mismatched pairs in the Hamming space. In addition, a regularization term is introduced to enforce the adjacency consistency, i.e., images of similar appearances should have similar codes. The deep convolutional neural network is utilized to train the model in an end-to-end fashion, where discriminative image features and hash functions are simultaneously optimized. Furthermore, each bit of our hashing codes is unequally weighted, so that we can manipulate the code lengths by truncating the insignificant bits. Our framework outperforms state-of-the-arts on public benchmarks of similar image search and also achieves promising results in the application of person re-identification in surveillance. It is also shown that the generated bit-scalable hashing codes well preserve the discriminative powers with shorter code lengths.
From Rasch scores to regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Karl Bang
2006-01-01
Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie...
Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)
We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.
Nb multilayer planarization technology for a subnanosecond Josephson 1K-bit RAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagasawa, S.; Wada, Y.; Tsuge, H.; Hidaka, M.; Ishida, I.; Tahara, S.
1989-01-01
Nb multilayer planarization technology has been developed. This planarization technology consists of an etch-back technique using 2000-molecular weight polystyrene and SiO/sub 2/ for the junction layer and wiring layers, and a tapered edge etching technique for contact between individual wiring layers. A Josephson 1K-bit random access memory (RAM) has been fabricated using this planarization technology. Excellent planarity, wherein level differences in all step areas are reduced to less than 1/20th of their original value, was achieved in the multilayer structure of the RAM. Moreover, appropriate RAM operations, with 570ps minimum access time and 13mW power dissipation, were confirmed
Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey`s quaternions, and RRQM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1995-02-01
The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive`s {open_quotes}Menshevik{close_quotes} position); (2) the author`s bit-string {open_quotes}Theory of Everything{close_quotes} (which Clive has dubbed {open_quotes}Bolshevik{close_quotes}); (3) Manthey`s cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence.
A 10-bit 120-MS/s pipelined ADC with improved switch and layout scaling strategy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Jia; Xu Lili; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua
2015-01-01
A 10 bit, 120 MS/s two-channel pipelined analog-to digital converter (ADC) is presented. The ADC is featured with improved switch by using the body effect to improve its conduction performance. A scaling down strategy is proposed to get more efficiency in the OTAs layout design. Implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the ADC's prototype occupied an area of 2.05 × 1.83 mm 2 . With a sampling rate of 120-MS/s and an input of 4.9 MHz, the ADC achieves a spurious-free-dynamic range of 74.32 dB and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio of 55.34 dB, while consuming 220-mW/channel at 3-V supply. (paper)
Minus 55 to plus 200 deg C 12 bit analog-to-digital converter
Smith, L. R.; Prazak, P. R.
1981-01-01
A 12 bit successive approximation analog to digital converter that offers moderately high speed precision data conversion at a reasonable level of cost and complexity is studied. The ADCH10HT extends this capability over a temperature range of -55 to +200 C. No missing-code performance is maintained over the entire temperature range. The converter is completely self-contained with internal clock and +10 volt reference. The CMOS devices offer low power dissipation, so that the internal temperature of the hybrid circuit does not rise as much from self heating. In CMOS circuits, pn junction leakage currents are returned to the supplies so that the logic keeps working at temperatures up to 250 C.
Design of a 10-bit 100 MSamples/s BiCMOS D/A converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Tunheim, S. A.
1995-01-01
A 10-bit 100 MSamples/s current-steering D/A converter (DAC) has been designed and processed in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The DAC is intended for applications using direct digital synthesis, and focus has been set on achieving a high spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). The main part of the DAC...... is a matrix of current cells. To reduce skew between the steering signals to the current cells, an emitter-coupled logic (ECL) flip-flop, clocked by a global ECL clock, is included in each current cell. A bipolar differential pair, steered by the differential output of the ECL flip-flop, is used in each...
SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing
Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.
1992-09-01
The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.
Detecting bit-flip errors in a logical qubit using stabilizer measurements
Ristè, D.; Poletto, S.; Huang, M.-Z.; Bruno, A.; Vesterinen, V.; Saira, O.-P.; DiCarlo, L.
