WorldWideScience

Sample records for bit commitment protocols

  1. Quantum bit commitment protocol without quantum memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rubens Viana; Mendonca, Fabio Alencar

    2008-01-01

    Quantum protocols for bit commitment have been proposed and it is largely accepted that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is not possible; however, it can be more secure than classical bit commitment. In despite of its usefulness, quantum bit commitment protocols have not been experimentally implemented. The main reason is the fact that all proposed quantum bit commitment protocols require quantum memory. In this work, we show a quantum bit commitment protocol that does not requir...

  2. Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Fabio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed

  3. Quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Fábio Alencar; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we propose a quantum bit string commitment protocol using polarization of mesoscopic coherent states. The protocol is described and its security against brute force and quantum cloning machine attack is analyzed.

  4. Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2015-07-17

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and Bob each split into several agents exchanging classical information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. In this Letter we first revisit a previously proposed scheme [C. Crépeau et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7073, 407 (2011)] that realizes bit commitment using only classical communication. We prove that the protocol is secure against quantum adversaries for a duration limited by the light-speed communication time between the locations of the agents. We then propose a novel multiround scheme based on finite-field arithmetic that extends the commitment time beyond this limit, and we prove its security against classical attacks. Finally, we present an implementation of these protocols using dedicated hardware and we demonstrate a 2 ms-long bit commitment over a distance of 131 km. By positioning the agents on antipodal points on the surface of Earth, the commitment time could possibly be extended to 212 ms.

  5. Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  6. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  7. Implementation of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Á J; Stojanovic, A D; Paunković, N; Loura, R; Mateus, P; Muga, N J; Silva, N A; André, P S; Pinto, A N

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol, which is both concealing and partially binding, assuming technological limitations. The security of this protocol is based on the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We use a polarization-encoding scheme and optical fiber as a quantum channel. The measurement probability for the commitment is obtained and the optimal cheating strategy demonstrated. The average success rates for an honest player in the case where the measurements are performed using equal bases are 93.4%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 96.7%, when the diagonal basis is measured. The rates for the case when the measurements are performed in different bases are 52.9%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 55.4% when the diagonal basis is measured. The average success rates for the optimal cheating strategy are 80% and 73.8%, which are way below the success rates of an honest player. Using a strict numerical validity criterion, we show that, for these experimental values, the protocol is secure. (paper)

  8. Bit-commitment-based quantum coin flipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Ashwin; Shor, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we focus on a special framework for quantum coin-flipping protocols, bit-commitment-based protocols, within which almost all known protocols fit. We show a lower bound of 1/16 for the bias in any such protocol. We also analyze a sequence of multiround protocols that tries to overcome the drawbacks of the previously proposed protocols in order to lower the bias. We show an intricate cheating strategy for this sequence, which leads to a bias of 1/4. This indicates that a bias of 1/4 might be optimal in such protocols, and also demonstrates that a more clever proof technique may be required to show this optimality

  9. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  10. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-23

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  11. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  12. Device-independent bit commitment based on the CHSH inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharon, N; Massar, S; Pironio, S; Silman, J

    2016-01-01

    Bit commitment and coin flipping occupy a unique place in the device-independent landscape, as the only device-independent protocols thus far suggested for these tasks are reliant on tripartite GHZ correlations. Indeed, we know of no other bipartite tasks, which admit a device-independent formulation, but which are not known to be implementable using only bipartite nonlocality. Another interesting feature of these protocols is that the pseudo-telepathic nature of GHZ correlations—in contrast to the generally statistical character of nonlocal correlations, such as those arising in the violation of the CHSH inequality—is essential to their formulation and analysis. In this work, we present a device-independent bit commitment protocol based on CHSH testing, which achieves the same security as the optimal GHZ-based protocol, albeit at the price of fixing the time at which Alice reveals her commitment. The protocol is analyzed in the most general settings, where the devices are used repeatedly and may have long-term quantum memory. We also recast the protocol in a post-quantum setting where both honest and dishonest parties are restricted only by the impossibility of signaling, and find that overall the supra-quantum structure allows for greater security. (paper)

  13. Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2007-01-01

    Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory

  14. Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2007-09-01

    Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed “honest” strategy, so that “anonymous state protocols,” which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver’s laboratory.

  15. Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.

  16. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.

  17. A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiribella, Giulio, E-mail: gchiribella@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University (China); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro, E-mail: dariano@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Perinotti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.perinotti@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Schlingemann, Dirk, E-mail: d.schlingemann@tu-bs.de [ISI Foundation, Quantum Information Theory Unit, Viale S. Severo 65, 10133 Torino (Italy); Werner, Reinhard, E-mail: Reinhard.Werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-17

    Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C{sup ⁎}-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.

  18. How to Convert a Flavor of Quantum Bit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crepeau, Claude; Legare, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we show how to convert a statistically binding but computationally concealing quantum bit commitment scheme into a computationally binding but statistically concealing QBC scheme. For a security parameter n, the construction of the statistically concealing scheme requires O(n2......) executions of the statistically binding scheme. As a consequence, statistically concealing but computationally binding quantum bit commitments can be based upon any family of quantum one-way functions. Such a construction is not known to exist in the classical world....

  19. A new approach to quantum oblivious transfer and quantum bit commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Minh-Dung; Bellot, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this communication, we present our works on building quantum OT and BC protocols. The starting idea is to use non-orthogonal instead of orthogonal quantum states (|0>, |1>) to encode classical bits. Based on this coding, we propose a Weak Quantum Oblivious Transfer protocol, and by extending Crepeau's works, we can create a Quantum One-out-of-two Oblivious Transfer protocol that is secure against Alice and Bob cheating. A regular Bit Commitment protocol can then be built from our OOT protocol. Although the unconditional security of our BC and OOT protocols seem to contradict Mayers and Lo-Chau theorems, we conjecture that our protocols do not fit in the models of Mayers and Lo-Chau. (author)

  20. An Information-Theoretic Perspective on the Quantum Bit Commitment Impossibility Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nagy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a different approach to pinpoint the causes for which an unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocol cannot be realized, beyond the technical details on which the proof of Mayers’ no-go theorem is constructed. We have adopted the tools of quantum entropy analysis to investigate the conditions under which the security properties of quantum bit commitment can be circumvented. Our study has revealed that cheating the binding property requires the quantum system acting as the safe to harbor the same amount of uncertainty with respect to both observers (Alice and Bob as well as the use of entanglement. Our analysis also suggests that the ability to cheat one of the two fundamental properties of bit commitment by any of the two participants depends on how much information is leaked from one side of the system to the other and how much remains hidden from the other participant.

  1. Possibility, impossibility, and cheat sensitivity of quantum-bit string commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Christandl, M.; Hayden, P.; Lo, H.-K.; Wehner, S.

    2008-01-01

    Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum worlds. But when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this paper, we introduce a framework for quantum schemes where Alice commits

  2. Managing the Number of Tag Bits Transmitted in a Bit-Tracking RFID Collision Resolution Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Landaluce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology faces the problem of message collisions. The coexistence of tags sharing the communication channel degrades bandwidth, and increases the number of bits transmitted. The window methodology, which controls the number of bits transmitted by the tags, is applied to the collision tree (CT protocol to solve the tag collision problem. The combination of this methodology with the bit-tracking technology, used in CT, improves the performance of the window and produces a new protocol which decreases the number of bits transmitted. The aim of this paper is to show how the CT bit-tracking protocol is influenced by the proposed window, and how the performance of the novel protocol improves under different conditions of the scenario. Therefore, we have performed a fair comparison of the CT protocol, which uses bit-tracking to identify the first collided bit, and the new proposed protocol with the window methodology. Simulations results show that the proposed window positively decreases the total number of bits that are transmitted by the tags, and outperforms the CT protocol latency in slow tag data rate scenarios.

  3. Managing the number of tag bits transmitted in a bit-tracking RFID collision resolution protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaluce, Hugo; Perallos, Asier; Angulo, Ignacio

    2014-01-08

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology faces the problem of message collisions. The coexistence of tags sharing the communication channel degrades bandwidth, and increases the number of bits transmitted. The window methodology, which controls the number of bits transmitted by the tags, is applied to the collision tree (CT) protocol to solve the tag collision problem. The combination of this methodology with the bit-tracking technology, used in CT, improves the performance of the window and produces a new protocol which decreases the number of bits transmitted. The aim of this paper is to show how the CT bit-tracking protocol is influenced by the proposed window, and how the performance of the novel protocol improves under different conditions of the scenario. Therefore, we have performed a fair comparison of the CT protocol, which uses bit-tracking to identify the first collided bit, and the new proposed protocol with the window methodology. Simulations results show that the proposed window positively decreases the total number of bits that are transmitted by the tags, and outperforms the CT protocol latency in slow tag data rate scenarios.

  4. Serial composition of quantum coin flipping and bounds on cheat detection for bit commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochon, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Quantum protocols for coin flipping can be composed in series in such a way that a cheating party gains no extra advantage from using entanglement between different rounds. This composition principle applies to coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity as well, and is used to derive two results: There are no quantum strong coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity that is linear in the bias (or bit-commitment protocols with linear cheat detection) because these can be composed to produce strong coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias. On the other hand, it appears that quadratic cheat detection cannot be composed in series to obtain even weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias

  5. Simple proof of the impossibility of bit commitment in generalized probabilistic theories using cone programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Jamie; Selby, John

    2018-04-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob such that she cannot later change the value of the bit, while, simultaneously, the bit is hidden from Bob. It is known that ideal bit commitment is impossible within quantum theory. In this work, we show that it is also impossible in generalized probabilistic theories (under a small set of assumptions) by presenting a quantitative trade-off between Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities. Our proof relies crucially on a formulation of cheating strategies as cone programs, a natural generalization of semidefinite programs. In fact, using the generality of this technique, we prove that this result holds for the more general task of integer commitment.

  6. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  7. Cheat-sensitive commitment of a classical bit coded in a block of m × n round-trip qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kaoru; Fukasaka, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes a quantum protocol for a cheat-sensitive commitment of a classical bit. Alice, the receiver of the bit, can examine dishonest Bob, who changes or postpones his choice. Bob, the sender of the bit, can examine dishonest Alice, who violates concealment. For each round-trip case, Alice sends one of two spin states |S±⟩ by choosing basis S at random from two conjugate bases X and Y. Bob chooses basis C ∈ {X,Y} to perform a measurement and returns a resultant state |C±⟩. Alice then performs a measurement with the other basis R (≠S) and obtains an outcome |R±⟩. In the opening phase, she can discover dishonest Bob, who unveils a wrong basis with a faked spin state, or Bob can discover dishonest Alice, who infers basis C but destroys |C±⟩ by setting R to be identical to S in the commitment phase. If a classical bit is coded in a block of m × n qubit particles, impartial examinations and probabilistic security criteria can be achieved.

  8. Cheat-sensitive commitment of a classical bit coded in a block of mxn round-trip qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kaoru; Fukasaka, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a quantum protocol for a cheat-sensitive commitment of a classical bit. Alice, the receiver of the bit, can examine dishonest Bob, who changes or postpones his choice. Bob, the sender of the bit, can examine dishonest Alice, who violates concealment. For each round-trip case, Alice sends one of two spin states |S±> by choosing basis S at random from two conjugate bases X and Y. Bob chooses basis C is an element of {X,Y} to perform a measurement and returns a resultant state |C±>. Alice then performs a measurement with the other basis R (≠S) and obtains an outcome |R±>. In the opening phase, she can discover dishonest Bob, who unveils a wrong basis with a faked spin state, or Bob can discover dishonest Alice, who infers basis C but destroys |C±> by setting R to be identical to S in the commitment phase. If a classical bit is coded in a block of mxn qubit particles, impartial examinations and probabilistic security criteria can be achieved.

  9. Cheat-sensitive commitment of a classical bit coded in a block of mxn round-trip qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kaoru; Fukasaka, Hiroyuki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Tamaki, Kiyoshi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), 4-2-1 Nukui-kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Imoto, Nobuyuki [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    This paper proposes a quantum protocol for a cheat-sensitive commitment of a classical bit. Alice, the receiver of the bit, can examine dishonest Bob, who changes or postpones his choice. Bob, the sender of the bit, can examine dishonest Alice, who violates concealment. For each round-trip case, Alice sends one of two spin states |S{+-}> by choosing basis S at random from two conjugate bases X and Y. Bob chooses basis C is an element of {l_brace}X,Y{r_brace} to perform a measurement and returns a resultant state |C{+-}>. Alice then performs a measurement with the other basis R ({ne}S) and obtains an outcome |R{+-}>. In the opening phase, she can discover dishonest Bob, who unveils a wrong basis with a faked spin state, or Bob can discover dishonest Alice, who infers basis C but destroys |C{+-}> by setting R to be identical to S in the commitment phase. If a classical bit is coded in a block of mxn qubit particles, impartial examinations and probabilistic security criteria can be achieved.

  10. Comment on "Cheat-sensitive commitment of a classical bit coded in a block of m ×n round-trip qubits"

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang Ping

    2014-05-01

    We found a cheating strategy for the quantum cheat-sensitive bit commitment protocol proposed in Phys. Rev. A 84, 022308 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.022308. It enables the receiver of the commitment to cheat with a probability not less than 1/2, no matter what values are chosen for the security parameters in the protocol. More interestingly, the probability for successful cheating will rise as the number n of the particles used in the protocol increases and will be arbitrarily close to 100% in the limit n →∞.

  11. Bit Level Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multireader RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namboodiri Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multiple RFID readers in close proximity results in interference between the readers. This issue is termed the reader collision problem and cannot always be solved by assigning them to different frequency channels due to technical and regulatory limitations. The typical solution is to separate the operation of such readers across time. This sequential operation, however, results in a long delay to identify all tags. We present a bit level synchronized (BLSync MAC protocol for multi-reader RFID networks that allows multiple readers to operate simultaneously on the same frequency channel. The BLSync protocol solves the reader collision problem by allowing all readers to transmit the same query at the same time. We analyze the performance of using the BLSync protocol and demonstrate benefits of 40%–50% in terms of tag reading delay for most settings. The benefits of BLSync, first demonstrated through analysis, are then validated and quantified through simulations on realistic reader-tag layouts.

  12. EnhancedBit: Unleashing the potential of the unchoking policy in the BitTorrent  protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Atlidakis, V; Delis, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modification to the BitTorrent protocol related to its peer unchoking policy. In particular, we apply a novel optimistic unchoking approach that improves the quality of inter-connections amongst peers, i.e., increases the number of directly-connected and interested-in-cooperation peers without penalizing underutilized and/or idle peers. Our optimistic unchoking policy takes into consideration the number of clients currently interested in downloading from a peer that is to be unchoked. Our conjecture is that peers having few clients interested in downloading data from them, should be favored with optimistic unchoke intervals. This enables the peers in question to receive data since they become unchoked faster and in turn, they will trigger the interest of additional clients. In contrast, peers with plenty of "interested" clients should enjoy a lower priority to be selected as planned optimistic unchoked, since these peers likely have enough data to forward; nevertheless, they receiv...

  13. A Formal Verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol in the Calculus of Constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezem, M.A.; Groote, J.F.

    We report on a formal verification of the Alternating Bit Protocol (ABP) in the Calculus of Constructions. We outline a semi-formal correctness proof of the ABP with sufficient detail to be formalised. Thereafter we show by examples how the formalised proof has been verified by the automated proof

  14. Options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Niklas; Phylipsen, Dian; Ullrich, Simone; Blok, Kornelis

    2005-02-15

    This study assesses available options for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The study includes the following sections: An introduction, an overview of proposals and establishing a network, analysis of interests of countries, selected country case studies, an overview of the issues to be considered, options for adaptation to climate change, a new approach ''Common but Differentiated Convergence'', an update of the Triptych approach, a comprehensive compromise proposal, the comparison of emission allowances under various approaches and a negotiation strategy for the EU and Germany. (orig.)

  15. Linear transceiver design for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol using a bit error rate criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2014-04-01

    The ever growing demand of higher data rates can now be addressed by exploiting cooperative diversity. This form of diversity has become a fundamental technique for achieving spatial diversity by exploiting the presence of idle users in the network. This has led to new challenges in terms of designing new protocols and detectors for cooperative communications. Among various amplify-and-forward (AF) protocols, the half duplex non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) protocol is superior to other AF schemes in terms of error performance and capacity. However, this superiority is achieved at the cost of higher receiver complexity. Furthermore, in order to exploit the full diversity of the system an optimal precoder is required. In this paper, an optimal joint linear transceiver is proposed for the NAF protocol. This transceiver operates on the principles of minimum bit error rate (BER), and is referred as joint bit error rate (JBER) detector. The BER performance of JBER detector is superior to all the proposed linear detectors such as channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, the biased maximum likelihood detectors, and the minimum mean square error. The proposed transceiver also outperforms previous precoders designed for the NAF protocol. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  16. Supporting Symmetric 128-bit AES in Networked Embedded Systems: An Elliptic Curve Key Establishment Protocol-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Duraisamy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The secure establishment of cryptographic keys for symmetric encryption via key agreement protocols enables nodes in a network of embedded systems and remote agents to communicate securely in an insecure environment. In this paper, we propose a pure hardware implementation of a key agreement protocol, which uses the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellmann and digital signature algorithms and enables two parties, a remote agent and a networked embedded system, to establish a 128-bit symmetric key for encryption of all transmitted data via the advanced encryption scheme (AES. The resulting implementation is a protocol-on-chip that supports full 128-bit equivalent security (PoC-128. The PoC-128 has been implemented in an FPGA, but it can also be used as an IP within different embedded applications. As 128-bit security is conjectured valid for the foreseeable future, the PoC-128 goes well beyond the state of art in securing networked embedded devices.

  17. The roles of parties with different commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and implications for NAFTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauteux, P.

    2002-01-01

    A government perspective on climate change negotiations was presented with particular reference to Canada's cleaner energy exports, the Kyoto mechanism and the second commitment period. The author emphasized the importance of cleaner energy exports for Canada, although progress is likely to be slow in this area because of the opposition among other Parties. Whatever approach the United States takes to trading, it must be compatible with the Kyoto Protocol. Eligibility for trading in North America was discussed with reference to what effect Canada's ratification of the Protocol would have on energy exports. It was noted that if Canada ratifies, it could be both a buyer and a seller, whereas the United States could only buy and Mexico could only sell. The author also suggested that developing countries or major emitters should take on commitments in order to provide greater compatibility in the North American context, especially if the United States rejoined the Kyoto Protocol

  18. Distributed automata in an assumption-commitment framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We model examples like reliable bit transmission and sequence transmission protocols in this framework and discuss how assumption-commitment structure facilitates compositional design of such protocols. We prove a decomposition theorem which states that every protocol specified globally as a finite state system can ...

  19. Projected balance of units during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L. [Ministry for the Environment, Wellington (New Zealand); Patterson, K. [Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington (New Zealand); Rys, G. [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2005-05-15

    This report updates New Zealand's projected emissions and removals of greenhouse gases during the first commitment period (2008-2012) of the Kyoto Protocol. The update is based on the latest national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and removals submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change secretariat on 15 April 2005. As at May 2005, New Zealand is projected to have deficit of units over the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The balance of units is projected to range between -11.3 Mt CO2e (95% CI) under an optimistic scenario and -62.6 Mt CO2e (95% CI) under a pessimistic scenario. The best estimate of the balance of units is -36.2 Mt CO2e. There is a range of 51Mt CO2e between the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. This uncertainty reflects the difficulty in modelling the complex interactions of the New Zealand energy sector, projecting agricultural markets and animal productivity, estimating the reductions from the climate change policy package and predicting removals from forest sinks prior to the New Zealand Carbon Accounting System being operational. In addition, a review has highlighted that a number of improvements are required in the model used for CO2 emissions from the energy and industrial processes sector. The updated projection shows a substantial decrease from the 32.6 Mt CO2e surplus in the previous projection (May 2004) and the 55 Mt CO2e surplus projected prior to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The decrease from the 2004 projection is due primarily to an increase in projected energy and industrial processes emissions and a decrease in the removals via forest sinks. The decrease in removals is due to the quantification of previously unknown risks and updating of previous estimates with improved scientific information.

  20. Projected balance of emissions units during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wear, S. [Ministry for the Environment, Wellington (New Zealand); Gardiner, P.; Lane, P.; Rys, G. [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Wellington (New Zealand); Tsui, K.; Wilkinson, D.; Samuelson, R. [Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2006-06-15

    This report updates New Zealand's projected quantity of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases during the first commitment period (2008-2012) of the Kyoto Protocol. The report is known as the 'net position' report. The projected quantity of emissions and removals is a core component of New Zealand's projected financial surplus or deficit over the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The other components are the international price of emissions units and the exchange rate between the New Zealand and United States currencies. The report is a compilation of sectoral projections from across Government. Agricultural and forest sink projections are provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, energy and industrial processes projections are from the Ministry of Economic Development and waste projections are from the Ministry for the Environment. The Ministry for the Environment combines the sectoral projections to create the projected balance of units. This report includes the effects of refinements in modelling process and updated assumptions on variables such as economic growth, population growth and oil prices as at May 2006. The projections use the latest information from the national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and removals submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat on 13 April 2006 (MfE 2006 in press). The projections reported in this document reflect the Government's decision not to proceed with the previously announced carbon tax in December 2005, but do not reflect any impact from the new work programmes being considered by the Government at the time of publication. The projections therefore reflect the climate change policy settings in place at the end of 2005. The net position report provides a projection of greenhouse gas emissions for 2008-2012 relative to total emissions in the base year of 1990. In comparison, the national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions

  1. How the negotiators tackled the 'hot air' issue for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    In 1997, when the Kyoto Protocol was approved, developed countries set their greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction commitments in relation to a 'base year' level. For the Kyoto Protocol, the year 1990 was chosen in most cases. However, irrespective of GHG mitigation action, the countries of the former Soviet Union have seen their emissions of greenhouse gases significantly decreasing after the collapse of the USSR. Given that their emissions were and still are today far below the commitments they established in 1997, these countries have a significant surplus of allowances referred to as 'hot air'. Before the COP 18 that took place in Doha (Qatar) late 2012, many countries and observers raised concern about this 'hot air'. Typically, there were two separate questions: What should we do with the accumulated surplus from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (CP1)? And will a new 'hot air' be created during the second commitment period (CP2)? This analysis explores the implications of the decisions made in Doha, using the case of Ukraine to illustrate responses to the questions raised. Indeed, as the European Union regulation forbids European countries to use CP1 units to achieve CP2 targets, Ukraine is the principal country committing to CP2 with a substantial reserve of CP1 units

  2. The observance of the Kyoto Protocol on climate changes: stakes of the international control of compliance with commitments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, S.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents the conclusions of multidisciplinary research which has examined the relationship between the Kyoto protocol's observance mechanisms (control of compliance of commitments and sanction in case of non compliance) and the more conventional mechanisms of international conflict solving. It also examines the peculiar characteristics of these mechanisms, whether legal or not. Finally, the author examines the impact of the adopted procedure, and whether it is constraining

  3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Three Case Studies Exemplifying a Unified Treatment Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.; Arch, Joanna; Espejo, Emmanuel; Keller, Melody; Langer, David

    2009-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes. As applied to…

  4. Improving the security of quantum protocols via commit-and-open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. Damgård (Ivan); S. Fehr (Serge); C. Luneman; L. Salvail (Louis); C. Schaffner (Christian)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider two-party quantum protocols starting with a transmission of some random BB84 qubits followed by classical messages. We show a general compiler improving the security of such protocols: if the original protocol is secure against an almost honest adversary, then the

  5. From Kyoto to Copenhagen: Rethinking the Place of Flexible Mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol's post 2012 Commitment Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola S. Olawuyi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Amidst debates between the North and the South, Emission Trading (ET, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, and Joint Implementation (JI were adopted as flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. These mechanisms allow developed countries to meet their emission reduction targets by investing in clean projects in other countries of their choice. The implementation of these mechanisms have however been faced with many problems which cast doubts on their efficacy as viable options for combating climate change. One main criticism of these mechanisms is that they lead to a trade off between sustainability and emission reduction. This paper examines the efficiency of these mechanisms in combating climate change. It reviews the main criticisms of the flexibility mechanisms in an attempt to answer the question whether the flexibility idea should still be retained as part of the post 2012 commitments. While arguing in favor of flexibility, this paper offers ideas on how their effectiveness can be enhanced in the post 2012 commitment period.

  6. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Xiujie Qu; Zhongkai Cao; Zhanjie Yang

    2013-01-01

    In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB) first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB) first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical...

  7. Linear, Constant-rounds Bit-decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reistad, Tord; Toft, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    When performing secure multiparty computation, tasks may often be simple or difficult depending on the representation chosen. Hence, being able to switch representation efficiently may allow more efficient protocols. We present a new protocol for bit-decomposition: converting a ring element x ∈ ℤ M...

  8. 8 bit computer

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovskij, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the author looks into an eight bit computer structure and the computers components, their structure, pros and cons. An eight bit computer which can execute basic instructions and arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction of eight bit numbers is built out of integrated circuits. Data transfers between computer components are monitored and reviewed.

  9. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  10. 32-Bit FASTBUS computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blossom, J.M.; Hong, J.P.; Kellner, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building a 32-bit FASTBUS computer using the NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR 32032 central processing unit (CPU) and containing 16 million bytes of memory. The board can act both as a FASTBUS master and as a FASTBUS slave. It contains a custom direct memory access (DMA) channel which can perform 80 million bytes per second block transfers across the FASTBUS

  11. low bit rate video coding low bit rate video coding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Variable length bit rate (VLBR) ariable length bit rate (VLBR) ariable length bit rate (VLBR) broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses video coding which broadly encompasses video coding which mandates a temporal frequency of 10 mandates a temporal frequency of 10 frames per frames per ...

  12. How to deal with malleability of BitCoin transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrychowicz, Marcin; Dziembowski, Stefan; Malinowski, Daniel; Mazurek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    BitCoin transactions are malleable in a sense that given a transaction an adversary can easily construct an equivalent transaction which has a different hash. This can pose a serious problem in some BitCoin distributed contracts in which changing a transaction's hash may result in the protocol disruption and a financial loss. The problem mostly concerns protocols, which use a "refund" transaction to withdraw a deposit in a case of the protocol interruption. In this short note, we show a gener...

  13. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical deduction. The recursive formula is applicable to any number of bits processed in parallel and any series of generator polynomial. According to the formula, we present the parallel circuit of CRC calculation and implement it with VHDL on FPGA. The results verify the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.

  14. Quantum dynamics of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2011-01-01

    The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)

  15. [Associative commitments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulet, Marie-Claire

    2017-12-01

    Volunteering to serve the general interest, that is the profession of faith behind associative commitments. Notably, actions by associations undertaken in favour of organ donation today must, in their content and forms, reconcile tradition and modernity. But they keep their driving principles and values intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A Rational Threshold Signature Model and Protocol Based on Different Permissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel model and protocol used in some specific scenarios, in which the participants of multiple groups with different permissions can finish the signature together. We apply the secret sharing scheme based on difference equation to the private key distribution phase and secret reconstruction phrase of our threshold signature scheme. In addition, our scheme can achieve the signature success because of the punishment strategy of the repeated rational secret sharing. Besides, the bit commitment and verification method used to detect players’ cheating behavior acts as a contributing factor to prevent the internal fraud. Using bit commitments, verifiable parameters, and time sequences, this paper constructs a dynamic game model, which has the features of threshold signature management with different permissions, cheat proof, and forward security.

  17. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents three main results for a holistic approach to bit preservation, where the ultimate goal is to find the optimal bit preservation strategy for specific digital material that must be digitally preserved. Digital material consists of sequences of bits, where a bit is a binary digit...... which can have the value 0 or 1. Bit preservation must ensure that the bits remain intact and readable in the future, but bit preservation is not concerned with how bits can be interpreted as e.g. an image. A holistic approach to bit preservation includes aspects that influence the final choice of a bit...... preservation strategy. This can be aspects of how the permanent access to the digital material must be ensured. It can also be aspects of how the material must be treated as part of using it. This includes aspects related to how the digital material to be bit preserved is represented, as well as requirements...

  18. Bits and q-bits as versatility measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R.C. Piqueira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Shannon information theory is a common strategy to measure any kind of variability in a signal or phenomenon. Some methods were developed to adapt information entropy measures to bird song data trying to emphasize its versatility aspect. This classical approach, using the concept of bit, produces interesting results. Now, the original idea developed in this paper is to use the quantum information theory and the quantum bit (q-bit concept in order to provide a more complete vision of the experimental results.Usar a teoria da informação de Shannon é uma estratégia comum para medir todo tipo de variabilidade em um sinal ou fenômeno. Alguns métodos foram desenvolvidos para adaptar a medida de entropia informacional a dados de cantos de pássaro, tentando enfatizar seus aspectos de versatilidade. Essa abordagem clássica, usando o conceito de bit, produz resultados interessantes. Agora, a idéia original desenvolvida neste artigo é usar a teoria quântica da informação e o conceito de q-bit, com a finalidade de proporcionar uma visão mais completa dos resultados experimentais.

  19. Gender and Climate Change. Input from Women to Governments Preparing their Submissions Regarding Article 3.9. Consideration of Commitments for Subsequent Periods for Annex I Parties of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The climate change debate in general, and the development of future commitments under the Kyoto Protocol needs to be set firmly into the context of Sustainable Development. Its three pillars - environmental, social and economic - and the Principles of the Rio Declaration should serve as the overall framework for developing fair and effective policies for mitigation and adaptation. Therefore, the preparations for the 2nd commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol need to draw upon experiences, indicators, and other tools developed in international sustainable development processes as well as regional and national sustainable development strategies. Despite its status and development within the United Nations international system, climate change policymaking has failed to adopt a gender-sensitive strategy. This failure not only generates concern in terms of respect for gender equity at the international level, it also leads to shortcomings in the efficiency and effectiveness of climate related measures and instruments. Without a gender-sensitive method of analysis, it is impossible to determine the full set of causes and potential effects of climate change. Furthermore, studies have shown that women and men experience climate change differently in terms of their adaptability, responsibility, vulnerability and aptitude for mitigation. Therefore, the international climate change negotiation process - as well as climate policies at regional, national and local levels - must adopt the principles of gender equity at all stages: from research, to analysis, and the design and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies. This applies in particular to the process towards a post-2012 climate protection system or 'regime'. Participation of women and gender experts in the international climate change has been minimal at most COPs (Conferences of Parties). However, in order to ensure gender mainstreaming in the post-2012 discussions, it is important to draw upon the

  20. Statistical secrecy and multibit commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Pedersen, Torben P.; Pfitzmann, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    We present and compare definitions of "statistically hiding" protocols, and we propose a novel statistically hiding commitment scheme. Informally, a protocol statistically hides a secret if a computationally unlimited adversary who conducts the protocol with the owner of the secret learns almost...... nothing about it. One definition is based on the L1-norm distance between probability distributions, the other on information theory. We prove that the two definitions are essentially equivalent. We also show that statistical counterparts of definitions of computational secrecy are essentially equivalent...

  1. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...

  2. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a sesame seed, and are tan to gray in color. Lice need to suck a tiny bit of blood to survive, and they sometimes live on people's heads and lay eggs in the hair , on the back of the neck, or behind ...

  3. Implementation of two-party protocols in the noisy-storage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Curty, Marcos; Schaffner, Christian; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    The noisy-storage model allows the implementation of secure two-party protocols under the sole assumption that no large-scale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. No quantum storage is thereby required for the honest parties. Examples of such protocols include bit commitment, oblivious transfer, and secure identification. Here, we provide a guideline for the practical implementation of such protocols. In particular, we analyze security in a practical setting where the honest parties themselves are unable to perform perfect operations and need to deal with practical problems such as errors during transmission and detector inefficiencies. We provide explicit security parameters for two different experimental setups using weak coherent, and parametric down-conversion sources. In addition, we analyze a modification of the protocols based on decoy states.

  4. Data Integrity Protocol for Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Durresi, Arjan; Paruchuri, Vamsi; Kannan, Rajgopal; Iyengar, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel lightweight protocol for data integrity in wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a leapfrog strategy in which each cluster head verifies if its previous node has preserved the integrity of the packet using the secret key it shares with two hop uptree nodes. The proposed protocol is simple. The analysis and simulation results show that the protocol needs very few header bits, as low as three bits, thus resulting in negligible bandwidth overhead; t...

  5. Research on bit synchronization based on GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanran; Liu, Yi-jun

    2017-05-01

    The signals transmitted by GPS satellites are divided into three components: carrier, pseudocode and data code. The processes of signal acquisition are acquisition, tracking, bit synchronization, frame synchronization, navigation message extraction, observation extraction and position speed calculation, among which bit synchronization is of greatest importance. The accuracy of bit synchronization and the shortening of bit synchronization time can help us to use satellite to realize positioning and acquire the information transmitted by satellite signals more accurately. Even under the condition of weak signal, how to improve bit synchronization performance is what we need to research. We adopt a method of polymorphic energy accumulation minima so as to find the bit synchronization point, as well as complete the computer simulation to conclude that under the condition of extremely weak signal power, this method still has superior synchronization performance, which can achieve high bit edge detection rate and the optimal bit error rate.

  6. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which...... is to keep bits intact and readable, is far more complex than first anticipated, even in this narrow definition. This paper takes a more holistic approach to bit preservation, and looks at how an optimal bit preservation strategy can be found, when requirements like confidentiality, availability and costs...... are taken into account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the various findings from previous research which have led to the holistic approach to bit preservation. This paper also includes an introduction to digital preservation with a focus on the role of bit preservation, which sets...

  7. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  8. Quantum protocols within Spekkens' toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disilvestro, Leonardo; Markham, Damian

    2017-05-01

    Quantum mechanics is known to provide significant improvements in information processing tasks when compared to classical models. These advantages range from computational speedups to security improvements. A key question is where these advantages come from. The toy model developed by Spekkens [R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032110] mimics many of the features of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and no cloning, regarded as being important in this regard, despite being a local hidden variable theory. In this work, we study several protocols within Spekkens' toy model where we see it can also mimic the advantages and limitations shown in the quantum case. We first provide explicit proofs for the impossibility of toy bit commitment and the existence of a toy error correction protocol and consequent k -threshold secret sharing. Then, defining a toy computational model based on the quantum one-way computer, we prove the existence of blind and verified protocols. Importantly, these two last quantum protocols are known to achieve a better-than-classical security. Our results suggest that such quantum improvements need not arise from any Bell-type nonlocality or contextuality, but rather as a consequence of steering correlations.

  9. A Methodology and Tool for Investigation of Artifacts Left by the BitTorrent Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The BitTorrent client application is a popular utility for sharing large files over the Internet. Sometimes, this powerful utility is used to commit cybercrimes, like sharing of illegal material or illegal sharing of legal material. In order to help forensics investigators to fight against these cybercrimes, we carried out an investigation of the artifacts left by the BitTorrent client. We proposed a methodology to locate the artifacts that indicate the BitTorrent client activity performed. Additionally, we designed and implemented a tool that searches for the evidence left by the BitTorrent client application in a local computer running Windows. The tool looks for the four files holding the evidence. The files are as follows: *.torrent, dht.dat, resume.dat, and settings.dat. The tool decodes the files, extracts important information for the forensic investigator and converts it into XML format. The results are combined into a single result file.

  10. Kyoto protocol: analysis of options for further development of commitments for the second commitment period. Part ''sinks in the second commitment period''; Kyoto-Protokoll: Untersuchung von Optionen fuer die Weiterentwicklung der Verpflichtungen fuer die 2. Verpflichtungsperiode. Teilvorhaben ''Senken in der 2. Verpflichtungsperiode''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Freibauer, Annette [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Matthes, Felix Christian; Herold, Anke [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Wouters, Frank; Hoehne, Niklas [ECOFYS GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The project aimed at developing and analysing options for commitments in a future climate regime with focus on land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF). Based on experiences from the past international negotiations and the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), options for core rules were described and analysed according to a catalogue of criteria for environmental and and political success. A literature review, own calculations and a model developed in the frame of the project for calculating forest management effects on carbon stock changes in biomass, soil and wood products were used to quantitatively determine the potential carbon sources and sinks by afforestation, deforestation, forestry and agricultural management in important countries and globally for the next decades, up to one century. The results show that forest management determines the future role of the LULUCF sector in Annex-I countries. The magnitude of future carbon sinks is driven by the age structure of the forests and follows region specific trends. Emissions from deforestation in Non-Annex-I countries exceed by far the potential carbon sinks in managed forests of Annex-I countries. It will be essential for future negotiations to clarify first the accounting rules for carbon sources and sinks in agriculture, forests and other land uses and the relation between the LULUCF sector and other sectors before quantitative emission limitation targets are set. This is even more important in light of a potential integration of emission reductions from deforestation and degradation in a future carbon trading scheme. Experiences with the past national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC demonstrate that the LULUCF sector could in the future be treated in the same way as the other sectors. National trends in carbon sources and sinks in forests and from deforestation and degradation need to be considered when future emission limitation targets

  11. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  12. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, R. N. J.; Kevenaar, T. A. M.; Akkermans, A. H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP) approach and a greedy search (GS) approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  13. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  14. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often....... The findings in this paper are contextualized through a qualitative ethnographic research design based on Danish cemetery users and mourners and their different experiences with and attitudes towards new online grief, mourning and remembrance designs, platforms, services and initiatives. Additionally...... constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with digital and symbolic 'death...

  15. FastBit Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng

    2007-08-02

    An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.

  16. Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrand, Christopher J. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Skeem, Marcus R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Crockett, Ron B. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Hall, David R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-04-29

    The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.

  17. Guaranteed energy-efficient bit reset in finite time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cormac; Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-09-05

    Landauer's principle states that it costs at least kBTln2 of work to reset one bit in the presence of a heat bath at temperature T. The bound of kBTln2 is achieved in the unphysical infinite-time limit. Here we ask what is possible if one is restricted to finite-time protocols. We prove analytically that it is possible to reset a bit with a work cost close to kBTln2 in a finite time. We construct an explicit protocol that achieves this, which involves thermalizing and changing the system's Hamiltonian so as to avoid quantum coherences. Using concepts and techniques pertaining to single-shot statistical mechanics, we furthermore prove that the heat dissipated is exponentially close to the minimal amount possible not just on average, but guaranteed with high confidence in every run. Moreover, we exploit the protocol to design a quantum heat engine that works near the Carnot efficiency in finite time.

  18. Distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Bauer, Kevin; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2011-01-01

    distribution across game titles and game genres. This paper presents the first large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution of digital game titles, which was conducted by monitoring the BitTorrent peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing protocol. The sample includes 173 games and a collection period of three......The practice of illegally copying and distributing digital games is at the heart of one of the most heated and divisive debates in the international games environment. Despite the substantial interest in game piracy, there is very little objective information available about its magnitude or its...

  19. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  20. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth / For Kids / Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Print en español ¡ ...

  1. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped...... with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth...... images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed...

  2. PERBANDINGAN APLIKASI MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMELLIA 128 BIT KEY DAN 256 BIT KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Sutanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the Internet today to easily exchange data. This leads to high levels of risk in the data piracy. One of the ways to secure data is using cryptography camellia. Camellia is known as a method that has the encryption and decryption time is fast. Camellia method has three kinds of scale key is 128 bit, 192 bit, and 256 bit.This application is created using the C++ programming language and using visual studio 2010 GUI. This research compare the smallest and largest key size used on the file extension .Txt, .Doc, .Docx, .Jpg, .Mp4, .Mkv and .Flv. This application is made to comparing time and level of security in the use of 128-bit key and 256 bits. The comparison is done by comparing the results of the security value of avalanche effect 128 bit key and 256 bit key.

  3. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    NATO: Revisiting American Commitment by Captain Thomas F Hurley II United States Navy United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO: Revisiting American Commitment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the 21st century. The strategic benefit to the United States may no longer be worth the commitment to the alliance. The U.S. should reevaluate its

  4. Bit-string scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-29

    We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Bit-string scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc 2 in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are ''born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc 2 our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G πN 2 ) 2 = (2m N /m π ) 2 - 1. 21 refs., 1 fig

  6. A Framework For Efficient Homomorphic Universally Composable Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Bernardo Machado

    Commitment schemes are a fundamental primitive in modern cryptography, serving as a building block for a myriad of complex protocols and applications. Universally composable commitment schemes are of particular interest, since they can be seamlessly combined with other universally composable prim...

  7. BitPAl: a bit-parallel, general integer-scoring sequence alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Joshua; Hernandez, Yozen; Benson, Gary

    2014-11-15

    Mapping of high-throughput sequencing data and other bulk sequence comparison applications have motivated a search for high-efficiency sequence alignment algorithms. The bit-parallel approach represents individual cells in an alignment scoring matrix as bits in computer words and emulates the calculation of scores by a series of logic operations composed of AND, OR, XOR, complement, shift and addition. Bit-parallelism has been successfully applied to the longest common subsequence (LCS) and edit-distance problems, producing fast algorithms in practice. We have developed BitPAl, a bit-parallel algorithm for general, integer-scoring global alignment. Integer-scoring schemes assign integer weights for match, mismatch and insertion/deletion. The BitPAl method uses structural properties in the relationship between adjacent scores in the scoring matrix to construct classes of efficient algorithms, each designed for a particular set of weights. In timed tests, we show that BitPAl runs 7-25 times faster than a standard iterative algorithm. Source code is freely available for download at http://lobstah.bu.edu/BitPAl/BitPAl.html. BitPAl is implemented in C and runs on all major operating systems. jloving@bu.edu or yhernand@bu.edu or gbenson@bu.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Calibrating collective commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Marik,; Muller, J; Pechoucek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we aim to formally model the strongest motivational attitude occurring in teamwork, collective commitment. First, building on our previous work, a logical framework is sketched in which social commitments and collective intentions are formalized. Then, different versions of collective

  9. Implementing environmental commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, D.G.; Skolnikoff, E.B. [IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    The article summarises the aims and results of a three-year project conducted at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis called `Implementation and effectiveness of international environmental commitments` (IEC) which analysed how many environmental commitments are implemented or how intentions are put into practice. Fourteen case studies were conducted on the following issues: conservation and preservation of fauna and flora; stratospheric ozone depletion; Baltic sea pollution; trade in hazardous chemicals and pesticides; acid rain in Europe; North Sea pollution; whaling; and marine dumping of nuclear waste. The research confirmed previous findings that compliance with legally binding commitments is high. However, IEC results suggest that high compliance reflects mainly that governments make special effort to adopt only those commitments with which they can comply. The influence of those commitments is often low. In contrast, compliance with nonbinding commitments has been low, but such commitments can often have a large influence on behavior. The findings differs sharply from conventional wisdom, which maintains that the most effective international commitments are legally binding. The research suggests more attention is needed to building systems for gathering and reviewing data on implementation and for handling implementation problems. Among IEC`s contributions to policy has been to apply this finding to the design of possible non-compliance procedures within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  10. Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-10-27

    A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular.

  11. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  12. FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2009-06-23

    As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.

  13. Criteria for core sampling bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-08-01

    A temperature monitoring device needs to be developed for the tank core sampling trucks. It will provide an additional indication of safe drill bit temperatures and give the operator a better feel for the effects of changing drill settings. This document defines the criteria for the bit monitoring system, including performance requirements, information on the core sampling system, and other conditions that may be encountered

  14. Managing by commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2003-06-01

    What makes a great manager great? Despite differences in their personal attributes, successful managers all excel in the making, honoring, and remaking of commitments. Managerial commitments take many forms, from capital investments to personnel decisions to public statements, but each exerts both immediate and enduring influence on a company. A leader's commitments shape a business's identity, define its strengths and weaknesses, establish its opportunities and limitations, and set its direction. Executives can all too easily forget that commitments are extraordinarily powerful. Caught up in the present, managers often take actions that, while beneficial in the near term, impose lasting constraints on their operations and organizations. When market or competitive conditions change, they can find themselves unable to respond effectively. Managers who understand the nature and power of their commitments can wield them more effectively throughout a company's life cycle. Entrepreneurs can avoid taking actions that imprint a new venture with a dysfunctional character. Managers in established enterprises can buttress past commitments that retain their currency and learn to recognize when commitments have become roadblocks to needed changes. The manager can then replace those roadblocks with new, rejuvenating commitments. That doesn't mean you should try to anticipate all the long-run consequences of every commitment--and it certainly doesn't mean you should shy away from making commitments. But it does mean that before making important decisions about, say, operating processes or partnerships, you should always ask yourself: Is this a process or relationship that we can live with in the future? Am I locking us into a course that we'll come to regret?

  15. Bit-Grooming: Shave Your Bits with Razor-sharp Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Silver, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lossless compression can reduce climate data storage by 30-40%. Further reduction requires lossy compression that also reduces precision. Fortunately, geoscientific models and measurements generate false precision (scientifically meaningless data bits) that can be eliminated without sacrificing scientifically meaningful data. We introduce Bit Grooming, a lossy compression algorithm that removes the bloat due to false-precision, those bits and bytes beyond the meaningful precision of the data.Bit Grooming is statistically unbiased, applies to all floating point numbers, and is easy to use. Bit-Grooming reduces geoscience data storage requirements by 40-80%. We compared Bit Grooming to competitors Linear Packing, Layer Packing, and GRIB2/JPEG2000. The other compression methods have the edge in terms of compression, but Bit Grooming is the most accurate and certainly the most usable and portable.Bit Grooming provides flexible and well-balanced solutions to the trade-offs among compression, accuracy, and usability required by lossy compression. Geoscientists could reduce their long term storage costs, and show leadership in the elimination of false precision, by adopting Bit Grooming.

  16. Bidding to Commit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Barclay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Economists and biologists have both theorized that individuals can benefit from committing to courses of action because it forces others to concede a greater share of any surpluses, but little experimental work has tested the actual benefits of such a strategy and people’s willingness to so “tie their hands.” Participants played a Battle-of-the-Sexes (Experiment 1 or Hawk–Dove game (Experiment 2, where one member of each pair could not change his or her action once played (committed, whereas the other could change actions in response (uncommitted. Committed players were more likely to achieve their preferred outcomes. When bidding to select roles, most participants preferred to be committed rather than uncommitted, though they bid slightly less than the committed role was actually worth. These results provide empirical support for people’s willingness to use commitment to their advantage and show that commitment devices (e.g., “irrational” emotions can bring long-term benefits.

  17. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-08-01

    Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed by an image or video codec with 8 bits per pixel input format. We analyze how the compression parameters for both MSB and LSB images should be chosen to provide the maximum objective quality for a given compression ratio. Finally, we apply the proposed infrared image compression method utilizing JPEG and H.264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can achieve similar result as 16 bit HEVC codec.

  18. Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment From Caring to Commitment ... Caring to Commitment During her sister’s battle with Alzheimer’s, Anne Murphy stayed by her side and continues ...

  19. Stochastic p-Bits for Invertible Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Yunus Camsari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40–60  kT. In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call “p-bits,” can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p-bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p-bits, showing that p-bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM with a symmetric connection matrix [J] (J_{ij}=J_{ji} that implements a given truth table with p-bits. The [J] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (J_{ij}≠J_{ji} to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p-bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 2^{33} (≈8×10^{9} possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect

  20. Stochastic p -Bits for Invertible Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Faria, Rafatul; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo

    2017-07-01

    Conventional semiconductor-based logic and nanomagnet-based memory devices are built out of stable, deterministic units such as standard metal-oxide semiconductor transistors, or nanomagnets with energy barriers in excess of ≈40 - 60 kT . In this paper, we show that unstable, stochastic units, which we call "p -bits," can be interconnected to create robust correlations that implement precise Boolean functions with impressive accuracy, comparable to standard digital circuits. At the same time, they are invertible, a unique property that is absent in standard digital circuits. When operated in the direct mode, the input is clamped, and the network provides the correct output. In the inverted mode, the output is clamped, and the network fluctuates among all possible inputs that are consistent with that output. First, we present a detailed implementation of an invertible gate to bring out the key role of a single three-terminal transistorlike building block to enable the construction of correlated p -bit networks. The results for this specific, CMOS-assisted nanomagnet-based hardware implementation agree well with those from a universal model for p -bits, showing that p -bits need not be magnet based: any three-terminal tunable random bit generator should be suitable. We present a general algorithm for designing a Boltzmann machine (BM) with a symmetric connection matrix [J ] (Ji j=Jj i) that implements a given truth table with p -bits. The [J ] matrices are relatively sparse with a few unique weights for convenient hardware implementation. We then show how BM full adders can be interconnected in a partially directed manner (Ji j≠Jj i) to implement large logic operations such as 32-bit binary addition. Hundreds of stochastic p -bits get precisely correlated such that the correct answer out of 233 (≈8 ×1 09) possibilities can be extracted by looking at the statistical mode or majority vote of a number of time samples. With perfect directivity (Jj i=0 ) a small

  1. Framed bit error rate testing for 100G ethernet equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    of performing bit error rate testing at 100Gbps. In particular, we show how Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) can be performed over an aggregated 100G Attachment Unit Interface (CAUI) by encapsulating the test data in Ethernet frames at line speed. Our results show that framed bit error rate testing can...... functionality besides the bit error rate tester....

  2. Using magnetic permeability bits to store information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerwilke, John; Petrie, J. R.; Wieland, K. A.; Mencia, Raymond; Liou, Sy-Hwang; Cress, C. D.; Newburgh, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Steps are described in the development of a new magnetic memory technology, based on states with different magnetic permeability, with the capability to reliably store large amounts of information in a high-density form for decades. The advantages of using the permeability to store information include an insensitivity to accidental exposure to magnetic fields or temperature changes, both of which are known to corrupt memory approaches that rely on remanent magnetization. The high permeability media investigated consists of either films of Metglas 2826 MB (Fe40Ni38Mo4B18) or bilayers of permalloy (Ni78Fe22)/Cu. Regions of films of the high permeability media were converted thermally to low permeability regions by laser or ohmic heating. The permeability of the bits was read by detecting changes of an external 32 Oe probe field using a magnetic tunnel junction 10 μm away from the media. Metglas bits were written with 100 μs laser pulses and arrays of 300 nm diameter bits were read. The high and low permeability bits written using bilayers of permalloy/Cu are not affected by 10 Mrad(Si) of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. An economical route for writing and reading bits as small at 20 nm using a variation of heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  3. The best bits in an iris code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2009-06-01

    Iris biometric systems apply filters to iris images to extract information about iris texture. Daugman's approach maps the filter output to a binary iris code. The fractional Hamming distance between two iris codes is computed and decisions about the identity of a person are based on the computed distance. The fractional Hamming distance weights all bits in an iris code equally. However, not all the bits in an iris code are equally useful. Our research is the first to present experiments documenting that some bits are more consistent than others. Different regions of the iris are compared to evaluate their relative consistency, and contrary to some previous research, we find that the middle bands of the iris are more consistent than the inner bands. The inconsistent-bit phenomenon is evident across genders and different filter types. Possible causes of inconsistencies, such as segmentation, alignment issues, and different filters are investigated. The inconsistencies are largely due to the coarse quantization of the phase response. Masking iris code bits corresponding to complex filter responses near the axes of the complex plane improves the separation between the match and nonmatch Hamming distance distributions.

  4. Bits extraction for palmprint template protection with Gabor magnitude and multi-bit quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Shao, X.; Ruan, Qiuqi; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of fixed-length binary string extraction (denoted by LogGM_DROBA) from low-resolution palmprint image for developing palmprint template protection technology. In order to extract reliable (stable and discriminative) bits, multi-bit equal-probability-interval

  5. Onderzoeksnotitie: Een vernieuwd meetinstrument voor organizational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Evers, A.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing model in organizational commitment research is Allen and Meyer's (1990) 3-component model of organizational commitment. They developed three scales to measure commitment, the affective commitment scale (ACS), the continuance commitment scale (CCS) and the normative commitment scale

  6. Bit-padding information guided channel hopping

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-02-01

    In the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we propose a bit-padding information guided channel hopping (BP-IGCH) scheme which breaks the limitation that the number of transmit antennas has to be a power of two based on the IGCH concept. The proposed scheme prescribes different bit-lengths to be mapped onto the indices of the transmit antennas and then uses padding technique to avoid error propagation. Numerical results and comparisons, on both the capacity and the bit error rate performances, are provided and show the advantage of the proposed scheme. The BP-IGCH scheme not only offers lower complexity to realize the design flexibility, but also achieves better performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Ultra low bit-rate speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, V

    2015-01-01

    "Ultra Low Bit-Rate Speech Coding" focuses on the specialized topic of speech coding at very low bit-rates of 1 Kbits/sec and less, particularly at the lower ends of this range, down to 100 bps. The authors set forth the fundamental results and trends that form the basis for such ultra low bit-rates to be viable and provide a comprehensive overview of various techniques and systems in literature to date, with particular attention to their work in the paradigm of unit-selection based segment quantization. The book is for research students, academic faculty and researchers, and industry practitioners in the areas of speech processing and speech coding.

  8. Color characters for white hot string bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Raha, Sourav; Thorn, Charles B.

    2017-10-01

    The state space of a generic string bit model is spanned by N ×N matrix creation operators acting on a vacuum state. Such creation operators transform in the adjoint representation of the color group U (N ) [or S U (N ) if the matrices are traceless]. We consider a system of b species of bosonic bits and f species of fermionic bits. The string, emerging in the N →∞ limit, identifies P+=m M √{2 } where M is the bit number operator and P-=H √{2 } where H is the system Hamiltonian. We study the thermal properties of this string bit system in the case H =0 , which can be considered the tensionless string limit: the only dynamics is restricting physical states to color singlets. Then the thermal partition function Tr e-β m M can be identified, putting x =e-β m, with a generating function χ0b f(x ), for which the coefficient of xn in its expansion about x =0 is the number of color singlets with bit number M =n . This function is a purely group theoretic object, which is well studied in the literature. We show that at N =∞ this system displays a Hagedorn divergence at x =1 /(b +f ) with ultimate temperature TH=m /ln (b +f ). The corresponding function for finite N is perfectly finite for 0

  9. Introduction to bit slices and microprogramming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Bit-slice logic blocks are fourth-generation LSI components which are natural extensions of traditional mulitplexers, registers, decoders, counters, ALUs, etc. Their functionality is controlled by microprogramming, typically to implement CPUs and peripheral controllers where both speed and easy programmability are required for flexibility, ease of implementation and debugging, etc. Processors built from bit-slice logic give the designer an alternative for approaching the programmibility of traditional fixed-instruction-set microprocessors with a speed closer to that of hardwired random logic. (orig.)

  10. Optimal finite-time erasure of a classical bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkowski, Patrick R.; DeWeese, Michael R.

    2014-05-01

    Information erasure inevitably leads to the generation of heat. Minimizing this dissipation will be crucial for developing small-scale information processing systems, but little is known about the optimal procedures required. We have obtained closed-form expressions for maximally efficient erasure cycles for deletion of a classical bit of information stored by the position of a particle diffusing in a double-well potential. We find that the extra heat generated beyond the Landauer bound is proportional to the square of the Hellinger distance between the initial and final states divided by the cycle duration, which quantifies how far out of equilibrium the system is driven. Finally, we demonstrate close agreement between the exact optimal cycle and the protocol found using a linear response framework.

  11. Entropy of a bit-shift channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Stan; Balakirsky, Vladimir; Denteneer, Dee; Egner, Sebastian; Hollmann, Henk; Tolhuizen, Ludo; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2006-01-01

    We consider a simple transformation (coding) of an iid source called a bit-shift channel. This simple transformation occurs naturally in magnetic or optical data storage. The resulting process is not Markov of any order. We discuss methods of computing the entropy of the transformed process, and

  12. Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as soon as you can because they can make you very sick. With an adult's help, wash the bite well with soap and water. Then apply an ice pack to the bite, and try to elevate the area and keep it still to help prevent the ... black widows, you'll want to make sure that's the kind of spider that bit ...

  13. Bit corruption correlation and autocorrelation in a stochastic binary nano-bit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-nguansin, Suchittra

    2014-10-01

    The corruption process of a binary nano-bit model resulting from an interaction with N stochastically-independent Brownian agents (BAs) is studied with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations and analytic continuum theory to investigate the data corruption process through the measurement of the spatial two-point correlation and the autocorrelation of bit corruption at the origin. By taking into account a more realistic correlation between bits, this work will contribute to the understanding of the soft error or the corruption of data stored in nano-scale devices.

  14. Two research contributions in 64-bit computing: Testing and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Following the release of Windows 64-bit and Redhat Linux 64-bit operating systems (OS) in late April 2005, this is the one of the first 64-bit OS research project completed in a British university. The objective is to investigate (1) the increase/decrease in performance compared to 32-bit computing; (2) the techniques used to develop 64-bit applications; and (3) how 64-bit computing should be used in IT and research organizations to improve their work. This paper summarizes research discoveri...

  15. The Fold of Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastrup Kristensen, Anders; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes. First, a rereading of Douglas McGregor’s An uneasy look at performance appraisal serves to show how McGregor’s conceptualization of commitment as a question of integrating personal goals with organizational purpose has helped shape founding the modern understanding...