2015-01-01
Quantum data are susceptible to decoherence induced by the environment and to errors in the hardware processing it. A future fault-tolerant quantum computer will use quantum error correction to actively protect against both. In the smallest error correction codes, the information in one logical qubit is encoded in a two-dimensional subspace of a larger Hilbert space of multiple physical qubits. For each code, a set of non-demolition multi-qubit measurements, termed stabilizers, can discretize and signal physical qubit errors without collapsing the encoded information. Here using a five-qubit superconducting processor, we realize the two parity measurements comprising the stabilizers of the three-qubit repetition code protecting one logical qubit from physical bit-flip errors. While increased physical qubit coherence times and shorter quantum error correction blocks are required to actively safeguard the quantum information, this demonstration is a critical step towards larger codes based on multiple parity measurements. PMID:25923318
Serial composition of quantum coin flipping and bounds on cheat detection for bit commitment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mochon, Carlos
2004-01-01
Quantum protocols for coin flipping can be composed in series in such a way that a cheating party gains no extra advantage from using entanglement between different rounds. This composition principle applies to coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity as well, and is used to derive two results: There are no quantum strong coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity that is linear in the bias (or bit-commitment protocols with linear cheat detection) because these can be composed to produce strong coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias. On the other hand, it appears that quadratic cheat detection cannot be composed in series to obtain even weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias
4-bit digital to analog converter using R-2R ladder and binary weighted resistors
Diosanto, J.; Batac, M. L.; Pereda, K. J.; Caldo, R.
2017-06-01
The use of a 4-bit digital-to-analog converter using two methods; Binary Weighted Resistors and R-2R Ladder is designed and presented in this paper. The main components that were used in constructing both circuits were different resistor values, operational amplifier (LM741) and single pole double throw switches. Both circuits were designed using MULTISIM software to be able to test the circuit for its ideal application and FRITZING software for the layout designing and fabrication to the printed circuit board. The implementation of both systems in an actual circuit benefits in determining and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each. It was realized that the binary weighted circuit is more efficient DAC, having lower percentage error of 0.267% compared to R-2R ladder circuit which has a minimum of percentage error of 4.16%.
A low bit rate FSK technique for SCPC satellite communication systems
Shpilka, Vladimir
This paper concerns itself with the description and analysis of an application of FSK (frequency shift keying) communication system method, with which it is possible to eliminate the degrading effects of ground station as well as satellite contributed phase noise on very low bit rate communication systems. Typical transmitter and receiver block diagrams are provided. In situations where speed of information transmission is not of the greatest importance, but availability of DC power for the radio frequency transmitter is at premium, the above mentioned FSK technique would yield very low power communication systems, that could be used with the proposed MSAT satellite. Potential applications could include the development of handheld pocket sized messaging communicators and solar powered environmental data collection platforms. This class of earth terminals would operate at L-Band and would fall into the category of mobile earth terminals within the context of the MSAT system.
Bits of Ivory on the Silver Screen: Austen in Multimodal Quotation and Translation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimiliano Morini
2017-12-01
Full Text Available How can the “little bit (two inches wide of ivory” on which Jane Austen worked with so fine a brush be presented on a cinema or TV screen? How can the delicate and ironic effects of Austen’s art be grafted onto a largely visual art that prizes dialogue over narrative, and action above all else? Arguably, most Austen adaptations have struggled to re-create Austen’s peculiar voice. In my article, I propose to study some of the adaptations proper of Austen’s novels with the tools of descriptive translation studies and multimodal stylistics. In particular, I am going to concentrate on two relatively recent versions of Pride and Prejudice (the 1995 BBC version and the 2005 film and one of Sense and Sensibility (done in 1995 by celebrated director Ang Lee.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Busyatras
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a utilization of multiple read heads to predict and correct a track mis-registration (TMR in bit-patterned media recording (BPMR based on the readback signals. We propose to use the signal energy ratio between the upper and lower tracks from multiple read heads to estimate the TMR level. Then, a pair of two-dimensional (2D target and its corresponding 2D equalizer associated with the estimated TMR will be chosen to correct the TMR in the data detection process. Numerical results show that the proposed system can achieve a very high accuracy of TMR prediction, thus performing better than the conventional system, especially when TMR is severe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madeiro Francisco
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an alternative method for determining exact expressions for the bit error probability (BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In this method, the Nakagami- fading channel is seen as an additive noise channel whose noise is modeled as the ratio between Gaussian and Nakagami- random variables. The method consists of using the cumulative density function of the resulting noise to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In particular, the proposed method is used to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM, -ary pulse amplitude modulation ( -PAM, and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM under Nakagami- fading. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this alternative method can be used to reduce the computational complexity for detecting signals in the presence of fading.