  16. Commitment to Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Renilde

    1995-01-01

    This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

  17. Employee organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Života

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research on organizational commitment as a type of attitudes that show the identification level of employees with their organizations and their willingness to leave them. The research has been conducted with intention to determine the level of organizational commitment on the territory of Novi Sad, as well as to question whether there is a difference between certain categories of examinees for each commitment base. The research comprised 237 examinees employed in organizations on the territory of Novi Sad. Status of independent variables have gained: gender, years of working experience, educational level, working experience in one or more organizations and estimation of level of personal potentials utility. The questionnaire used is taken from the Greenberg and Baron's 'Behaviour in Organizations', p. 170, done according to set of questions by Meyer and Allen, in 1991. The data have been worked on by calculating arithmetic mean, and by application of Pearson Chi-square test. The results have shown that there is a below average level of organizational (AS=2.88, with the most intensive continual (AS=3.23, and the least intensive normative organizational dedication (AS=2.41. The gender of examinees does not represent relevant source of differences in the levels of each type of three mentioned commitment. Years of working experience and level of educational attainment represent a significant source of differences for continual (YWE: Pearson Chi-square = 30,38; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 7,381; df = 2; p = .05 and normative (YWE: Pearson Chi- square = 20,67; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 10,79; df = 2; p = .00 base of commitment. Work in one or more organizations has shown as a significant source of differences in the level of continual commitment (Pearson Chi-square = 7, 59; df = 2; p = .05. The level of affective commitment is statistically significantly related only to the estimation

  18. S-EMG signal compression based on domain transformation and spectral shape dynamic bit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabuco, Marcel Henrique; Costa, Marcus Vinícius Chaffim; Nascimento, Francisco Assis de Oliveira

    2014-02-27

    Surface electromyographic (S-EMG) signal processing has been emerging in the past few years due to its non-invasive assessment of muscle function and structure and because of the fast growing rate of digital technology which brings about new solutions and applications. Factors such as sampling rate, quantization word length, number of channels and experiment duration can lead to a potentially large volume of data. Efficient transmission and/or storage of S-EMG signals are actually a research issue. That is the aim of this work. This paper presents an algorithm for the data compression of surface electromyographic (S-EMG) signals recorded during isometric contractions protocol and during dynamic experimental protocols such as the cycling activity. The proposed algorithm is based on discrete wavelet transform to proceed spectral decomposition and de-correlation, on a dynamic bit allocation procedure to code the wavelets transformed coefficients, and on an entropy coding to minimize the remaining redundancy and to pack all data. The bit allocation scheme is based on mathematical decreasing spectral shape models, which indicates a shorter digital word length to code high frequency wavelets transformed coefficients. Four bit allocation spectral shape methods were implemented and compared: decreasing exponential spectral shape, decreasing linear spectral shape, decreasing square-root spectral shape and rotated hyperbolic tangent spectral shape. The proposed method is demonstrated and evaluated for an isometric protocol and for a dynamic protocol using a real S-EMG signal data bank. Objective performance evaluations metrics are presented. In addition, comparisons with other encoders proposed in scientific literature are shown. The decreasing bit allocation shape applied to the quantized wavelet coefficients combined with arithmetic coding results is an efficient procedure. The performance comparisons of the proposed S-EMG data compression algorithm with the established

  19. Single Bit Radar Systems for Digital Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...

  20. Method to manufacture bit patterned magnetic recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeymaekers, Bart; Sinha, Dipen N

    2014-05-13

    A method to increase the storage density on magnetic recording media by physically separating the individual bits from each other with a non-magnetic medium (so-called bit patterned media). This allows the bits to be closely packed together without creating magnetic "cross-talk" between adjacent bits. In one embodiment, ferromagnetic particles are submerged in a resin solution, contained in a reservoir. The bottom of the reservoir is made of piezoelectric material.

  1. Development of an RSFQ 4-bit ALU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Baek, S. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, K. R.; Jung, K. R.; Lim, H. Y.; Park, J. H.; Han, T. S.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested an RSFQ 4-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) based on half adder cells and de switches. ALU is a core element of a computer processor that performs arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words. The designed ALU had limited operation functions of OR, AND, XOR, and ADD. It had a pipeline structure. We have simulated the circuit by using Josephson circuit simulation tools in order to reduce the timing problem, and confirmed the correct operation of the designed ALU. We used simulation tools of XIC TM ,WRspice TM , and Julia. The fabricated 4-bit ALU circuit had a size of 3000 calum X 1500, and the chip size was 5 mm X 5 mm. The test speeds were 1000 kHz and 5 GHz. For high-speed test, we used an eye-diagram technique. Our 4-bit ALU operated correctly up to 5 GHz clock frequency. The chip was tested at the liquid-helium temperature.

  2. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...

  3. Unit Commitment Solution Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeed Salam

    2007-01-01

    An effort to develop a unit commitment approach capable of handling large power systems consisting of both thermal and hydro generating units offers a large profitable return. In order to be feasible, the method to be developed must be flexible, efficient and reliable. In this paper, various proposed methods have been described along with their strengths and weaknesses. As all of these methods have some sort of weaknesses, a comprehensive algorithm that combines the stren...

  4. Bit selection using field drilling data and mathematical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, M. S.; Ridha, S.; Hosseini, S. J.; Meyghani, B.; Emamian, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    A drilling process will not be complete without the usage of a drill bit. Therefore, bit selection is considered to be an important task in drilling optimization process. To select a bit is considered as an important issue in planning and designing a well. This is simply because the cost of drilling bit in total cost is quite high. Thus, to perform this task, aback propagation ANN Model is developed. This is done by training the model using several wells and it is done by the usage of drilling bit records from offset wells. In this project, two models are developed by the usage of the ANN. One is to find predicted IADC bit code and one is to find Predicted ROP. Stage 1 was to find the IADC bit code by using all the given filed data. The output is the Targeted IADC bit code. Stage 2 was to find the Predicted ROP values using the gained IADC bit code in Stage 1. Next is Stage 3 where the Predicted ROP value is used back again in the data set to gain Predicted IADC bit code value. The output is the Predicted IADC bit code. Thus, at the end, there are two models that give the Predicted ROP values and Predicted IADC bit code values.

  5. Study of the laws governing wear of cutter bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrovka, S.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the laws governing the change in drilling of a bit in the process of ramming depending on the wear of the cutter bit. Experiments were conducted on the drilling stand ZIF-1200A by 3-cutter bits V-140T with cemented fittings and surfacing of the rear part of the external cutter bit crowns. Experimental data are presented from studying the laws governing the change in the current drilling of the bit and the corresponding wear depending on the total number of bit rotations during drilling of gray granite. Dependences are also indicated for drilling on the bit of the current mechanical drilling velocity and the mechanical drilling velocity during one rotation on the total number of bit rotations, as well as the mechanical drilling velocity on drilling per bit during drilling of gray granite. It was established that the efficient time for stay of the bit on the face both with minimum cost of 1 m of drilling, and with maximum per-trip velocity depends on the parameters of the drilling regime, the strength of the rocks, the depth of drilling and the standard indicators for the cost of rolling the equipment in 1 min, and the cost of the drill bit. Experimental data were obtained which make it possible to rapidly determine the efficient time for lifting the bit and to use for this purpose simple resources of computers.

  6. Efficient deterministic secure quantum communication protocols using multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Dintomon; Surendran, Supin P.; Sabir, M.

    2017-06-01

    We propose two deterministic secure quantum communication protocols employing three-qubit GHZ-like states and five-qubit Brown states as quantum channels for secure transmission of information in units of two bits and three bits using multipartite teleportation schemes developed here. In these schemes, the sender's capability in selecting quantum channels and the measuring bases leads to improved qubit efficiency of the protocols.

  7. A novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bin; He, Lifeng; Kang, Shiying; Chao, Yuyan; Zhao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The Euler number of a binary image is an important topological property in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper proposes a novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm. Based on graph theory and analysis on bit-quad patterns, our algorithm only needs to count two bit-quad patterns. Moreover, by use of the information obtained during processing the previous bit-quad, the average number of pixels to be checked for processing a bit-quad is only 1.75. Experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms significantly conventional Euler number computing algorithms.

  8. [Acceptance and commitment therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Fond, G

    2015-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a third generation of cognitive-behavioral therapies. The point is to help patients to improve their psychological flexibility in order to accept unavoidable private events. Thus, they have the opportunity to invest energy in committed actions rather than struggle against their psychological events. (i) To present the ACT basic concepts and (ii) to propose a systematic review of the literature about effectiveness of this kind of psychotherapy. (i) The core concepts of ACT come from Monestès (2011), Schoendorff (2011), and Harris (2012); (ii) we conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA's criteria. The research paradigm was « acceptance and commitment therapy AND randomized controlled trial ». The bases of the MEDLINE, Cochrane and Web of science have been checked. Overall, 61 articles have been found, of which, after reading the abstracts, 40 corresponded to the subject of our study. (I) Psychological flexibility is established through six core ACT processes (cognitive defusion, acceptance, being present, values, committed action, self as context), while the therapist emphasizes on experiential approach. (II) Emerging research shows that ACT is efficacious in the psychological treatment of a wide range of psychiatric problems, including psychosis, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders. ACT has also shown a utility in other areas of medicine: the management chronic pain, drug-dependence, smoking cessation, the management of epilepsy, diabetic self-management, the management of work stress, the management of tinnitus, and the management of multiple sclerosis. Meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies reported an average effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.66 at post-treatment (n=704) and 0.65 (n=580) at follow-up (on average 19.2 weeks later). In studies involving

  9. Entangled solitons and stochastic Q-bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybakov, Yu.P.; Kamalov, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic realization of the wave function in quantum mechanics with the inclusion of soliton representation of extended particles is discussed. Two-solitons configurations are used for constructing entangled states in generalized quantum mechanics dealing with extended particles, endowed with nontrivial spin S. Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the 1/2-spin particles. The concept of stochastic q-bits is used for quantum computing modelling

  10. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  11. Investigation of PDC bit failure base on stick-slip vibration analysis of drilling string system plus drill bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Dou; Xie, Bing; Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Fuxiao; He, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The undesired stick-slip vibration is the main source of PDC bit failure, such as tooth fracture and tooth loss. So, the study of PDC bit failure base on stick-slip vibration analysis is crucial to prolonging the service life of PDC bit and improving ROP (rate of penetration). For this purpose, a piecewise-smooth torsional model with 4-DOF (degree of freedom) of drilling string system plus PDC bit is proposed to simulate non-impact drilling. In this model, both the friction and cutting behaviors of PDC bit are innovatively introduced. The results reveal that PDC bit is easier to fail than other drilling tools due to the severer stick-slip vibration. Moreover, reducing WOB (weight on bit) and improving driving torque can effectively mitigate the stick-slip vibration of PDC bit. Therefore, PDC bit failure can be alleviated by optimizing drilling parameters. In addition, a new 4-DOF torsional model is established to simulate torsional impact drilling and the effect of torsional impact on PDC bit's stick-slip vibration is analyzed by use of an engineering example. It can be concluded that torsional impact can mitigate stick-slip vibration, prolonging the service life of PDC bit and improving drilling efficiency, which is consistent with the field experiment results.

  12. MEKANISME SEGMENTASI LAJU BIT PADA DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  13. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  14. Physical Roots of It from Bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2003-04-01

    Why there is Something rather than Nothing? From Pythagoras ("everything is number") to Wheeler ("it from bit") theme of ultimate origin stresses primordiality of Ideal Platonic World (IPW) of mathematics. Even popular "quantum tunnelling out of nothing" can specify "nothing" only as (essentially) IPW. IPW exists everywhere (but nowhere in particular) and logically precedes space, time, matter or any "physics" in any conceivable universe. This leads to propositional conjecture (axiom?) that (meta)physical "Platonic Pressure" of infinitude of numbers acts as engine for self-generation of physical universe directly out of mathematics: cosmogenesis is driven by the very fact of IPW inexhaustibility. While physics in other quantum branches of inflating universe (Megaverse)can be(arbitrary) different from ours, number theory (and rest of IPW)is not (it is unique, absolute, immutable and infinitely resourceful). Let (infinite) totality of microstates ("its") of entire Megaverse form countable set. Since countable sets are hierarchically inexhaustible (Cantor's "fractal branching"), each single "it" still has infinite tail of non-overlapping IPW-based "personal labels". Thus, each "bit" ("it") is infinitely and uniquely resourceful: possible venue of elimination ergodicity basis for eternal return cosmological argument. Physics (in any subuniverse) may be limited only by inherent impossibilities residing in IPW, e.g. insolvability of Continuum Problem may be IPW foundation of quantum indeterminicity.

  15. A digital divider with extension bits for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Digitizing errors produced in a digital divider for position-sensitive detectors have been reduced by adding extension bits to data bits. A relation between the extension bits and the data bits to obtain perfect position uniformity is also given. A digital divider employing 10 bit ADCs and 6 bit extension circuits has been constructed. (orig.)

  16. On the Complexity of Additively Homomorphic UC Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifiletti, Roberto; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Frederiksen, Tore Kasper

    2016-01-01

    , we manage to add the additive homo- morphic property, while at the same time reducing the constants. In fact, when opening a large enough batch of commitments we achieve an amor- tized communication complexity converging to the length of the message committed to, i.e., we achieve close to rate 1...... as the commitment protocol by Garay \\emph{et al.} from Eurocrypt 2014. A main technical improvement over the scheme mentioned above, and other schemes based on using error correcting codes for UC commitment, we develop a new technique which allows to based the extraction property on erasure decoding as opposed...... to error correction. This allows to use a code with significantly smaller minimal distance and allows to use codes without efficient decoding. Our scheme only relies on standard assumptions. Specifically we require a pseudorandom number generator, a linear error correcting code and an ideal oblivious...

  17. Patterns in the Distribution of Digital Games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic-The 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised-20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...

  18. Patterns in the distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic - the 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised - 20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...

  19. Synchronization of random bit generators based on coupled chaotic lasers and application to cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Butkovski, Maria; Peleg, Yitzhak; Zigzag, Meital; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Rosenbluh, Michael; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2010-08-16

    Random bit generators (RBGs) constitute an important tool in cryptography, stochastic simulations and secure communications. The later in particular has some difficult requirements: high generation rate of unpredictable bit strings and secure key-exchange protocols over public channels. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random number sequences at high rates, however, their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. Recently, physical RBGs based on chaotic semiconductor lasers were shown to exceed Gbit/s rates. Whether secure synchronization of two high rate physical RBGs is possible remains an open question. Here we propose a method, whereby two fast RBGs based on mutually coupled chaotic lasers, are synchronized. Using information theoretic analysis we demonstrate security against a powerful computational eavesdropper, capable of noiseless amplification, where all parameters are publicly known. The method is also extended to secure synchronization of a small network of three RBGs.

  20. A fixed/variable bit-rate data compression architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigle, Gregary C.; Venbrux, Jack; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1993-01-01

    A VLSI architecture for an adaptive data compression encoder capable of sustaining fixed or variable bit-rate output has been developed. There are three modes of operation: lossless with variable bit-rate, lossy with fixed bit-rate and lossy with variable bit-rate. For lossless encoding, the implementation is identical to the USES chip designed for Landsat 7. Obtaining a fixed bit-rate is achieved with a lossy DPCM algorithm using adaptive, nonuniform scalar quantization. In lossy mode, variable bit-rate coding uses the lossless sections of the encoder for post-DPCM entropy coding. The encoder shows excellent compression performance in comparison to other current data compression techniques. No external tables or memory are required for operation.

  1. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation, in order to use their resources for preservation in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...... for systematically analysing institutions technical and organisational requirements for a remote bit repository. Instead of viewing a bit repository simply as Archival Storage for the institutions repositories, we argue for viewing it as consisting of a subset of functions from all entities defined by the OAIS...... Reference Model. The work is motivated by and used in a current Danish feasibility study for establishing a national bit repository. The study revealed that depending on their missions and the collections they hold, the institutions have varying requirements e.g. for bit safety, accessibility...

  2. Logic Operators on Delta-Sigma Bit-Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Klein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental logic operations NOT, OR, AND, and XOR processing bit-streams of Δ Σ -modulators are discussed herein. The resulting bit-streams are evaluated on the basis of their mean values and their standard deviations. Mathematical expressions are presented for their mean values; i.e., the logic function XOR results in the negative multiplication of two bipolar bit-streams, and the logic function AND results in the multiplication of two unipolar bit-streams. As the results are valid for bit-streams with independent high-frequency components, the normed cross-product is utilized for evaluation of the independence of the high-frequency components. In order to achieve a high independence between the input bit-streams, representing the same value, the quantization noise is affected. Multiple strategies are examined and Δ Σ -modulators with different designs are chosen as the best-suited solution. The operations are evaluated on a testbench.

  3. Work values and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, A

    1978-06-01

    Dubin, Champoux and Porter (1975) found a strong relationship between central life interests of workers and their commitment to the organization. This paper extends their findings by investigating the relationship between work values, defined as the Protestant Ethic of the worker, and commitment to the organization. A distinction is made between moral and calculative commitment, and it is shown that work values are related more to moral than calculative involvement.

  4. Development and testing of a Mudjet-augmented PDC bit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Alan (TerraTek, Inc.); Chahine, Georges (DynaFlow, Inc.); Raymond, David Wayne; Matthews, Oliver (Security DBS); Grossman, James W.; Bertagnolli, Ken (US Synthetic); Vail, Michael (US Synthetic)

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a project to develop technology to integrate passively pulsating, cavitating nozzles within Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits for use with conventional rig pressures to improve the rock-cutting process in geothermal formations. The hydraulic horsepower on a conventional drill rig is significantly greater than that delivered to the rock through bit rotation. This project seeks to leverage this hydraulic resource to extend PDC bits to geothermal drilling.

  5. Analysis of a commitment period reserve at national and global levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

    2002-01-01

    To reduce the risk of overselling in the context of international greenhouse gas trading under the Kyoto Protocol, Parties have agreed to a commitment period reserve requirement. The commitment period reserve requires each Annex B Party to hold in its national registry quota equal to the lower of...

  6. Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata Sugiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.

  7. Détection homodyne pour mémoires holographiques à stockage bit à bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, G.; Pauliat, G.; Roosen, G.

    2006-10-01

    Les mémoires holographiques à stockage bit à bit sont une alternative intéressante à l'approche holographique conventionnelle par pages de données du fait de leur architecture optique simplifiée. Nous proposons et validons ici une procédure de lecture adaptée à de telles mémoires et basée sur une détection homodyne de l'amplitude diffractée par les hologrammes. Ceci permet d'augmenter la quantité de signal utile détecté et s'avère donc prometteur pour accroître le taux de transfert de données de ces mémoires.

  8. The Deliverability of the BIT Programme at Lahti UAS in Training BIT Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Nghiem, Duc Long

    2014-01-01

    Information Technology has become a vital and indispensable part of business in every industry. In fact, IT is the primary factor that differentiates many businesses from their competitors. Organizations usually rely on IT for several strategic business solutions such as communication, information management, customer relationship management, and marketing. In the near future, the business labor force will anticipate a rising demand in BIT experts who possess both business expertise and IT sk...

  9. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  10. Multiple Memory Structure Bit Reversal Algorithm Based on Recursive Patterns of Bit Reversal Permutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. L. B. Adikaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for online/inline data processing efficient Fourier analysis becomes more and more relevant. Due to the fact that the bit reversal process requires considerable processing time of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT algorithm, it is vital to optimize the bit reversal algorithm (BRA. This paper is to introduce an efficient BRA with multiple memory structures. In 2009, Elster showed the relation between the first and the second halves of the bit reversal permutation (BRP and stated that it may cause serious impact on cache performance of the computer, if implemented. We found exceptions, especially when the said index mapping was implemented with multiple one-dimensional memory structures instead of multidimensional or one-dimensional memory structure. Also we found a new index mapping, even after the recursive splitting of BRP into equal sized slots. The four-array and the four-vector versions of BRA with new index mapping reported 34% and 16% improvement in performance in relation to similar versions of Linear BRA of Elster which uses single one-dimensional memory structure.

  11. FPGA-based Bit-Error-Rate Tester for SEU-hardened Optical Links

    CERN Document Server

    Detraz, S; Moreira, P; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Seif El Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Stejskal, P; Troska, J; Versmissen, H

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of optical links for future High-Energy Physics experiments will require components qualified for use in radiation-hard environments. To cope with radiation induced single-event upsets, the physical layer protocol will include Forward Error Correction (FEC). Bit-Error-Rate (BER) testing is a widely used method to characterize digital transmission systems. In order to measure the BER with and without the proposed FEC, simultaneously on several devices, a multi-channel BER tester has been developed. This paper describes the architecture of the tester, its implementation in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device and discusses the experimental results.

  12. Bit-Wise Arithmetic Coding For Compression Of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Aaron

    1996-01-01

    Bit-wise arithmetic coding is data-compression scheme intended especially for use with uniformly quantized data from source with Gaussian, Laplacian, or similar probability distribution function. Code words of fixed length, and bits treated as being independent. Scheme serves as means of progressive transmission or of overcoming buffer-overflow or rate constraint limitations sometimes arising when data compression used.

  13. Support research for development of improved geothermal drill bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Barker, L.M.; Green, S.J.; Winzenried, R.W.

    1977-06-01

    Progress in background research needed to develop drill bits for the geothermal environment is reported. Construction of a full-scale geothermal wellbore simulator and geothermal seal testing machine was completed. Simulated tests were conducted on full-scale bits. Screening tests on elastometric seals under geothermal conditions are reported. (JGB)

  14. Cross Institutional Cooperation on a Shared Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how independent institutions, such as archives and libraries, can cooperate on managing a shared bit repository with bit preservation in order to use their resources for preservation n in a more cost-effective way. It uses the OAIS Reference Model to provide a framework...

  15. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate

  16. APL portability in 16 bits microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova Costa, Felisa

    1981-01-01

    The present work deals with an automatic program translation method as a solution to the software portability problem. The source machine is a minicomputer of the SEMS MITRA range; the target machines are three 16 bits microprocessors: INTEL 8086, MOTOROLA 68000 and ZILOG Z-8000. The software to be translated is written in macro-assembly language (MAS) and consist of an operating system, an APL interpreter and some other software tools. The translation method uses a machine-free intermediate language describing the program in source language. This intermediate language consisting of a set of macro-instructions, is then assembled using a link library; this library defines the macro-instructions which create the target microprocessor object code. The whole translation operation work is carried out by the source machine which produces, after linkage editing, a table memory map (IME). Thereafter the load object code will be removed to target machine. Concerning optimization problems or inputs-outputs, some module can be written using the target machine assembly language and processed by a specific assembler in target machine or source machine, if the latter processes a cross-assembler; then the resulting binary codes are merged with the binary codes issued during the automatic translation phase. The method proposed here may be extended to any 16 bits computer, by a simple change of the macro-instruction library. This work allows an APL machine creation with microprocessors, preserving the original software and so maintaining its initial reliability. This work has led to a closer examination of hardware problems connected with the various target machines configurations. Difficulties met during this work mainly arise from different operations of the target machines specially indicators or flags setting, addressing modes and interruption mechanisms. This shows up the necessity to design new microprocessors either partially user's micro-programmable, or with some functions

  17. CAMAC based 4-channel 12-bit digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Amit K; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Reddy, D Chenna

    2010-01-01

    With the development in Fusion research a large number of diagnostics are being used to understand the complex behaviour of plasma. During discharge, several diagnostics demand high sampling rate and high bit resolution to acquire data for rapid changes in plasma parameters. For the requirements of such fast diagnostics, a 4-channel simultaneous sampling, high-speed, 12-bit CAMAC digitizer has been designed and developed which has several important features for application in CAMAC based nuclear instrumentation. The module has independent ADC per channel for simultaneous sampling and digitization, and 512 Ksamples RAM per channel for on-board storage. The digitizer has been designed for event based acquisition and the acquisition window gives post-trigger as well as pre-trigger (software selectable) data that is useful for analysis. It is a transient digitizer and can be operated either in pre/post trigger mode or in burst mode. The record mode and the active memory size are selected through software commands to satisfy the current application. The module can be used to acquire data at high sampling rate for short time discharge e.g. 512 ms at 1MSPS. The module can also be used for long time discharge at low sampling rate e.g. 512 seconds at 1KSPS. This paper describes the design of digitizer module, development of VHDL code for hardware logic, Graphical User Interface (GUI) and important features of module from application point of view. The digitizer has CPLD based hardware logic, which provides flexibility in configuring the module for different sampling rates and different pre/post trigger samples through GUI. The digitizer can be operated with either internal (for testing/acquisition) or external (synchronized acquisition) clock and trigger. The digitizer has differential inputs with bipolar input range ±5V and it is being used with sampling rate of 1 MSamples Per Second (MSPS) per channel but it also supports higher sampling rate up to 3MSPS per channel. A

  18. A Memristor as Multi-Bit Memory: Feasibility Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bass

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of emerging memristor materials for advanced electrical devices such as multi-valued logic is expected to outperform today's binary logic digital technologies. We show here an example for such non-binary device with the design of a multi-bit memory. While conventional memory cells can store only 1 bit, memristors-based multi-bit cells can store more information within single device thus increasing the information storage density. Such devices can potentially utilize the non-linear resistance of memristor materials for efficient information storage. We analyze the performance of such memory devices based on their expected variations in order to determine the viability of memristor-based multi-bit memory. A design of read/write scheme and a simple model for this cell, lay grounds for full integration of memristor multi-bit memory cell.

  19. IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY DENGAN METODE LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT (LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miftakul Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Security in delivering a secret message is an important factor in the spread of information in cyberspace. Protecting that message to be delivered to the party entitled to, should be made a message concealment mechanism. The purpose of this study was to hide a secret text message into digital images in true color 24 bit RGB format. The method used to insert a secret message using the LSB (Least Significant Bit by replacing the last bit or 8th bit in each RGB color component. RGB image file types option considering that messages can be inserted capacity greater than if use a grayscale image, this is because in one pixel can be inserted 3 bits message. Tests provide results that are hidden messages into a digital image does not reduce significantly the quality of the digital image, and the message has been hidden can be extracted again, so that messages can be delivered to the recipient safely.

  20. Installation of MCNP on 64-bit parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meginnis, A.B.; Hendricks, J.S.; McKinney, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP has been successfully ported to two 64-bit workstations, the SGI and DEC Alpha. We found the biggest problem for installation on these machines to be Fortran and C mismatches in argument passing. Correction of these mismatches enabled, for the first time, dynamic memory allocation on 64-bit workstations. Although the 64-bit hardware is faster because 8-bytes are processed at a time rather than 4-bytes, we found no speed advantage in true 64-bit coding versus implicit double precision when porting an existing code to the 64-bit workstation architecture. We did find that PVM multiasking is very successful and represents a significant performance enhancement for scientific workstations

  1. A little bit of legal history

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On Monday 18 October, a little bit of legal history will be made when the first international tripartite agreement between CERN and its two Host States is signed. This agreement, which has been under negotiation since 2004, clarifies the working conditions of people employed by companies contracted to CERN. It will facilitate the management of service contracts both for CERN and its contractors.   Ever since 1965, when CERN first crossed the border into France, the rule of territoriality has applied. This means that anyone working for a company contracted to CERN whose job involves crossing the border is subject to the employment legislation of both states. The new agreement simplifies matters by making only one legislation apply per contract, that of the country in which most of the work is carried out. This is good for CERN, it’s good for the companies, and it’s good for their employees. It is something that all three parties to the agreement have wanted for some time, and I...

  2. The potential contribution of sinks to meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

    2001-01-01

    scenario, at least some of the sinks have costs lower than the market price, so the larger the eligible sinks, the lower the compliance costs for industrialised countries. Greater use of sinks also reduces the net income received by the economies in transition and developing countries. Increased use......, a range of average costs is used with the lowest cost allowing maximum use of sinks. The effects considered are the impacts on compliance costs for OECD countries, economies in transition, and developing countries and the mix of actions used by industrialised countries to achieve compliance. In every...

  3. Modern X86 assembly language programming 32-bit, 64-bit, SSE, and AVX

    CERN Document Server

    Kusswurm, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming shows the fundamentals of x86 assembly language programming. It focuses on the aspects of the x86 instruction set that are most relevant to application software development. The book's structure and sample code are designed to help the reader quickly understand x86 assembly language programming and the computational capabilities of the x86 platform. Major topics of the book include the following: 32-bit core architecture, data types, internal registers, memory addressing modes, and the basic instruction setX87 core architecture, register stack, special

  4. Self-determination in sport commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariadis, Panayotis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Alexandris, Konstantinos

    2006-04-01

    The study tested utility of self-determination and sport commitment theories to understanding young athletes' sport commitment. 343 young athletes (M= 13.5 yr., SD= +/- 1.1) from soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, and water polo teams volunteered to participate. All completed the Sport Motivation Scale and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire. Pearson correlations showed a strong relationship between commitment and intrinsic motivation scores. In contrast, extrinsic motivation scores were not significantly correlated to commitment, whereas amotivation scores showed a negative correlation to commitment. Path analysis resulted in strong positive association of intrinsic motivation and commitment. Amotivation had small negative relation to commitment. According to the model tested, social constraints and involvement opportunities were not significant contributors to sport commitment. An alternative model supported the mediating role of enjoyment to psychological commitment. The results showed that high self-determination is supportive of sport commitment, whereas low self-determination reduces sport commitment.

  5. Integer Representations towards Efficient Counting in the Bit Probe Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Greve, Mark; Pandey, Vineet

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We consider the problem of representing numbers in close to optimal space and supporting increment, decrement, addition and subtraction operations efficiently. We study the problem in the bit probe model and analyse the number of bits read and written to perform the operations, both...... in the worst-case and in the average-case. A counter is space-optimal if it represents any number in the range [0,...,2 n  − 1] using exactly n bits. We provide a space-optimal counter which supports increment and decrement operations by reading at most n − 1 bits and writing at most 3 bits in the worst......-case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such representation which supports these operations by always reading strictly less than n bits. For redundant counters where we only need to represent numbers in the range [0,...,L] for some integer L bits, we define the efficiency...

  6. Test results judgment method based on BIT faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Gang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Built-in-test (BIT is responsible for equipment fault detection, so the test data correctness directly influences diagnosis results. Equipment suffers all kinds of environment stresses, such as temperature, vibration, and electromagnetic stress. As embedded testing facility, BIT also suffers from these stresses and the interferences/faults are caused, so that the test course is influenced, resulting in incredible results. Therefore it is necessary to monitor test data and judge test failures. Stress monitor and BIT self-diagnosis would redound to BIT reliability, but the existing anti-jamming researches are mainly safeguard design and signal process. This paper focuses on test results monitor and BIT equipment (BITE failure judge, and a series of improved approaches is proposed. Firstly the stress influences on components are illustrated and the effects on the diagnosis results are summarized. Secondly a composite BIT program is proposed with information integration, and a stress monitor program is given. Thirdly, based on the detailed analysis of system faults and forms of BIT results, the test sequence control method is proposed. It assists BITE failure judge and reduces error probability. Finally the validation cases prove that these approaches enhance credibility.

  7. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  8. Committed warming inferred from observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten; Pincus, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2, the thermal inertia of the oceans, and the temporary impacts of short-lived aerosols and reactive greenhouse gases, the Earth’s climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil-fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions as studied previously using climate models. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently improved estimates of Earth’s energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Compared with pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5 K (0.9-3.6, 5th-95th percentile) at equilibrium, and of 1.3 K (0.9-2.3) within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1 K (0.7-1.8). In the latter case there is a 13% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5 K target set in Paris. Regular updates of these observationally constrained committed warming estimates, although simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and the understanding of the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  9. Nouvelles techniques de mesure des pluies, des débits liquides et solides sur parcelles agronomiques

    OpenAIRE

    Lamachère, Jean-Marie; Séguis, Luc

    1997-01-01

    Deux techniques différentes de mesure des pluies, des débits liquides et solides sur parcelles agronomiques sont présentés dans cet article. Le premier exemple correspond aux protocoles d'observations mis au point sur les grandes parcelles agronomiques (4 000 m2) de la région de Bidi, au nord-ouest du Burkina Faso. Ces protocoles s'appuient à la fois sur des observations directes, des prélèvements manuels et des enregistrements sur appareils mécaniques de précision. Les précisions obtenues su...

  10. The Economics of BitCoin Price Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaian, Pavel; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Kancs, d'Artis

    2014-01-01

    This is the first article that studies BitCoin price formation by considering both the traditional determinants of currency price, e.g., market forces of supply and demand, and digital currencies specific factors, e.g., BitCoin attractiveness for investors and users. The conceptual framework is based on the Barro (1979) model, from which we derive testable hypotheses. Using daily data for five years (2009–2015) and applying time-series analytical mechanisms, we find that market forces and Bit...

  11. Fitness Probability Distribution of Bit-Flip Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicano, Francisco; Sutton, Andrew M; Whitley, L Darrell; Alba, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Bit-flip mutation is a common mutation operator for evolutionary algorithms applied to optimize functions over binary strings. In this paper, we develop results from the theory of landscapes and Krawtchouk polynomials to exactly compute the probability distribution of fitness values of a binary string undergoing uniform bit-flip mutation. We prove that this probability distribution can be expressed as a polynomial in p, the probability of flipping each bit. We analyze these polynomials and provide closed-form expressions for an easy linear problem (Onemax), and an NP-hard problem, MAX-SAT. We also discuss a connection of the results with runtime analysis.

  12. Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital...... library tasks. Different hardware platforms as basis for mass processing will usually already exist for libraries as part of a bit preservation solution for long term bit preservation. The investigation of a general mass processing service shows that different aspects of mass processing are too dependent...

  13. Bit Manipulation Accelerator for Communication Systems Digital Signal Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sug H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes application-specific instructions and their bit manipulation unit (BMU, which efficiently support scrambling, convolutional encoding, puncturing, interleaving, and bit stream multiplexing. The proposed DSP employs the BMU supporting parallel shift and XOR (exclusive-OR operations and bit insertion/extraction operations on multiple data. The proposed architecture has been modeled by VHDL and synthesized using the SEC 0.18 m standard cell library and the gate count of the BMU is only about 1700 gates. Performance comparisons show that the number of clock cycles can be reduced about for scrambling, convolutional encoding, and interleaving compared with existing DSPs.

  14. Bit Error Rate Minimizing Channel Shortening Equalizers for Single Carrier Cyclic Prefixed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Richard K; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous work on channel shortening has largely been in the context of digital subscriber lines, a wireline system that allows bit allocation, thus it has focused on maximizing the bit rate for a given bit error rate (BER...

  15. Efficient MAC Protocol for Subcarrier-Wise Rate Adaptation over WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While bit-loading algorithms over wireless systems have been extensively studied, the development of a protocol which implements bit-loading-based rate adaptation over wireless systems has not been highlighted. The design of such a protocol is not a trivial problem, due to the overhead associated with the feedback information. In this paper, a novel protocol is proposed to provide an efficient way to implement subcarrier-wise rate adaptation in OFDM-based wireless systems. When receiving a Ready-To-Send (RTS packet, the receiver determines the number of bits to be allocated on each subcarrier through channel estimation. This decision is delivered to the sender using an additional OFDM symbol in the Clear-To-Send (CTS packet. That is, bit-allocation over subcarriers is achieved using only one additional OFDM symbol. The protocol enhances the channel efficiency in spite of the overhead of one additional OFDM symbol.

  16. An economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Shi, Run-hua; Qin, Jia-qi; Peng, Zhen-wan

    2018-02-01

    We present an economic and feasible Quantum Sealed-bid Auction protocol using quantum secure direct communication based on single photons in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom, where each single photon can carry two bits of classical information. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has higher efficiency. In addition, we propose a secure post-confirmation mechanism without quantum entanglement to guarantee the security and the fairness of the auction.

  17. 2015 Big Windy, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Big Windy project area. The imagery coverage is...

  18. 2014 Metro, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Portland project area. The imagery coverage is...

  19. Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and critically test the Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS), a novel system for in-situ, rapid analyses of planetary subsurface...

  20. 2012 Sandy River, Oregon Natural Color 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Sandy River project area. The imagery coverage is...

  1. Pseudo-random bit generator based on Chebyshev map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study a pseudo-random bit generator based on two Chebyshev polynomial maps. The novel derivative algorithm shows perfect statistical properties established by number of statistical tests.

  2. Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Atsushi; Amano, Kazuya; Inoue, Masaki; Hirano, Kunihito; Naito, Sunao; Someya, Hiroyuki; Oowada, Isao; Kurashige, Takayuki; Shiki, Masaru; Yoshimori, Shigeru; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Random number generators in digital information systems make use of physical entropy sources such as electronic and photonic noise to add unpredictability to deterministically generated pseudo-random sequences. However, there is a large gap between the generation rates achieved with existing physical sources and the high data rates of many computation and communication systems; this is a fundamental weakness of these systems. Here we show that good quality random bit sequences can be generated at very fast bit rates using physical chaos in semiconductor lasers. Streams of bits that pass standard statistical tests for randomness have been generated at rates of up to 1.7 Gbps by sampling the fluctuating optical output of two chaotic lasers. This rate is an order of magnitude faster than that of previously reported devices for physical random bit generators with verified randomness. This means that the performance of random number generators can be greatly improved by using chaotic laser devices as physical entropy sources.

  3. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  4. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  5. Content Progressive Coding of Limited Bits/pixel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF.......A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF....

  6. 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups (Web, free access)   The NIST database of fingerprint images contains 2000 8-bit gray scale fingerprint image pairs. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  7. Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, Pawel; Augusiak, Remigiusz

    2006-01-01

    It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on a distillable cryptographic key in a bipartite scenario

  8. VCSEL Scaling, Laser Integration on Silicon, and Bit Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Silicon Photonics: Figure 1 shows the electronic circuitry and comparison key to analyzing photonic bit energies for transceivers used in data centers...VCSEL Scaling, Laser Integration on Silicon , and Bit Energy D.G. Deppe,1,2 Ja. Leshin,1 and Je. Leshin1 1CREOL, College of Optics & Photonics...laser; (000.0000) General [For codes, see www.opticsinfobase.org/submit/ocis.] Keywords: VCSELs, Nanoscale lasers, optical interconnects, silicon

  9. Comparison and status of 32 bit backplane bus architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    With the introduction of 32 bit microprocessors several new 32 bit backplane bus architectures have been developed and are in the process for standardization. Among these are Future Bus (IEEE P896.1), VME-Bus (IEEE 1014), MULTIBUS II, Nu-Bus and Fastbus (IEEE 960). The paper describes and compares the main features of these bus architectures and mentions the status of national and international standardization efforts

  10. Ontario's commitment to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The title of this paper, 'Ontario's commitment to nuclear power', is significant because, as a publicly-owned company, Ontario Hydro will not be committed to nuclear power unless the Ontario public is also committed to nuclear power. In developing our strategic plan for generating electricity over the next 25 years, public acceptance was the big issue that we had to face, and it will be the underlying theme throughout this paper. In Ontario uranium is an indigenous fuel, and that is one of the reasons why Ontario adopted nuclear power in the first place, because it provides energy security. The uranium business is important to Canada, and to Ontario where we are 50% dependent on nuclear power at the current time. (author)

  11. Using commitment to improve environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, Anne Marike

    2009-01-01

    The making of commitments is often used as an intervention aimed at increasing pro-environmental behavior. Research shows that when people commit to changing their environmental behaviors, they tend to adhere to their commitments. In this dissertation it is investigated whether commitment making is

  12. A Heuristic Optimal Discrete Bit Allocation Algorithm for Margin Maximization in DMT Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shi-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A heuristic optimal discrete bit allocation algorithm is proposed for solving the margin maximization problem in discrete multitone (DMT systems. Starting from an initial equal power assignment bit distribution, the proposed algorithm employs a multistaged bit rate allocation scheme to meet the target rate. If the total bit rate is far from the target rate, a multiple-bits loading procedure is used to obtain a bit allocation close to the target rate. When close to the target rate, a parallel bit-loading procedure is used to achieve the target rate and this is computationally more efficient than conventional greedy bit-loading algorithm. Finally, the target bit rate distribution is checked, if it is efficient, then it is also the optimal solution; else, optimal bit distribution can be obtained only by few bit swaps. Simulation results using the standard asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL test loops show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for practical DMT transmissions.

  13. A Heuristic Optimal Discrete Bit Allocation Algorithm for Margin Maximization in DMT Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Ping; Yao, Yan; Zhou, Shi-Dong; Dong, Shi-Wei

    2007-12-01

    A heuristic optimal discrete bit allocation algorithm is proposed for solving the margin maximization problem in discrete multitone (DMT) systems. Starting from an initial equal power assignment bit distribution, the proposed algorithm employs a multistaged bit rate allocation scheme to meet the target rate. If the total bit rate is far from the target rate, a multiple-bits loading procedure is used to obtain a bit allocation close to the target rate. When close to the target rate, a parallel bit-loading procedure is used to achieve the target rate and this is computationally more efficient than conventional greedy bit-loading algorithm. Finally, the target bit rate distribution is checked, if it is efficient, then it is also the optimal solution; else, optimal bit distribution can be obtained only by few bit swaps. Simulation results using the standard asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) test loops show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for practical DMT transmissions.

  14. 24 CFR 232.510 - Commitment and commitment fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an amount which will aggregate $4.00 per thousand dollars of the amount of the requested increase. If... in an amount computed at the same dollar rate per thousand dollars of the amount of increase in... dollars of the amount of the expired commitment. If the reopening request is not received by the...

  15. Pledges of Commitment and Cooperation in Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Deer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual’s: (1 opportunity to commit to their partner; (2 the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3 the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduction of relatively large and equally split costs yields similar gains. In contrast, when costs to dissolve committed partnerships fall solely on the individual choosing to break up, pledges of commitment fail to improve cooperation and welfare.

  16. SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit: GAMBIT modules for computing mass spectra, particle decay rates and precision observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athron, Peter; Balázs, Csaba; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Kvellestad, Anders; McKay, James; Putze, Antje; Rogan, Chris; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2018-01-01

    We present the GAMBIT modules SpecBit, DecayBit and PrecisionBit. Together they provide a new framework for linking publicly available spectrum generators, decay codes and other precision observable calculations in a physically and statistically consistent manner. This allows users to automatically run various combinations of existing codes as if they are a single package. The modular design allows software packages fulfilling the same role to be exchanged freely at runtime, with the results presented in a common format that can easily be passed to downstream dark matter, collider and flavour codes. These modules constitute an essential part of the broader GAMBIT framework, a major new software package for performing global fits. In this paper we present the observable calculations, data, and likelihood functions implemented in the three modules, as well as the conventions and assumptions used in interfacing them with external codes. We also present 3-BIT-HIT, a command-line utility for computing mass spectra, couplings, decays and precision observables in the MSSM, which shows how the three modules can easily be used independently of GAMBIT.

  17. Pledges of commitment and cooperation in partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan Deer; Ralph-C. Bayer

    2015-01-01

    We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual's: (1) opportunity to commit to their partner; (2) the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3) the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduct...

  18. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Jim W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rice, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  19. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  20. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  1. Quality Improvement with Trustee Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Seymour, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Total Quality Management is a comprehensive system for developing organizationwide participation in planning for and implementing continuous improvement in critical processes. In colleges, trustees can be central to the success of the method through their commitment and the development of supportive policy and procedures. (MSE)

  2. School Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry Don

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

  3. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  4. Relating drilling parameters at the bit-rock interface: theoretical and field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkala, T. (Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mining Equipment Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    An explicit expression relating drilling parameters at the bit-rock contact is derived. The expression estimates the minimum torque, related to bit-rock contact only, required to maintain constant bit rotation. Theoretical results from the developed bit-rock contact relation agree very satisfactorily with those obtained from field tests and other previous experience. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  6. DSC and universal bit-level combining for HARQ systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Tiejun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a Dempster -Shafer theory based combining scheme for single-input single-output (SISO systems with hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ, referred to as DSC, in which two methods for soft information calculations are developed for equiprobable (EP and non-equiprobable (NEP sources, respectively. One is based on the distance from the received signal to the decision candidate set consisting of adjacent constellation points when the source bits are equiprobable, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-D. The other is based on the posterior probability of the transmitted signals when the priori probability for the NEP source bits is available, and the corresponding DSC is regarded as DSC-APP. For the diverse EP and NEP source cases, both DSCD and DSC-APP are superior to maximal ratio combining, the so-called optimal combining scheme for SISO systems. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed DSC is illustrated by the simulations performed in Rayleigh channel and AWGN channel, respectively. The results show that the proposed DSC is insensitive to and especially applicable to the fading channels. In addition, a DS detection-aided bit-level DS combining scheme is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output--HARQ systems. The bit-level DS combining is deduced to be a universal scheme, and the traditional log-likelihood-ratio combining is a special case when the likelihood probability is used as bit-level soft information.

  7. Very low bit rate video coding of moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Rosa; Fdez-Valdivia, Joaquin; Martinez-Baena, Javier

    2006-03-01

    We propose a video coding scheme to improve moving-target detection at very low bit rate, based on two key features: energy-based quantizer formation, and optimized interquantizer and intraquantizer prioritization. Rational Embedded Wavelet Video Coding (REVIC) is a fully implemented software video codec of low complexity and without motion compensated filtering to provide additional simplicity, adaptivity, and error resilience. It is shown to be quite effective in video coding of moving targets (e.g., military vehicles) at very low bit rates, while retaining the attributes of complete embeddedness for progressive transmission and scalability by fidelity and resolution. The proposed coding technique improves the explanatory power of decoded sequences (to achieve maximum target detection versus bit-rate performance) for a video compression system. The explanatory power of compressed sequences is important in surveillance applications, where trained video analysts may utilize decoded sequences to support decision processes in strategic, operational, and tactical tasks.

  8. BitCube: A Bottom-Up Cubing Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Puglisi, Piera Laura; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    Enhancing on line analytical processing through efficient cube computation plays a key role in Data Warehouse management. Hashing, grouping and mining techniques are commonly used to improve cube pre-computation. BitCube, a fast cubing method which uses bitmaps as inverted indexes for grouping, is presented. It horizontally partitions data according to the values of one dimension and for each resulting fragment it performs grouping following bottom-up criteria. BitCube allows also partial materialization based on iceberg conditions to treat large datasets for which a full cube pre-computation is too expensive. Space requirement of bitmaps is optimized by applying an adaption of the WAH compression technique. Experimental analysis, on both synthetic and real datasets, shows that BitCube outperforms previous algorithms for full cube computation and results comparable on iceberg cubing.

  9. Low Bit Rate Motion Video Coder/Decoder For Teleconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, T.; Niwa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Iinuma, K.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes motion video compression transmission for teleconferencing at a subprimary rate, i.e., at 384 kbits/s, including audio signal through the integrated services digital network (ISDN) HO channel. A subprimary rate video coder/decoder (codec), NETEC-XV, is available commercially that can operate at any bit rate (in multiples of 64 kbits/s) from 384 to 2048 kbits/s. In this paper, new algorithms are described that have been very useful in lowering the bit rate to 384 kbits/s. These algorithms are (1) separation of moving and still parts, followed by encoding of the two parts using different sets of parameters, and (2) scene change detection and its application to encoding parameter control. According to a brief subjective evaluation, the codec provides good picture quality even at a transmission bit rate of 384 kbits/s.

  10. The Cryptographic Security of the Sum of Bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Shamir, "On the Cryptographic Security of Single RSA bits," 15th STOC, lg83, pp.421-430. 3. L. Blum , M. Blum , and M. Shub , "A Simple Secure Pseudo...our paper we consider the sum of bits predicate and show that it is secure in the same sense. Blum , Blum , and Shub3 have designed a pseudo-random...Combining these two facts we obtain the following: Fact 3: E(x)=E(x2-1 mod N) if and only if E(r)+ 1 = E(r+ k). If x and y are non-negative integers, let C

  11. Transistor device for multi-bit non-volatile storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Kumar, Vimal; Liew, Thomas; Teo, K.L.; Chong, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a transistor model that incorporates multiple storage elements within a single transistor device. This device is thus smaller in size compared to the magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) with the same number of storage bits. The device model can function in both the current as well as voltage detection mode. Simulations were carried out at higher temperature, taking into consideration the spread of electron density above the Fermi level. We found that linear detection of conductance variation with the stored binary value can be achieved for a 3-bit storage device up to a temperature of 350 K

  12. Modeling of Bit Error Rate in Cascaded 2R Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate in a cascade of optical 2R-regenerators. The model includes the influences of of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments and the rege......This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate in a cascade of optical 2R-regenerators. The model includes the influences of of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments...

  13. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  14. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks

  15. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone

  16. Foldable Instrumented Bits for Ultrasonic/Sonic Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Iskenderian, Theodore; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Linderman, Randel

    2010-01-01

    Long tool bits are undergoing development that can be stowed compactly until used as rock- or ground-penetrating probes actuated by ultrasonic/sonic mechanisms. These bits are designed to be folded or rolled into compact form for transport to exploration sites, where they are to be connected to their ultrasonic/ sonic actuation mechanisms and unfolded or unrolled to their full lengths for penetrating ground or rock to relatively large depths. These bits can be designed to acquire rock or soil samples and/or to be equipped with sensors for measuring properties of rock or soil in situ. These bits can also be designed to be withdrawn from the ground, restowed, and transported for reuse at different exploration sites. Apparatuses based on the concept of a probe actuated by an ultrasonic/sonic mechanism have been described in numerous prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most recent and relevant being "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Impacting Penetrators" (NPO-41666) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), page 58. All of those apparatuses are variations on the basic theme of the earliest ones, denoted ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). To recapitulate: An apparatus of this type includes a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven actuator in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary twist drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. Examples of properties that could be measured by use of an instrumented tool bit include electrical conductivity, permittivity, magnetic

  17. Internet criminality commited on children

    OpenAIRE

    Hulanová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on internet crime where children are the victims. In the theoretical part of this work, different types of internet crime are described, with a special focus on internet crimes committed on children. Furthermore, it summarizes the basic knowledge of the aggressors and perpetrators of this activity, the prevalence of this crime, and last but not least it gives information about their victims. The empirical part of this work is devoted to the qualitative study of the list of...

  18. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  19. Predicting Commitment Forms From Psychological Contract Breach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.

  20. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  1. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    with a variant of the classic BGW protocol. The protocol is secure against a semi-honest adversary. In Chapter 4 we describe a new protocol for VIFF that is secure against malicious adversaries. The protocol guarantees termination if the adversary allows a preprocessing phase to terminate, in which...... systems hosted by an untrusted provider. It guarantees atomic read and write operations on the shared data when the service is correct and preserves fork-linearizability when the service is faulty. A prototype has been implemented on top of the Subversion revision control system; benchmarks show...

  2. Work engagement, organizational commitment, self efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature gathered shows that employees and organizational commitment could have strong relationship with self-efficacy. When an employee is engaged actively in his work, there is work commitment and organizational commitment leading to self –efficacy. In order to enhance employees work engagement, ...

  3. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are not...

  4. COMMITMENT A Psychological Tie and Moral Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY COMMITMENT A Psychological Tie and Moral Value by Shelly L. Mendieta, Lieutenant Colonel, United...there are also psychological and behavioral aspects to commitment. The Meyers and Allen three- component model of organizational commitment...Eight readings are offered as a foundation of the psychological , philosophical, and ethical literature as well as distinguish the concept of

  5. Building commitment in a sports class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    The literature has traditionally considered commitment as an individual characteristic or condition of the individual. This means that one is inclined to think that it is those who have commitment who have the opportunity to become excellent performers within their sport. But what if commitment...

  6. EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Azman ISMAIL,; Mohd Ridwan ABD RAZAK

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the association between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This research was conducted at Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia. The findings of this research discovered three significant findings. These are, job satisfaction was significantly associated with organizational commitment, intrinsic satisfaction was significantly associated with organizational commitment, and extrinsic satisfaction was significantly assoc...

  7. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  8. Work Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Self Efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organizations need committed workers in order to face the worldwide economic competition. The need for factors that predict organizational commitment has become more critical. One of the factors that could lead to healthy organizational climate, increased morale, motivation and productivity is organizational commitment.

  9. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  10. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  11. Architecture of 32 bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jove, T.M.; Ayguade, E.; Valero, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we describe the main topics about the architecture of the best known 32-bit CISC microprocessors; i80386, MC68000 family, NS32000 series and Z80000. We focus on the high level languages support, operating system design facilities, memory management, techniques to speed up the overall performance and program debugging facilities. (Author)

  12. Parity Bit Replenishment for JPEG 2000-Based Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Olivier Devaux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper envisions coding with side information to design a highly scalable video codec. To achieve fine-grained scalability in terms of resolution, quality, and spatial access as well as temporal access to individual frames, the JPEG 2000 coding algorithm has been considered as the reference algorithm to encode INTRA information, and coding with side information has been envisioned to refresh the blocks that change between two consecutive images of a video sequence. One advantage of coding with side information compared to conventional closed-loop hybrid video coding schemes lies in the fact that parity bits are designed to correct stochastic errors and not to encode deterministic prediction errors. This enables the codec to support some desynchronization between the encoder and the decoder, which is particularly helpful to adapt on the fly pre-encoded content to fluctuating network resources and/or user preferences in terms of regions of interest. Regarding the coding scheme itself, to preserve both quality scalability and compliance to the JPEG 2000 wavelet representation, a particular attention has been devoted to the definition of a practical coding framework able to exploit not only the temporal but also spatial correlation among wavelet subbands coefficients, while computing the parity bits on subsets of wavelet bit-planes. Simulations have shown that compared to pure INTRA-based conditional replenishment solutions, the addition of the parity bits option decreases the transmission cost in terms of bandwidth, while preserving access flexibility.

  13. 2015 Florida Panhandle RCD30 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain imagery data collected with an RCD30 camera as 8-bit RGBN TIFF images. Imagery was required 1000m seaward of the land/water interface or to laser...

  14. 2015 Southwest Florida RCD30 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain imagery data collected with an RCD30 camera as 8-bit RGBN TIFF images. Imagery was required 1000m seaward of the land/water interface or to laser...

  15. Some observations on the Bit-Search Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Chris J.

    2005-01-01

    In this short note an alternative definition of the Bit-Search Generator (BSG) is provided. This leads to a discussion of both the security of the BSG and ways in which it might be modified to either improve its rate or increase its security.

  16. KEAMANAN CITRA DENGAN WATERMARKING MENGGUNAKAN PENGEMBANGAN ALGORITMA LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image security is a process to save digital. One method of securing image digital is watermarking using Least Significant Bit algorithm. Main concept of image security using LSB algorithm is to replace bit value of image at specific location so that created pattern. The pattern result of replacing the bit value of image is called by watermark. Giving watermark at image digital using LSB algorithm has simple concept so that the information which is embedded will lost easily when attacked such as noise attack or compression. So need modification like development of LSB algorithm. This is done to decrease distortion of watermark information against those attacks. In this research is divided by 6 process which are color extraction of cover image, busy area search, watermark embed, count the accuracy of watermark embed, watermark extraction, and count the accuracy of watermark extraction. Color extraction of cover image is process to get blue color component from cover image. Watermark information will embed at busy area by search the area which has the greatest number of unsure from cover image. Then watermark image is embedded into cover image so that produce watermarked image using some development of LSB algorithm and search the accuracy by count the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio value. Before the watermarked image is extracted, need to test by giving noise and doing compression into jpg format. The accuracy of extraction result is searched by count the Bit Error Rate value.

  17. Different Mass Processing Services in a Bit Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Zierau, Eld

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how a general bit repository mass processing service using different programming models and platforms can be specified. Such a service is needed in large data archives, especially libraries, where different ways of doing mass processing is needed for different digital...

  18. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  19. An efficient parallel pseudorandom bit generator based on an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    complicated floating-point computation and multiplication computation transform into simple shift bit operations are ..... Based on the asymmetric CML combining some simple digital algebraic operations, a new PRBG was ... are identical, they are perturbed by the transformation x0(i) = x0(1) + 10000 × i, i = 2, 3, ..., N. 622.

  20. "Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna

    and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish...

  1. Quantum measurement and entanglement of spin quantum bits in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaff, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a set of experiments that explore the possible realisation of a macroscopic quantum network based on solid-state quantum bits. Such a quantum network would allow for studying quantum mechanics on large scales (meters, or even kilometers), and can open new possibilities for

  2. Designing the optimal bit: balancing energetic cost, speed and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Jones, Nick S

    2017-08-01

    We consider the challenge of operating a reliable bit that can be rapidly erased. We find that both erasing and reliability times are non-monotonic in the underlying friction, leading to a trade-off between erasing speed and bit reliability. Fast erasure is possible at the expense of low reliability at moderate friction, and high reliability comes at the expense of slow erasure in the underdamped and overdamped limits. Within a given class of bit parameters and control strategies, we define 'optimal' designs of bits that meet the desired reliability and erasing time requirements with the lowest operational work cost. We find that optimal designs always saturate the bound on the erasing time requirement, but can exceed the required reliability time if critically damped. The non-trivial geometry of the reliability and erasing time scales allows us to exclude large regions of parameter space as suboptimal. We find that optimal designs are either critically damped or close to critical damping under the erasing procedure.

  3. Radiation hardened COTS-based 32-bit microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, N.; Brown, R.; Cronauer, T.; Phan, H.

    1999-01-01

    A high performance radiation hardened 32-bit RISC microprocessor based upon a commercial single chip CPU has been developed. This paper presents the features of radiation hardened microprocessor, the methods used to radiation harden this device, the results of radiation testing, and shows that the RAD6000 is well-suited for the vast majority of space applications. (authors)

  4. Analysis of bit-rock interaction during stick-slip vibrations using PDC cutting force model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.A.; Teodoriu, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Drillstring vibration is one of the limiting factors maximizing the drilling performance and also causes premature failure of drillstring components. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit enhances the overall drilling performance giving the best rate of penetrations with less cost per foot but the PDC bits are more susceptible to the stick slip phenomena which results in high fluctuations of bit rotational speed. Based on the torsional drillstring model developed using Matlab/Simulink for analyzing the parametric influence on stick-slip vibrations due to drilling parameters and drillstring properties, the study of relations between weight on bit, torque on bit, bit speed, rate of penetration and friction coefficient have been analyzed. While drilling with the PDC bits, the bit-rock interaction has been characterized by cutting forces and the frictional forces. The torque on bit and the weight on bit have both the cutting component and the frictional component when resolved in horizontal and vertical direction. The paper considers that the bit is undergoing stick-slip vibrations while analyzing the bit-rock interaction of the PDC bit. The Matlab/Simulink bit-rock interaction model has been developed which gives the average cutting torque, T{sub c}, and friction torque, T{sub f}, values on cutters as well as corresponding average weight transferred by the cutting face, W{sub c}, and the wear flat face, W{sub f}, of the cutters value due to friction.

  5. a transport layer protocol using adaptive loss recovery method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayhan Kİraz

    ALORT) has been developed for WSN. ... WSN; transport protocol; reliability; sensor network; bit error rate. 1. Introduction. In recent years, there have been ...... Services, Brussels, Belgium. [22] Wang C, Sohraby K and Li B 2005 SenTCP: a hop-by- ...

  6. A new quantum private comparison protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Jing; Ahmed, Hafeez; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2017-10-01

    For two participants to compare the equality of their private information without revealing them, a new quantum private protocol with the help of semi-honest third party TP is proposed. Different from previous protocols, the four particle |Wf⟩ state and the |χ+⟩ state are utilized in this protocol as the carriers of quantum information and form the entanglement swapping as basic principle. The simple measurement of quantum states and exclusive-or operation are only required to conduct in this protocol. What's more, this protocol can compare two bits of two participants' private information in every comparison time. Meanwhile, it needs no unitary operation to fulfill this protocol. This protocol is feasible and efficient to execute through these aspects. In the end, the security of this protocol is analyzed at great length from two kinds of attacks including the outside attack and the participant attack. And the analysis result shows that this protocol can withstand various kinds of attacks and be secure to perform efficiently.

  7. Commitment to self-rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    People often overcome self-control problems by promising to reward themselves for accomplishing a task. Such strategies based on self-administered rewards however require the person to believe that she would indeed deny herself the reward if she should fail to achieve the desired outcome. Drawing...... on Koszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of endogenous reference point formation, we show how a rational forward-looking individual can achieve such internal commitment. But our results also demonstrate the limitations of self regulation based on self-rewards....

  8. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  9. Multiple access protocol for supporting multimedia services in wireless ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1999-01-01

    The furture broadband wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks must provide seamless extension of multimedia services from the wireline ATM networks. This requires an effecient wireless access protocol to fulfill varying Quality-og-Service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications....... In this paper, we propose a multiple access protocol using centralized and distributed channel access control techniques to provide QoS guarantees for multimedia services by taking advantage of the characteristics of different kinds of ATM traffics. Multimedia traffic, including constant bit rate (CBR......), variable bit rate (VBR) and available bit rate (ABR) with different kinds of applications, such as voice, video-conferening, MPEG video and Web-browising, is considered to evaluate the proposed protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed multiple access protocol can support a wide range...

  10. Optical Switching and Bit Rates of 40 Gbit/s and above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackaert, A.; Demester, P.; O'Mahony, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optical switching in WDM networks introduces additional aspects to the choice of single channel bit rates compared to WDM transmission systems. The mutual impact of optical switching and bit rates of 40 Gbps and above is discussed....

  11. Small digital recording head has parallel bit channels, minimizes cross talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E. E.; Laue, E. G.

    1964-01-01

    A small digital recording head consists of closely spaced parallel wires, imbedded in a ferrite block to concentrate the magnetic flux. Parallel-recorded information bits are converted into serial bits on moving magnetic tape and cross talk is suppressed.

  12. Efficient biased random bit generation for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slone, Dale M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-28

    A lattice gas automaton was implemented on a massively parallel machine (the BBN TC2000) and a vector supercomputer (the CRAY C90). The automaton models Burgers equation ρt + ρρx = vρxx in 1 dimension. The lattice gas evolves by advecting and colliding pseudo-particles on a 1-dimensional, periodic grid. The specific rules for colliding particles are stochastic in nature and require the generation of many billions of random numbers to create the random bits necessary for the lattice gas. The goal of the thesis was to speed up the process of generating the random bits and thereby lessen the computational bottleneck of the automaton.

  13. Modular trigger processing The GCT muon and quiet bit system

    CERN Document Server

    Stettler, Matthew; Hansen, Magnus; Iles, Gregory; Jones, John; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger system's HCAL Muon and Quiet bit reformatting function is being implemented with a novel processing architecture. This architecture utilizes micro TCA, a modern modular communications standard based on high speed serial links, to implement a processing matrix. This matrix is configurable in both logical functionality and data flow, allowing far greater flexibility than current trigger processing systems. In addition, the modular nature of this architecture allows flexibility in scale unmatched by traditional approaches. The Muon and Quiet bit system consists of two major components, a custom micro TCA backplane and processing module. These components are based on Xilinx Virtex5 and Mindspeed crosspoint switch devices, bringing together state of the art FPGA based processing and Telcom switching technologies.

  14. Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2018-03-01

    Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.

  15. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...

  16. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slopebe utilised in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However,comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of themasking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated withthe...... same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be theaudio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise.Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noisemaskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths arefixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of500Hz, 1kHz and 2kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure toneprobes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker.Modulation frequencies between 6Hz and 20Hz were used with a modulationdepth of 0.75. CMR of up...

  17. Geneva protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimminich, O.

    1990-01-01

    The First Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts contains provisions prohibiting indiscriminate attacks. Nuclear warfare as such is not mentioned in the Protocol. It has been asserted that the Protocol does not apply to nuclear weapons for several reasons. However, close analysis shows that the rules governing the application of means and methods of warfare cannot exempt the nuclear weapons. If nuclear weapons are applied in a manner not consistent with article 51 of Protocol I, their use is forbidden by this article even in situations in which general international law might grant an exception from the ban on nuclear weapons, as in the case of reprisal. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. The design method of diamond bit in hardest formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Long

    2010-01-01

    In the case of diamond bit drill* 1, * 2 of formation drillability that is the hardest formation,Fine, soft matrix, the low concentration of diamond dril should be chosen by Traditional design theory .Here describes a basic design with this completely different method. Proved through practice, Good performance of this drill, the drilling in extremely hard when the only limitation is high and life expectancy has increased a lot, have a good ground for such adaptability. (authors)

  19. Feasibility Study of 8-Bit Microcontroller Applications for Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Gulbinovič

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility study of 8-bit microcontroller applications for Ethernet is presented. Designed device is based on ATmega32 microcontroller and 10 Mbps Ethernet controller ENC28J60. Device is simulated as mass queuing theoretical model with ticket booking counter. Practical explorations are accomplished and characteristics are determined. Practical results are compared to theoretical ones. Program code and device packet processing speed optimization are discussed. Microcontroller packet processin...

  20. Capped bit patterned media for high density magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaojing; Livshitz, Boris; Bertram, H. Neal; Inomata, Akihiro; Fullerton, Eric E.; Lomakin, Vitaliy

    2009-04-01

    A capped composite patterned medium design is described which comprises an array of hard elements exchange coupled to a continuous cap layer. The role of the cap layer is to lower the write field of the individual hard element and introduce ferromagnetic exchange interactions between hard elements to compensate the magnetostatic interactions. Modeling results show significant reduction in the reversal field distributions caused by the magnetization states in the array which is important to prevent bit errors and increase achievable recording densities.

  1. SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Sutaya; Ketut Udy Ariawan

    2016-01-01

    prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 ...

  2. The effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on sexual satisfaction of couples in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Saremi Nezhad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on sexual satisfaction of couples in Shiraz. Methods: A pre-test, post-test methodology with one control group and one experimental group is used to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on sexual satisfaction of couples. 40 couples were chosen purposefully from the statistical population of all hurt couples who referred to psychological clinics in Shiraz. The sample size of 40 couples was put in to two groups consisting of a control group and experimental group. The required data was gathered through Larson Sexual satisfaction questionnaire and an acceptance and commitment therapeutic protocol of 12 therapy sessions. The data and hypothesis were analyzed via SPSS-22, using multivariable analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of the study show that acceptance and commitment therapy has a meaningful effect on increasing sexual satisfaction of couples

  3. High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata

    2016-03-01

    A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design.

  4. A short introduction to bit-string physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1997-06-01

    This paper starts with a personal memoir of how some significant ideas arose and events took place during the period from 1972, when the author first encountered Ted Bastin, to 1979, when the author proposed the foundation of ANPA. He then discusses program universe, the fine structure paper and its rejection, the quantitative results up to ANPA 17 and take a new look at the handy-dandy formula. Following the historical material is a first pass at establishing new foundations for bit-string physics. An abstract model for a laboratory notebook and a historical record are developed, culminating in the bit-string representation. The author set up a tic-toc laboratory with two synchronized clocks and shows how this can be used to analyze arbitrary incoming data. This allows him to discuss (briefly) finite and discrete Lorentz transformations, commutation relations, and scattering theory. Earlier work on conservation laws in 3- and 4-events and the free space Dirac and Maxwell equations is cited. The paper concludes with a discussion of the quantum gravity problem from his point of view and speculations about how a bit-string theory of strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational unification could take shape

  5. Digital Signal Processing For Low Bit Rate TV Image Codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R.

    1987-06-01

    In view of the 56 KBPS digital switched network services and the ISDN, low bit rate codecs for providing real time full motion color video are under various stages of development. Some companies have already brought the codecs into the market. They are being used by industry and some Federal Agencies for video teleconferencing. In general, these codecs have various features such as multiplexing audio and data, high resolution graphics, encryption, error detection and correction, self diagnostics, freezeframe, split video, text overlay etc. To transmit the original color video on a 56 KBPS network requires bit rate reduction of the order of 1400:1. Such a large scale bandwidth compression can be realized only by implementing a number of sophisticated,digital signal processing techniques. This paper provides an overview of such techniques and outlines the newer concepts that are being investigated. Before resorting to the data compression techniques, various preprocessing operations such as noise filtering, composite-component transformation and horizontal and vertical blanking interval removal are to be implemented. Invariably spatio-temporal subsampling is achieved by appropriate filtering. Transform and/or prediction coupled with motion estimation and strengthened by adaptive features are some of the tools in the arsenal of the data reduction methods. Other essential blocks in the system are quantizer, bit allocation, buffer, multiplexer, channel coding etc.

  6. High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design. (paper)

  7. Protocol Processing for 100 Gbit/s and Beyond - A Soft Real-Time Approach in Hardware and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Steffen; Lopacinski, Lukasz; Kraemer, Rolf; Nolte, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    100 Gbit/s wireless communication protocol processing stresses all parts of a communication system until the outermost. The efficient use of upcoming 100 Gbit/s and beyond transmission technology requires the rethinking of the way protocols are processed by the communication endpoints. This paper summarizes the achievements of the project End2End100. We will present a comprehensive soft real-time stream processing approach that allows the protocol designer to develop, analyze, and plan scalable protocols for ultra high data rates of 100 Gbit/s and beyond. Furthermore, we will present an ultra-low power, adaptable, and massively parallelized FEC (Forward Error Correction) scheme that detects and corrects bit errors at line rate with an energy consumption between 1 pJ/bit and 13 pJ/bit. The evaluation results discussed in this publication show that our comprehensive approach allows end-to-end communication with a very low protocol processing overhead.

  8. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The delivery commitment schedule process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Standard Contract for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) (herein referred to as the Contract) tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the development of a transportation system adequate to service both utilities and the waste management system (WMS). Due to the nature of the Contract, this development must take place prior to the utilities' final determination of the specific SNF that they will deliver during each allocation period. The Delivery Commitment Schedule (DCS) process is designed to initiate the identification of the SNF that will be delivered at a given time in order to aid in the development of the transportation system

  10. A corrective emotional experience - or just a bit of exercise? The relevance of interpersonal learning in Exercise on prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2011-01-01

    Roessler, K. K. (2011). A corrective emotional experience - or just a bit of exercise? The relevance of interpersonal learning in Exercise on prescription. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. The objective of the present study was to examine psychological aspects of intra- and interpersonal...... months and a follow-up one year after the start of intervention. The results demonstrated that, for the majority of the participants, interaction under group conditions contributes to maintaining the commitment to exercise. For a corrective emotional experience- a correction of an emotional situation...... a person could not handle in the past - to occur requires two conditions: the group and the environment must be experienced as sufficiently safe, and there must be feedback to permit reality-testing. However, existential psychological aspects such as fear of dying or the universality of suffering triggered...

  11. Beijing: a conference of commitments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S

    1996-05-01

    The author of this article holds the view that the Declaration and Platform for Action at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 was the product of the most highly participatory process ever organized under the auspices of the UN. The Declaration and Platform expressed the strongest views on gender equality, empowerment, and justice that governments have ever endorsed. These documents were the consolidation of gains made by women in previous UN conferences. The 135-page Platform can be used at all levels of decision making. Governments and international can be held accountable for its provisions. The Platform exposes the problems violence and exploitation against women and girls as well as the revelation that environmental destruction is due to an unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in developed countries. Conference participants included about 3000 nongovernmental groups (NGOs). The Women's Linkage Caucus and WEDO served to facilitate the advocacy process by providing briefings on text still under negotiation and providing on-line recommendations from the 1995 and 1994 Commission on the Status of Women preparatory committee meetings. A scoreboard that tracked government's commitment at the 1995 preparatory committee meetings was reinstated in Beijing. The information was conveyed on the Internet. The European Union is credited with diluting the language about government commitment to the Platform. Governments are still given responsibility for implementation, and the need for political will is stressed (paragraph 293). Paragraph 297 indicates the process for implementation of the Platform and coordination with NGOs. Although the Platform recognizes the importance of women's groups and other NGOs, the responsibility for implementation is still given to governments.

  12. Surgical drill system and surgical drill bit to be used therein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo Balbas, E.; Wieringa, P.A.; French, P.J.; Lee, R.A.; Breedveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    Surgical drill system comprising a mechanical drill bit and means for imaging the vicinity of the drill bit tip, said means comprising: at least one optical fiber having a distal end and a proximal end, said distal end being located adjacent said drill bit tip, an optical processing unit, said

  13. Tropical Deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An Editorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Nepstad, D. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  14. Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An editorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  15. The environmental commitment and responsibility program: Industry annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Commitment and Responsibility Program is an industry-wide initiative of the corporate electric utility members of the Canadian Electrical Association. The Program is in its second year; it builds on individual initiatives of member utilities and provides a forum to address the industry's stated commitment to sustainable development and improved environmental performance. This annual report provides an account of progress and development during 1998. It is organized in terms of the four principles underlying the industry's commitment to environmental stewardship, namely: (1) greater efficiency in the use of resources, (2) reduction of adverse environmental impact of the industry, (3) accountability to constituents, and (4) fostering of environmental awareness through facilitating the acquisition of environmental knowledge and skills among employees. Besides reporting progress by most member utilities in all or most of these areas, the report also provides a glimpse into the future towards implementing environmental management systems, an independent verification process, development of new indicators of progress in the area of treated wood used in distribution and transmission poles, and in assessing the impact of hydroelectric facilities on fish habitat. A table of indicators and protocols established in 1997 and 1998 and progress on each to date is appended

  16. Formalization of Quantum Protocols using Coq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Boender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Information Processing, which is an exciting area of research at the intersection of physics and computer science, has great potential for influencing the future development of information processing systems. The building of practical, general purpose Quantum Computers may be some years into the future. However, Quantum Communication and Quantum Cryptography are well developed. Commercial Quantum Key Distribution systems are easily available and several QKD networks have been built in various parts of the world. The security of the protocols used in these implementations rely on information-theoretic proofs, which may or may not reflect actual system behaviour. Moreover, testing of implementations cannot guarantee the absence of bugs and errors. This paper presents a novel framework for modelling and verifying quantum protocols and their implementations using the proof assistant Coq. We provide a Coq library for quantum bits (qubits, quantum gates, and quantum measurement. As a step towards verifying practical quantum communication and security protocols such as Quantum Key Distribution, we support multiple qubits, communication and entanglement. We illustrate these concepts by modelling the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, which communicates the state of an unknown quantum bit using only a classical channel.

  17. International Military Commitment Indicators: Operational Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    understandings between the engaged parties. These activities create general Images and expectations of international obligation and commitment . How each one of...H. Campbell, and Timothy Brock, v195 7) "The Effect of Commitment on Opinion Change Following Communication ," In Carl I. Hovland (ed.), THE...mmwmn wi 11 wmmmm^>—~~- I AD-A013 126 INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENT INDICATORS: OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Wayne R

  18. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  19. Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  20. Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  1. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Gubbins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74% participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse’s family commitment, work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule, and job and career satisfaction. Married participants’ mean age was 48 (SD = 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74% completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males (p = 0.02 but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment (p < 0.01, when controlled for age, gender, number of dependents, work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  2. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Ragland, Denise; Castleberry, Ashley N; Payakachat, Nalin

    2015-12-17

    Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74%) participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse's family commitment), work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule), and job and career satisfaction. Married participants' mean age was 48 (SD = 18) years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74%) completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males ( p = 0.02) but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment ( p impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  3. Cognitive commitments in health services marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1985-01-01

    Armed with valid information about what people expect, health care organizations can make commitments to current and prospective patients, thereby increasing their marketing success and improving patient satisfaction.

  4. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimal linear detectors for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose optimal linear detectors for non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward cooperative protocol when considering a single-relay scenario. Two types of detectors are proposed based on the principles of minimum mean square error (MMSE) and minimum bit error rate (MBER). The MMSE detector minimizes the mean square error, while the MBER minimizes the system bit error rate (BER). Both detectors exhibit excellent BER performance with relatively low complexity as compared to the maximal likelihood (ML) detector. The BER performance of both detectors is superior to the channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, and the biased ML detectors. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. The digital agenda of virtual currencies: Can BitCoin become a global currency?

    OpenAIRE

    CIAIAN PAVEL; RAJCANIOVA MIROSLAVA; KANCS D'ARTIS

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate BitCoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such e...

  7. Annual Report: Support Research for Development of Improved Geothermal Drill Bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Winzenried, R.W.; Jones, A.H.; Green, S.J.

    1978-07-01

    The work reported herein is a continuation of the program initiated under DOE contract E(10-1)-1546* entitled "Program to Design and Experimentally Test an Improved Geothermal Bit"; the program is now DOE Contract EG-76-C-1546*. The objective of the program has been to accelerate the commercial availability of a tolling cutter drill bit for geothermal applications. Data and experimental tests needed to develop a bit suited to the harsh thermal, abrasive, and chemical environment of the more problematic geothermal wells, including those drilled with air, have been obtained. Efforts were directed at the improvement of both the sealed (lubricated) and unsealed types of bits. The unsealed bit effort included determination of the rationale for materials selection, the selection of steels for the bit body, cutters, and bearings, the selection of tungsten carbide alloys for the friction bearing, and preliminary investigation of optimized tungsten carbide drilling inserts. Bits build** with the new materials were tested under stimulated wellbore conditions. The sealed bit effort provided for the evaluation of candidate high temperature seals and lubricants, utilizing two specially developed test apparatus which simulate the conditions found in a sealed bit operating in a geothermal wellbore. Phase I of the program was devoted largely to (1) the study of the geothermal environment and the failure mechanisms of existing geothermal drill bits, (2) the design and construction of separate facilities for testing both drill-bit seals and full-scale drill bits under simulated geothermal drilling conditions, and (3) fabrication of the MK-I research drill bits from high-temperature steels, and testing in the geothermal drill-bit test facility. The work accomplished in Phase I is reported in References 1 through 9. In Phase II, the first generation experimental bits were tested in the geothermal drill-bit test facility. Test results indicated that hardness retention at temperature

  8. Universality and clustering in 1 + 1 dimensional superstring-bit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    We construct a 1+1 dimensional superstring-bit model for D=3 Type IIB superstring. This low dimension model escapes the problem encountered in higher dimension models: (1) It possesses full Galilean supersymmetry; (2) For noninteracting Polymers of bits, the exactly soluble linear superpotential describing bit interactions is in a large universality class of superpotentials which includes ones bounded at spatial infinity; (3) The latter are used to construct a superstring-bit model with the clustering properties needed to define an S-matrix for closed polymers of superstring-bits

  9. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

  10. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study revealed that a significant positive influence of a caring ethical climate on professional and organizational commitment as well as job satisfaction existed. There was also a positive significant association between the law and code ethical climate and professional commitment. On the other hand, the study discovered that the instrumental ethical climate type had a significant negative relationship with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A significant negative relationship was also revealed between the independent ethical climate type and organizational and professional commitment. A significant negative relationship between the rules ethical climate and job satisfaction was also discovered.

  11. Heat Generation During Bone Drilling: A Comparison Between Industrial and Orthopaedic Drill Bits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher; Inceoglu, Serkan; Juma, David; Zuckerman, Lee

    2017-02-01

    Cortical bone drilling for preparation of screw placement is common in multiple surgical fields. The heat generated while drilling may reach thresholds high enough to cause osteonecrosis. This can compromise implant stability. Orthopaedic drill bits are several orders more expensive than their similarly sized, publicly available industrial counterparts. We hypothesize that an industrial bit will generate less heat during drilling, and the bits will not generate more heat after multiple cortical passes. We compared 4 4.0 mm orthopaedic and 1 3.97 mm industrial drill bits. Three types of each bit were drilled into porcine femoral cortices 20 times. The temperature of the bone was measured with thermocouple transducers. The heat generated during the first 5 drill cycles for each bit was compared to the last 5 cycles. These data were analyzed with analysis of covariance. The industrial drill bit generated the smallest mean increase in temperature (2.8 ± 0.29°C) P industrial bit generated less heat during drilling than its orthopaedic counterparts. The bits maintained their performance after 20 drill cycles. Consideration should be given by manufacturers to design differences that may contribute to a more efficient cutting bit. Further investigation into the reuse of these drill bits may be warranted, as our data suggest their efficiency is maintained after multiple uses.

  12. A preliminary study on the containment building integrity following BIT removal for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Young; Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sub

    2008-01-01

    Boron Injection Tank(BIT) is a component of the Safety Injection System, which its sole function is to provide concentrated boric acid to the reactor coolant in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated main steamline break accidents. Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, clog of precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. For the removal of BIT, benchmarking analysis is performed between COPATTA code used in final safety analysis report and CONTEMPT code to be used this study. CONTEMPT is well compatible with COPATTA. The sensitivity study for integrity is performed for the three cases of full double ended rupture at 102% power with diesel generator failure, 3.4m 3 and 2400ppm BIT, 3.4m 3 and 0ppm BIT and no volume of BIT. The results show that the deactivation of BIT is plausible for success

  13. Making Commitments to Racial Justice Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…

  14. The Influence of Culture on Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…

  15. Student-teachers' commitment to teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moses, I.

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated factors related to student-teachers’ commitment to teaching and intention to enter the teaching profession after graduation. The study gives some explanations why some student-teachers are not committed to enter and stay in the teaching profession for a

  16. Employee commitment and performance of manufacturing firms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    445) between job satisfaction and employee organizational commitment. Multiple regression revealed that pay and job promotion are the important elements that influence employee commitment. It is recommended that manufacturing organizations should emphasize pay and job promotion to enhance higher employee ...

  17. Commitment: A Behavioral Approach to Job Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Yoash; Gechman, Arthur S.

    1977-01-01

    Work commitment behaviors were defined as a special class of socially acceptable work behaviors exceeding formal and/or normative expectations relevant to work. For a sample of 54 female elementary school teachers, work commitment measures demonstrated moderate correlations with two attitudinal measures of job involvement and a job satisfaction…

  18. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  19. Navy Organizational Commitment and Non-response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    follow-up survey included some questions taken from the larger web-based survey, as well as organizational commitment questions and questions asking why...seem to be differences between enlisted completers and non-completers on organizational commitment , although few differences were found for officers.

  20. 7 CFR 3550.70 - Conditional commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dealer-contractor, or seller must: (1) Have an adequate ownership interest in the property, as defined in... approval of an affirmative marketing plan. (b) Limitations. Conditional commitments for new or... as bad weather, materials shortages, or marketing difficulties. Conditional commitments may be...

  1. Understanding the Links between Work Commitment Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Rick D.; Lapierre, Laurent M.; Hausdorf, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    In a study of 852 nurses, work involvement (value of work in their lives) affected organizational and occupational commitment through its effect on job involvement. Job involvement indirectly affected intention to leave the organization or occupation. Work and job involvement and orgnanizational and occupational commitment were determined to be…

  2. Career Commitment: A Reexamination and an Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Laurel R.; Singh, Parbudyal

    2002-01-01

    A model investigating effects on career commitment of job involvement, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction added the variables achievement need, work ethic, and extra-work factors (family involvement, number of dependents). Tested with 228 subjects, the model supported the effects of achievement need and work ethic but not extra-work…

  3. Identification of Determinants of Organizational Commitment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on the identification of determinants of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction. It is viewed as one of the basic concepts describing the relationship between an employee and an organization. In this paper determinants of organizational commitment, factors conditioning ...

  4. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information...

  5. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment of the Mentally Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Ruta J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the issue of involuntary outpatient commitment, and its implications for social workers working in the health system. Describes a nationwide movement to establish a new system of involuntary outpatient commitment to address the failure of deinstitutionalization, mandating mental health treatment in the community for persons ineligible for…

  6. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  7. Power analysis data set for 4-Bit MOCLA adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehru, K

    2018-02-01

    In order to reduce the silicon area of the chip and optimize the power of arithmetic circuits, this paper proposes a low power carry look-ahead BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) adder which uses a four bit MOCLA (Multiplexer and Or gate based Carry Look Ahead Adder) that forms the basic building block. This proposed MOCLA style uses a 2 input MUX, OR gate and GDI (Gate Diffusion Input) based full adder and PG units and it is used for achieving low power in BCD adder circuits.

  8. "Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna

    This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme "It's the experience", for the CHI2012 conference by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers. We take a series of questions as a joint point of departure to consider the nature and character...... and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish...

  9. Extending Landauer's bound from bit erasure to arbitrary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David

    The minimal thermodynamic work required to erase a bit, known as Landauer's bound, has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. However, when viewed as a computation that maps inputs to outputs, bit erasure has a very special property: the output does not depend on the input. Existing analyses of thermodynamics of bit erasure implicitly exploit this property, and thus cannot be directly extended to analyze the computation of arbitrary input-output maps. Here we show how to extend these earlier analyses of bit erasure to analyze the thermodynamics of arbitrary computations. Doing this establishes a formal connection between the thermodynamics of computers and much of theoretical computer science. We use this extension to analyze the thermodynamics of the canonical ``general purpose computer'' considered in computer science theory: a universal Turing machine (UTM). We consider a UTM which maps input programs to output strings, where inputs are drawn from an ensemble of random binary sequences, and prove: i) The minimal work needed by a UTM to run some particular input program X and produce output Y is the Kolmogorov complexity of Y minus the log of the ``algorithmic probability'' of Y. This minimal amount of thermodynamic work has a finite upper bound, which is independent of the output Y, depending only on the details of the UTM. ii) The expected work needed by a UTM to compute some given output Y is infinite. As a corollary, the overall expected work to run a UTM is infinite. iii) The expected work needed by an arbitrary Turing machine T (not necessarily universal) to compute some given output Y can either be infinite or finite, depending on Y and the details of T. To derive these results we must combine ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics with fundamental results from computer science, such as Levin's coding theorem and other theorems about universal computation. I would like to ackowledge the Santa Fe Institute, Grant No

  10. Digital sound: Subjective tests on low bit-rate codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, N. H. C.

    At the beginning of 1990, BBC Research Department tested four experimental high-quality low bit-rate audio codecs which were under development as part of the Eureka 147 Digital Audio Broadcasting project. The work involved preliminary listening tests to identify critical test material, followed by formal subjective tests to determine audio quality and error performance. The listeners could detect some loss of audio quality with all of the codecs using the most critical material. There were also indications that one of the codecs did not always reproduce the phantom sound sources in their correct position.

  11. Power analysis data set for 4-Bit MOCLA adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nehru

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the silicon area of the chip and optimize the power of arithmetic circuits, this paper proposes a low power carry look-ahead BCD (Binary Coded Decimal adder which uses a four bit MOCLA (Multiplexer and Or gate based Carry Look Ahead Adder that forms the basic building block. This proposed MOCLA style uses a 2 input MUX, OR gate and GDI (Gate Diffusion Input based full adder and PG units and it is used for achieving low power in BCD adder circuits.

  12. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.; Akkermans, A.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for

  13. Giga-bit optical data transmission module for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Roedne, L T; Cenkeramaddi, L R; Jiao, L

    Particle accelerators require electronic instrumentation for diagnostic, assessment and monitoring during operation of the transferring and circulating beams. A sensor located near the beam provides an electrical signal related to the observable quantity of interest. The front-end electronics provides analog-to-digital conversion of the quantity being observed and the generated data are to be transferred to the external digital back-end for data processing, and to display to the operators and logging. This research project investigates the feasibility of radiation-tolerant giga-bit data transmission over optic fibre for beam instrumentation applications, starting from the assessment of the state of the art technology, identification of challenges and proposal of a system level solution, which should be validated with a PCB design in an experimental setup. Radiation tolerance of 10 kGy (Si) Total Ionizing Dose (TID) over 10 years of operation, Bit Error Rate (BER) 10-6 or better. The findings and results of th...

  14. Learning may need only a few bits of synaptic precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Gerace, Federica; Lucibello, Carlo; Saglietti, Luca; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2016-05-01

    Learning in neural networks poses peculiar challenges when using discretized rather then continuous synaptic states. The choice of discrete synapses is motivated by biological reasoning and experiments, and possibly by hardware implementation considerations as well. In this paper we extend a previous large deviations analysis which unveiled the existence of peculiar dense regions in the space of synaptic states which accounts for the possibility of learning efficiently in networks with binary synapses. We extend the analysis to synapses with multiple states and generally more plausible biological features. The results clearly indicate that the overall qualitative picture is unchanged with respect to the binary case, and very robust to variation of the details of the model. We also provide quantitative results which suggest that the advantages of increasing the synaptic precision (i.e., the number of internal synaptic states) rapidly vanish after the first few bits, and therefore that, for practical applications, only few bits may be needed for near-optimal performance, consistent with recent biological findings. Finally, we demonstrate how the theoretical analysis can be exploited to design efficient algorithmic search strategies.

  15. Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2011-12-01

    The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.

  16. Energy-Efficient Hybrid Spintronic-Straintronic Nonvolatile Reconfigurable Equality Bit Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ayan K.; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    We propose and analyze a “spintronic/straintronic” reconfigurable equality bit comparator implemented with a nanowire spin valve whose two contacts are two-phase multiferroic nanomagnets and possess bistable magnetization. A reference bit is “written” into a stable magnetization state of one contact and an input bit in that of the other with electrically generated strain. The spin-valve’s resistance is lowered (raised) if the bits match (do not match). Multiple comparators can be interfaced in parallel with a magneto-tunneling junction to determine if an N-bit input stream matches an N-bit reference stream bit by bit. The system is robust against thermal noise at room temperature and a 16-bit comparator can operate at ˜743MHz while dissipating ˜28fJ per cycle. This implementation is more energy-efficient than CMOS-based implementations and the reference bits can be stored in the comparator itself without the need for refresh cycles or the need to fetch them from a remote memory for comparison. That improves reliability, speed and security.

  17. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  18. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  19. Collective dose commitments from nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of collective dose and collective dose commitment are discussed, particularly regarding their use to compare the relative importance of the exposure from several radiation sources and to predict future annual doses from a continuing practice. The collective dose commitment contributions from occupational exposure and population exposure due to the different components of the nuclear power fuel cycle are evaluated. A special discussion is devoted to exposures delivered over a very long time by released radionuclides of long half-lives and to the use of the incomplete collective dose commitment. The maximum future annual ''per caput'' doses from present and projected nuclear power programmes are estimated

  20. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  1. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  2. Implementation of RSA 2048-bit and AES 256-bit with Digital Signature for Secure Electronic Health Record Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Sadikin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the implementation of encryption and digital signature technique for electronic health record to prevent cybercrime such as robbery, modification and unauthorised access. In this research, RSA 2048-bit algorithm, AES 256-bit and SHA 256 will be implemented in Java programming language. Secure Electronic Health Record Information (SEHR application design is intended to combine given services, such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. Cryptography is used to ensure the file records and electronic documents for detailed information on the medical past, present and future forecasts that have been given only to the intended patients. The document will be encrypted using an encryption algorithm based on NIST Standard. In the application, there are two schemes, namely the protection and verification scheme. This research uses black-box testing and whitebox testing to test the software input, output, and code without testing the process and design that occurs in the system.We demonstrated the implementation of cryptography in SEHR. The implementation of encryption and digital signature in this research can prevent archive thievery.

  3. Scaling vectors of attoJoule per bit modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Volker J.; Amin, Rubab; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Ma, Zhizhen; Dalir, Hamed; Khan, Sikandar

    2018-01-01

    Electro-optic modulation performs the conversion between the electrical and optical domain with applications in data communication for optical interconnects, but also for novel optical computing algorithms such as providing nonlinearity at the output stage of optical perceptrons in neuromorphic analog optical computing. While resembling an optical transistor, the weak light-matter-interaction makes modulators 105 times larger compared to their electronic counterparts. Since the clock frequency for photonics on-chip has a power-overhead sweet-spot around tens of GHz, ultrafast modulation may only be required in long-distance communication, not for short on-chip links. Hence, the search is open for power-efficient on-chip modulators beyond the solutions offered by foundries to date. Here, we show scaling vectors towards atto-Joule per bit efficient modulators on-chip as well as some experimental demonstrations of novel plasmonic modulators with sub-fJ/bit efficiencies. Our parametric study of placing different actively modulated materials into plasmonic versus photonic optical modes shows that 2D materials overcompensate their miniscule modal overlap by their unity-high index change. Furthermore, we reveal that the metal used in plasmonic-based modulators not only serves as an electrical contact, but also enables low electrical series resistances leading to near-ideal capacitors. We then discuss the first experimental demonstration of a photon-plasmon-hybrid graphene-based electro-absorption modulator on silicon. The device shows a sub-1 V steep switching enabled by near-ideal electrostatics delivering a high 0.05 dB V-1 μm-1 performance requiring only 110 aJ/bit. Improving on this demonstration, we discuss a plasmonic slot-based graphene modulator design, where the polarization of the plasmonic mode aligns with graphene’s in-plane dimension; where a push-pull dual-gating scheme enables 2 dB V-1 μm-1 efficient modulation allowing the device to be just 770 nm

  4. Influence of Bit Depth on Subjective Video Quality Assessment for High Resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of bit depth on the subjective video quality assessment. To achieve this goal, eight video sequences, each representing a different content prototype, were analysed. Subjective evaluation was performed using the ACR method. The analysed video sequences were encoded to 8 and 10-bit bit depth. Two most used compression standards H.264 and H.265 were evaluated with 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 Mbps bitrate in Full HD and UHD resolution. Finally, the perceived quality of both compression standards using the subjective tests with emphasis on bit-depth was compared. From the results we can state, that the practical application of 10-bit bit depth is not appropriate for Full HD resolution in the range of bitrate from 1 to 15 Mbps, for Ultra HD resolution, it is appropriate only for videos encoded by H.265/HEVC compression standard.

  5. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  6. Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among records management personnel in Ondo State Civil Service, Akure, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 240 subjects from a population size of 275 records management personnel.

  7. Third age university, social and institucional commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Moritz da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings reflections on the social commitment of permanent education programs for the elderly, at the universities, in the face of their institutional commitment to the plans. It was possible to rescue the responsibility concepts, social commitment and identify the elderly in the university, within the federal legislation, through bibliographical and documentary research. There was a survey of permanent education programs with at least 20 years, in 2016. It was carried out for the elderly in the 63 Brazilian Federal, and Public Universities and 17 cases were found. Thus, nine Pro-Rectors of Extension and a Unit Director accepted to participate in interviews by Skype or telephone, in the second semester of 2016, fulfilling the objective of describing the university authorities’ vision on the type of institutional support for such programs’ operation. Although it is possible to realize their relevance to the environment and the university, the institutional commitment is still far short of what is necessary.

  8. Gauging the Commitment of Clandestine Group Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downs, Doneda D

    2006-01-01

    .... Until a few years ago, most research on individual commitment and organizational cohesion has been based primarily on questionnaires and open observations on groups that desire to be understood...

  9. Patent search and review on roller-bit bearings seals and lubrication systems. [State-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.

    1975-10-14

    Over 300 patents on bit design were reviewed, and the more important ones were abstracted. These patents were divided into three groups dealing with roller bit bearings, seals, and lubrication systems. Review of these patents helps identify the problems encountered by previous bit designers and establishes the current state-of-the-art of roller bit design. This report can be used as a reference for designing improved bits both for the petroleum and the geothermal industries.

  10. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  11. NATO’s Prague Capabilities Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-22

    Order Code RS21659 Updated July 22, 2008 NATO’s Prague Capabilities Commitment Carl Ek Specialist in International Relations Foreign Affairs, Defense...quickly to crisis regions, to supply and protect those forces, and to equip them to engage an adversary effectively. At its 2002 summit, NATO...approved a new initiative, the Prague Capabilities Commitment (PCC), touted as a slimmed-down, more focused DCI, with quantifiable goals. Analysts cautioned

  12. Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyggen, Christer

    2012-07-01

      This study aimed to examine the associations between cannabis use and work commitment.   We used a 25-year panel survey initiated in 1985 with follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. Registered data from a range of public registers were matched with individual responses for the entire period.   The panel survey was a nation-wide study set in Norway.   A total of 1997 respondents born between 1965 and 1968 were included in the panel.   Work involvement scale (WIS) was used to assess work commitment. Involvement with cannabis was based on self-reported smoking of cannabis within the last 12 months and exposure to cannabis through friends. This information was categorized into 'abstaining', 'exposed', 'experimented' and 'involved'. Control measures included socio-economic background, mental health (HSCL-10), education, work satisfaction, unemployment, receipt of social assistance, consumption of alcohol, alcohol-related problems and use of other illicit drugs.   The level of work commitment was associated with involvement with cannabis. In 1993, when the respondents were in their mid-20s, those who were involved or had experimented with cannabis displayed lower levels of work commitment than those who were abstaining or merely exposed to cannabis through friends (P cannabis converged towards the levels reported by abstainers and the exposed as they grew older, whereas those involved reported decreasing work commitment into adulthood (P cannabis across the life-course and a lowering of work commitment was established. Results remained significant even when controlling for a range of other factors known to be related to work commitment, such as socio-economic background, education, labour market experiences, mental health and family characteristics (P cannabis is associated with a reduction in work commitment among adults. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Competency management: Balancing between commitment and control

    OpenAIRE

    Heinsman, Hanneke; de Hoogh, Annebel H. B.; Koopman, Paul L.; van Muijen, Jaap J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management by adopting the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were filled out by 43 human resource experts working in different organizations. We expected components of the theory of planned behavior to mediate the relationship between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management (behavior). Regression analysis showed that perceived behavioral control...

  14. Computational modelling of meiotic entry and commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Bhola, Tanvi; Kapuy, Orsolya; Vinod, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the re...

  15. Bitlis Etnografya Müzesi'nde Bulunan Geleneksel Giysiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sökmen, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Bitlis Etnografya Müzesi'nde sergilenmekte olan geleneksel giysilerin kumaş, renk, süsleme ve teknik özelliklerinin tanıtımı amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda ilgili makamlardan yazılı izin alınarak müze vitrinlerinde sergilenmekte olan ve depolarda koruma altına alınan giysilerin fotoğrafları çekilmiş, gerekli ölçümleri yapılarak teknik özellikleri belirlenmiş, hammadde ve süsleme özellikleri incelenmiştir. Müzede bulunan geleneksel giysi örnekleri yeterince zengin olma...

  16. Numerical optimization of writer geometries for bit patterned magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, A.; Oezelt, H.; Bance, S.; Fischbacher, J.; Gusenbauer, M.; Reichel, F.; Exl, L.; Schrefl, T.; Schabes, M. E.

    2014-05-01

    A fully-automated pole-tip shape optimization tool, involving write head geometry construction, meshing, micromagnetic simulation, and evaluation, is presented. Optimizations have been performed for three different writing schemes (centered, staggered, and shingled) for an underlying bit patterned media with an areal density of 2.12 Tdots/in.2. Optimizations were performed for a single-phase media with 10 nm thickness and a mag spacing of 8 nm. From the computed write field and its gradient and the minimum energy barrier during writing for islands on the adjacent track, the overall write error rate is computed. The overall write errors are 0.7, 0.08, and 2.8×10-5 for centered writing, staggered writing, and shingled writing.

  17. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  18. A Fast Dynamic 64-bit Comparator with Small Transistor Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua-Chin Wang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a 64-bit fast dynamic CMOS comparator with small transistor count. Major features of the proposed comparator are the rearrangement and re-ordering of transistors in the evaluation block of a dynamic cell, and the insertion of a weak n feedback inverter, which helps the pull-down operation to ground. The simulation results given by pre-layout tools, e.g. HSPICE, and post-layout tools, e.g. TimeMill, reveal that the delay is around 2.5 ns while the operating clock rate reaches 100 MHz. A physical chip is fabricated to verify the correctness of our design by using UMC (United Microelectronics Company 0.5 μm (2P2M technology.

  19. Contador asincrónico de cuatro bits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Jaramillo J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el diseño e implementación del conttulor asincrónico de cuatro bits, realizado a partir de experiencias académicas en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Primero se menciona la estructura del contador, al igual que la caracterización de las celdas básicas (con base en las cuales se hizo este proyecto, y se muestran los resultados de la simulación eléctrica. Después, se describen las pruebas efectuadas al chip, y se hace una comparación entre estos datos experimentales y los obtenidos en la simulación.

  20. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey's quaternions, and RRQM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive's open-quotes Menshevikclose quotes position); (2) the author's bit-string open-quotes Theory of Everythingclose quotes (which Clive has dubbed open-quotes Bolshevikclose quotes); (3) Manthey's cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence

  1. Geneva University - Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 29 janvier 2007 COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE 17 heures - Auditoire Stueckelberg Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects Prof. Hans Mooij / Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology The quantum conjugate variables of a superconductor are the charge or number of Cooper pairs, and the phase of the order parameter. In circuits that contain small Josephson junctions, these quantum properties can be brought forward. In Delft we study so-called flux qubits, superconducting rings that contain three small Josephson junctions. When a magnetic flux of half a flux quantum is applied to the loop, there are two states with opposite circulating current. For suitable junction parameters, a quantum superposition of those macroscopic states is possible. Transitions can be driven with resonant microwaves. These quantum ...

  2. ALAT SOLAR TRACKER BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang telah dilakukan ini adalah membuat prototipe alat solar tracker. Alat ini berfungsi untuk menggerakkan modul sel surya sehingga permukaan sel surya bisa terkena sinar matahari secara maksimal. Saat ini sel surya di Indonesia banyak terpasang secara statis atau tidak dilengkapi alat solar tracker sehingga energi matahari tidak diterima secara maksimal. Hal ini menyebabkan sel surya yang terpasang di beberapa daerah di Indonesia tidak memberikan manfaat yang optimal. Alat solar tracker yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini diharapkan sebagai solusi dari permasalahan yang ada saat ini. Mikrokontroler 8 bit ATMega8535 yang digunakan sebagai otak utama dari alat solar tracker menjadikan alat ini menjadi berbiaya murah. Serta teknik memprogram dengan bahasa assembly menjadikan alat ini tahan terhadap kegagalan sistem. Solar tracker ini sudah bisa beroperasi dengan baik dan cocok digunakan pada modul sel surya berukuran kecil.

  3. Bit-string physics: A novel theory of everything

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1994-08-01

    We encode the quantum numbers of the standard model of quarks and leptons using constructed bitstrings of length 256. These label a grouting universe of bit-strings of growing length that eventually construct a finite and discrete space-time with reasonable cosmological properties. Coupling constants and mass ratios, computed from closure under XOR and a statistical hypothesis, using only {h_bar}, c and m{sub p} to fix our units of mass, length and time in terms of standard (meterkilogram-second) metrology, agree with the first four to seven significant figures of accepted experimental results. Finite and discrete conservation laws and commutation relations insure the essential characteristics of relativistic quantum mechanics, including particle-antiparticle pair creation. The correspondence limit in (free space) Maxwell electromagnetism and Einstein gravitation is consistent with the Feynman-Dyson-Tanimura ``proof.``

  4. A low power 12-bit ADC for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, R.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.; Silver, E.; LeGros, M.

    1992-10-01

    A low power, successive approximation, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for low rate, low cost, battery powered applications is described. The ADC is based on a commercial 50 mW successive approximation CMOS device (CS5102). An on-chip self-calibration circuit reduces the inherent differential nonlinearity to 7%. A further reduction of the differential nonlinearity to 0.5% is attained with a four bit Gatti function. The Gatti function is distributed to minimize battery power consumption. All analog functions reside with the ADC while the noisy digital functions reside in the personal computer based histogramming memory. Fiber optic cables carry afl digital information between the ADC and the personal computer based histogramming memory

  5. A one-bit approach for image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Hung; Pickering, Mark; Lambert, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Motion estimation or optic flow computation for automatic navigation and obstacle avoidance programs running on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging task. These challenges come from the requirements of real-time processing speed and small light-weight image processing hardware with very limited resources (especially memory space) embedded on the UAVs. Solutions towards both simplifying computation and saving hardware resources have recently received much interest. This paper presents an approach for image registration using binary images which addresses these two requirements. This approach uses translational information between two corresponding patches of binary images to estimate global motion. These low bit-resolution images require a very small amount of memory space to store them and allow simple logic operations such as XOR and AND to be used instead of more complex computations such as subtractions and multiplications.

  6. Analysis of crimes committed against scheduled tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Vivek P.; Akhil, P.; Anto, Christopher; Gnanasigamani, Lydia J.

    2017-11-01

    One of the curses to the society is a crime which has a deep impact on the society. Victims of crimes are the one who is impacted the most. All communities in the world are affected by crime and the criminal justice system, but largely impacted communities are the backward classes. There are many cases reported of crime committed against scheduled tribes from the year 2005 till date. This paper states the analysis of Crimes Committed against Scheduled Tribes in the year 2015 in various states and union territories in India. In this study, Multiple Linear regression techniques have been used to analyze the crimes committed against scheduled tribes’ community in India. This study compares the number of cases reported to the police station and rate of crime committed in different states in India. It also states the future prediction of the crime that would happen. It will also predict the number of cases of crime committed against the scheduled tribe that can be reported in future. The dataset which has been used in this study is taken from official Indian government repository for crimes which include different information of crimes committed against scheduled tribes in different states and union territories measured under the population census of the year 2011. This study will help different Indian states and union territory government to analyze and predict the future crimes that may occur and take appropriate measures against it before the actual crime would occur.

  7. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  8. Commitment and Switching Intentions: Customers and Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Werneck Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the relationship between a customer’s brand switching intentions and his commitment to a brand. Based on a literature review, constructs related to customer brand commitment were identified (affective and continuance commitment, trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness and their roles in the formation of brand switching intentions hypothesized. Through a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 201 smartphone users was collected to test the proposed relationships. Data analysis was carried out via structural equations modeling, with direct effects of trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness upon the different kinds of commitment being verified. Furthermore, both types of brand commitment (affective and continuance were found to negatively impact a customer’s intention to switch brands. Regarding enterprise customer strategies, the research findings suggest that, if firms are able to track customer brand commitment, they could use such knowledge to develop better relationship strategies, minimizing customer defection and further developing customer value to the company.

  9. Proposed first-generation WSQ bit allocation procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1993-09-08

    The Wavelet/Scalar Quantization (WSQ) gray-scale fingerprint image compression algorithm involves a symmetric wavelet transform (SWT) image decomposition followed by uniform scalar quantization of each subband. The algorithm is adaptive insofar as the bin widths for the scalar quantizers are image-specific and are included in the compressed image format. Since the decoder requires only the actual bin width values -- but not the method by which they were computed -- the standard allows for future refinements of the WSQ algorithm by improving the method used to select the scalar quantizer bin widths. This report proposes a bit allocation procedure for use with the first-generation WSQ encoder. In previous work a specific formula is provided for the relative sizes of the scalar quantizer bin widths in terms of the variances of the SWT subbands. An explicit specification for the constant of proportionality, q, that determines the absolute bin widths was not given. The actual compression ratio produced by the WSQ algorithm will generally vary from image to image depending on the amount of coding gain obtained by the run-length and Huffman coding, stages of the algorithm, but testing performed by the FBI established that WSQ compression produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20 to 1. The bit allocation procedure described in this report possesses a control parameter, r, that can be set by the user to achieve a predetermined amount of lossy compression, effectively giving the user control over the amount of distortion introduced by quantization noise. The variability observed in final compression ratios is thus due only to differences in lossless coding gain from image to image, chiefly a result of the varying amounts of blank background surrounding the print area in the images. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the proposed method`s effectiveness.

  10. Bit-depth scalable video coding with new inter-layer prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Jui-Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid advances in the capture and display of high-dynamic range (HDR image/video content make it imperative to develop efficient compression techniques to deal with the huge amounts of HDR data. Since HDR device is not yet popular for the moment, the compatibility problems should be considered when rendering HDR content on conventional display devices. To this end, in this study, we propose three H.264/AVC-based bit-depth scalable video-coding schemes, called the LH scheme (low bit-depth to high bit-depth, the HL scheme (high bit-depth to low bit-depth, and the combined LH-HL scheme, respectively. The schemes efficiently exploit the high correlation between the high and the low bit-depth layers on the macroblock (MB level. Experimental results demonstrate that the HL scheme outperforms the other two schemes in some scenarios. Moreover, it achieves up to 7 dB improvement over the simulcast approach when the high and low bit-depth representations are 12 bits and 8 bits, respectively.

  11. The Digital Agenda of Virtual Currencies. Can BitCoin Become a Global Currency?

    OpenAIRE

    KANCS D'ARTIS; CIAIAN PAVEL; MIROSLAVA RAJCANIOVA

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate Bitcoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such e...

  12. Field drilling tests on improved geothermal unsealed roller-cone bits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-05-01

    The development and field testing of a 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bit are described. Increased performance was gained by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Six of the experimental bits were subjected to air drilling at 240/sup 0/C (460/sup 0/F) in Franciscan graywacke at the Geysers (California). Performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling time was increased by 70%. All bits at the Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole drilled, compared with the conventional bits. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction per wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. These tests indicate a potential well cost savings of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  13. Designing embedded systems with 32-bit PIC microcontrollers and MikroC

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Dogan

    2013-01-01

    The new generation of 32-bit PIC microcontrollers can be used to solve the increasingly complex embedded system design challenges faced by engineers today. This book teaches the basics of 32-bit C programming, including an introduction to the PIC 32-bit C compiler. It includes a full description of the architecture of 32-bit PICs and their applications, along with coverage of the relevant development and debugging tools. Through a series of fully realized example projects, Dogan Ibrahim demonstrates how engineers can harness the power of this new technology to optimize their embedded design

  14. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impacts...... process can be applied to better capture opinions of different experts, thereby maximizing the evidential basis. Elaborating on manageability of invasive species is further needed to fully answer all risk analysis requirements. Tackling the issue of invasive species urges better handling of the acquired...

  15. Liquidity implications of a commitment period reserve at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, Erik; Missfeldt, Fanny

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, if it enters into force, will establish international emissions trading for quota that can be used for compliance with Protocol commitments. Concern that the non-compliance regime might not be sufficient to deter overselling led to adoption of the commitment period reserve requirement. This paper analyses the commitment period reserve in terms of (a) the liquidity of the international emissions trading market, and (b) international liquidity for domestic emissions trading programs in Annex B countries. The liquidity of the international greenhouse gas emissions trading market is measured as the sum of the quota surplus to the reserve requirement of net seller countries divided by the average annual assigned amount of all Annex B Parties and by the BAU emissions of Annex B Parties. Both measures are calculated using both the average values across 500 projections of future emissions and the values that yield the lowest liquidity (lowest reserves, highest emissions). Even the lowest estimates indicate liquidity comparable to that of the existing emissions trading programs. In addition, the international liquidity for domestic emissions trading programs with the commitment period reserve is likely to be comparable to or better than that of existing emissions trading markets, even under conservative assumptions

  16. Metastasis of tumor cells is enhanced by downregulation of Bit1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Prakash Karmali

    Full Text Available Resistance to anoikis, which is defined as apoptosis induced by loss of integrin-mediated cell attachment to the extracellular matrix, is a determinant of tumor progression and metastasis. We have previously identified the mitochondrial Bit1 (Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription protein as a novel anoikis effector whose apoptotic function is independent from caspases and is uniquely controlled by integrins. In this report, we examined the possibility that Bit1 is suppressed during tumor progression and that Bit1 downregulation may play a role in tumor metastasis.Using a human breast tumor tissue array, we found that Bit1 expression is suppressed in a significant fraction of advanced stages of breast cancer. Targeted disruption of Bit1 via shRNA technology in lowly aggressive MCF7 cells conferred enhanced anoikis resistance, adhesive and migratory potential, which correlated with an increase in active Extracellular kinase regulated (Erk levels and a decrease in Erk-directed phosphatase activity. These pro-metastasis phenotypes were also observed following downregulation of endogenous Bit1 in Hela and B16F1 cancer cell lines. The enhanced migratory and adhesive potential of Bit1 knockdown cells is in part dependent on their high level of Erk activation since down-regulating Erk in these cells attenuated their enhanced motility and adhesive properties. The Bit1 knockdown pools also showed a statistically highly significant increase in experimental lung metastasis, with no differences in tumor growth relative to control clones in vivo using a BALB/c nude mouse model system. Importantly, the pulmonary metastases of Bit1 knockdown cells exhibited increased phospho-Erk staining.These findings indicate that downregulation of Bit1 conferred cancer cells with enhanced anoikis resistance, adhesive and migratory properties in vitro and specifically potentiated tumor metastasis in vivo. These results underscore the therapeutic importance of restoring Bit1

  17. DNA multi-bit non-volatile memory and bit-shifting operations using addressable electrode arrays and electric field-induced hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngjun; Kim, Sejung; Heller, Michael J; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-01-18

    DNA has been employed to either store digital information or to perform parallel molecular computing. Relatively unexplored is the ability to combine DNA-based memory and logical operations in a single platform. Here, we show a DNA tri-level cell non-volatile memory system capable of parallel random-access writing of memory and bit shifting operations. A microchip with an array of individually addressable electrodes was employed to enable random access of the memory cells using electric fields. Three segments on a DNA template molecule were used to encode three data bits. Rapid writing of data bits was enabled by electric field-induced hybridization of fluorescently labeled complementary probes and the data bits were read by fluorescence imaging. We demonstrated the rapid parallel writing and reading of 8 (2 3 ) combinations of 3-bit memory data and bit shifting operations by electric field-induced strand displacement. Our system may find potential applications in DNA-based memory and computations.

  18. Civil commitment of the anorexic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, P S; Rumpf, T

    1998-07-01

    Involuntary commitment appears to be an infrequently used intervention with anorexic patients, in part because of clinicians' uncertainty about its applicability to this population. In contrast to overtly suicidal patients, anorexic patients typically fail to express an intent to harm themselves, although their actions may result in severe harm. Examination of the language of civil commitment statutes, however, suggests that when the behavior of anorexic patients endangers their lives, they will usually be committable under grave disability standards. This appears to comport with the practices of experts in the treatment of anorexia, and with practices in other countries as well. Involuntary commitment should be used as an approach of last resort, when patients decline voluntary hospitalization and their physical safety is at risk. Moreover, civil commitment should probably also be limited to circumstances in which therapeutic gain is likely from hospitalization. Many severely ill anorexic patients will lack competence to make treatment decisions on their own behalf, allowing involuntary feeding and other procedures to take place, if necessary. Civil commitment is a tool that can legitimately be used in emergent situations with anorexic patients.

  19. Study of nonlinear phenomena in a multi-bit bandpass sigma delta modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iu, H.H.C. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley (Australia)]. E-mail: herbert@ee.uwa.edu.au

    2006-11-15

    Bandpass sigma delta modulators (SDMs) have applications in areas such as digital radio demodulation. It is well known that bandpass SDMs with single bit quantizers can exhibit nonlinear and complex state space dynamics like elliptical fractal patterns. These fractal patterns are usually confined in trapezoidal regions. In this paper, we consider bandpass SDMs with multi-bit quantizers. Their nonlinear dynamics is studied.

  20. Bit and Power Loading Approach for Broadband Multi-Antenna OFDM System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra S.; Wang, Yuanye

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we have studied bit and power allocation strategies for multi-antenna assisted Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems and investigated the impact of different rates of bit and power allocations on various multi-antenna diversity schemes. It is observed that, if we...... allocations across OFDM sub-channels are required together for efficient exploitation of wireless channel....

  1. Enhanced bit rate-distance product impulse radio ultra-wideband over fiber link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report on a record distance and bit rate-wireless impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link with combined transmission over a 20 km long fiber link. We are able to improve the compliance with the regulated frequency emission mask and achieve bit rate-distance products as high as 16 Gbit/s·m....

  2. Application of time-hopping UWB range-bit rate performance in the UWB sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nascimento, J.R.V. do; Nikookar, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the achievable range-bit rate performance is evaluated for Time-Hopping (TH) UWB networks complying with the FCC outdoor emission limits in the presence of Multiple Access Interference (MAI). Application of TH-UWB range-bit rate performance is presented for UWB sensor networks.

  3. 0.5 ns resolution, 8-bit time-to-digital converter with flash ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczynski, C.

    1987-01-01

    A two-channel time-to-digital converter based on an 8-bit flash ADC is presented. The full scale time range of 127.5 ns is digitized to 8 bits providing 500 ps time resolution. The conversion time per channel is less than 800 ns. The design is foreseen to be implemented into Fastbus. (orig.)

  4. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  5. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  6. FlavBit : a GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernlochner, F.U.; Chrząszcz, M.; Dal, L.A.; Farmer, B.; Jackson, P.; Kvellestad, A.; Mahmoudi, F.; Putze, A.; Rogan, C.; Scott, P.; Serra, N.; Weniger, C.; White, M.

    2017-01-01

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour

  7. Dispersion Tolerance of 40 Gbaud Multilevel Modulation Formats with up to 3 bits per Symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan

    2006-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud......We present numerical and experimental investigations of dispersion tolerance for multilevel phase- and amplitude modulation with up to 3 bits per symbol at a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud...

  8. Development of a Tool Condition Monitoring System for Impregnated Diamond Bits in Rock Drilling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Santiago; Karakus, Murat; Pellet, Frederic

    2017-05-01

    The great success and widespread use of impregnated diamond (ID) bits are due to their self-sharpening mechanism, which consists of a constant renewal of diamonds acting at the cutting face as the bit wears out. It is therefore important to keep this mechanism acting throughout the lifespan of the bit. Nonetheless, such a mechanism can be altered by the blunting of the bit that ultimately leads to a less than optimal drilling performance. For this reason, this paper aims at investigating the applicability of artificial intelligence-based techniques in order to monitor tool condition of ID bits, i.e. sharp or blunt, under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, topologically invariant tests are carried out with sharp and blunt bits conditions while recording acoustic emissions (AE) and measuring-while-drilling variables. The combined output of acoustic emission root-mean-square value (AErms), depth of cut ( d), torque (tob) and weight-on-bit (wob) is then utilized to create two approaches in order to predict the wear state condition of the bits. One approach is based on the combination of the aforementioned variables and another on the specific energy of drilling. The two different approaches are assessed for classification performance with various pattern recognition algorithms, such as simple trees, support vector machines, k-nearest neighbour, boosted trees and artificial neural networks. In general, Acceptable pattern recognition rates were obtained, although the subset composed by AErms and tob excels due to the high classification performances rates and fewer input variables.

  9. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  10. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  11. Up to 20 Gbit/s bit-rate transparent integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1996-01-01

    We present a compact and optimised multiquantum-well based, integrated all-active Michelson interferometer for 26 Gbit/s optical wavelength conversion. Bit-rate transparent operation is demonstrated with a conversion penalty well below 0.5 dB at bit-rates ranging from 622 Mbit/s to 20 Gbit/s....

  12. How high-commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment : The moderating role of task proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Corine; Kalshoven, Karianne

    2014-01-01

    In a multisource field study, we examine the relationship between employee perceptions of high-commitment human resource management (HRM), task proficiency, work engagement, and organizational commitment. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we first propose that work engagement mediates

  13. How high-commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment: the moderating role of task proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Kalshoven, K.

    2014-01-01

    In a multisource field study, we examine the relationship between employee perceptions of high-commitment human resource management (HRM), task proficiency, work engagement, and organizational commitment. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we first propose that work engagement mediates

  14. A Modal Approach to Intentions, Commitments and Obligations:Intention plus Commitment yields Obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Mark A.; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.-J.Ch.; Carmo, José; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kuiper, R.

    In this paper we introduce some new operators that make it possible to reason about decisions and commitments to do actions. In our framework, a decision leads to an intention to do an action. The decision in itself does not change the state of the world; a commitment to actually perform the

  15. A modal approach to intentions, commitments and obligations: Intention plus commitment yields obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.; Dignum, F.P.M.; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Kuiper, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce some new operators that make it possible to reason about decisions and commitments to do actions. In our framework, a decision leads to an intention to do an action. The decision in itself does not change the state of the world; a commitment to actually perform the

  16. Perceived Sacrifice and Few Alternatives Commitments: The Motivational Underpinnings of Continuance Commitment's Subdimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Panaccio, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Using work on self-concepts and Conservation of Resources theory, the present research examined the motivational underpinnings of continuance commitment's subcomponents of perceived sacrifice and few alternatives. Study 1 (N=208) found job scope to be positively related to perceived sacrifice commitment, and negatively related to few alternatives…

  17. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  18. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  19. Irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR Part 51, ''Licensing and Regulatory Policy and Procedures for Environmental Protection,'' applicants are required to discuss any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that would be involved in a proposed action, should it be implemented. The construction and operation of nuclear power stations involve commitments of such resources as water, fuel, and materials. The guide presented identifies a report on material resources that forms a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for required discussions of irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources involved in the construction of a 1000 MWe pressurized water reactor. The guide describes numerical estimates useful in all such discussions. It also provides methods of computation that may be referenced

  20. Changes realized from extended bit-depth and metal artifact reduction in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glide-Hurst, C.; Chen, D.; Zhong, H.; Chetty, I. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: High-Z material in computed tomography (CT) yields metal artifacts that degrade image quality and may cause substantial errors in dose calculation. This study couples a metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm with enhanced 16-bit depth (vs standard 12-bit) to quantify potential gains in image quality and dosimetry. Methods: Extended CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were derived from a tissue characterization phantom with titanium and stainless steel inserts scanned at 90-140 kVp for 12- and 16-bit reconstructions. MAR was applied to sinogram data (Brilliance BigBore CT scanner, Philips Healthcare, v.3.5). Monte Carlo simulation (MC-SIM) was performed on a simulated double hip prostheses case (Cerrobend rods embedded in a pelvic phantom) using BEAMnrc/Dosxyz (400 000 0000 histories, 6X, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} beam traversing Cerrobend rod). A phantom study was also conducted using a stainless steel rod embedded in solid water, and dosimetric verification was performed with Gafchromic film analysis (absolute difference and gamma analysis, 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement) for plans calculated with Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA, Eclipse v11.0) to elucidate changes between 12- and 16-bit data. Three patients (bony metastases to the femur and humerus, and a prostate cancer case) with metal implants were reconstructed using both bit depths, with dose calculated using AAA and derived CT-ED curves. Planar dose distributions were assessed via matrix analyses and using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm. Results: For 12-bit images, CT numbers for titanium and stainless steel saturated at 3071 Hounsfield units (HU), whereas for 16-bit depth, mean CT numbers were much larger (e.g., titanium and stainless steel yielded HU of 8066.5 {+-} 56.6 and 13 588.5 {+-} 198.8 for 16-bit uncorrected scans at 120 kVp, respectively). MC-SIM was well-matched between 12- and 16-bit images except downstream of the Cerrobend rod, where 16-bit dose was {approx}6

  1. All-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Kazuya; Katayama, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-04-06

    We propose and evaluate an all-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching method using two 1.55-µm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and three optical switches. Polarization bistable VCSELs acted as flip-flop devices by using AND-gate operations of the header and set pulses, together with the reset pulses. Optical packets including 40-Gb/s non-return-to-zero pseudo-random bit-sequence payloads were successfully sent to one of four ports according to the state of two bits in the headers with a 4-bit 500-Mb/s return-to-zero format. The input pulse powers were 17.2 to 31.8 dB lower than the VCSEL output power. We also examined an extension of this method to multi-bit header recognition and packet switching.

  2. Warped Discrete Cosine Transform-Based Low Bit-Rate Block Coding Using Image Downsampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertürk Sarp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents warped discrete cosine transform (WDCT-based low bit-rate block coding using image downsampling. While WDCT aims to improve the performance of conventional DCT by frequency warping, the WDCT has only been applicable to high bit-rate coding applications because of the overhead required to define the parameters of the warping filter. Recently, low bit-rate block coding based on image downsampling prior to block coding followed by upsampling after the decoding process is proposed to improve the compression performance for low bit-rate block coders. This paper demonstrates that a superior performance can be achieved if WDCT is used in conjunction with image downsampling-based block coding for low bit-rate applications.

  3. 28 CFR 522.11 - Civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil contempt commitments. 522.11..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.11 Civil contempt commitments. Inmates can come into Bureau custody for civil contempt commitments in two ways: (a) The U.S...

  4. Video Synchronization With Bit-Rate Signals and Correntropy Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for the synchronization of video streams using correntropy. Essentially, the time offset is calculated on the basis of the instantaneous transfer rates of the video streams that are extracted in the form of a univariate signal known as variable bit-rate (VBR. The state-of-the-art approach uses a window segmentation strategy that is based on consensual zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC. This strategy has an elevated computational complexity, making its application to synchronizing online data streaming difficult. Hence, our proposal uses a different window strategy that, together with the correntropy function, allows the synchronization to be performed for online applications. This provides equivalent synchronization scores with a rapid offset determination as the streams come into the system. The efficiency of our approach has been verified through experiments that demonstrate its viability with values that are as precise as those obtained by ZNCC. The proposed approach scored 81 % in time reference classification against the equivalent 81 % of the state-of-the-art approach, requiring much less computational power.

  5. High Bit-Depth Medical Image Compression With HEVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Saurin S; Ruiz, Damian; Kalva, Hari; Fernandez-Escribano, Gerardo; Adzic, Velibor

    2018-03-01

    Efficient storing and retrieval of medical images has direct impact on reducing costs and improving access in cloud-based health care services. JPEG 2000 is currently the commonly used compression format for medical images shared using the DICOM standard. However, new formats such as high efficiency video coding (HEVC) can provide better compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Furthermore, JPEG 2000 is not suitable for efficiently storing image series and 3-D imagery. Using HEVC, a single format can support all forms of medical images. This paper presents the use of HEVC for diagnostically acceptable medical image compression, focusing on compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Diagnostically acceptable lossy compression and complexity of high bit-depth medical image compression are studied. Based on an established medically acceptable compression range for JPEG 2000, this paper establishes acceptable HEVC compression range for medical imaging applications. Experimental results show that using HEVC can increase the compression performance, compared to JPEG 2000, by over 54%. Along with this, a new method for reducing computational complexity of HEVC encoding for medical images is proposed. Results show that HEVC intra encoding complexity can be reduced by over 55% with negligible increase in file size.

  6. Transnational exchange of scientific data: The ``Bits of Power'' report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R. Stephen

    1998-07-01

    In 1994, the U.S. National Committee for the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), organized under the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Applications of the National Research Council established the Committee on Issues in the Transborder Flow of Scientific Data. The purpose of this Committee was to examine the current state of global access to scientific data, to identify strengths, problems and challenges confronting scientists now, or likely to arise in the next few years, and to make recommendations on building the strengths and ameliorating or avoiding the problems. The Committee's report appeared as the book Bits of Power: Issues in Global Access to Scientific Data (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997). This presentation is a brief summary of that report, particularly as it pertains to atomic and molecular data. The context is necessarily the evolution toward increasing electronic acquisition, archiving and distribution of scientific data. Thus the central issues were divided into the technological infrastructure, the issues for the sciences and scientists in the various disciplines, the economic aspects and the legal issues. For purposes of this study, the sciences fell naturally into four groups: the laboratory physical sciences, the biological sciences, the earth sciences and the astronomical and planetary sciences. Some of the substantive scientific aspects are specific to particular groups of sciences, but the matters of infrastructure, economic questions and legal issues apply, for the most part, to all the sciences.

  7. A CAMAC display module for fast bit-mapped graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In many data acquisition and analysis facilities for nuclear physics research, utilities for the display of two-dimensional (2D) images and spectra on graphics terminals suffer from low speed, poor resolution, and limit accuracy. Developed of CAMAC bit-mapped graphics modules for this purpose has been discouraged in the past by the large device count needed and the long times required to load the image data from the host computer into the CAMAC hardware; particularly since many such facilities have been designed to support fast DMA block transfers only for data acquisition into the host. This paper describes the design and implementation of a prototype CAMAC graphics display module with a resolution of 256x256 pixels at eight colours for which all components can be easily accommodated in a single-width package. Employed is a hardware technique which reduces the number of programmed CAMAC data transfer operations needed for writing 2D images into the display memory by approximately an order of magnitude, with attendant improvements in the display speed and CPU time consumption. Hardware and software details are given together with sample results. Information on the performance of the module in a typical VAX/MBD data acquisition environment is presented, including data on the mutual effects of simultaneous data acquisition traffic. Suggestions are made for further improvements in performance. (orig.)

  8. Modeling for write synchronization in bit patterned media recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Maria Yu; Chan, Kheong Sann; Chua, Melissa; Zhang, Songhua; Kui, Cai; Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid

    2012-04-01

    Bit patterned media recording (BPMR) is a contender for next generation technology after conventional granular magnetic recording (CGMR) can no longer sustain the continued areal density growth. BPMR has several technological hurdles that need to be overcome, among them is solving the problem of write synchronization. With CGMR, grains are randomly distributed and occur almost all over the media. In contrast, BPMR has grains patterned into a regular lattice on the media with an approximate 50% duty cycle. Hence only about a quarter of the area is filled with magnetic material. During writing, the clock must be synchronized to the islands or the written in error rate becomes unacceptably large and the system fails. Maintaining synchronization during writing is a challenge as the system is not able to read and write simultaneously. Hence reading must occur periodically between the writing frequently enough to re-synchronize the writing clock to the islands. In this work, we study the requirements on the lengths of the synchronization and data sectors in a BPMR system using an advanced model for BPMR, and taking into consideration different spindle motor speed variations, which is the main cause of the mis-synchronization.

  9. Video Synchronization With Bit-Rate Signals and Correntropy Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Igor; Silveira, Luiz F; Gonçalves, Luiz

    2017-09-04

    We propose an approach for the synchronization of video streams using correntropy. Essentially, the time offset is calculated on the basis of the instantaneous transfer rates of the video streams that are extracted in the form of a univariate signal known as variable bit-rate (VBR). The state-of-the-art approach uses a window segmentation strategy that is based on consensual zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC). This strategy has an elevated computational complexity, making its application to synchronizing online data streaming difficult. Hence, our proposal uses a different window strategy that, together with the correntropy function, allows the synchronization to be performed for online applications. This provides equivalent synchronization scores with a rapid offset determination as the streams come into the system. The efficiency of our approach has been verified through experiments that demonstrate its viability with values that are as precise as those obtained by ZNCC. The proposed approach scored 81 % in time reference classification against the equivalent 81 % of the state-of-the-art approach, requiring much less computational power.

  10. Delivery Commitments in Stochastic Service Networks: Case of Automobile Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Dulluri; Ganesh Muthusamy

    2013-01-01

    Service firms have become highly competitive in terms of providing the delivery. The delivery quality in terms of delivery commitments. Delivery commitments impact the customer in deciding for the service. Computing the delivery commitments in stochastic service systems is a real challenge. Delivery commitment forms a key parameter in formulating the service level agreements in B2B markets. In our current work we propose a queuing theoretic approach for computing the delivery commitments. The...

  11. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Sowmya; N. Panchanatham

    2011-01-01

    Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...

  12. Measuring Asian nurses' organizational commitment: a critical analysis of the psychometric properties of two organizational commitment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and compare the psychometric properties and cultural attributes of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Scale to determine their appropriateness for measuring commitment of Asian nurses, the biggest portion of international nurses. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was cross-culturally cross-validated when compared with the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both instruments were not tested on Asian nurses. More studies are needed to validate the cultural properties of the Organizational Commitment Scale. Healthcare administrators can use culturally validated instruments, which concern cultural context, including languages and cultural values, to understand Asian nurses' organizational commitment and further lower turnover behavior among them. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Kyoto Protocol and the coal industry in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana Rubio, Edgar

    1998-02-01

    In this article is studied the possible incidence of the commitments reached in the Kyoto Protocol on the coal market, making emphasis in the Colombian case. Projections, made in a study of Hill y Associates, points out that in a scenario of greenhouse gases emissions reduction, the market of the thermal coal will be seriously affected by the incidence on their demand

  14. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  15. Job insecurity, organisational commitment and work engagement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education system. However, changes of this nature have direct and/or indirect effects on the well-being of employees and consequently the organisation as a whole. ... commitment and work engagement) within an open distance learning environment. The study ..... According to the COR theory, such resource losses,.

  16. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  17. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  18. Articulating (Ultimate) Commitments: Historical, Factual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acknowledging that religion forms a constitutive part of human life is recently confirmed by Göbekli Tepe, an archaeological site in Turkey, from which it appears that religion is basic to all the other cultural developments within human society. This opened the way to illustrate the interplay between ultimate commitments and ...

  19. Compulsory outpatient treatment can prevent involuntary commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene Nørregård; Svensson, Eva Maria Birgitta; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    Compulsory outpatient treatment (co-pt) has been possible in Denmark since 2010. The aim is to secure necessary treatment, reduce involuntary commitment and improve quality of life for patients with a severe psychiatric illness. Co-pt has been brought into use in 33 cases. This case report...

  20. Religious Commitment and Superstitious Beliefs about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the combined and relative influence of secondary school students' religious commitment and superstitious beliefs about examinations on involvement in examination malpractices. A sample of 208 students randomly selected from the senior secondary school three classes in eight randomly selected ...

  1. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  2. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  3. Fuzzy Array Approach to Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Eliasson, Bo

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the unit commitment problem of Swedish power company Sydkraft as a constraint satisfaction problem. The power system is a simplified system with nuclear, thermal, and hydro generators as well as power interchange. In this paper we focus on soft constraints, for instance...

  4. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  5. Predictors of Organizational Commitment of Factory Employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey research investigated the predictive influence of organizational climate, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence on organizational commitment. Data were collected from 200randomly selected employees of Cocacola Factory who served as participants in this study using structured questionnaire. Results of the ...

  6. Organisational commitment and responses to planned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale employee resignations, suggesting a possible decline in organisational commitment as a result of the change. Organisational change is complex and is accompanied by cognitive, affective and behavioural responses from employees, but little research has been conducted to show how these responses are related to.

  7. Sport commitment in adolescent soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Belando Pedreño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.

  8. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  9. Robust unit commitment with dispatchable wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Espana, G.; Lorca, Álvaro; de Weerdt, M.M.

    The increasing penetration of uncertain generation such as wind and solar in power systems imposes new challenges to the unit commitment (UC) problem, one of the most critical tasks in power systems operations. The two most common approaches to address these challenges — stochastic and robust

  10. The Illinois Unit commitment information exchange experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honold, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a brief review of the 1989 operation of the Illinois Unit Commitment Information Exchange (UCIX) and the report prepared by Schultz and Associates. The report presents CSA's independent review and analysis of UCIX during 1989, the first full year of experimental operation

  11. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  12. The Changing Mood in America. Eroding Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Faustine Childress; And Others

    This book examines the current social climate in the United States to determine whether there is an eroding social commitment to equal opportunity for blacks and other minorities and the poor. It is concluded that there is a changing mood in the dominant society, in the black population, and in all three branches of the federal government, and it…

  13. Evolution of collective commitment during teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R

    In this paper we aim to describe dynamic aspects of social and collective attitudes in teams of agents involved in Cooperative Problem Solving (CPS). Particular attention is given to the strongest motivational attitude, collective commitment, and its evolution during team action. First, building on

  14. Competency management : Balancing between commitment and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, H.; Hoogh, de A.H.B.; Muijen, van J.J.; Koopman, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management by adopting the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were filled out by 43 human resource experts working in different organizations. We expected components of the theory of

  15. An Analysis of Organisational Commitment by Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate organisational commitment in the era of the new psychological contract, or the psychological environment created by an economic down turn in Zimbabwe. The psychological contract that exists between employees and organisations is brittle due to many organisational changes ...

  16. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  17. Religious Commitment and Prejudicial Attitudes toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of homosexuality has generated passionate discussion in Ghana making it obvious that Ghanaians are unaccepting of it and view it as against the culture, moral ethics and religions of Ghana. This study therefore aimed at determining the extent to which religious commitment will moderate prejudicial ...

  18. JOB ANXIETY, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviours have received significant attention from behavioural and management scientists around all corners of ... known fact that the success or failure of an organization and the pursuit of quality to a large extent depend not only ..... organizational commitment in the international tourist hotel industry. Journal of American ...

  19. Interfaith Marriage and Religious Commitment among Catholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Examined assertion that interfaith marriages have secularizing effect on family members. Assessed effects of respondent's and his/her parents' type of religious marriage on 11 measures of religious commitment. Catholics married to non-Catholics scored lower on attending mass and receiving communion than Catholics in homogamous marriages, but most…

  20. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems based on PS-request protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol.

  1. Effect of ambient light and bit depth of digital radiograph on observer performance in determination of endodontic file positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Min-Suk; Han, Dong-Hun; An, Byung-Mo; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2008-02-01

    To examine the effects of the luminance and bit depth of digital image on observer performance for determination of endodontic file positioning. Using extracted premolar teeth, no. 08 K-file was placed into the canal and positioned so that the tip was either flush or 1 mm short of the radiologic root apex. The samples were imaged with both conventional and digital radiographs at 8 and 12 bits. Eleven observers read the images under dark and bright condition, and receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed. Additionally, the interpreting time was measured. The 12-bit images showed similar observer performance compared with conventional images, and better than the 8-bit images. The interpretation time for bright condition and 8-bit images was longer than for dark condition and 12-bit images. Twelve-bit digital images were preferred to 8-bit for accurate determination of endodontic file position.

  2. A multi-bit rate interface movement compensated multimode coder for video conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    This report describes a multi-bit rate video coder for DARPA video conferencing applications. The coder can operate at any preselected transmission bit rate ranging from 1.5 Mb/s to 64 kb/s. The proposed National Command Authority Teleconferencing System (NCATS) is designed to connect several conferencing sites. The system provides shared audio, video and graphic spaces. The video conferencing system communicates dynamic images of participants to different conferencing sites. The system is designed to operate under different bandwidth constraints. Under emergency situations communications bandwidth can be drastically reduced to allow only for 64 kb/s to carry out the video conferencing system. Under normal conditions larger channel capacity is available for this service. In order to accommodate the above requirements, a video codec that can operate at different transmission bit rates is needed. This allows for upgrading of picture quality when there is sufficient bandwidth and a graceful reduction of picture quality under severe bandwidth limitations. The NTSC colour video signal sampled at 14.3 MHz (4 times the colour subcarrier frequency) and uniformly quantized to 8 bits per picture element, requires a transmission bit rate of 114 Mb/s. Such a high bit rate is economically prohibitive especially for video conferencing applications. In order to reduce the transmission bit rate, redundant information in the signal has to be removed and the specific video conferencing environment has to be exploited.

  3. Use of One Time Pad Algorithm for Bit Plane Security Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhardi; Suwilo, Saib; Budhiarti Nababan, Erna

    2017-12-01

    BPCS (Bit-Plane Complexity Segmentation) which is one of the steganography techniques that utilizes the human vision characteristics that cannot see the change in binary patterns that occur in the image. This technique performs message insertion by making a switch to a high-complexity bit-plane or noise-like regions with bits of secret messages. Bit messages that were previously stored precisely result the message extraction process to be done easily by rearranging a set of previously stored characters in noise-like region in the image. Therefore the secret message becomes easily known by others. In this research, the process of replacing bit plane with message bits is modified by utilizing One Time Pad cryptography technique which aims to increase security in bit plane. In the tests performed, the combination of One Time Pad cryptographic algorithm to the steganography technique of BPCS works well in the insertion of messages into the vessel image, although in insertion into low-dimensional images is poor. The comparison of the original image with the stegoimage looks identical and produces a good quality image with a mean value of PSNR above 30db when using a largedimensional image as the cover messages.

  4. A Novel Digital Background Calibration Technique for 16 bit SHA-less Multibit Pipelined ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swina Narula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high resolution of 16 bit and high speed of 125MS/s, multibit Pipelined ADC with digital background calibration is presented. In order to achieve low power, SHA-less front end is used with multibit stages. The first and second stages are used here as a 3.5 bit and the stages from third to seventh are of 2.5 bit and last stage is of 3-bit flash ADC. After bit alignment and truncation of total 19 bits, 16 bits are used as final digital output. To precise the remove linear gain error of the residue amplifier and capacitor mismatching error, a digital background calibration technique is used, which is a combination of signal dependent dithering (SDD and butterfly shuffler. To improve settling time of residue amplifier, a special circuit of voltage separation is used. With the proposed digital background calibration technique, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR has been improved to 97.74 dB @30 MHz and 88.9 dB @150 MHz, and the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR has been improved to 79.77 dB @ 30 MHz, and 73.5 dB @ 150 MHz. The implementation of the Pipelined ADC has been completed with technology parameters of 0.18μm CMOS process with 1.8 V supply. Total power consumption is 300 mW by the proposed ADC.

  5. A preliminary study on the containment building integrity following BIT removal for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Young; Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sub [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Boron Injection Tank(BIT) is a component of the Safety Injection System, which its sole function is to provide concentrated boric acid to the reactor coolant in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated main steamline break accidents. Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, clog of precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. For the removal of BIT, benchmarking analysis is performed between COPATTA code used in final safety analysis report and CONTEMPT code to be used this study. CONTEMPT is well compatible with COPATTA. The sensitivity study for integrity is performed for the three cases of full double ended rupture at 102% power with diesel generator failure, 3.4m{sup 3} and 2400ppm BIT, 3.4m{sup 3} and 0ppm BIT and no volume of BIT. The results show that the deactivation of BIT is plausible for success.

  6. Autonomously stabilized entanglement between two superconducting quantum bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K. M.; Narla, A.; Vool, U.; Girvin, S. M.; Frunzio, L.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum error correction codes are designed to protect an arbitrary state of a multi-qubit register from decoherence-induced errors, but their implementation is an outstanding challenge in the development of large-scale quantum computers. The first step is to stabilize a non-equilibrium state of a simple quantum system, such as a quantum bit (qubit) or a cavity mode, in the presence of decoherence. This has recently been accomplished using measurement-based feedback schemes. The next step is to prepare and stabilize a state of a composite system. Here we demonstrate the stabilization of an entangled Bell state of a quantum register of two superconducting qubits for an arbitrary time. Our result is achieved using an autonomous feedback scheme that combines continuous drives along with a specifically engineered coupling between the two-qubit register and a dissipative reservoir. Similar autonomous feedback techniques have been used for qubit reset, single-qubit state stabilization, and the creation and stabilization of states of multipartite quantum systems. Unlike conventional, measurement-based schemes, the autonomous approach uses engineered dissipation to counteract decoherence, obviating the need for a complicated external feedback loop to correct errors. Instead, the feedback loop is built into the Hamiltonian such that the steady state of the system in the presence of drives and dissipation is a Bell state, an essential building block for quantum information processing. Such autonomous schemes, which are broadly applicable to a variety of physical systems, as demonstrated by the accompanying paper on trapped ion qubits, will be an essential tool for the implementation of quantum error correction.

  7. High bit rate optical transmission using midspan spectral inversion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    صﺧﻟﻣ. رﺎﺛآ نﻋ ﺔﺟﺗﺎﻧﻟا ءﺎﺿوﺿﻟا ﺔﻟﮐﺷﻣﻟ نﮐﻣﯾ. ﻟا. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣ. ﻟا. تﺗﺷﺗﻟاو ﺔﯾطﺧ رﯾﻐ. اﻟﻟ. نﻣ دﺣﻟا ﻲﻧو. ﺔﻓﺎﺳﻣ. ثﺑﻟا. لدﻌﻣو ،. ﻲﺋﺎﻧﺛﻟا. ) bit. (. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣﻟ. -. لوﺣﺗﻟا. -. لﯾدﻌﺗﻟا تﻻﺎﺣ لﻔﻘﻟا .ﻓ. ﻲ. ذھا. ﻟا. لﺎﻘﻣ. ،. ﺎﻧﺳرد. ﺿﯾوﻌﺗ. ﻵا تﺎ. رﺎﺛ. ﻟا. ﺔﯾطﺧﻟاو ﺔﯾطﺧﻟا رﯾﻐ. ﻋن. قﯾرط. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣﻟا دادﺗﻣا فﺻﺗﻧﻣ. ﺔﯾرﺻﺑﻟا. ﺔﻘﻓرﻣﻟا. ) OPC .(. ،ﻻوأ. ﻧ. رﺎﺛآ رﮭظ. ﻟا. تﺗﺷﺗ. ا. ظﻧ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻧوﻟ. ﺎم. OD8PSK. ) ﺔﯾﻟﺿﺎﻔﺗ. ىوﺗﺳﻣﻟا ﺔﯾﺋوﺿ. -8. ﺔﻟﺣرﻣ. -. لوﺣﺗﻟا. -. لﻔﻘﻟا. (،.

  8. The Virtual Solar Observatory at Eight and a Bit!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Alisdair R.; VSO Team

    2011-05-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) was the first virtual observatory in the solar and heliophysics data space. It first saw the light of day in 2003 with a mission to serve the solar physics community by enabling homogenous access to heterogeneous data, and hiding the gory details of doing so from the user. The VSO pioneered what was to become the "Small Box" methodology, setting out to provide only the services required to navigate the user to the data and then letting them directly transferred the data from the data providers. After eight and a bit years the VSO now serves data from 72 different instruments covering a multitude of space and ground based observatories, including data from SDO. Dealing with the volume of data from SDO has proved to be our most difficult challenge, forcing us from the small box approach to one where the various VSO sites not only serve SDO data, but are central to the distribution of the data within the US and to Europe and other parts of the world. With SDO data serving mostly in place we are now working on integration with the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) and including a number of new solar data sets in the VSO family. We have a complete VSO search interface in IDL now, enabling searching, downloading and processing solar data, all be done without leaving the IDL command line, and will be releasing a brand new web interface providing users and data providers, with the ability to create far more detailed and instrument specific searches. Eight years on and the VSO has plenty of work in front of it.

  9. A Model of Computation for Bit-Level Concurrent Computing and Programming: APEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Takashi; Tsuchida, Kensei

    A concurrent model of computation and a language based on the model for bit-level operation are useful for developing asynchronous and concurrent programs compositionally, which frequently use bit-level operations. Some examples are programs for video games, hardware emulation (including virtual machines), and signal processing. However, few models and languages are optimized and oriented to bit-level concurrent computation. We previously developed a visual programming language called A-BITS for bit-level concurrent programming. The language is based on a dataflow-like model that computes using processes that provide serial bit-level operations and FIFO buffers connected to them. It can express bit-level computation naturally and develop compositionally. We then devised a concurrent computation model called APEC (Asynchronous Program Elements Connection) for bit-level concurrent computation. This model enables precise and formal expression of the process of computation, and a notion of primitive program elements for controlling and operating can be expressed synthetically. Specifically, the model is based on a notion of uniform primitive processes, called primitives, that have three terminals and four ordered rules at most, as well as on bidirectional communication using vehicles called carriers. A new notion is that a carrier moving between two terminals can briefly express some kinds of computation such as synchronization and bidirectional communication. The model's properties make it most applicable to bit-level computation compositionally, since the uniform computation elements are enough to develop components that have practical functionality. Through future application of the model, our research may enable further research on a base model of fine-grain parallel computer architecture, since the model is suitable for expressing massive concurrency by a network of primitives.

  10. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  11. Commitment tracking in the licensing renewal process: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurican, Gregory M.; Breslauer, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    The NRC's proposed 10 CFR 54 defines 'Current licensing basis' as inclusive of all licensee commitments. During the last five years, the regulatory commitment tracking group (RCTG) has been developing guidance for member utilities to track such commitments. The RCTG guidance for commitment tracking assists utilities in developing a system to store and maintain commitments related to the CLB. But a majority believe it unlikely that any one commitment tracking system will capture all commitments contained in the proposed definition of a 'Current Licencing Basis'. For future renewal applications the NRC proposes that utilities must identify and compile all licensing basis commitments. In addition, utilities 'shall maintain...(them) in an auditable and retrievable form'. Some utilities are already compiling and tracking licensing basis commitments; others are not. (author)

  12. Digital PSK to BiO-L demodulator for 2 sup nx(bit rate) carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    A phase shift key (PSK) to BiO-L demodulator which uses standard digital integrated circuits is discussed. The demodulator produces NRZ-L, bit clock, and BiO-L outputs from digital PSK input signals for which the carrier is a 2 to the Nth multiple of the bit rate. Various bit and carrier rates which are accommodated by changing various component values within the demodulator are described. The use of the unit for sinusoidal inputs as well as digital inputs is discussed.

  13. Optimization of rock-bit life based on bearing failure criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feav, M.J.; Thorogood, J.L.; Whelehan, O.P.; Williamson, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent advances in rock-bit seal technology have allowed greater predictability of bearing life. Cone loss following bearing failure incurs costs related to remedial activities. A risk analysis approach, incorporating bearing-life relationships and the inter-dependence of drilling events, is used to formulate a bit-run cost-optimization method. The procedure enables a choice to be made between elastomeric and metal seals on a lowest-replacement-cost basis. The technique also provides a formal method for assessing the opportunity cost for using a device to detect bit-bearing failures downhole

  14. Inadvertently programmed bits in Samsung 128 Mbit flash devices: a flaky investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G.

    2002-01-01

    JPL's X2000 avionics design pioneers new territory by specifying a non-volatile memory (NVM) board based on flash memories. The Samsung 128Mb device chosen was found to demonstrate bit errors (mostly program disturbs) and block-erase failures that increase with cycling. Low temperature, certain pseudo- random patterns, and, probably, higher bias increase the observable bit errors. An experiment was conducted to determine the wearout dependence of the bit errors to 100k cycles at cold temperature using flight-lot devices (some pre-irradiated). The results show an exponential growth rate, a wide part-to-part variation, and some annealing behavior.

  15. Bit Error Rate Performance of a MIMO-CDMA System Employing Parity-Bit-Selected Spreading in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude D'Amours

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically derive the upper bound for the bit error rate (BER performance of a single user multiple input multiple output code division multiple access (MIMO-CDMA system employing parity-bit-selected spreading in slowly varying, flat Rayleigh fading. The analysis is done for spatially uncorrelated links. The analysis presented demonstrates that parity-bit-selected spreading provides an asymptotic gain of 10log(Nt dB over conventional MIMO-CDMA when the receiver has perfect channel estimates. This analytical result concurs with previous works where the (BER is determined by simulation methods and provides insight into why the different techniques provide improvement over conventional MIMO-CDMA systems.

  16. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Sowmya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

  17. Competition with Variety Seeking and Habitual Consumption: Price Commitment or Quality Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates price and quality competition in a market where consumers seek variety and habit formation. Variety seeking is modeled as a decrease in the willingness to pay for product purchased on the previous occasion while habitual consumption may increase future marginal utility. We compare two competing strategies: price commitment and quality commitment. With a three-stage Hotelling-type model, we show that variety seeking intensifies while habitual consumption softens the competition. With price commitment, firms supply lower quality levels in period 1 and higher quality levels in period 2, while, with quality commitment, firms charge higher prices in period 1 and lower prices in period 2. However, the habitual consumption brings the opposite effect. In addition, with quality commitment variety seeking leads to a lower profit and a higher consumer surplus, while habitual consumption leads to the opposite results. On the other side, with price commitment these behaviors have no effect on the consumer surplus, although they still lower down the firm profits. Finally, we also identify conditions under which one strategy outperforms the other.

  18. Klasifikasi Bit-Plane Noise untuk Penyisipan Pesan pada Teknik Steganography BPCS Menggunakan Fuzzy Inference Sistem Mamdani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bit-Plane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS is a fairly new steganography technique. The most important process in BPCS is the calculation of complexity value of a bit-plane. The bit-plane complexity is calculated by looking at the amount of bit changes contained in a bit-plane. If a bit-plane has a high complexity, the bi-plane is categorized as a noise bit-plane that does not contain valuable information on the image. Classification of the bit-plane using the set cripst set (noise/not is not fair, where a little difference of the value will significantly change the status of the bit-plane. The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of fuzzy sets to classify the bit-plane into three sets that are informative, partly informative, and the noise region. Classification of the bit-plane into a fuzzy set is expected to classify the bit-plane in a more objective approach and ultimately message capacity of the images can be improved by using the Mamdani fuzzy inference to take decisions which bit-plane will be replaced with a message based on the classification of bit-plane and the size of the message that will be inserted. This research is able to increase the capability of BPCS steganography techniques to insert a message in bit-pane with more precise so that the container image quality would be better. It can be seen that the PSNR value of original image and stego-image is only slightly different.

  19. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  20. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of Murine Natural Killer Cell Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can derive from the same precursors as B and T cells, however to achieve lineage specificity, several transcription factors need to be activated or annulled. While a few important transcription factors have identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be organised, while addressing some misconceptions and anomalies along the way.

  2. An electrically reprogrammable 1024 bits MNOS ROM using MNOS-SOS e/d technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowiak, E.; Le Goascoz, V.

    1976-01-01

    A 1024 bits fully decoded electrically writable and erasable non volatile ROM is described. Memory cells and peripheral circuits are made using P channel silicon on sapphire enhancement depletion technology [fr

  3. A Novel Rate Control Scheme for Constant Bit Rate Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Phani Kumar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel rate control mechanism is proposed for constant bit rate video streaming. The initial quantization parameter used for encoding a video sequence is determined using the average spatio-temporal complexity of the sequence, its resolution and the target bit rate. Simple linear estimation models are then used to predict the number of bits that would be necessary to encode a frame for a given complexity and quantization parameter. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed rate control mechanism significantly outperforms the existing rate control scheme in the Joint Model (JM reference software in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and consistent perceptual visual quality while achieving the target bit rate. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is validated through implementation on a miniature test-bed.

  4. Bit and Power Loading Approach for Broadband Multi-Antenna OFDM System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra S.; Wang, Yuanye

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we have studied bit and power allocation strategies for multi-antenna assisted Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems and investigated the impact of different rates of bit and power allocations on various multi-antenna diversity schemes. It is observed that, if we......). Otherwise, it is possible to use adaptive power distribution to save power, which can be used for other purposes, or to increase the throughput of the system by transmitting higher number of bits. We also observed that in some scenarios and in some system conditions, some form of simultaneous bit and power...... cannot find the exact Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) thresholds due to different reasons, such as reduced Link Adaptation (LA) rate, Channel State Information (CSI) error, feedback delay etc., it is better to fix the transmit power across all sub-channels to guarantee the target Frame Error Rate (FER...

  5. Frame, bit and chip error rate evaluation for a DSSS communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Castillo–Soria

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation between chips, bits and frames error rates in the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN channel for a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS system, in Multiple Access Interference (MAI conditions is evaluated. A simple error–correction code (ECC for the Frame Error Rate (FER evaluation is used. 64 bits (chips Pseudo Noise (PN sequences are employed for the spread spectrum transmission.An iterative Montecarlo (stochastic simulation is used to evaluate how many errors on chips are introduced for channel effects and how they are related to the bit errors. It can be observed how the bit errors may eventually cause a frame error, i. e. CODEC or communication error. These results are useful for academics, engineers, or professionals alike.

  6. Ultimate DWDM format in fiber-true bit-parallel solitons on WDM beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C.; Bergman, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Whether true solitons can exist on WDM beams (and in what form) is a question that is generally unknown. This paper will discuss an answer to this question and a demonstration of the bit-parallel WDM transmission.

  7. Semifragile Speech Watermarking Based on Least Significant Bit Replacement of Line Spectral Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Nematollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various techniques for speech watermarking based on modifying the linear prediction coefficients (LPCs; however, the estimated and modified LPCs vary from each other even without attacks. Because line spectral frequency (LSF has less sensitivity to watermarking than LPC, watermark bits are embedded into the maximum number of LSFs by applying the least significant bit replacement (LSBR method. To reduce the differences between estimated and modified LPCs, a checking loop is added to minimize the watermark extraction error. Experimental results show that the proposed semifragile speech watermarking method can provide high imperceptibility and that any manipulation of the watermark signal destroys the watermark bits since manipulation changes it to a random stream of bits.

  8. FastBit: an efficient indexing technology for accelerating data-intensive science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kesheng

    2005-01-01

    FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only datasets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for onedimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods can not. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX

  9. FastBit: An Efficient Indexing Technology For AcceleratingData-Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng

    2005-06-27

    FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only data sets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for one-dimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods cannot. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX.

  10. FastBit: an efficient indexing technology for accelerating data-intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kesheng

    2005-01-01

    FastBit is a software tool for searching large read-only datasets. It organizes user data in a column-oriented structure which is efficient for on-line analytical processing (OLAP), and utilizes compressed bitmap indices to further speed up query processing. Analyses have proven the compressed bitmap index used in FastBit to be theoretically optimal for onedimensional queries. Compared with other optimal indexing methods, bitmap indices are superior because they can be efficiently combined to answer multi-dimensional queries whereas other optimal methods can not. In this paper, we first describe the searching capability of FastBit, then briefly highlight two applications that make extensive use of FastBit, namely Grid Collector and DEX.

  11. 20GSps 6-bit Low-Power Rad-Tolerant ADC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project aims to develop a 20GSps 6-bit radiation hardened analog to digital converter (ADC) required for microwave radiometers being developed for space...

  12. 20GSps 6-bit Low-Power Rad-Tolerant ADC, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project aims to develop a 20GSps 6-bit ADC required for microwave radiometers being developed for space and airborne earth sensing applications and...

  13. Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...

  14. Commitment to personal values and guilt feelings in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.

  15. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  16. SOLAR TRACKER CERDAS DAN MURAH BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER 8 BIT ATMega8535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sutaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available prototipe produk solar tracker cerdas berbasis mikrokontroler AVR 8 bit. Solar tracker ini memasukkan filter digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response pada bagian program. Memprogram filter ini membutuhkan perkalian 32 bit sedangkan prosesor yang tersedia pada mikrokontroler yang dipakai adalah 8 bit. Proses perkalian ini hanya bisa dilakukan pada mikrokontroler 8 bit dengan menggunakan bahasa assembly yang merupakan bahasa level hardware. Solar tracker cerdas yang menggunakan mikrokontroler 8 bit sebagai otak utama pada penelitian ini menjadikan produk ini berbiaya rendah. Pengujian yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa solar tracker cerdas dibandingkan dengan solar tracker biasa mempunyai perbedaan konsumsi daya baterai yang sangat signifikan yaitu terjadi penghematan sebesar 85 %. Besar penghematan konsumsi daya ini tentunya bukan sebuah angka konstan melainkan tergantung seberapa besar noise yang dikenakan pada alat solar tracker. Untuk sebuah perlakuan yang sama, maka semakin besar noise semakin besar pula perbedaan penghematan konsumsi daya pada solar tracker yang cerdas. Kata-kata kunci: solar tracker, filter digital, mikrokontroler 8 bit, konsumsi daya Abstract This research had made a prototype of smart solar tracker product based on microcontroller AVR 8 bit. The solar tracker used digital filter IIR (Infinite Impulse Response on its software. Filter programming needs 32 bit multiplication but the processor inside of the microcontroller that used in this research is 8 bit. This multiplication is only can be solved on microcontroller 8 bit by using assembly language in programming. The language is a hardware level language. The smart solar tracker using the microcontroller 8 bit as a main brain in this research made the product had a low cost. The test results show that the comparison in saving of baterai power consumption between the smart solar tracker and the normal one is 85 %. The percentage of the saving indubitably is not a constant

  17. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  18. Implementation of a network level protocol on a GIXINET type local network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeuillet, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    The installation of a communication system for transferring results from several experiment laboratories to a computing center is described. The objectives of a useful bit rate of 24 kbs, low connection cost and simple infrastructure, extension of the network to 4 buildings situated within a radius of 300m, and connection in the most standardized fashion possible are attained by using the GIXINET local network and adopting the X25 packet protocol. Bit rates of 17.2 kbs for standard 128 octet packets, and 44 kbs for nonstandard packets (776 octets in this case) [fr

  19. Design and Demonstration of a 30 GHz 16-bit Superconductor RSFQ Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-10

    for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Design and Demonstration of a 30 GHz 16-bit Superconductor RSFQ Microprocessor The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Superconductor technology, RSFQ, RQL, processor design, arithmetic units, high-performance...Demonstration of a 30 GHz 16-bit Superconductor RSFQ Microprocessor Report Title The major objective of the project was to design and demonstrate operation

  20. DOA Parameter Estimation with 1-bit Quantization - Bounds, Methods and the Exponential Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Manuel; Barbé, Kurt; Nossek, Josef A.

    2016-01-01

    While 1-bit analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) allows to significantly reduce the analog complexity of wireless receive systems, using the exact likelihood function of the hard-limiting system model in order to obtain efficient algorithms in the digital domain can make 1-bit signal processing challenging. If the signal model before the quantizer consists of correlated Gaussian random variables, the tail probability for a multivariate Gaussian distribution with N dimensions (general orthant pr...

  1. A 1 GHz sample rate, 256-channel, 1-bit quantization, CMOS, digital correlator chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoc, C.; Tran, T.; Wongso, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a digital correlator chip with the following features: 1 Giga-sample/second; 256 channels; 1-bit quantization; 32-bit counters providing up to 4 seconds integration time at 1 GHz; and very low power dissipation per channel. The improvements in the performance-to-cost ratio of the digital correlator chip are achieved with a combination of systolic architecture, novel pipelined differential logic circuits, and standard 1.0 micron CMOS process.

  2. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  3. Support research for development of improved geothermal drill bits. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    hendrickson, R.R.; Barker, L.M.; Green, S.J.; Winzenried, R.W.

    1977-06-01

    A full-scale geothermal wellbore simulator and geothermal seal testing machine were constructed. The major emphasis in the Phase II program, in addition to constructing the above research simulators, includes: simulated tests on full-scale components, i.e., full-scale bits; screening tests on elastomeric seals under geothermal conditions; and initial considerations of research needs for development of sealed high-temperature bits. A detailed discussion of the work is presented. (MHR)

  4. Implementasi Kriptografi Algoritma Elgamal Dengan Steganografi Teknik Least Significant Bit (LSB) Berdasarkan Penyisipan Menggunakan Fungsi Linier

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Lidya Andiny

    2014-01-01

    Confidentiality of messages or data is owned by a person is an important thing. Safeguarding of confidentiality of the message can use a security message like Cryptography and steganography. This research used ElGamal algorithms for cryptographic and Least Significant Bit (LSB) techniques for Steganography. ElGamal algorithm use fermat's little theorem for checking prime numbers are used. Techniques least significant bit (LSB) of Steganography using a linear function to determine the location...

  5. Euclidean Geometry Codes, minimum weight words and decodable error-patterns using bit-flipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn; Jonsson, Bergtor

    2005-01-01

    We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns.......We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns....

  6. Increasing the bit rate in OCDMA systems using pulse position modulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Vahid R; Saghari, Poorya; Haghi, Mahta; Ebrahimi, Paniz; Willner, Alan E

    2007-09-17

    We have experimentally demonstrated two novel pulse position modulation techniques, namely Double Pulse Position Modulation (2-PPM) and Differential Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) in Time-Wavelength OCDMA systems that will operate at a higher bit rate compared to traditional OOK-OCDMA systems with the same bandwidth. With 2-PPM technique, the number of active users will be more than DPPM while their bit rate is almost the same. Both techniques provide variable quality of service in OCDMA networks.

  7. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  8. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  9. Clean energy exports and the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed Canada's attempt in international negotiations to gain credits for energy exports that may result in greenhouse gas emission reductions in the United States. It examined how well founded this position is from an environmental perspective and in terms of international equity and political reality. The author emphasized that the clean energy export issue does not provide a legitimate reason to delay Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, and cautioned that further renegotiation of Kyoto targets for the first commitment period would not be practical and would jeopardize Canada's international standing. The author did note, however, that for the second commitment period, this issue could be reintroduced. Although the problem can potentially be resolved by granting credits to producers and exempting emissions, it was suggested that the most effective approach would be for countries to factor energy export considerations into their negotiating positions

  10. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...... of communication protocols. With it, partners can suggest a new protocol by sending its specification. After formally verifying the specification, each partner generates an implementation, which can then be used for establishing communication. We also present a practical realisation of the Protocol Implementation...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....

  11. Error Correcting Coding of Telemetry Information for Channel with Random Bit Inversions and Deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elshafey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of error-correcting coding of digital information. Feature of this method is the treatment of cases of inversion and skip bits caused by a violation of the synchronization of the receiving and transmitting device or other factors. The article gives a brief overview of the features, characteristics, and modern methods of construction LDPC and convolutional codes, as well as considers a general model of the communication channel, taking into account the probability of bits inversion, deletion and insertion. The proposed coding scheme is based on a combination of LDPC coding and convolution coding. A comparative analysis of the proposed combined coding scheme and a coding scheme containing only LDPC coder is performed. Both of the two schemes have the same coding rate. Experiments were carried out on two models of communication channels at different probability values of bit inversion and deletion. The first model allows only random bit inversion, while the other allows both random bit inversion and deletion. In the experiments research and analysis of the delay decoding of convolutional coder is performed and the results of these experimental studies demonstrate the feasibility of planted coding scheme to improve the efficiency of data recovery that is transmitted over a communication channel with noises which allow random bit inversion and deletion without decreasing the coding rate.

  12. Text Encryption Scheme Realized with a Chaotic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. K. Volos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work a new encryption scheme, which is realized with a Chaotic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator (CPRBG based on a Logistic map, is presented. The proposed system is used for encrypting text files for the purpose of creating secure data bases. The Logistic map is the most studied discrete nonlinear map because it has been used in many scientific fields. Also, the fact, that this discrete map has a known algebraic distribution, made the Logistic map a good candidate for use in the design of random bit generators. The proposed CPRBG, which is very easily implemented, uses the X-OR function, in the bit sequences, that are produced by two Logistic maps with different initial conditions and system’s parameters, to achieve better results concerning the “randomness” of the produced bits sequence. The detailed results of the statistical testing on generated bit sequences, done by the most well known tests of randomness: the FIPS-140-2 suite tests, confirmed the specific characteristics expected of random bit sequences.

  13. Commitment bias : mistaken partner selection or ancient wisdom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Back, Istvan H.

    Evidence across the social and behavioral sciences points to psychological mechanisms that facilitate the formation and maintenance of interpersonal commitment. In addition, evolutionary simulation studies suggest that a tendency for increased, seemingly irrational commitment is an important trait

  14. New graduate nurses professional commitment : Antecedents and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilroy, S.C.; Chênevert, Denis; Guerrero, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the factors that increase new graduate nurses' professional commitment and how this professional commitment in turn affects professional turnover intentions, anxiety, and physical health symptoms. Design: The study was carried out in association with the nursing

  15. The role of moral commitment within the Investment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Lopes, Diniz

    2015-03-01

    The Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980) defines general commitment as a long-term orientation towards relationship maintenance and feelings of psychological attachment, influenced by satisfaction, quality of alternatives and intrinsic/extrinsic investments. We suggest the importance of additionally assessing moral commitment, defined by an intrapersonal predisposition to remain in the relationship (Johnson, 1991). We argue moral commitment's association to perceived intrinsic investments acting as internal barriers influencing general commitment and promoting relationship maintenance. A correlational study resorting to structural equation modelling showed that moral commitment predicted intrinsic investments, which in turn predicted general commitment (Model 1). No direct paths emerged from moral commitment to satisfaction or quality of alternatives (Model 2), nor it emerged as a fourth direct predictor of general commitment (Model 3). Results are discussed under relationships maintenance and dissolution frameworks. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  17. Tb/s physical random bit generation with bandwidth-enhanced chaos in three-cascaded semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Ryohsuke; Iwakawa, Kento; Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi

    2015-01-26

    We experimentally demonstrate fast physical random bit generation from bandwidth-enhanced chaos by using three-cascaded semiconductor lasers. The bandwidth-enhanced chaos is obtained with the standard bandwidth of 35.2 GHz, the effective bandwidth of 26.0 GHz and the flatness of 5.6 dB, whose waveform is used for random bit generation. Two schemes of single-bit and multi-bit extraction methods for random bit generation are carried out to evaluate the entropy rate and the maximum random bit generation rate. For single-bit generation, the generation rate at 20 Gb/s is obtained for physical random bit sequences. For multi-bit generation, the maximum generation rate at 1.2 Tb/s ( = 100 GS/s × 6 bits × 2 data) is equivalently achieved for physical random bit sequences whose randomness is verified by using both NIST Special Publication 800-22 and TestU01.

  18. Estimation of entropy rate in a fast physical random-bit generator using a chaotic semiconductor laser with intrinsic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Takuya; Kanno, Kazutaka; Aoyama, Kota; Uchida, Atsushi; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Harayama, Takahisa; Sunada, Satoshi; Arai, Ken-ichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the time for growth of bit entropy when generating nondeterministic bits using a chaotic semiconductor laser model. The mechanism for generating nondeterministic bits is modeled as a 1-bit sampling of the intensity of light output. Microscopic noise results in an ensemble of trajectories whose bit entropy increases with time. The time for the growth of bit entropy, called the memory time, depends on both noise strength and laser dynamics. It is shown that the average memory time decreases logarithmically with increase in noise strength. It is argued that the ratio of change in average memory time with change in logarithm of noise strength can be used to estimate the intrinsic dynamical entropy rate for this method of random bit generation. It is also shown that in this model the entropy rate corresponds to the maximum Lyapunov exponent.

  19. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf; Haridas Acharya

    2013-01-01

    By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS), in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message). The eff...

  20. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velders, Guus J M; Andersen, Stephen O; Daniel, John S; Fahey, David W; McFarland, Mack

    2007-03-20

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials.

  1. Leadership style and job commitment of library personnel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, it was observed that library managers should evolve leadership styles that will motivate the job commitment of their subordinates. The study concludes that the respondents are committed to their job but the degree of commitment varies from one university to the other. The study recommends that the ...

  2. Frege's Commitment to an Infinite Hierarchy of Senses | Boisvert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though it has been claimed that Frege's commitment to expressions in indirect contexts not having their customary senses commits him to an infinite number of semantic primitives, Terrence Parsons has argued that Frege's explicit commitments are compatible with a two-level theory of senses. In this paper, we argue Frege ...

  3. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  4. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  5. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...

  6. Hardware Abstraction and Protocol Optimization for Coded Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    The design of the communication protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often neglects several key characteristics of the sensor's hardware, while assuming that the number of transmitted bits is the dominating factor behind the system's energy consumption. A closer look at the hardware...... specifications of common sensors reveals, however, that other equally important culprits exist, such as the reception and processing energy. Hence, there is a need for a more complete hardware abstraction of a sensor node to reduce effectively the total energy consumption of the network by designing energy......-efficient protocols that use such an abstraction, as well as mechanisms to optimize a communication protocol in terms of energy consumption. The problem is modeled for different feedback-based techniques, where sensors are connected to a base station, either directly or through relays. We show that for four example...

  7. Commitment and Behavior Change: A Meta-analysis and Critical Review of Commitment Making Strategies in Environmental Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, A.M.; Werner, C.M.; Staats, H.; Dijk, van E.; Gale, J.

    2013-01-01

    Commitment making is commonly regarded as an effective way to promote proenvironmental behaviors. The general idea is that when people commit to a certain behavior, they adhere to their commitment, and this produces long-term behavior change. Although this idea seems promising, the results are

  8. Survey of generational aspects of nurse faculty organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lara; Candela, Lori; Gutierrez, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    To describe organizational commitment and generational differences in nursing faculty. The study provides new knowledge on generational differences in organizational commitment among nursing faculty with regard to work values, perceived organizational support, perceived person-organization fit, developmental experiences, and global job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used with random stratified sampling procedures. Surveys measuring organizational commitment and related constructs were sent electronically to 4886 faculty, yielding a 30% response rate. Significant differences were noted between generations of faculty regarding organizational commitment and related measures. Include specific strategies for fostering commitment from each generation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Refugee Health: An Ongoing Commitment and Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy T; Bith-Melander, Pollie

    2018-01-13

    Refugees represent a diverse group of displaced individuals with unique health issues and disease risks. The obstacles facing this population have their origins in war, violence, oppression, exploitation, and fear of persecution. Regardless of country of origin, a common bond exists, with refugees often confronting inadequate healthcare resources, xenophobia, discrimination, and a complex web of legal barriers in their new homelands. In many cases, the plight of refugees is multigenerational, manifesting as mental health issues, abuse, poverty, and family disruption. The health trajectory of refugees remains an ongoing commitment and challenge.

  10. Fuzzy Array Approach to Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Eliasson, Bo

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the unit commitment problem of Swedish power company Sydkraft as a constraint satisfaction problem. The power system is a simplified system with nuclear, thermal, and hydro generators as well as power interchange. In this paper we focus on soft constraints, for instance `ap...... `approximately equal`, `much larger than`, and `a little`. Several authors have recognized the significance of soft or fuzzy constraints. Our specific objective is to compute a power balance by means of fuzzy array logic in order to accommodate uncertainty....

  11. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  12. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol; La mise en oeuvre du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  13. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  14. Performance-based training: industry commitments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    During the 1980s the nuclear industry has made a major commitment to performance based training, investing in excess of one thousand person-years in the process. This commitment is evidenced in a variety of initiatives including: 1) the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's (INPO's) training accreditation program; 2) the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) ''Commission Policy Statement on Training and Qualifications of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, which,''; 3) the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Order endorsement of ANSI/ANS 3.1 for Category A reactors and the initiation of Technical Safety Appraisals; 4) INPO's conduct of job and task analyses for nuclear power plant personnel and development of an on-line computer system to make the information available to all utilities; and 5) NRC's use of the INPO data base to develop performance-based licensing examinations for reactor operators. Each of the efforts is described briefly and some of the lessons learned through these efforts that can be applied to criticality safety training are discussed. Finally, it is shown how performance-based training is particularly related to the use of computers and simulators in training because the structured approach that is inherent in performance-based training provides the organization and sequencing of the training program and measurable standards of performance that are necessary to develop computer-based training

  15. Considering Maintenance Cost in Unit Commitment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongon Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric power systems worldwide are receiving an increasing volume of wind power generation (WPG because of environmental concerns and cost declines associated with technological innovation. To manage the uncertainty of WPG, a system operator must commit sufficient conventional generators to provide an appropriate reserve. At times, frequent start and stop operations are applied to certain generators, which incurs maintenance costs associated with thermal-mechanical fatigue. In this paper, we suggest a comprehensive approach to unit commitment (UC that considers maintenance cost: the parameters of equivalent start (ES and equivalent base load hours (EBHs are adopted in the UC problem to determine optimal generation scheduling. A new formulation for the maintenance cost that can be readily combined with an existing mixed integer linear programming algorithm is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed UC method is verified through simulations based on an IEEE 118-bus test system. The simulation results show that considering maintenance cost in the UC problem effectively restricts frequent start and stop operation scheduling. Furthermore, the operating cost is reduced, the required reserve level is maintained, and the computational time is comparable with that of the conventional UC method.

  16. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  17. The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Becam, C; Delanghe, J; Fest, H M; Lecoq, J; Martin, H; Mencik, M; MerkeI, B; Meyer, J M; Perrin, M; Plothow, H; Rampazzo, J P; Schittly, A

    1981-01-01

    The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliot system crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer. It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 buses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point, as well as integer, multiplication of 24*24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: (a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL, process the information resulting in accepting or rejecting the event; (b) readout and analysis of the accepted data; (c) preprocess the data. The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hard...

  18. ParBiBit: Parallel tool for binary biclustering on modern distributed-memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Expósito, Roberto R

    2018-01-01

    Biclustering techniques are gaining attention in the analysis of large-scale datasets as they identify two-dimensional submatrices where both rows and columns are correlated. In this work we present ParBiBit, a parallel tool to accelerate the search of interesting biclusters on binary datasets, which are very popular on different fields such as genetics, marketing or text mining. It is based on the state-of-the-art sequential Java tool BiBit, which has been proved accurate by several studies, especially on scenarios that result on many large biclusters. ParBiBit uses the same methodology as BiBit (grouping the binary information into patterns) and provides the same results. Nevertheless, our tool significantly improves performance thanks to an efficient implementation based on C++11 that includes support for threads and MPI processes in order to exploit the compute capabilities of modern distributed-memory systems, which provide several multicore CPU nodes interconnected through a network. Our performance evaluation with 18 representative input datasets on two different eight-node systems shows that our tool is significantly faster than the original BiBit. Source code in C++ and MPI running on Linux systems as well as a reference manual are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/parbibit/.

  19. The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becam, C.; Bernaudin, P.; Delanghe, J.; Mencik, M.; Merkel, B.; Plothow, H.; Fest, H.M.; Lecoq, J.; Martin, H.; Meyer, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO, as it is proposed for use in the UA 2 data acquisition chain and trigger system, is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliott System crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer (ND, DEC). It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine (150 ns effective cycle time) with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64 K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 busses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2 K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point (as well as integer) multiplication of 24 x 24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL (fast ADC's = the hardware trigger in the experiment), process the information (effective mass calculation, etc.) resulting in accepting or rejecting the event. b) read out and analysis of the accepted data (collect statistical information). c) preprocess the data (calculation of pointers, address decoding, etc.). The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hardware and software will be tested with simulated data. First results are expected in about one year from now. (orig.)

  20. A 12-bit 1-MS/s 26-μW SAR ADC for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yung-Hui; Yen, Chia-Wei; Tsai, Cheng-Hsun

    2018-01-01

    This chapter presents an energy-efficient 12-bit 1-MS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for sensor applications. A programmable dynamic comparator is proposed to suppress static current and maintain good linearity. A hybrid charge redistribution digital-to-analog converter is proposed to decrease the total capacitance, which would reduce the power consumption of the input and reference buffers. In the proposed ADC, its total input capacitance is only 700 fF, which greatly reduces the total power consumption of the analog frontend circuits. The 12-bit ADC is fabricated using 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor technology, and it consumes only 26 μW from a 1 V supply at 1-MS/s. The measured signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) and spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) are 60.1 and 72.6 dB, respectively. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) for a 100 kHz input frequency is 9.7 bits. At the Nyquist input frequency, the measured SNDR and SFDR are 59.7 and 71 dB, respectively. The ENOB is maintained at 9.6 bits and the figure-of-merit is 33.5 fJ/conversion-step.