EVOLUTION OF THE MOSS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR 32-BIT COMPUTER SYSTEMS.
Thompson, R.J.; Oleson, Lyndon R.
1984-01-01
The authors discuss the current status and plans regarding the 32-bit implementation of the Map Overly and Statistical System (MOSS) geographic information system. Increasing interest in this system is promoting significant expansion of its capabilities, but any such enhancements will require careful analysis and planning to ensure that the resulting system is functionally complete and efficient yet flexible enough to adapt to a variety of user requirements and systems. All enhancements must be coordinated among centers of development in order to ensure the continued viability of a single MOSS. A baseline software configuration must be defined, and procedures must be developed to ensure coordination of any modifications to the baseline. Finally, there is significant interest in maintaining the public-domain aspects of MOSS to promote its shared use in the Department of the Interior. For these reasons, coordination efforts such as those initiated by the IDCCC and the MOSS Users Workshop should be strongly supported by the MOSS user community.
Eyler, E. E.
2013-10-01
Several high-performance lab instruments suitable for manual assembly have been developed using low-pin-count 32-bit microcontrollers that communicate with an Android tablet via a USB interface. A single Android tablet app accommodates multiple interface needs by uploading parameter lists and graphical data from the microcontrollers, which are themselves programmed with easily modified C code. The hardware design of the instruments emphasizes low chip counts and is highly modular, relying on small "daughter boards" for special functions such as USB power management, waveform generation, and phase-sensitive signal detection. In one example, a daughter board provides a complete waveform generator and direct digital synthesizer that fits on a 1.5 in. × 0.8 in. circuit card.
Zhang, Ke; Hughes-Oliver, Jacqueline M; Young, S Stanley
2013-01-01
A new classification method called the Optimal Bit String Tree is proposed to identify quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). The method introduces the concept of a chromosome to describe the presence/absence context of a combination of descriptors. A descriptor set and its optimal chromosome form the splitting variable. A new stochastic searching scheme that contains a weighted sampling scheme, simulated annealing, and a trimming procedure optimizes the choice of splitting variable. Simulation studies and an application to screening monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors show that OBSTree is advantageous in accurately and effectively identifying QSAR rules and finding different classes of active compounds. Details of the algorithm, SAS code, and simulated and real datasets are available online as supplementary materials.
A Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy for Reduced CPU Energy on Cloud Storage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve energy saving and reduce the total cost of ownership, green storage has become the first priority for data center. Detecting and deleting the redundant data are the key factors to the reduction of the energy consumption of CPU, while high performance stable chunking strategy provides the groundwork for detecting redundant data. The existing chunking algorithm greatly reduces the system performance when confronted with big data and it wastes a lot of energy. Factors affecting the chunking performance are analyzed and discussed in the paper and a new fingerprint signature calculation is implemented. Furthermore, a Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy (BCCS is put forward. This strategy reduces the cost of signature computation in chunking process to improve the system performance and cuts down the energy consumption of the cloud storage data center. On the basis of relevant test scenarios and test data of this paper, the advantages of the chunking strategy are verified.
Performance analysis for the bit-error rate of SAC-OCDMA systems
Feng, Gang; Cheng, Wenqing; Chen, Fujun
2015-09-01
Under low power, Gaussian statistics by invoking the central limit theorem is feasible to predict the upper bound in the spectral-amplitude-coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) system. However, this case severely underestimates the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the system under high power assumption. Fortunately, the exact negative binomial (NB) model is a perfect replacement for the Gaussian model in the prediction and evaluation. Based on NB statistics, a more accurate closed-form expression is analyzed and derived for the SAC-OCDMA system. The experiment shows that the obtained expression provides a more precise prediction of the BER performance under the low and high power assumptions.
Augmentation du débit des liaisons radio hautes fréquences
Florens, Olivier
2005-01-01
Dans cette thèse nous étudions les limites théoriques du débit envisageable par transmission Hautes-Fréquences ainsi que les différentes techniques de modulation et démodulation adaptées au canal ionosphérique. La première partie est dédiée à la description des communications HF : Dans un premier chapitre, nous décrivons l'ionosphère et ses propriétés. Nous utilisons le modèle de Watterson pour décrire le canal de propagation ionosphérique. Le chapitre deux brosse un état de l'art des solutio...
Zeloufi, Mohamed; The ATLAS collaboration; Rarbi, Fatah-ellah
2015-01-01
We present a SAR ADC with a generalized redundant search algorithm offering the flexibility to relax the requirements on the DAC settling time. The redundancy allows also a digital background calibration, based on a code density analysis, to compensate the capacitors mismatching effects. The total of capacitors used in this architecture is limited to a half of the one in a classical SAR design. Only 2^11 unit capacitors were necessary to reach 12bits resolution, and the switching algorithm is intrinsically monotonic. The design is fully differential featuring 12-bit 40MS/s in a CMOS 130nm 1P8M process.
Bit-rate-transparent optical RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on linear spectral phase filtering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maram, Reza; Da Ros, Francesco; Guan, Pengyu
2017-01-01
We propose a novel and strikingly simple design for all-optical bit-rate-transparent RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal.......We propose a novel and strikingly simple design for all-optical bit-rate-transparent RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal....
Zeloufi, Mohamed; The ATLAS collaboration; Rarbi, Fatah-ellah
2015-01-01
This paper presents a SAR ADC with a generalized redundant search algorithm offering the flexibility to relax the requirements on the DAC settling time. The redundancy allows also a digital background calibration, based on a code density analysis, to compensate the capacitors mismatching effects. The total of capacitors used in this architecture is limited to a half of the one in a classical SAR design. Only 211 unit capacitors were necessary to reach 12bit resolution, and the switching algorithm is intrinsically monotonic. The design is fully differential featuring 12-bit 40MS/s in a CMOS 130nm 1P8M process.
One bit/s/Hz Spectrally Efficient Transmission for an Eight-Channel NRZ-Modulated DWDM System
Vij, Robin; Sharma, Neeraj
2016-03-01
The core of the global telecommunication network consists of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical transmission systems. WDM is the technology of choice as it allows for a high spectral efficiency. We propose an effective way to counter the nonlinearities like four-wave mixing and cross-phase modulation to achieve the spectral efficiency of 1 bit/s/Hz using non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. We use the concept of non-uniform channel spacing and non-uniform power assignment between adjacent channels of the WDM system. We have simulated an eight-channel WDM lightwave system with bit rates of 10 and 25 Gbit/s.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diez, S.; Mecozzi, A.; Mørk, Jesper
1999-01-01
We investigate the saturation properties of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. By varying the gain of the optical amplifier, we find a strong dependence of both conversion efficiency and signal-to-background ratio on pulse width and bit rate. In particu......We investigate the saturation properties of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. By varying the gain of the optical amplifier, we find a strong dependence of both conversion efficiency and signal-to-background ratio on pulse width and bit rate...
100G Flexible IM-DD 850 nm VCSEL Transceiver with Fractional Bit Rate Using Eight-Dimensional PAM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Xiaofeng; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Chorchos, Łukasz
2017-01-01
We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance.......We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Louvel, Guillaume; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen
2016-01-01
-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS). Here, we develop metaBIT, an open-source computational pipeline automatizing routine microbial profiling of shotgun HTS data. Customizable by the user at different stringency levels, it performs robust taxonomy-based assignment and relative abundance calculation of microbial taxa...... the diversity of outputs provided by the pipeline for the visualization of microbial profiles (barplots, heatmaps) and for their characterization and comparison (diversity indices, hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analyses). We show that metaBIT allows an automatic, fast and user...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gasselseder, Hans-Peter
2014-01-01
This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-report questionnaires of experiential states each time after playing the game 'Batman: Arkham City' in one of three randomized conditions accounting for [1] dynamic music, [2] non-dynamic music/low arousal potential and [3] non-dynamic music/high arousal potential, aiming to manipulate emotional arousal and structural......-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued...