WorldWideScience

Sample records for bisulfates

  1. Hydrolysis of epoxides and aziridines catalyzed by polymer-supported quarternary ammonium bisulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xuan Zhang; Kang Ye

    2008-01-01

    Macroporous resin (D201)-supported quartemary ammonium bisulfate (D201-HSO4)was prepared and effectively used in catalyzing the hydrolysis of epoxides or aziridines under mild and non-metal conditions to give the corresponding 1,2-diols and β-amino alcohols in high yields.The catalyst was facilely prepared and recyclable.

  2. Reducing Ammonia Volatilization and Escherichia coli from Broiler Litter Using Multiple Applications of Sodium Bisulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Hunolt, Alicia Erin

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure, such as poultry litter, can cause air quality problems. These emissions also result in excessive nitrogen (N) loading into aquatic environments which can lead to water quality problems where N is the limiting nutrient for eutrophication, such as the Chesapeake Bay. Poultry litter treatment (PLT, sodium bisulfate) is an acidic amendment that is applied to litter in poultry houses to decrease NH3 emissions, but currently it can only be ...

  3. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Janis Ya-Xian Zhan; Xiu-Fen Wang; Yu-Hong Liu; Zhen-Biao Zhang; Lan Wang; Jian-Nan Chen; Song Huang; Hui-Fang Zeng; Xiao-Ping Lai

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and ...

  4. Prediction and mitigation of air preheater fouling due to ammonium bisulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, R.; Tavoulareas, S.; Stallings, J. [Energy and Environmental Strategies, MA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the fundamentals of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) formation, deposition and fouling in the air preheater. It presents a software-based predictive model for assessing the potential for air preheater fouling as a result of proposed SNCR or SCR retrofits and considering site-specific conditions and introduces a software-based cost-benefit model for assessing the economic trade-offs of various ABS fouling mitigation options. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Influence of microenvironment pH, humidity, and temperature on the stability of polymorphic and amorphous forms of clopidogrel bisulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dhara K; Singh, Saranjit; Bansal, Arvind K;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of microenvironment pH, humidity, and temperature was evaluated on the stability of polymorphic and amorphous forms of clopidogrel bisulfate, when present alone or in combinations. Oxalic acid and sodium carbonate were used as solid stressors to create acidic and alkaline pH, respectiv...... salt to free base. Thermal studies indicated that polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulfate and also its glassy amorphous form were highly resistant to temperature, whereas the rubbery state of the drug degraded significantly at temperatures of > or =80 degrees C.......The effect of microenvironment pH, humidity, and temperature was evaluated on the stability of polymorphic and amorphous forms of clopidogrel bisulfate, when present alone or in combinations. Oxalic acid and sodium carbonate were used as solid stressors to create acidic and alkaline p...

  6. Experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Fang; He, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ming; Tao, Guo-Hong

    2012-01-12

    The experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of several structural-similar glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids including glycine sulfate (Gly(2)SO(4), 1), glycine bisulfate (GlyHSO(4), 2), N,N-dimethylglycine sulfate ([DMGly](2)SO(4), 3), N,N-dimethylglycine bisulfate ([DMGly]HSO(4), 4), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([DMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 5), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([DMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 6), N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([TMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 7), and N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([TMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 8) were studied. Their experimental enthalpies of formation were obtained from the corresponding energies of combustion determined by the bomb calorimetry method. The enthalpies of formation of these amino acid ionic liquids are in the range from -1406 kJ mol(-1) to -1128 kJ mol(-1). Systematic theoretical study on these amino acid ionic liquids were performed by quantum chemistry calculation using the Gaussian03 suite of programs. The geometric optimization and the frequency analyses are carried out using the B3LYP method with the 6-31+G** basis set. Their calculated enthalpies of formation were derived from the single point energies carried out with the HF/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-311++G**, and MP2/6-311++G** level of theory, respectively. The relevance of experimental and calculated enthalpies of formation was studied. The calculated enthalpies of formation are in good agreement with their experimental data in less than 3% error. PMID:22148242

  7. Visualization and quantification of deformation behavior of clopidogrel bisulfate polymorphs during tableting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xian-Zhen; Wu, Li; Li, Ying; Guo, Tao; Li, Hai-Yan; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; York, Peter; Nangia, Ashwini; Gui, Shuang-Ying; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2016-02-01

    The deformation behavior of particles under pressure dominates the mechanical properties of solid dosage forms. In this study, the in situ 3D deformation of two polymorphs (I and II) of clopidogrel bisulfate (CLP) was determined to illustrate pressure distribution profiles within the tablet by the deformation of the crystalline particles for the first time. Synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was utilized to visualize and quantify the morphology of thousands crystalline particles of CLP I and CLP II before and after compression. As a result, the deformation was examined across scale dimensions from microns to the size of the final dosage form. Three dimensional parameters such as volume, sphericity, oblate and prolate of individual particle and distributions were computed and analyzed for quantitative comparison to CLP I and CLP II. The different degrees of deformation under the same compression conditions of CLP I and CLP II were observed and characterized quantitatively. The map of deformation degrees within the tablet illustrated the heterogeneous pressure distribution in various regions of the compacted tablet. In conclusion, the polymorph deformation behaviors demonstrated by SR-μCT quantitative structure analysis deepen understanding of tableting across dimensions from microns to millimeters for the macrostrcuture of tablet.

  8. The Electrochemical Reduction of Hydrogen in the Presence of Bisulfate on Platinum(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, L; Huckaby, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    A new model for the intermediate compound of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is proposed, for the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen in the presence of bisulfate on platinum(111). The formation of this compound, a regular 2 dimensional honeycomb ice lattice, occurs by a first order phase transitions that involves the reorientation of water molecules. The model is analyzed using new and simple effective cluster approach which highlights the relevant transitions in system. This method is based on the cluster variation method used successfully in our previous work on the UPD of Cu onto Au(111), and permits us to explore a large region of parameter space, an essential feature to study this complex system. The theory makes full use of the properties of the diffuse layer: The water molecule is reoriented as the potential is changed. For positive potentials it forms linear chains which are responsible for the $\\sqrt 3 \\times \\sqrt 7$ structure of the sulfate observed by STM. At negative potentials water tur...

  9. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Ya-Xian Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB, a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent.

  10. Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate Prevents UV-Induced Skin Photoaging through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jian-Nan; Huang, Song; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging. In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV-induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV-induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in UV-irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV-induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent. PMID:26903706

  11. Ammonium bisulfate formation temperature in a bench-scale single-channel air preheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Menasha; D. Dunn-Rankin; L. Muzio; J. Stallings [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2011-07-15

    Ammonium bisulfate (ABS) forms in coal-fired power plant exhaust systems when ammonia slip from the NOx control system reacts with the sulfur oxides and water in the flue gas. The critical temperature range for ABS formation occurs in the air preheater, where ABS is known to cause corrosion and pluggage that can require unplanned outages and expensive cleaning. To develop mitigation strategies for the deleterious effects of ABS in air preheaters, it is important to know its formation temperature and deposition process. This paper describes a bench-scale experimental simulation of a single-channel air preheater, with the appropriate temperature gradient, used in conjunction with simulated coal combustion flue gas, including sulfur oxides, ammonia, and water vapor, to investigate the formation of ABS. Formation was observed optically, and the formation temperature, as well as deposition characteristics for a realistic range of reactant concentrations are presented and compared with previous studies on ABS formation. This study presents data at realistic concentrations not earlier tested, and the reported data has smaller experimental uncertainty than previously obtained. We found that the measured ABS formation temperatures under air preheater channel conditions lies between the temperatures reported by others, and is in the range of 500-520 K for typical flue gas concentrations of ammonia and sulfur oxide species. The results also show that, at least for this experimental configuration, ABS forms predominantly as an aerosol in the gas phase rather than as a condensate on the channel walls. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Thermodynamic Advantage of Organic Acids in Facilitating Formation of Bisulfate Ion Clusters: Atmospheric Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Gao-Lei; Lin, Wei; Deng, Shihu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Weijun; Paesani, Francesco; Wang, Xue B.

    2013-03-07

    Recent lab and field measurements have indicated critical roles of organic acids in enhancing new atmospheric aerosol formation. Such findings have stimulated theoretical studies with the aim of understanding interaction of organic acids with common aerosol nucleation precursors like bisulfate (HSO4-). In this Letter, we report a combined negative ion photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of molecular clusters formed by HSO4- with succinic acid (SUA, HO2C(CH2)2CO2H), HSO4-(SUA)n (n = 0-2), along with HSO4-(H2O)n and HSO4-(H2SO4)n. It is found that one SUA molecule can stabilize HSO4- by ca. 39 kcal/mol, triple the corresponding value that one water molecule is capable of (ca. 13 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations reveal the most plausible structures of these clusters and attribute the stability of these clusters due to formation of strong hydrogen bonds. This work provides direct experimental evidence showing significant thermodynamic advantage by involving organic acid molecules to promote formation and growth in bisulfate clusters and aerosols.

  13. Synthesis of iso-butyl acrylate under catalysis of sodium bisulfate monohydrate%硫酸氢钠催化合成丙烯酸异丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓辉; 解李红; 李德鹏; 杨光

    2014-01-01

    Iso-butyl acrylate was synthesized in high yield through the esterification of acrylic acid and iso-butanol under the catalysis of sodium bisulfate monohydrate .The effects of sodium bisulfate monohydrate dosage ,iso-butyl alcohol dosage ,reaction time ,temperature and poly-merization inhibitor dosage on the yield of iso-butyl acrylate were investigated .It was found that ,w hen the molar ratio of iso-butyl alcohol to acrylic acid is fixed at 3∶1 ,the molar ratio of sodium bisulfate monohydrate to acrylic acid is fixed at 2% ,the mass ratio of polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) to acrylic acid is fixed at 0 .05% ,the yield of the ester could reach 88 5.1% under a reaction temperature of 115 ℃ and a reflux reaction time of 3 h .%利用一水硫酸氢钠为催化剂使丙烯酸和异丁醇酯化合成了丙烯酸异丁酯;研究了一水硫酸氢钠用量、异丁醇用量、反应时间、温度及阻聚剂用量对丙烯酸异丁酯收率的影响.结果表明,当异丁醇与丙烯酸物质的量之比为3∶1,硫酸氢钠催化剂用量为丙烯酸量的2%,阻聚剂(对苯二酚)用量为丙烯酸质量的00.5%,反应时间为3 h ,反应温度为115℃时,酯化产率可达885.1%.

  14. Ⅰ晶型硫酸氢氯吡格雷的合成%Synthesis of clopidogrel bisulfate of crystal form Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储刚; 刘守志; 林辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective; To synthesize clopidogrel bisulfate of crystal form I . Methods; The optical purity of clopidogrel free alkali of S configuration was improved by salification reaction with L-camphorsulphonic acid; crystal form II was converted to crystal form I in a solvent system consisting of methanol and methyl tert-butyl e-ther. Results and Conclusion; Clopidogrel bisulfate of high purity is obtained and the process is industrially applicable.%目的:合成Ⅰ晶型硫酸氢氯吡格雷.方法:对S构型的氯吡格雷游离碱用左旋樟脑磺酸成盐来拆分进行光学纯度的提高;在甲醇-甲基叔丁基醚系统中将Ⅱ晶型转化得到Ⅰ晶型.结果与结论:获得高纯度硫酸氢氯吡格雷,工艺适合工业化生产.

  15. Catalytic synthesis of dibutyl maleate by sodium bisulfate%硫酸氢钠催化合成马来酸二丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑云; 俞善信; 熊文高

    2001-01-01

    在水合硫酸氢钠存在下,由马来酸酐与正丁醇合成马来酸二丁酯.当马来酸酐、正丁醇和硫酸氢钠的摩尔比为1∶6∶0.145,回流分水90min,酯收率达93.4%,催化剂重复使用5次,活性未发生下降.并比较了一些硫酸盐的催化活性.%Dibutyl maleate is synthesized from maleic anhydride and n-butyl alcohol in the presence of sodium bisulfate hydrate(NaHSO4*H2O). The yield of the ester can reach 93.4% when mole ratio of maleic anhydride, n-butyl alcohol and sodium bisulfate is 1:6:0.145, and refluxing and water segrating is 90 min. The catalyst can be reused for more than five times without any loss of activity. The catalytic activities of some sulfates in synthesis of butyl maleateare are also compared.

  16. Comparative study of stability on clopidogrel bisulfate tablet polymorphs%两种晶型硫酸氢氯吡格雷片稳定性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文乔; 于梦; 苗瑞娜; 丛鑫; 赵怀清

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定硫酸氢氯吡格雷片中的有关物质,并对2种晶型片剂的稳定性进行考察.方法 采用ULtron ES-OVM手性色谱柱(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相:0.01 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液-乙腈(体积比为75∶25),流速:1.0 mL· min-1,进样量:10μL,检测波长:220 nm,柱温:25℃.结果 在该色谱条件下,杂质A、杂质B的第一个异构体(杂质B1)、杂质C质量浓度分别在0.3 ~3.0、0.45 ~4.50、1.4~14.0 mg·L-1内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,硫酸氢氯吡格雷与杂质B1之间的分离度大于2.5.稳定性试验表明,在高温条件下,两种晶型硫酸氢氯吡格雷片中杂质B、C含量明显增加,晶型Ⅰ杂质A略有增加;在高湿条件下2种晶型均易产生杂质A;在光照条件2种晶型的杂质均未明显增加.结论 高温是影响2种晶型硫酸氢氯吡格雷片稳定性的主要因素,2种晶型中Ⅱ型硫酸氢氯吡格雷片稳定性更佳.%Objective To develop an HPLC method for determining the related substances and stability of clopidogrel bisulfate tablet polymorphs.Methods The separation was performed on a ULtron ES-OVM column (150 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm),the mobile phase was composed of 0.01 mol·L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate-acetonitrile (V∶ V =75∶25),the flow rate was set at 1.0 mL· min-1,the injection volume was 10 μL and the determination wavelength was set at 220 nm,the column temperature was 25 ℃.Results Using this method,the linearity ranges of impurity A,the first enantiomer of impurity B (impurity B1) and impurity C were 0.3-3.0,0.45-4.50 and 1.4-14.0 mg· L-1,respectively; and the resolution (R) between clopidogrel bisulfate and related compound B1 was greater than 2.5.In stability test,for two kinds of polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulfate tablets,the contents of impurities B and C increased obviously and that of impurity A increased slightly under high temperature; the content of impurity A increased under high humidity

  17. Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter (PM10) I. Acute toxicity study in asthmatic mice following 3-day exposure to ultrafine and fine ammonium bisulfate, a model compound for secondary aerosol fraction of PM10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee FR; Dormans JAMA; Loveren H van; Bree L van; Rombout PJA; LEO; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Presented here is the first in a series of 3-day inhalation studies aimed to generate data on the health effects of inhaled ultrafine and fine ammonium bisulfate aerosols as model compound for the secondary fraction of particulate matter (PM10). Epidemiologic studies identified asthmatics as a risk

  18. Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter IV: Acute toxicity study in pulmonary hypertensive rats after exposure to model compounds for the secondary aerosol fraction of PM10 - ammonium bisulfate, ferrosulfate and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee FR; Boere AJF; Fokkens PHB; Dormans JAMA; Bree L van; Rombout PJA; LEO; LPI

    1999-01-01

    This (4th) report on the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) presents effects of the model compounds for PM in ambient air - ammonium bisulfate, ammonium ferrosulfate and ammonium nitrate - on healthy rats and rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The objective was bas

  19. Role of perfluorosulfonic ionomer as protective agent against strong adsorption of (bi)sulfate anions. Relevance in the determination of the area of Pt/C electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, S.; Rojas, S.; Pena, M.A.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Grupo de Quimica y Energia Sostenibles, Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC C/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vellosillo, M.; Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to shed light on the wide dispersion of the values of the area of Pt/C electrodes reported when evaluated by means of the thin-film electrode approach. The effect of the Perfluorosulfonic Ionomer (PFSI) content of the electrodes and the nature of the electrolyte are discussed. The results disclose that the area of the Pt electrodes evaluated by electrochemical techniques is related to the actual PFSI content on the electrode and to the nature of the electrolyte. Using HClO{sub 4} as electrolyte, electrode area values are independent of the PFSI content. On the contrary, if experiments are recorded in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the electrode area value increases with the increasing PFSI content, irrespectively of the Pt loading. Such effect is ascribed to the interaction of the sulfonic groups from the PFSI with the surface of the Pt nanoparticles, avoiding the strong adsorption of the bisulfate anions. (author)

  20. Catalytic synthesis of n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate with sodium bisulfate%硫酸氢钠催化合成对羟基苯甲酸丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文瑞明; 丁亮中; 罗新湘; 俞善信

    2003-01-01

    n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate was synthesized by the esterification of n-Butyl alcohol with p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sodium bisulfate monohydrate. The results obtained indicate that sodium bisulfate monohydrate possesses a fairly high catalytic activity for the esterification reaction. The molar ratio of p-hydroxybenzoic acid/n-butyl alcohol and the effect of the amount of catalyst used and the reaction time on the yield of ester have been studied. The yield of the ester obtained under the typical reaction conditions (p-hydroxybenzoic acid/n-butyl alcohol/ sodium bisulfate = 1 mol/ 2 mol /0.072 mol, refluxing and water-segrating for 5 h) is 92.8%. Sodium bisulfate monohydrate catalyst can be easily recovered and reused.%应用一水硫酸氢钠催化正丁醇与对羟基苯甲酸的酯化反应,合成了对羟基苯甲酸丁酯.研究结果表明,硫酸氢钠具有较高的催化活性.考察了对羟基苯甲酸/正丁醇摩尔比、催化剂用量及反应时间对酯产率的影响.在典型反应条件(对羟基苯甲酸/正丁醇/硫酸氢钠的摩尔比=1∶2∶0.072,回流分水5 h)下,所得对羟基苯甲酸丁酯的产率为92.8%.该催化剂易于回收且可重复使用.

  1. 硫酸氢钠催化合成水杨酸正丁酯%Synthesis of n-Butyl Salicylate Catalyzed by Sodium Bisulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春燕

    2015-01-01

    以水杨酸和正丁醇为原料,硫酸氢钠为催化剂,合成了水杨酸正丁酯。考察了正丁醇与水杨酸摩尔比、反应时间、催化剂用量对酯化收率的影响。通过实验得到最佳工艺条件为:正丁醇与水杨酸摩尔比为1.6∶1,反应时间为4h,催化剂用量为水杨酸用量的6%(质量分数),水杨酸正丁酯收率可达60.66%。%Butyl salicylate was synthesized from salicylic acid and n-butanol catalyzed by sodium bisulfate.The effect of the molar ratio of n-butanol to salicylic acid,the reaction time,the amount of catalyst was discussed. Optimal conditions were obtained:the molar ratio of n-butanol to salicylic acid was 1.6:1, the reaction time was 4h and the mass ratio of catalyst to salicylic acid was 6%, the yield of butyl salicylate was 60.66%.

  2. Study on the Catalytic Synthesis of Isoamyl Butyrate by Sodium Bisulfate%硫酸氢钠催化合成丁酸异戊酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华亭; 赵汝其; 林进

    2001-01-01

      The synthesis of isoamyl butyrate by using sodium bisulfate as catalyst had been studied. The effect of reactants and catalyst amounts on yield were investigated. The results showed that the appropriate conditions should be: weight of catalyst was 0.5 g (for the case of butyric acid 0.2 mol); molar ratio of isoamyl alcohol to butyric acid was 1.2:1; reaction time 1.0 h; the dewatering reagent (toluene) was 10 mL. The yield of isoamyl butyrate was about 99.2%.%  研究了以硫酸氢钠为催化剂,丁酸和异戊醇为原料合成丁酸异戊酯,并考察了影响反应的因素.结果表明,醇酸摩尔比为1.2:1,催化剂用量为0.5g(丁酸为0.2mol的情况下),带水剂甲苯为10mL,反应时间为1.0 h是最适宜的反应条件,酯化率达99.2%.

  3. Synthesis of n-Butyl Salicylate Catalyzed by Sodium Bisulfate%硫酸氢钠催化合成水杨酸正丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春燕

    2015-01-01

    Butyl salicylate was synthesized from salicylic acid and n-butanol catalyzed by sodium bisulfate.The effect of the molar ratio of n-butanol to salicylic acid,the reaction time,the amount of catalyst was discussed. Optimal conditions were obtained:the molar ratio of n-butanol to salicylic acid was 1.6:1, the reaction time was 4h and the mass ratio of catalyst to salicylic acid was 6%, the yield of butyl salicylate was 60.66%.%以水杨酸和正丁醇为原料,硫酸氢钠为催化剂,合成了水杨酸正丁酯。考察了正丁醇与水杨酸摩尔比、反应时间、催化剂用量对酯化收率的影响。通过实验得到最佳工艺条件为:正丁醇与水杨酸摩尔比为1.6∶1,反应时间为4h,催化剂用量为水杨酸用量的6%(质量分数),水杨酸正丁酯收率可达60.66%。

  4. Effect of dietary adipic acid and corn dried distillers grains with solubles on laying hen performance and nitrogen loss from stored excreta with or without sodium bisulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, C; Abdallh, M E; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2012-05-01

    Effects of dietary adipic acid (0 vs. 1%) and corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 20%) were evaluated on hen performance and egg characteristics from 26 to 34 wk of age. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were randomly assigned to blocks of 6 consecutive cages (36 cages per diet; 2 hens per cage). On wk 2 and 7 of the experiment, excreta were collected by cage block, mixed, and equally split into 2 containers. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) was spread (8.8 kg/100 m(2)) on the top surface of half of the containers. All containers were stored uncovered for 14 d at room temperature. Excreta pH, DM, and N content were measured on d 0, 7, and 14 of storage. Feed intake (112 g/d per hen), egg production (96.1%), and egg specific gravity (1.079 g/g) were not affected by diet. On excreta collection day, a synergy (P = 0.014) between dietary adipic acid and DDGS was detected, as the lowest excreta pH was obtained with the diet including both adipic acid and DDGS. On d 7 of storage, excreta pH was still reduced by dietary adipic acid (P = 0.046) and DDGS (P hens fed 20% DDGS lost 19.7% more N (P = 0.039) during storage than hens not eating DDGS. Surface amendment of excreta with SBS increased excreta DM content, with the effect being even more marked on d 14 of storage (increase of 6.7 percentage units; P < 0.001), consistently decreased excreta pH during storage (P < 0.001) and reduced N loss by 26.1% for the 14 d of storage period. PMID:22499873

  5. 硫酸氢氯吡格雷片处方和制备工艺研究%Investigation of Formulation and in-Process Parameters of Clopidogrel Bisulfate Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原; 蔡轶军; 高峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 制备稳定的硫酸氢氯吡格雷片(CPG,Ⅰ型),并考察影响颗粒特性的关键处方和工艺参数,以解决压片时的黏片现象,并确保稳定性.方法 研究原料辅料的相容性并筛选处方,考察直接压片、滚压法和熔融法对杂质、压片特性和溶出度的影响.结果 影响CPG稳定性最显著的因素是水分,其次为光照和温度;与滚压法、直接压片相比,熔融制粒的工艺更优;硬脂富马酸钠可防止压片时的黏片现象;溶出度与进口"波立维"相似因子f2>50;3个月加速实验结果表明,稳定性良好.结论 制备工艺重现性良好,片剂质量稳定.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the formulation and process for preparing stable clopidogrel bisulfate tablets (Form Ⅰ) by elucidating the critical formulation and in-process parameters affecting critical granule properties, in order to solve sticking problems in tablet processing as well as improving stability under storage. METHODS Drug-excipient interactions were evaluated, and different dry granulations such as direct compression, melt granulation and roller compaction were compared, in terms of impurity levels, tablet properties and in vitro dissolution. RESULTS The stability of free clopidogrel bisulfate was liable to the high moisture, strong light and elevated temperature. Compared with direct compression and roller compaction, melt granulation was more suitable to prepare clopidogrel bisulfate tablet. Sodium stearyl fumarate avoided sticking problem in tablet processing with PEG 6000. Comparable dissolution profiles were obtained and similar to that of Pavix of Sinofi, with the similar factors above 50. Furthermore, the accelerated stability test suggested that tablets prepared by melt granulation under storage at 40 C and 75% RH for 3 months were stable and showed good physicochemical properties. CONCLUSION The CPG tablets were stable and the established processes were simple and reproducible.

  6. HPLC法测定硫酸氢氯吡格雷片中氯吡格雷含量的不确定度评定%Evaluation of uncertainty for determination of clopidogrel in clopidogrel bisulfate tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method of uncertainty evaluation for the determination of clopidogrel in clopidogrel bisulfate tablets by HPLC.Methods:The calculation formula of uncertainty was deduced in the procedure of determining clopidogrel in tablets.Results:The combined uncertainty was 0.5%,the extended uncertainty was 1.0%,and the determined content was (101.0 ±1.0)%.Conclusion:This method is appropriate to be used in the uncertainty evaluation for the determination of clopidogrel in clopidogrel bisulfate tablets by HPLC.%目的:建立HPLC法测定硫酸氢氯吡格雷片中氯吡格雷含量不确定度的评定方法。方法:通过建立HPLC法测定含量的数学模型,分析影响不确定度的因素,并对各个不确定度分量进行评估。结果:硫酸氢氯吡格雷片中氯吡格雷含量测定的合成不确定度为0.5%;扩展不确定度为1.0%;测定结果为(101.0±1.0)%。结论:该法可用于HPLC法测定硫酸氢氯吡格雷片中氯吡格雷含量的不确定度评估。

  7. N-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate of Sodium Bisulfate and a Inorganic Solid Acid Catalyst Erterification%复合催化剂催化合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯一佳; 熊双喜

    2011-01-01

    研究了在一水硫酸氢钠复合催化剂存在的条件下,由正丁醇和对羟基苯甲酸高收率合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯.探讨了一水硫酸氢钠复合催化剂用量、正丁醇用量和反应时间,带水剂的选择等因素对催化合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯收率的影响.实验结果表明,当对羟基苯甲酸、正丁醇和硫酸氢钠的摩尔比为1:2:0.072,助催化剂在0.1 g、带水剂5 mL时,回流分水4 h,酯收率达92.0%,为最佳条件.%N-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate was synthesized with high yield by esterification of n-butyl alcohol with phydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of sodium bisulfate monohydrate and A . The effects of amount of sodium bisulfate monohydrate and A, amount of n-butyl alcohol , amount of water-carring agent and reaction time on the yield of n-butiyl p-hydroxybenzoate were investigated. Ester field of 92. 0% was obtained under the following condition : molar ratio of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, n-butyl alcohol and sodium bisulface 1 ∶2 ∶0.072, in the presence of the amount of A was 0. 1 g and the amount of water-carring agent was 5 mL,refux for separating water for 4 h.

  8. UPLC-MS determination the related compound of clopidogrel Bisulfate%硫酸氢氯吡格雷的有关物质UPLC-MS测定方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 郑子栋; 李洁; 王豫辉; 王巨才

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish an UPLC - MS method for determination of the related Compound of Clopidogrel Bi-sulfate. Methods The separation was performed on a Ultron ES - OVM column(15cm ×4mm,5μn) ,and the mobile phase consisted of 0.03mol · L-1 Ammonium acetate solution - Acetonitrile ( 78: 22 ) at the flow rale of 0.8 mL · min-1.Column temperature:30℃,Injection volume: 10μl. Results High temperature degradation products (Impurity A,Molecular formula:C15H14C1NO2S,Molecular weight:307. 8; ImpurityC, Molecular formula:C16H16C1NO2 S · H2SO4, Molecular weight :419. 90) and known impurities of lopidogrel Bisulfate can be effectively separated. Conclusions The method developed is stable and reliable, By comparison Chromatogram with foreign products, Domestic Clopidogrel Bisulfale has the fewer impurities and high quality.%目的 研究建立硫酸氢氯吡格雷有关物质的UPLC-MS测定方法,考察其国产原料药有关物质.方法 选用ULTRON ES-OVM 手性色谱柱(15cm×4mm,5μm),流动相:0.03 mol/L的醋酸氯溶液-乙腈(78:22),流速:0.8 mL/min,柱温:30℃,进样量:10μl.结果 硫酸氢氯吡格雷的高温降解产物(杂质A,分子式:C15H14C1NO2S,分子量:307.8;杂质C,分子式:C16H16CINO2S·H2SO4,分子量:419.90)及各已知杂质可有效分离.结论 该方法稳定可靠,经与国外产品图谱对比,国产硫酸氢氯吡格雷的杂质少,质量较高.

  9. 微波辐射硫酸氢钠催化合成对氨基苯甲酸苄酯%Synthesis of 4-aminobenzoic acid benzyl ester catalyzed by sodium bisulfate under microwave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓军; 李西安

    2011-01-01

    在微波辐射下,以一水合硫酸氢钠为催化剂,对氨基苯甲酸和苯甲醇为原料,合成对氨基苯甲酸苄酯.结果表明,当微波辐射功率为500W,0.05mol对氨基苯甲酸为基准,催化剂的用量为1.6 g,酸醇的摩尔比为1∶1.2,反应时间14 min时,醋化率达93.8%.%The 4-aminobcnzoic acid benzyl ester was synthesized under microwave radiacion from 4-aminobenzoic acid and benzyl alcohol using sodium bisulfate as catalyst. When the power of microwave radiation was 500 W, amount of catalyst was 1. 6 g, the molar ratio of acid to alcohol was 1∶ 1.2( using 0. 05 mol of 4-aminobenzoic acid ) and reaction time was 14 min, the yield reached 93. 8% .

  10. 二氧化硅负载硫酸氢钠催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid with silica supported sodium bisulfate as catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盛余; 蓝姣玉; 赵丹丹; 李丽; 韦唯; 肖彩玲; 张才莲

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid with salicylic acid and acetic anhydride as reactants and sodium bisulfate as catalys supported by silica was studied.The factors influencing its catalytic performance were investigated and optimized , including reaction time, reaction temperature, the amount of catalyst.When the amount of salicylic acid was 7.0 g and the amount of acetic anhydride was 11.0 g,the optimum reaction conditions were as follows: the amount of catalyst was 0.6 g;the reaction time was 50 min , the reaction temperature was 80℃.The yield of acetyl salicylic acid was 80.1%.The catalyst could be recycled and used for 3 times.The process would improve the production of acetyl salicylic acid.%研究了以二氧化硅负载硫酸氢钠为催化剂,水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料合成乙酰水杨酸的工艺。考察了催化剂用量、反应时间、反应温度的影响。当固定水杨酸为7.0 g,乙酸酐为11.0 g时,乙酰水杨酸的优化合成条件为:催化剂用量0.6 g,反应时间为50 min,反应温度为80℃。在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸产率为80.1%。催化剂能够重复使用3次。该工艺将改善乙酰水杨酸的生产。

  11. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Clopidogrel Bisulfate, Its Carboxylic Acid Metabolite, and Atorvastatin in Human Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Croitoru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, and specific reversed phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of clopidogrel, its carboxylic acid metabolite, and atorvastatin in human serum. Plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and ibuprofen was chosen as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on an BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm via gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of 10 mM phosphoric acid (sodium buffer solution (pH = 2.6 adjusted with 85% orthophosphoric acid : acetonitrile : methanol with flow rate of 1 mL·min−1. Detection was achieved with PDA detector at 220 nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, limit of quantification, and stability tests. Calibration curves of the analytes were found to be linear in the range of 0.008–2 μg·mL−1 for clopidogrel, 0.01–4 μg·mL−1 for its carboxylic acid metabolite, and 0.005–2.5 μg·mL−1 for atorvastatin. The results of accuracy (as recovery with ibuprofen as internal standard were in the range of 96–98% for clopidogrel, 94–98% for its carboxylic acid metabolite, and 90–99% for atorvastatin, respectively.

  12. 硫酸氢钾催化合成尼泊金丁酯%Synthesis of Butyl Paraben Catalyzed by Potassium Bisulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹云; 周慧; 何建英

    2006-01-01

    采用KHSO4为催化剂合成了尼泊金丁酯,考察了催化剂用量、正丁醇与对羟基苯甲酸摩尔比、反应时间、催化剂重复使用次数及带水剂等因素对收率的影响.结果表明:KHSO4具有催化活性高,易分离回收,重复使用性良好等优势.最佳反应条件为:正丁醇与对羟基苯甲酸摩尔比为3∶1,催化剂用量3 g,反应时间3h,收率92.9%.

  13. Related Substances Determination of Clopidogrel Bisulfate by HPLC%HPLC法测定硫酸氢氯吡格雷中有关物质含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海波; 郭旭光; 查岭

    2013-01-01

    建立HPLC法测定硫酸氢氯吡格雷有关物质的含量.采用ULTRON ES-OVM(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,0.O1 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾-乙腈(75:25)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长220 nm.硫酸氢氯吡格雷与各杂质分离良好,杂质A在0.204~8.16 μg·mL-1范围内,峰面积与浓度呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9990),平均回收率为98.73%,RSD为0.69%,最低检测限2.12 ng;杂质B在0.597 ~23.88 μg· mL-1范围内,峰面积与浓度呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.56%,RSD为0.92%,最低检测限2.83 ng;杂质C在1.004~ 40.16 μg·mL.1范围内,峰面积与浓度呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9998),平均回收率为100.01%,RSD为0.54%,最低检测限10.82ng.该方法操作简便、灵敏、准确度高,可用于硫酸氢氯吡格雷的质量控制.

  14. Determination of Clopidogrel Bisulfate Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定硫酸氢氯吡格雷片的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑子栋

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立硫酸氢氯吡格雷片含量测定方法.方法 选用ULTRON ES-OVM手性色谱柱(15 cm×4 mm,5 μm),流动相:0.03 mol·L-1乙酸铵溶液-乙腈(78:22),流速:0.8 mL·min-1,检测波长:230 nm.结果 硫酸氢氯吡格雷线性范围40.8 ~142.9 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 8),平均回收率97.5%.结论 本方法专属性强,可用于该制剂的含量测定.

  15. 硫酸氢钾催化合成己酸己酯%Synthesis of Hexyl Hexanoate Catalyzed by Potassium Bisulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹云; 李宏

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究硫酸氢钾在合成己酸己酯工艺中的催化性能.方法 考察了硫酸氢钾用量、醇酸物质的摩尔比、反应时间、带水剂用量及催化剂重复使用次数等因素对收率的影响.结果 硫酸氢钾具有催化活性高,易分离回收,操作简单,后处理方便,重复使用性良好等优势.最佳反应条件下收率为99.4%.结论 硫酸氢钾是合成己酸己酯的良好催化剂.

  16. Bisulfate – cluster based atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer for high-sensitivity (< 100 ppqV) detection of atmospheric dimethyl amine: proof-of-concept and first ambient data from boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, M.; N. Sarnela; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J.; Rissanen, M. P.; Praplan, A.; M. Simon; A. Kürten; BIANCHI, F.; Dommen, J; J. Curtius; T. Petäjä; Worsnop, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric amines may play a crucial role in formation of new aerosol particles via nucleation with sulfuric acid. Recent studies have revealed that concentrations below 1 pptV can significantly promote nucleation of sulfuric acid particles. While sulfuric acid detection is relatively straightforward, no amine measurements to date have been able to reach the critical sub-pptV concentration range and atmospheric amine concentrations are in general poorly characterized. In th...

  17. 硫酸氢氯吡格雷异构体的手性拆分及其限量检查%Chiral separation and limit test of clopidogrel bisulfate isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁锐; 纪宏; 吕雯; 周长明; 李志刚; 张首国; 彭涛; 王林

    2012-01-01

    采用卵类黏蛋白手性固定相键合硅胶( Ultron ES-OVM)色谱柱(150mm×4.6mm,5μm),建立手性固定相HPLC直接拆分硫酸氢氯吡格雷对映异构体和位置异构体的方法,并通过对溶质计量置换保留模型、热力学参数、熵焓驱动过程及影响色谱行为的因素等内容进行研究,对手性拆分过程进行探讨.经优化,确定色谱条件为:流动相0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钾-乙腈(80∶20),流速0.8mL/min,检测波长220 nm,柱温30℃.硫酸氢氯吡格雷的对映异构体和位置异构体之间的分离度均大于1.6;S-硫酸氢氯吡格雷、R-硫酸氢氯吡格雷及其各自位置异构体的定量限分别为0.115,0.102,0.118,0.106 mg/L,在0.33~20.68,0.63~40.20,0.32~20.20,0.31~19.28 mg/L浓度范围内线性关系良好;按外标法计算,加样回收率在98.2%~101.7%之间;RSD小于2.0%.经方法学验证,该方法可用于硫酸氢氯吡格雷异构体杂质含量测定.

  18. Fragmentation energetics of clusters relevant to atmospheric new particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, Bryan R; DePalma, Joseph W; Ridge, Douglas P; Laskin, Julia; Johnston, Murray V

    2013-02-27

    The exact mechanisms by which small clusters form and grow in the atmosphere are poorly understood, but this process may significantly impact cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations and global climate. Sulfuric acid is the key chemical component to new particle formation (NPF), but basic species such as ammonia are also important. Few laboratory experiments address the kinetics or thermodynamics of acid and base incorporation into small clusters. This work utilizes a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped with surface-induced dissociation to investigate time- and collision-energy-resolved fragmentation of positively charged ammonium bisulfate clusters. Critical energies for dissociation are obtained from Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/quasi-equilibrium theory modeling of the experimental data and are compared to quantum chemical calculations of the thermodynamics of cluster dissociation. Fragmentation of ammonium bisulfate clusters occurs by two pathways: (1) a two-step pathway whereby the cluster sequentially loses ammonia followed by sulfuric acid and (2) a one-step pathway whereby the cluster loses an ammonium bisulfate molecule. Experimental critical energies for loss of an ammonia molecule and loss of an ammonium bisulfate molecule are higher than the thermodynamic values. If cluster growth is considered the reverse of cluster fragmentation, these results require the presence of an activation barrier to describe the incorporation of ammonia into small acidic clusters and suggest that kinetically (i.e., diffusion) limited growth should not be assumed. An important corollary is that models of atmospheric NPF should be revised to consider activation barriers to individual chemical steps along the growth pathway.

  19. Interleukin-8 enhances nonoxidative intracellular killing of Mycobacterium fortuitum by human granulocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Nibbering, P. H.; Pos, O; Stevenhagen, A; van Furth, R

    1993-01-01

    The results of this study show that recombinant interleukin-8 (IL-8) enhances the intracellular killing of Mycobacterium fortuitum by human granulocytes. This chemokine did not stimulate the phagocytosis of M. fortuitum by granulocytes at various bacterium-to-cell ratios. The killing process was not affected by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium bisulfate, which indicates that recombinant IL-8 stimulates oxygen-independent mycobactericidal mechanisms of granulocytes. IL-8 did not...

  20. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  1. Synthesis of stable 2-sulfoniophenolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of novel stable 2-sulfoniophenolates (5a-5e, 7a, 7b) were synthesized for the first time by the reactions of 3,7-dinitrodibenzobromolium bisulfate (3) with some sulfoxides and the reactions of 3,7-dinitrodibenzocycloiodonium salts (6a, 6b) with dimethyl sulfoxide under basic condition. Their structures were established by elemental analysis, NMR, MS, IR, etc. The role of the amine (or other basic compounds, such as NaOH, Na2CO3, etc.) in the reactions was discussed. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed, by which a dissymmetric substituted benzyne was presumed to be the reaction intermediate.

  2. Product Protection, the Key to Developing High Performance Methane Selective Oxidation Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlquist, Mårten; Nielsen, Robert J.; Periana, Roy A.; Goddard, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective, direct conversion of methane to methanol might seem an impossible task since the C−H bond energy of methane is 105 kcal mol^(−1) compared to the C−H bond energy for methanol of 94. We show here that the Catalytica catalyst is successful because the methanol is protected as methyl bisulfate, which is substantially less reactive than methanol toward the catalyst. This analysis suggests a limiting performance for systems that operate by this type of protection that is well above the C...

  3. 由复合催化剂催化合成硬脂酸乙酯%Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Stearate by Using Composite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晖; 陈红; 李勤涛; 熊双喜

    2013-01-01

    The sodium bisulfate and concentrated sulfuric acid can be used as a catalyst for esterification.Using stearic acid and ethanol as raw material,sodium bisulfate and sulfuric acid catalyst for the synthesis of stearic acid ester compound were studied.The optimum reaction conditions are as follows:acid molar ratio n (stearic acid)∶n (ethanol) was 1∶8,the amount of catalyst 1.4 g,Complex catalyst in concentrated sulfuric acid and sodium hydrogen sulfate ratio of 1.8∶1,and the reaction time was one hundred and twenty minutes.Esterification rate can be up to 82%.%硫酸氢钠和浓硫酸能够作为酯化反应的催化剂,本文研究了以硬脂酸和无水乙醇为原料,硫酸氢钠和浓硫酸为复合催化剂合成硬脂酸乙酯.最佳反应条件为:醇酸摩尔比n(硬脂酸)∶n(无水乙醇)为1∶8,催化剂用量为1.4g,复合催化剂中硫酸氢钠与浓硫酸之比为1.8∶1,反应时间120 min,酯化率最高可达82%.

  4. Synthesis of n-butyl acetate%乙酸正丁酯的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    补朝阳

    2013-01-01

    以乙酸和正丁醇为原料,在硫酸氢钾催化下合成了乙酸正丁酯;考察了反应时间、醇酸比、催化剂用量、带水剂用量及催化剂的重复使用对酯化率的影响.结果表明:当正丁醇用量为0.1 mol ,乙酸用量为0.135 mol ,催化剂硫酸氢钾用量为0.8g,带水剂环己烷用量为8mL时,反应的酯化率达95.2%.%Butyl acetate was synthesized with acetic acid and butyl alcohol as the raw materials and potassium bisulfate as the catalyst .The effects of reaction time ,the ratio of alcohol to acid ,dosage of catalyst ,dosage of water-carrying agent ,and the reuse of the catalyst on the esterification rate were investigated .Results show that an esterification rate of 95 .2% is ob-tained when the dosage of butyl alcohol ,acetic acid ,potassium bisulfate catalyst ,and water-carrying agent cyclohexane is set as 0 .1 mol ,0 .135 mol ,0 .8 g ,and 8 mL .

  5. Comparison of normal and asthmatic subjects' responses to sulfate pollutant aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utell, M.J.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between elevated levels of sulfates and acute respiratory disease. To determine if these pollutants produce airway hyperreactivity, 16 normal and 17 asthmatic subjects inhaled a control NaCl aerosol and the following sulfates: ammonium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid. A Lovelace generator produced particles with an average MMAD of approx. 1.0 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ approx. = 2.0) and concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/. By double-blind randomization, all subjects breathed these aerosols for a 16-minute period. To determine if sulfate inhalation caused increased reactivity to a known bronchoconstrictor, all subjects inhaled carbachol following each 16-minute exposure. Before, during, and after exposure, pulmonary function studies were performed. When compared to NaCl, sulfate (1 mg/m/sup 3/) produced significant reductions in airway conductance and flow rates in asthmatics. The two most sensitive asthmatics demonstrated changes even at 0.1 mg/m/sup 3/ sulfate. To a far more significant degree, the bronchoconstrictor action of carbachol was potentiated by sulfates more or less in relation to their acidity in normals and asthmatics.

  6. Efeito da aplicação de bissulfato de sódio sobre cama de frangos na sobrevivência de Escherichia coli e coliformes Effect of sodium bisulfite application on the bed of broiler on survival of Escherichia coli and coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Carvalho Neto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do bissulfato de sódio, aplicado sobre a cama de frangos, criados em diferentes densidades, na sobrevivência de Escherichia coli e coliformes, utilizando-se as densidades de 12, 16 e 20 aves/m², com a inoculação de uma cepa de E. coli. Houve maior desenvolvimento microbiano no 21º dia de criação, com tendência de redução a partir daí. A eficácia do bissulfato de sódio foi maior nos primeiros dias do experimento.The effect of sodium bisulfate has been evaluated on survival of Escherichia coli and coliforms, when applied on the broiler beds, adopting different densities. It has been adopted densities of 12, 16 and 20 birds/m², using inoculations of E. coli strains. The results have shown the highest microbial development on the 21st day of inoculation, with a trend of a microbial reduction afterwards. The sodium bisulfate was efficient during the first days of analyses, reducing its efficacy during the experiment.

  7. Concentration-dependent apparent partition coefficients of ionic liquids possessing ethyl- and bi-sulphate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Preeti; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-14

    This study deals with the concentration dependent apparent partition coefficients log P of the ethyl and bisulfate-based ionic liquids. It is observed that the bisulfate-based ionic liquids show different behaviour with respect to concentration as compared to ethyl sulphate-based ionic liquids. It is significant and useful analysis for the further implementation of alkyl sulfate based ionic liquids as solvents in extraction processes. The log P values of the ethyl sulphate-based ionic liquids were noted to vary linearly with the concentration of the ionic liquid, whereas a flip-flop trend with the concentration for the log P values of the bisulphate-based ionic liquids was observed due to the difference in hydrogen bond accepting basicity and possibility of aggregate formation of these anions. The π-π interactions between the imidazolium and pyridinium rings were seen to affect the log P values. The alkyl chain length of anions was also observed to influence the log P values. The hydrophobicity of ionic liquid changes with the alkyl chain in the anion in the order; [HSO4](-) < [EtSO4](-) < [BuSO4](-).

  8. Size-resolved morphological properties of the high Arctic summer aerosol during ASCOS-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher-Barth, Evelyne; Leck, Caroline; Jansson, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    The representation of aerosol properties and processes in climate models is fraught with large uncertainties. Especially at high northern latitudes a strong underprediction of aerosol concentrations and nucleation events is observed and can only be constrained by in situ observations based on the analysis of individual aerosol particles. To further reduce the uncertainties surrounding aerosol properties and their potential role as cloud condensation nuclei this study provides observational data resolved over size on morphological and chemical properties of aerosol particles collected in the summer high Arctic, north of 80° N. Aerosol particles were imaged with scanning and transmission electron microscopy and further evaluated with digital image analysis. In total, 3909 aerosol particles were imaged and categorized according to morphological similarities into three gross morphological groups: single particles, gel particles, and halo particles. Single particles were observed between 15 and 800 nm in diameter and represent the dominating type of particles (82 %). The majority of particles appeared to be marine gels with a broad Aitken mode peaking at 70 nm and accompanied by a minor fraction of ammonium (bi)sulfate with a maximum at 170 nm in number concentration. Gel particles (11 % of all particles) were observed between 45 and 800 nm with a maximum at 154 nm in diameter. Imaging with transmission electron microscopy allowed further morphological discrimination of gel particles in "aggregate" particles, "aggregate with film" particles, and "mucus-like" particles. Halo particles were observed above 75 nm and appeared to be ammonium (bi)sulfate (59 % of halo particles), gel matter (19 %), or decomposed gel matter (22 %), which were internally mixed with sulfuric acid, methane sulfonic acid, or ammonium (bi)sulfate with a maximum at 161 nm in diameter. Elemental dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of individual particles revealed a prevalence of the monovalent

  9. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  10. Research on various factors influencing the moisture absorption property of sodium polyacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sodium polyacrylate was synthesized with acrylic acid as the monomer, and sodium bisulfate and ammonium persulfate as the initiator, by means of aqueous solution polymerization. The factors influencing the properties of moisture absorption, such as monomer concentration, dosage of initiator, and reaction temperature were systematically investigated. The experimental results indicate that the moisture-absorbing property of this polymer was better than other traditional material, such as silica gel, and molecular sieve. The best reaction condition and formula are based on the orthogonal experiment design. The optimum moisture absorbency of sodium polyacrylate reaches 1.01 g/g. The mathematical correlation of this polymer with various factors and moisture absorbency is obtained based on the multiple regression analysis. The moisture content intuitive analysis table shows that neutralization degree has the most significant influence on moisture absorbency, followed by monomer concentration and reaction temperature, while other factors have less influence.

  11. What is Eating Ozone? Thermal Reactions between SO2 and O3 and Implications for the Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark; Hudson, Reggie L.; Gerakines, Perry A.

    2016-10-01

    Here we present first results on a non-radiolytic, thermally-driven reaction sequence in solid H2O + SO2 + O3 mixtures at 50 – 130 K, which produces bisulfate (HSO4-). The results show that at the temperatures of the Jovian satellites, SO2 and O3 will efficiently react making co-detection of these species unlikely. Our results also give a viable explanation for why O3 has not been detected on Callisto and why the concentration of SO2 appears to be highest in its leading hemisphere. Furthermore our results also predict that the SO2 concentration on Ganymede will be lowest in the trailing hemisphere, where the concentration of O3 is the highest. This work is supported by NASA's Outer Planets Research program.

  12. 固体酸催化合成水杨酸甲酯进展%Progress of Catalytic Synthesis for Methyl Salicylate with Solid Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美艳; 俞善信

    2011-01-01

    Solid acid is a good catalyst that can be used as catalyst for the esterification instead of sulphuric acid. The synthesis of methyl salicylate catalyzed by p-toluene sulfonic acid, amino sulfonic acid,strongly acidic cationic exchanged resin,cupric bromide, sodium bisulfate monohydrate, solid super acid,heteropoly acid and molecular sieve etc. were reviewed.%固体酸是一种优良的催化剂,能够替代硫酸作为酯化催化剂.评述了对甲苯磺酸、氨基磺酸、强酸性阳离子交换树脂、溴化铜、一水硫酸氢钠、固体超强酸、杂多酸和分子筛等催化合成水杨酸甲酯的方法.

  13. Micro-Bubble Experiments at the Van de Graaff Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, K. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, D. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, S. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In order to test and verify the experimental designs at the linear accelerator (LINAC), several micro-scale bubble ("micro-bubble") experiments were conducted with the 3-MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) electron accelerator. The experimental setups included a square quartz tube, sodium bisulfate solution with different concentrations, cooling coils, gas chromatography (GC) system, raster magnets, and two high-resolution cameras that were controlled by a LabVIEW program. Different beam currents were applied in the VDG irradiation. Bubble generation (radiolysis), thermal expansion, thermal convection, and radiation damage were observed in the experiments. Photographs, videos, and gas formation (O2 + H2) data were collected. The micro-bubble experiments at VDG indicate that the design of the full-scale bubble experiments at the LINAC is reasonable.

  14. Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Lira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

  15. Solar concentration/destruction of pesticide rinsewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salladay, D.G.; Ash, D.H.; Sullivan, J.M.; Grinstead, J.H. Jr.; Hemmen, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    To address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion to safe, value-added agricultural products is the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  16. Identification of Non-Faradaic Processes by Measurement of the Electrochemical Peltier Heat during the Silver Underpotential Deposition on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frittmann, Stefan; Halka, Vadym; Schuster, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    We measured the heat which is reversibly exchanged during the course of an electrochemical surface reaction, i.e., the deposition/dissolution of the first two monolayers of Ag on a Au(111) surface in (bi)sulfate and perchlorate containing electrolytes. The reversibly exchanged heat corresponds to the Peltier heat of the reaction and is linearly related to its entropy change, including also non-Faradaic side processes. Hence, the measurement of the Peltier heat provides thermodynamic information on the electrochemical processes which is complementary to the current-potential relations usually obtained by conventional electrochemical methods. From the variation of the molar Peltier heat during the various stages of the deposition reaction we inferred that co-adsorption processes of anions and Ag do not play a prominent role, while we find strong indications for a charge neutral substitution reaction of adsorbed anions by hydroxide, which would not show up in cyclic voltammetry. PMID:26916206

  17. Methanol oxidation at platinum electrodes in acid solution: comparison between model and real catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. TRIPKOVIC

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol oxidation in acid solution was studied at platinum single crystals, Pt(hkl, as the model catalyst, and at nanostructural platinum supported on high surface area carbon, Pt/C, as the real catalyst. The linear extrapolation method was used to determine the beginning of hydroxyl anion adsorption. Structural sensitivity of the adsorption was proved and a correlation with the onset of the methanol oxidation current was established at all catalysts. Bisulfate and chloride anions were found to decrease the methanol oxidation rate, but probably did not influence the reaction parth. The specific activity for the reaction increased in the sequence Pt(110 < Pt/C < Pt(111, suggesting that the activity of the supported Pt catalyst can be correlated with the activities of the dominating crystal planes on its surface.

  18. DNA methylation dynamics in the rat EGF gene promoter after partial hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF, a multifunctional growth factor, is a regulator in a wide variety of physiological processes. EGF plays an important role in the regulation of liver regeneration. This study was aimed at investigating the methylation level of EGF gene throughout liver regeneration. DNA of liver tissue from control rats and partial hepatectomy (PH rats at 10 time points was extracted and a 354 bp fragment including 10 CpG sites from the transcription start was amplified after DNA was modified by sodium bisulfate. The result of sequencing suggested that methylation ratio of four CpG sites was found to be significantly changed when PH group was compared to control group, in particular two of them were extremely striking. mRNA expression of EGF was down-regulated in total during liver regeneration. We think that the rat EGF promoter region is regulated by variation in DNA methylation during liver regeneration.

  19. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  20. Laboratory scale studies on removal of chromium from industrial wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Chromium being one of the major toxic pollutants is discharged from electroplating and chrome tanning processes and is also found in the effluents of dyes, paint pigments, manufacturing units etc. Chromium exists in aqueous systems in both trivalent (Cr 3+) and hexavalent (Cr 6+) forms. The hexavalent form is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic life, whereas Cr3+ is however comparatively less toxic. This study was undertaken to investigate the total chromium removal from industrial effluents by chemical means in order to achieve the Pakistan NEQS level of 1 mg/L by the methods of reduction and precipitation. The study was conducted in four phases.In phase I, the optimum pH and cost effective reducing agent among the four popular commercial chemicals was selected. As a result, pH of 2 was found to be most suitable and sodium meta bisulfate was found to be the most cost effective reducing agent respectively. Phase II showed that lower dose of sodium meta bisulfate was sufficient to obtain 100 % efficiency in reducing Cr6+ to Cr3+, and it was noted that reaction time had no significance in the whole process. A design curve for reduction process was established which can act as a tool for treatment of industrial effluents.Phase III studies indicated the best pH was 8.5 for precipitation of Cr 3+ to chromium hydroxide by using lime. An efficiency of 100 % was achievable and a settling time of 30 minutes produced clear effluent. Finally in Phase IV actual waste samples from chrome tanning and electroplating industries, when precipitated at pH of 12 gave 100 % efficiency at a settling time of 30 minutes and confirmed that chemical means of reduction and precipitation is a feasible and viable solution for treating chromium wastes from industries.

  1. Heterogeneous reactions of epoxides in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Vinita; Khalizov, Alexei F; Lin, Yun; Galvan, Maria D; Connell, Brian T; Zhang, Renyi

    2012-06-21

    Epoxides have recently been identified as important intermediates in the gas phase oxidation of hydrocarbons, and their hydrolysis products have been observed in ambient aerosols. To evaluate the role of epoxides in the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), the kinetics and mechanism of heterogeneous reactions of two model epoxides, isoprene oxide and α-pinene oxide, with sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate, and ammonium sulfate have been investigated using complementary experimental techniques. Kinetic experiments using a fast flow reactor coupled to an ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS) show a fast irreversible loss of the epoxides with the uptake coefficients (γ) of (1.7 ± 0.1) × 10(-2) and (4.6 ± 0.3) × 10(-2) for isoprene oxide and α-pinene oxide, respectively, for 90 wt % H(2)SO(4) and at room temperature. Experiments using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) reveal that diols are the major products in ammonium bisulfate and dilute H(2)SO(4) (65 wt %), acetals are formed from isoprene oxide, whereas organosulfates are produced from α-pinene oxide. The reaction of the epoxides with ammonium sulfate is slow and no products are observed. The epoxide reactions using bulk samples and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy reveal the presence of diols as the major products for isoprene oxide, accompanied by aldehyde formation. For α-pinene oxide, organosulfate formation is observed with a yield increasing with the acidity. Large yields of organosulfates in all NMR experiments with α-pinene oxide are attributed to the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) from the use of deuterated sulfuric acid and water. Our results suggest that acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of epoxides results in the formation of a wide range of products, and some of the products have low volatility and contribute to SOA growth under ambient conditions prevailing in the urban atmosphere.

  2. Comparative fasting bioavailability of two clopidogrel formulations in healthy Mediterranean volunteers: an in vitro–in vivo correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid AN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdel Naser Zaid,1 Rowa’ Al Ramahi,1 Rana Bustami,2 Ayman Mousa,3 Sewar Khasawneh2 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine; 2Pharmaceutical Research Unit, Amman, Jordan; 3R&D Department, Middle East Pharmaceutical Industries Co Ltd, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two drug products, generic clopidogrel bisulfate 75 mg film-coated tablets versus the reference Plavix® clopidogrel bisulfate 75 mg film-coated tablets.Methods: Bioequivalence of tablets was tested by comparisons against the reference brand product in accordance with the requirements of the Declaration of Helsinki, the current Good Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the International Conference on Harmonization.Results: The relationship between concentration and peak area ratio was found to be linear within the range 24.500–1,836.600 pg/mL for clopidogrel. The correlation coefficient (r was always greater than 0.99 during the course of the validation. Statistical comparison of the main pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant difference between test and reference. The point estimates (ratios of geometric mean were 104.122%, 104.184%, and 109.091% for areas under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC AUC0-last, AUC0-∞, and peak plasma concentration Cmax, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameter values of clopidogrel and its main metabolite lie within the bioequivalence limit (80%–125% specified by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency.Conclusion: The tested drug product was bioequivalent to the reference drug under fasting conditions and had the same safety profile, which is important to achieve equivalent therapeutic effect with the reference. Keywords: film coating, stability, clopidogrel, bioequivalence

  3. Hydrogen peroxide maintains the heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on mineral dust proxy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on α-Al2O3 particles was investigated using a flow reactor coupled with a transmission-Fourier transform infrared (T-FTIR) spectrometer at different relative humidities (RH) in the absence or presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), with an emphasis on the saturation coverage of SO2 and the timescale on which the reaction reaches saturation. It is found that the saturation coverage of SO2 in the absence of H2O2 increases with rising RH due to the hydrolysis of SO2 by surface adsorbed water. However, the reaction ultimately reaches saturation since the produced sulfite/bisulfite cannot be further converted to sulfate/bisulfate in the absence of oxidants. In addition, the presence of H2O2 can significantly increase the saturation coverage of SO2 by efficiently oxidizing sulfite/bisulfite to sulfate/bisulfate. Under humid conditions, adsorbed water facilitates the hydrolysis of SO2 and mitigates the increase of surface acidity, which can inhibit the hydrolysis of SO2. Hence, in the presence of H2O2, the saturation coverage of SO2 as well as the time of reaction reaching saturation increases with rising RH and the surface is not saturated on the timescale of the experiments (40 h) at 60% RH. Furthermore, the increase of saturation coverage of SO2 in the presence of H2O2 was observed on chemically inactive SiO2 particles, indicating that the hydrolysis of SO2 and subsequent oxidation by H2O2 likely occurs on other types of particles. Our findings are of importance for understanding the role of water vapor and trace gases (e.g., H2O2) in the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 in the atmosphere.

  4. Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42 - are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42 - is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions (HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42 -. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels

  5. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2 (g SO4-2-1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO4-2-1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m-2 are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL=-0.750, FU=-0.930, and DFU,L=24% for full sky calculations without clouds and FL=-0.485, FU=-0.605, and DFU,L=25% when clouds are included. Regionally, DFU,L=48% over the USA, 55% over Europe

  6. 降血脂药非诺贝特的绿色合成%Green Synthesis of Hypolipidemic Drug Fenofibrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敢; 王德堂; 时光侠; 刘颖; 夏先伟; 肖先举

    2014-01-01

    The esterification of fenofibrate acid with isopropyl alcohol was studied with sodium bisulfate as catalyst and dimethylbenzene as water carrying agents.The effects of different factors such as mole ratio of reactants, catalyst dosage and amount of carrying agent on the yield of fenofibrate were investigated.The experimental results showed that sodium bisulfate monohydrate exhibited excellently catalytic activity.The optimum reaction conditions were found as follows:0.1 mol fenofibrate acid, mole ratio of isopropyl alcohol to fenofibrate acid was 3.5:1, the weight of the catalyst was 3.5 g, 40 mL dimethylbenzene, and refluxing reaction time was 30 min.Under these conditions, the yield of fenofibrate was up to 88.6%.The catalyst could be repeatedly used for five times without lossing its catalytic activity.The structure was characterized by IR.%以一水合硫酸氢钠为催化剂,二甲苯为带水剂,对非诺贝特酸与异丙醇的酯化反应进行了研究,考察了醇酸摩尔比、催化剂用量、带水剂用量等因素对非诺贝特产率的影响。结果表明:硫酸氢钠有着良好的催化活性,在非诺贝特酸用量0.1 mol, n(异丙醇):n(非诺贝特酸)=3.5:1,催化剂一水合硫酸氢钠用量3.5 g,二甲苯40 mL,反应时间3 h的条件下,非诺贝特产率可达88.6%,催化剂重复使用5次仍保持较高的活性,其结构经IR确证。

  7. Effect of Organic Coatings, Humidity and Aerosol Acidity on Multiphase Chemistry of Isoprene Epoxydiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, Matthieu N.; Bell, David M.; Hansen, Anne Maria K.; Droza, Greg T.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Imre, D.; Surratt, Jason D.; Glasius, Marianne; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-06-07

    Multiphase chemistry of isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has been shown to be the dominant source of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies have reported particles composed of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) mixed with model organics exhibit slower rates of IEPOX uptake. In the present study, we investigate the effect of atmospherically-relevant organic coatings of α-pinene (AP) SOA on the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX onto ABS particles under different conditions and coating thicknesses. Single particle mass spectrometry was used to characterize in real-time particle size, shape, density, and quantitative composition before and after reaction with IEPOX. We find that IEPOX uptake by pure sulfate particles is a volume-controlled process, which results in particles with uniform concentration of IEPOX-derived SOA across a wide range of sizes. Aerosol acidity was shown to enhance IEPOX-derived SOA formation, consistent with recent studies. The presence of water has a weaker impact on IEPOX-derived SOA yield, but significantly enhanced formation of 2-methyltetrols, consistent with offline filter analysis. In contrast, IEPOX uptake by ABS particles coated by AP-derived SOA is strongly dependent on particle size and composition. IEPOX uptake occurred only when weight fraction of AP-derived SOA dropped below 50 %, effectively limiting IEPOX uptake to larger particles.

  8. Selective Methane Oxidation Catalyzed by Platinum Salts in Oleum at Turnover Frequencies of Large-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Tobias; Soorholtz, Mario; Bilke, Marius; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-09-28

    Direct catalytic methane functionalization, a "dream reaction", is typically characterized by relatively low catalyst activities. This also holds for the η(2)-(2,2'-bipyrimidyl)dichloroplatinum(II) [(bpym)PtCl2, 1] catalyst which oxidizes methane to methyl bisulfate in sulfuric acid. Nevertheless, it is arguably still one of the best systems for the partial oxidation of methane reported so far. Detailed studies of the dependence of activity on the SO3 concentration and the interplay with the solubility of different platinum compounds revealed potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K2PtCl4) as an extremely active, selective, and stable catalyst, reaching turnover frequencies (TOFs) of more than 25,000 h(-1) in 20% oleum with selectivities above 98%. The TOFs are more than 3 orders of magnitude higher compared to the original report on (bpym)PtCl2 and easily reach or exceed those realized in commercial industrial processes, such as the Cativa process for the carbonylation of methanol. Also space-time-yields are on the order of large-scale commercialized processes.

  9. Theoretical study of the hydration of atmospheric nucleation precursors with acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Peng; Liu, Yi-Rong; Huang, Teng; Jiang, Shuai; Xu, Kang-Ming; Wen, Hui; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Huang, Wei

    2014-09-11

    While atmosphere is known to contain a significant fraction of organic substance and the effect of acetic acid to stabilize hydrated sulfuric acids is found to be close that of ammonia, the details about the hydration of (CH3COOH)(H2SO4)2 are poorly understood, especially for the larger clusters with more water molecules. We have investigated structural characteristics and thermodynamics of the hydrates using density functional theory (DFT) at PW91PW91/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level. The phenomena of the structural evolution may exist during the early stage of the clusters formation, and we tentatively proposed a calculation path for the Gibbs free energies of the clusters formation via the structural evolution. The results in this study supply a picture of the first deprotonation of sulfuric acids for a system consisting of two sulfuric acid molecules, an acetic acid molecule, and up to three waters at 0 and 298.15 K, respectively. We also replace one of the sulfuric acids with a bisulfate anion in (CH3COOH)(H2SO4)2 to explore the difference of acid dissociation between two series of clusters and interaction of performance in clusters growth between ion-mediated nucleation and organics-enhanced nucleation.

  10. Formation of Secondary Particulate Matter by Reactions of Gas Phase Hexanal with Sulfate Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2003-12-01

    The formation of secondary particulate matter from the atmospheric oxidation of organic compounds can significantly contribute to the particulate burden, but the formation of organic secondary particulate matter is poorly understood. One way of producing organic secondary particulate matter is the oxidation of hydrocarbons with seven or more carbon atoms to get products with low vapor pressure. However, several recent reports suggest that relatively low molecular weight carbonyls can enter the particle phase by undergoing heterogeneous reactions. This may be a very important mechanism for the formation of organic secondary particulate matter. Atmospheric aldehydes are important carbonyls in the gas phase, which form via the oxidation of hydrocarbons emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this poster, we report the results on particle growth by the heterogeneous reactions of hexanal. A 5 L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is set up to conduct the reactions in the presence of seed aerosol particles of deliquesced ammonia bisulfate. Hexanal is added into CSTR by syringe pump, meanwhile the concentrations of hexanal are monitored with High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC 1050). A differential Mobility Analyzer (TSI 3071) set to an appropriate voltage is employed to obtain monodisperse aerosols, and another DMA associated with a Condensation Nuclear Counter (TSI 7610) is used to measure the secondary particle size distribution by the reaction in CSTR. This permits the sensitive determination of particle growth due to the heterogeneous reaction, very little growth occurs when hexanal added alone. Results for the simultaneous addition of hexanal and alcohols will also be presented.

  11. Preparation of the Plywood Using UF Resin Modified with Blocked Isocyanate as Bonding Agent%封闭异氰酸酯改性脲醛树脂制备胶合板

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦华; 顾继友; 谭海彦; 李炜

    2009-01-01

    采用亚硫酸氢钠封闭异氰酸酯改性UF树脂制备胶合板,研究了制板用混合胶液的比例、热压时间、热压温度等热压工艺对胶合板性能的影响,结果表明,在UF/PAPI=100/10、热压温度为110℃、热压时间为4min时,所制备胶合板的甲醛释放量达到国家标准,并且具有较高的胶合性能.%The plywood was prepared using the UF resin modified with isocyanate blocked by sodium bisul-fate as adhesive. And the effects of the ratio of UF resin to isocyanate, hot press temperature, hot pre ss timeon the properties of the plywood were also studied. The results showed that under the conditions of UF/PAPI =100/10, hot press temperature of 110℃and hot press time of 4min, the bonding strength of the plywood was improved obviously and the formaldehyde release from the plywood could meet the requirements specified in national standard.

  12. Effect of Organic Coatings, Humidity and Aerosol Acidity on Multiphase Chemistry of Isoprene Epoxydiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Matthieu; Bell, David M; Hansen, Anne-Maria Kaldal; Drozd, Greg T; Zhang, Zhenfa; Gold, Avram; Imre, Dan; Surratt, Jason D; Glasius, Marianne; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-06-01

    Multiphase chemistry of isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) has been shown to be the dominant source of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Recent studies have reported particles composed of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) mixed with model organics exhibit slower rates of IEPOX uptake. In the present study, we investigate the effect of atmospherically relevant organic coatings of α-pinene (AP) SOA on the reactive uptake of trans-β-IEPOX onto ABS particles under different conditions and coating thicknesses. Single particle mass spectrometry was used to characterize in real-time particle size, shape, density, and quantitative composition before and after reaction with IEPOX. We find that IEPOX uptake by pure sulfate particles is a volume-controlled process, which results in particles with uniform concentration of IEPOX-derived SOA across a wide range of sizes. Aerosol acidity was shown to enhance IEPOX-derived SOA formation, consistent with recent studies. The presence of water has a weaker impact on IEPOX-derived SOA yield, but significantly enhanced formation of 2-methyltetrols, consistent with offline filter analysis. In contrast, IEPOX uptake by ABS particles coated with AP-derived SOA is lower compared to that of pure ABS particles, strongly dependent on particle composition, and therefore on particle size. PMID:27176464

  13. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to shed light on the presence of organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in different atmospheric environments. The basic principle of the organic fraction detection is based on our laboratory UFO-TDMA measurements with organic and inorganic compounds. Our laboratory measurements indicate that the usefulness of the UFO-TDMA in the field experiments would arise especially from the fact that atmospherically the most relevant inorganic compounds do not grow in subsaturated ethanol vapor, when particle size is 10nm in diameter and saturation ratio is about 86% or below it. Furthermore, internally mixed particles composed of ammonium bisulfate and sulfuric acid with sulfuric acid mass fraction ≤33% show no growth at 85% saturation ratio. In contrast, 10 nm particles composed of various organic compounds of atmospheric relevance are able to grow in those conditions. These discoveries indicate that it is possible to detect the presence of organics in atmospheric nucleation mode sized particles using the UFO-TDMA method. In the future, the UFO-TDMA is expected to be an important aid to describe the composition of atmospheric newly-formed particles.

  14. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to shed light on the presence of an organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in different atmospheric environments. The basic principle of the organic fraction detection is based on our laboratory UFO-TDMA measurements with organic and inorganic compounds. Our laboratory measurements indicate that the usefulness of the UFO-TDMA in the field experiments would arise especially from the fact that atmospherically the most relevant inorganic compounds do not grow in subsaturated ethanol vapor, when particle size is 10 nm in diameter and saturation ratio is about 86% or below it. Furthermore, internally mixed particles composed of ammonium bisulfate and sulfuric acid with sulfuric acid mass fraction ≤33% show no growth at 85% saturation ratio. In contrast, 10 nm particles composed of various oxidized organic compounds of atmospheric relevance are able to grow in those conditions. These discoveries indicate that it is possible to detect the presence of organics in atmospheric nucleation mode sized particles using the UFO-TDMA method. In the future, the UFO-TDMA is expected to be an important aid to describe the composition of atmospheric newly-formed particles.

  15. Evaluating Chemical Mitigation of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in Animal Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P organic acids and essential oils also had lower Salmonella concentrations than the control (P poultry by-product meal (P acids or a commercial formaldehyde product were most effective at mitigating Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in rendered protein meals. PMID:27052874

  16. Gas Phase Conversion of Carbon Tetrachloride to Alkyl Chlorides Catalyzed by Supported Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Aijun; ZHANG Jinlong; LI Chunxi; MENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    An efficient way of converting carbon tetrachloride(CTC)to alkyl chlorides is reported,which uses the catalysts of ionic liquids supported on granular active carbon.The catalytic performance was evaluated in a temperature range of 120-200℃ and atmospheric pressure for different ionic liquids,namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride,1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride,hydrochloric salts of N-methylimidazole(MIm),pyridine and triethylamine,as well as bisulfate and dihydric phosphate of N-methylimidazole.On this basis,the reaction mechanism was proposed,and the influences of the reaction temperature and the attributes of ionic liquids were discussed.The overall reaction was assumed to be comprised of two steps,the hydrolysis of CTC and reaction of HCI with alcohols under acidic catalyst.The results indicate that the conversion of CTC increased monotonically with temperature and even approached 100% at 200 ℃,while the maximum selectivity to alkyl chlorides was obtained around 160 ℃.This reaction might be potentially applicable to the resource utilization of superfluous byproduct of CTC in the chloromethane industry.

  17. Embolization of a giant pediatric, posttraumatic, skull base internal carotid artery aneurysm with a liquid embolic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Adam S; Simon, Scott; Mericle, Robert A

    2009-11-01

    Many treatments for posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms have been described. Eight months after an all-terrain-vehicle accident, this 12-year-old girl presented with right-side Horner syndrome caused by a 33 x 19-mm internal carotid artery aneurysm at the C-1 level. We chose to treat the aneurysm with a new liquid embolic agent for wide-necked, side-wall aneurysms (Onyx HD 500). We felt this treatment would result in less morbidity than surgery and was less likely to occlude the parent artery than placement of a covered stent, especially in a smaller artery in a pediatric patient. Liquid embolic agents also appear to be associated with a lower chance of recanalization and lower cost compared with stent-assisted coil embolization. After the patient was treated with loading doses of aspirin, clopidogrel bisulfate, and heparin, 99% of the aneurysm was embolized with 9 cc of the liquid embolic agent. There were no complications, and the patient remained neurologically stable. Follow-up angiography revealed durable aneurysm occlusion after 1 year. The cost of Onyx was less than the cost of coils required for coil embolization of similarly sized intracranial aneurysms at our institution. Liquid embolic agents can provide a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective approach to treatment of select giant, posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms in pediatric patients.

  18. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing

    2013-10-15

    Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs.

  19. Monoamine oxidase A gene DNA hypomethylation - a risk factor for panic disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, Katharina; Tidow, Nicola; Kuithan, Henriette; Schwarte, Kathrin; Klauke, Benedikt; Ambrée, Oliver; Reif, Andreas; Schmidt, Hartmut; Arolt, Volker; Kersting, Anette; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been suggested as a prime candidate in the pathogenesis of panic disorder. In the present study, DNA methylation patterns in the MAOA regulatory and exon 1/intron 1 region were investigated for association with panic disorder with particular attention to possible effects of gender and environmental factors. Sixty-five patients with panic disorder (44 females, 21 males) and 65 healthy controls were analysed for DNA methylation status at 42 MAOA CpG sites via direct sequencing of sodium bisulfate treated DNA extracted from blood cells. The occurrence of recent positive and negative life events was ascertained. Male subjects showed no or only very minor methylation with some evidence for relative hypomethylation at one CpG site in intron 1 in patients compared to controls. Female patients exhibited significantly lower methylation than healthy controls at 10 MAOA CpG sites in the promoter as well as in exon/intron 1, with significance surviving correction for multiple testing at four CpG sites (p≤0.001). Furthermore, in female subjects the occurrence of negative life events was associated with relatively decreased methylation, while positive life events were associated with increased methylation. The present pilot data suggest a potential role of MAOA gene hypomethylation in the pathogenesis of panic disorder particularly in female patients, possibly mediating a detrimental influence of negative life events. Future studies are warranted to replicate the present finding in independent samples, preferably in a longitudinal design.

  20. Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-11-17

    The effects of particle-phase water and the acidity of pre-existing sulfate seed particles on the formation of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was generated from the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a flow tube reactor at 70% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the presence of three different sulfate seeds (effloresced and deliquesced ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) under low NOx conditions. High OH exposure conditions lead to little isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA being generated. The primary result is that particle-phase water had the largest effect on the amount of SOA formed, with 60% more SOA formation occurring with deliquesced ammonium sulfate seeds as compared to that on effloresced ones. The additional organic material was highly oxidized. Although the amount of SOA formed did not exhibit a dependence on the range of seed particle acidity examined, perhaps because of the low amount of IEPOX SOA, the levels of high-molecular-weight material increased with acidity. While the uptake of organics was partially reversible under drying, the results nevertheless indicate that particle-phase water enhanced the amount of organic aerosol material formed and that the RH cycling of sulfate particles may mediate the extent of isoprene SOA formation in the atmosphere. PMID:26460477

  1. WBSA: Web Service for Bisulfite Sequencing Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Caixia; Chen, Xu; Zhu, Junwei; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhao, Wenming; Li, Rujiao

    2014-01-01

    Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS) and genome-wide Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) are widely used to study DNA methylation. However, data analysis is complicated, lengthy, and hampered by a lack of seamless analytical pipelines. To address these issues, we developed a convenient, stable, and efficient web service called Web Service for Bisulfite Sequencing Data Analysis (WBSA) to analyze bisulfate sequencing data. WBSA focuses on not only CpG methylation, which is the most common biochemical modification in eukaryotic DNA, but also non-CG methylation, which have been observed in plants, iPS cells, oocytes, neurons and stem cells of human. WBSA comprises three main modules as follows: WGBS data analysis, RRBS data analysis, and differentially methylated region (DMR) identification. The WGBS and RRBS modules execute read mapping, methylation site identification, annotation, and advanced analysis, whereas the DMR module identifies actual DMRs and annotates their correlations to genes. WBSA can be accessed and used without charge either online or local version. WBSA also includes the executables of the Portable Batch System (PBS) and standalone versions that can be downloaded from the website together with the installation instructions. WBSA is available at no charge for academic users at http://wbsa.big.ac.cn. PMID:24497972

  2. Organic solvent-free reversed-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry for organoarsenic species determination in several matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Londonio, Juan A; Farias, Silvia S; Smichowski, Patricia; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2011-04-27

    A novel method has been developed to determine As-containing animal feed additives including roxarsone (ROX), p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) and nitarsone (NIT), as well as other organic As species (dimethylarsonic acid (DMAA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA)) by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (IP-HPLC-HG-AFS). A simple isocratic reversed-phase (RP) HPLC method with a mobile phase containing citric acid and sodium hexanesulfonate (pH 2.0) was developed using a C(18) column. The use of an organic solvent free mobile phase turns this methodology into an environmentally friendly alternative. Several ion pair forming agents, such as sodium hexanesulfonate, tetrabutylammonium bisulfate and perfluoroheptanoic acid, were studied. The limits of detection for As species were calculated in standard solution and resulted to be 0.2, 0.5, 0.6, 1.6, and 1.6 μg As L(-1) for MMAA, DMAA, p-ASA, ROX and NIT, respectively. This method exhibited convenient operation, high sensitivity and good repeatability. It was applied to As speciation in different samples including arugula, dog food, dog urine and chicken liver.

  3. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP. q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

  4. A comparative study on toxicity identification of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianliang; Kim, Eunhee; Jo, Hun-Je; Han, Taejun; Jung, Jinho

    2011-09-01

    In this study, acute toxicity monitoring and toxicity identification evaluation procedures were applied to identify causative toxicants in industrial effluents. Effluents from a metal plating factory and a rubber products factory were acutely toxic toward Daphnia magna and the toxicity varied over different sampling events (2.9-5.9 and 1.7-7.6 TU, respectively). For the rubber products effluent, it was confirmed that zinc (5.65-13.18 mg L(-1)) was found to be a major cause of toxicity, which is likely originated from zinc 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators. For the metal plating effluent, it appeared that the presence of high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) (8,539-11,400 and 3,588-4,850 mg L(-1), respectively) caused the observed toxicity. These toxicants likely originated from sodium bisulfate (NaHSO(3)) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used as reducing and oxidizing agents. Though copper was found to be present in levels much higher than the EC(50) (50% effective concentration) value, this was not attributable to the toxicity of metal plating effluent likely due to complexation with dissolved organic matter. PMID:21761172

  5. Technology research on the preparation of fosfomycin trometamol from fosfomycin sodium%磷霉素钠制备磷霉素氨丁三醇的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 严晶; 丁一刚; 王超

    2015-01-01

    Objective to investigate a new synthesis for the preparation of fosfomycin tromethamine and to seek for the opti‐mized process and crystallization conditions .Methods An inorganic method ,utilizing in situ generated tromethamine bisulfate to re‐act with fosfomycin sodium was used to gain fosfomycin tromethamine .Results After the optimization of reaction and crystalliza‐tion condition ,it can produce fosfomycin tromethamine .Conclusion Inorganic acid salt synthesis technology is feasible with high yield .%目的:采用新型合成法制备磷霉素氨丁三醇,研究其合成工艺条件和析晶条件。方法无机酸式盐法,以磷霉素钠与氨丁三醇和硫酸的混合酸式盐进行中和反应制得磷霉素氨丁三醇。结果优化反应和结晶条件后可生成磷霉素氨丁三醇。结论无机酸式盐法合成工艺可行,收率高。

  6. Size-Resolved Volatility and Chemical Composition of Aged European Aerosol Measured During FAME-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Mohr, C.; Lee, B.; Engelhart, G. J.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prevot, A. S.; Baltensperger, U.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    We present first results on the volatility and chemical composition of aged organic aerosol measured during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008 (FAME-2008). Finokalia is located in the Southeast of Crete, Greece, and this remote site allows for the measurement of aged European aerosol as it is transported from Central to Southeastern Europe. We measured the volatility of the aerosol at Finokalia as a function of its size by combining several instruments. We used an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of the particles, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure the volume distribution of particles, and a thermodenuder system to induce changes in size and composition via moderate heating of the particles. The largest fraction of the non-refractory material in the aerosol sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organic material and a small contribution from nitrate. Most of the organic aerosol was highly oxidized, even after only a few days of transport over continental Europe. These highly oxidized organics had lower volatility than fresh primary or secondary aerosol measured in the laboratory. Significant changes in air-parcel trajectories and wind direction led to changes in the chemical composition of the sampled aerosol and corresponding changes of the volatility. These results allow the quantification of the effect of atmospheric processing on organic aerosol volatility and can be used as constraints for atmospheric Chemical Transport Models that predict the aerosol volatility.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water: an approach to Tinto River's (Spain) hydrogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, P; Rull, F; Sobron, F; Sanz, A; Medina, J; Nielsen, C J

    2007-12-15

    Acid mine drainage is formed when pyrite (FeS(2)) is exposed and reacts with air and water to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron. Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is an example of this phenomenon. In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the speciation of the system iron(III)-sulfuric acid-water as an approach to Tinto River's aqueous solutions. The molalities of sulfuric acid (0.09 mol/kg) and iron(III) (0.01-1.5 mol/kg) were chosen to mimic the concentration of the species in Tinto River waters. Raman spectra of the solutions reveal a strong iron(III)-sulfate inner-sphere interaction through the nu(1) sulfate band at 981 cm(-1) and its shoulder at 1005 cm(-1). Iron(III)-sulfate interaction may also be facilitated by hydrogen bonds and monitored in the Raman spectra through the symmetric stretching band of bisulfate at 1052 cm(-1) and a shoulder at 1040 cm(-1). Other bands in the low-frequency region of the Raman spectra are attributed to the hydrogen-bonded complexes formation as well. PMID:17869164

  8. Research on various factors influencing the moisture absorption property of sodium polyacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ChunXiao; ZHANG WanXi; PAN ZhenYuan; ZHANG XiYao; LIU Jian; YUE ChongWang

    2009-01-01

    Sodium polyacrylate was synthesized with acrylic acid as the monomer,and sodium bisulfate and ammonium persulfate as the initiator,by means of aqueous solution polymerization.The factors influencing the properties of moisture absorption,such as monomer concentration,dosage of initiator,and reaction temperature were systematically investigated.The experimental results indicate that the moisture-absorbing property of this polymer was better than other traditional material,such as silica gel,and molecular sieve.The best reaction condition and formula are based on the orthogonal experiment design.The optimum moisture absorbency of sodium polyacrylate reaches 1.01 g/g.The mathematical correlation of this polymer with various factors and moisture absorbency is obtained based on the multiple regression analysis.The moisture content intuitive analysis table shows that neutralization degree has the most significant influence on moisture absorbency,followed by monomer concentration and reaction temperature,while other factors have less influence.

  9. Proteomic identification of mitochondrial targets involved in andrographolide sodium bisulfite-induced nephrotoxicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen Min; Yuan, Tang Juan; Xu, Jia Dong; Gu, Li Li; Liang, Pei; Lu, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Our previous works have indicated that the mitochondrion is the primary target of nephrotoxicity induced by andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), but the mechanisms of ASB-induced nephrotoxicity have remained largely unknown. In this study, proteomic analysis was used to explore the changes in the renal mitochondrial proteome in SD rats after treatment with ASB. SD rats were intraperitoneally administered with ASB (100, 600mg/kg/d) for 7 days. Renal impairment was evaluated by pathological observation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), was applied for the identification of mitochondrial protein and was validated by Western blotting. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed using a Web-based bioinformatics tool (STRING, version 9.1). Rat kidneys exhibited histopathological changes after treatment with ASB, and 13 proteins were significantly changed, including ES1 protein homolog, heat shock cognate 71kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx1), cytochrome C oxidase subunit 5B (COX5B), prohibitin (PHB), threonine-tRNA ligase, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta (PDH-β), voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 (VDAC2), voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1), adenylate kinase 2 (KAD2) and others. These data demonstrated that the expression levels of several proteins significantly changed in the mitochondria, and these proteins could be candidate biomarkers for ASB-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26356389

  10. Andrographolide-induced apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cells: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Xing, Wen-Min; Xu, Jia-Dong; Lu, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate as a kind of soluble derivative of andrographolide (AD), is obviously known to be nephrotoxicity, but AD has not been reported clearly. Our study aimed to investigate the induction of apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells by AD and its possible mechanism. Our results demonstrated that AD (0-250μmol/L) inhibited Hk-2 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis, accompanied by decreased of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased of malondialdehvde (MDA) content. Simultaneously, AD regulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/Bip) protein, elevated the expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and Caspase-4, indicating activation of ER stress signaling, and induced the alterative expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) proteins. It provided evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be significant mechanisms responsible for AD-induced apoptosis in addition to oxidative stress. PMID:27344125

  11. Influence of sulfur in fuel on the properties of diffusion flame soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Ma, Qingxin; Liu, Yongchun; He, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies indicate that sulfur in fuel affects the hygroscopicity of soot. However, the issue of the effect of sulfur in fuel on soot properties is not fully understood. Here, the properties of soot prepared from fuel with a variable sulfur content were investigated under lean and rich flame conditions. Lean flame soot was influenced more by sulfur in fuel than rich flame soot. The majority of sulfur in fuel in lean flame was converted to gaseous SO2, while a small fraction appeared as sulfate and bisulfate (referred to as sulfate species) in soot. As the sulfur content in fuel increased, sulfate species in lean flame soot increased nonlinearly, while sulfate species on the surface of lean flame soot increased linearly. The hygroscopicity of lean flame soot from sulfur-containing fuel was enhanced mainly due to sulfate species. Meanwhile, more alkynes were formed in lean flame. The diameter of primary lean flame soot particles increased and accumulation mode particle number concentrations of lean flame soot from sulfur-containing fuel increased as a result of more alkynes. Because the potential effects of soot particles on air pollution development greatly depend on the soot properties, which are related to both chemical aging and combustion conditions, this work will aid in understanding the impacts of soot on air quality and climate.

  12. Bifunctional Crosslinking Agents Enhance Anion Exchange Membrane Efficacy for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenpin; Xu, Min; Wang, Shubo; Xie, Xiaofeng; Lv, Yafei; Ramani, Vijay K

    2014-06-01

    A series of cross-linked fluorinated poly (aryl ether oxadiazole) membranes (FPAEOM) derivatized with imidazolium groups were prepared. Poly (N-vinylimidazole) (PVI) was used as the bifunctional cross-linking agent to: a) lower vanadium permeability, b) enhance dimensional stability, and c) concomitantly provide added ion exchange capacity in the resultant anion exchange membranes. At a molar ratio of PVI to FPAEOM of 1.5, the resultant membrane (FPAEOM-1.5 PVI) had an ion exchange capacity of 2.2 meq g-1, a vanadium permeability of 6.8×10-7 cm2 min-1, a water uptake of 68 wt.%, and an ionic conductivity of 22.0 mS cm-1, all at 25°C. Single cells prepared with the FPAEOM-1.5 PVI membrane exhibited a higher coulombic efficiency (> 92%) and energy efficiency (> 86%) after 40 test cycles in vanadium redox flow battery. The imidazolium cation showed high chemical stability in highly acidic and oxidizing vanadium solution as opposed to poor stability in alkaline solutions. Based on our DFT studies, this was attributed to the lower HOMO energy (-7.265 eV) of the HSO4- ion (compared to the OH- ion; -5.496 eV) and the larger HOMO-LUMO energy gap (6.394 eV) of dimethylimidazolium bisulfate ([DMIM] [HSO4]) as compared to [DMIM] [OH] (5.387 eV).

  13. Standard practice for preparation and dissolution of plutonium materials for analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice is a compilation of dissolution techniques for plutonium materials that are applicable to the test methods used for characterizing these materials. Dissolution treatments for the major plutonium materials assayed for plutonium or analyzed for other components are listed. Aliquants of the dissolved samples are dispensed on a weight basis when one of the analyses must be highly reliable, such as plutonium assay; otherwise they are dispensed on a volume basis. 1.2 The treatments, in order of presentation, are as follows: Procedure Title Section Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Hydrochloric Acid 9.1 Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Sulfuric Acid 9.2 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide by the Sealed-Reflux Technique 9.3 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides by Sodium Bisulfate Fusion 9.4 Dissolution of Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides and Low-Fired Plutonium Oxide in Beakers 9.5 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  14. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Reynolds

    2004-10-29

    This is the Final Report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-flow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members conducted detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. The Membrane WESP was designed to be as similar as the metallic WESP in terms of collection area, air-flow, and electrical characteristics. Both units are two-field units. The membrane unit was installed during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 2003. Testing of the metallic unit was performed to create a baseline since the Mansfield plant had installed selective catalytic reduction equipment for NOx control and a sodium bisulfate injection system for SO3 control during the spring of 2003. Tests results on the metallic WESP were consistent with previous testing for PM2.5, SO3 mist and mercury. Testing on the membrane WESP demonstrated no adverse impact and equivalent removal efficiencies as that of the metallic WESP. Testing on both units was performed at 8,000 acfm and 15,000 acfm. Summary results are shown.

  15. Bifunctional Crosslinking Agents Enhance Anion Exchange Membrane Efficacy for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenpin; Xu, Min; Wang, Shubo; Xie, Xiaofeng; Lv, Yafei; Ramani, Vijay K

    2014-06-01

    A series of cross-linked fluorinated poly (aryl ether oxadiazole) membranes (FPAEOM) derivatized with imidazolium groups were prepared. Poly (N-vinylimidazole) (PVI) was used as the bifunctional cross-linking agent to: a) lower vanadium permeability, b) enhance dimensional stability, and c) concomitantly provide added ion exchange capacity in the resultant anion exchange membranes. At a molar ratio of PVI to FPAEOM of 1.5, the resultant membrane (FPAEOM-1.5 PVI) had an ion exchange capacity of 2.2 meq g-1, a vanadium permeability of 6.8×10-7 cm2 min-1, a water uptake of 68 wt.%, and an ionic conductivity of 22.0 mS cm-1, all at 25°C. Single cells prepared with the FPAEOM-1.5 PVI membrane exhibited a higher coulombic efficiency (> 92%) and energy efficiency (> 86%) after 40 test cycles in vanadium redox flow battery. The imidazolium cation showed high chemical stability in highly acidic and oxidizing vanadium solution as opposed to poor stability in alkaline solutions. Based on our DFT studies, this was attributed to the lower HOMO energy (-7.265 eV) of the HSO4- ion (compared to the OH- ion; -5.496 eV) and the larger HOMO-LUMO energy gap (6.394 eV) of dimethylimidazolium bisulfate ([DMIM] [HSO4]) as compared to [DMIM] [OH] (5.387 eV). PMID:24884171

  16. Self-poled transparent and flexible UV light-emitting cerium complex-PVDF composite: a high-performance nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garain, Samiran; Sinha, Tridib Kumar; Adhikary, Prakriti; Henkel, Karsten; Sen, Shrabanee; Ram, Shanker; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Schmeißer, Dieter; Mandal, Dipankar

    2015-01-21

    Cerium(III)-N,N-dimethylformamide-bisulfate [Ce(DMF)(HSO4)3] complex is doped into poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to induce a higher yield (99%) of the electroactive phases (β- and γ-phases) of PVDF. A remarkable enhancement of the output voltage (∼32 V) of a nanogenerator (NG) based on a nonelectrically poled cerium(III) complex containing PVDF composite film is achieved by simple repeated human finger imparting, whereas neat PVDF does not show this kind of behavior. This high electrical output resembles the generation of self-poled electroactive β-phase in PVDF due to the electrostatic interactions between the fluoride of PVDF and the surface-active positive charge cloud of the cerium complex via H-bonding and/or bipolar interaction among the opposite poles of cerium complex and PVDF, respectively. The capacitor charging capability of the flexible NG promises its applicability as piezoelectric-based energy harvester. The cerium(III) complex doped PVDF composite film exhibit an intense photoluminescence in the UV region, which might be due to a participation of electron cloud from negative pole of bipolarized PVDF. This fact may open a new area for prospective development of high-performance energy-saving flexible solid-state UV light emitters. PMID:25523039

  17. Decitabine treatment could ameliorate primary iron-overload in myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucheng, Gu; Chunkang, Chang; Youshan, Zhao; Juan, Guo; Chengming, Fei; Xi, Zhang; Chao, Xiao; Xiao, Li

    2015-04-01

    In order to research how does hypomethylating agents ameliorate iron metabolism in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we performed methylation-specific, polymerase chain reaction (MSP), bisulfate genomic sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP), quantitative real-time PCR and western blot of hemojuvelin (HJV) and ELISA assay for hepcidin before and after demethylating therapy (decitabine) to determine whether the change of HJV methylation status would have an influence on hepcidin expression. Eleven of 22 MDS patients achieved CR or PR according to IWG criteria (50%). HJV mRNA was induced in decitabine responders (p = .006 comparing pre/post decitabine treatment) but not in non-responders (p = .121). Similarly, hepcidin serum expression increased from 320.77 ± 34.8 μg/L to 366.77 ± 21.90 μg/L (p = .012) in responders but did not significantly change in non-responders (p = .058), while no difference of adjusted serum ferritin (ASF) was found. In conclusion, hypermethylation of HJV promoter region could silence the gene expression and demethylating therapy might ameliorate iron-overload through HJV demethylation.

  18. DNA demethylation in the PTEN gene promoter induced by 5-azacytidine activates PTEN expression in the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Deye; Ni, Jiangdong; Xie, Hongming; Ding, Muliang; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    This study used the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line to investigate the demethylation of the phosphate and tension homolog (PTEN) gene promoter and the change in PTEN gene expression levels, which are caused by the methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Zac), and the association between the two. Different concentrations of 5-Zac (0, 5 and 10 μmol/l) were added into the MG-63 cell culture medium and the cells were cultured for 72 h. The following techniques were performed on the cells: Western blot analysis to detect the PTEN protein; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the mRNA transcription levels of the PTEN gene; flow cytometry to detect the cell apoptotic rate; and sodium bisulfate to deal with the DNA of each group. The genes of the PTEN promoter and the transcription factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Myc were PCR amplified and transformed into Escherichia coli, then a number of clones were selected for sequencing and the methylation status of the amplified PTEN promoter fragment was detected. Following culture of the MG-63 cells with 5-Zac at concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l for 72 h, the expression levels of PTEN protein in each group were gradually increased, presenting a concentration-dependent effect: Group 0 μmol/l compared with groups 5 and 10 μmol/l, P<0.05; and group 5 μmol/l compared with group 10 μmol/l, P=0.007. The mRNA expression levels of the PTEN gene significantly increased. The apoptotic rates of groups 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l were 0.69±0.42, 2.50±0.30 and 6.59±0.62%, and significant differences (P<0.01) were observed between every two groups. The bisulfate DNA sequencing results of three groups showed that, following the treatment with 5-Zac, the binding of the CG site to transcription factors was affected by demethylation. The average rate of demethylation indicated a statistical difference among the three groups. In conclusion, the methylation inhibitor 5-Zac leads to a significant increase in the

  19. DNA demethylation in the PTEN gene promoter induced by 5-azacytidine activates PTEN expression in the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONG, DEYE; NI, JIANGDONG; XIE, HONGMING; DING, MULIANG; WANG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    This study used the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line to investigate the demethylation of the phosphate and tension homolog (PTEN) gene promoter and the change in PTEN gene expression levels, which are caused by the methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Zac), and the association between the two. Different concentrations of 5-Zac (0, 5 and 10 μmol/l) were added into the MG-63 cell culture medium and the cells were cultured for 72 h. The following techniques were performed on the cells: Western blot analysis to detect the PTEN protein; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the mRNA transcription levels of the PTEN gene; flow cytometry to detect the cell apoptotic rate; and sodium bisulfate to deal with the DNA of each group. The genes of the PTEN promoter and the transcription factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Myc were PCR amplified and transformed into Escherichia coli, then a number of clones were selected for sequencing and the methylation status of the amplified PTEN promoter fragment was detected. Following culture of the MG-63 cells with 5-Zac at concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l for 72 h, the expression levels of PTEN protein in each group were gradually increased, presenting a concentration-dependent effect: Group 0 μmol/l compared with groups 5 and 10 μmol/l, P<0.05; and group 5 μmol/l compared with group 10 μmol/l, P=0.007. The mRNA expression levels of the PTEN gene significantly increased. The apoptotic rates of groups 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l were 0.69±0.42, 2.50±0.30 and 6.59±0.62%, and significant differences (P<0.01) were observed between every two groups. The bisulfate DNA sequencing results of three groups showed that, following the treatment with 5-Zac, the binding of the CG site to transcription factors was affected by demethylation. The average rate of demethylation indicated a statistical difference among the three groups. In conclusion, the methylation inhibitor 5-Zac leads to a significant increase in the

  20. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2  (g SO42−−1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO42−−1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m2− are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL = −0.750, FU = −0.930, and

  1. Comparison of a solid SMEDDS and solid dispersion for enhanced stability and bioavailability of clopidogrel napadisilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kwon, Min Seok; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Park, Jong Hyuck; Kim, Dong Shik; Lee, Beom-Jin; Park, Young Joon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2014-12-19

    The intention of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties, stability and bioavailability of a clopidogrel napadisilate (CN)-loaded solid dispersion (SD) and solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (solid SMEDDS). SD was prepared by a surface attached method using different ratios of Cremophor RH60 (surfactant) and HPMC (polymer), optimized based on their drug solubility. Liquid SMEDDS was composed of oil (peceol), a surfactant (Cremophor RH60) and a co-surfactant (Transcutol HP). A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed to identify the emulsifying domain, and the optimized liquid SMEDDS was spray dried with an inert solid carrier (silicon dioxide), producing the solid SMEDDS. The physicochemical properties, solubility, dissolution, stability and pharmacokinetics were assessed and compared to clopidogrel napadisilate (CN) and bisulfate (CB) powders. In solid SMEDDS, liquid SMEDDS was absorbed or coated inside the pores of silicon dioxide. In SD, hydrophilic polymer and surfactants were adhered onto drug surface. The drug was in crystalline and molecularly dispersed form in SD and solid SMEDDS, respectively. Solid SMEDDS and SD greatly increased the solubility of CN but gave lower drug solubility compared to CB powder. These preparations significantly improved the dissolution of CN, but the latter more increased than the former. Stability under accelerated condition showed that they were more stable compared to CB powder, and SD was more stable than solid SMEDDS. They significantly increased the oral bioavailability of CN powder. Furthermore, SD showed significantly improved oral bioavailability compared to solid SMEDDS and CB powder. Thus, SD with excellent stability and bioavailability is recommended as an alternative for the clopidogrel-based oral formulation. PMID:25263903

  2. Chronic Administration of Benzo(a)pyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Tian, Fengjie; Zheng, Jinping; Li, Senlin; Qiang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance. Methods C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg) or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B) was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Results Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg) showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions. Conclusions Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain. PMID:26901155

  3. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  4. Modeling impacts of NH3 on uptake of H2SO4 by charged nucleating nanoparticles in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadykto, A. B.; Nazarenko, K. M.; Markov, P. N.; Yu, F.

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of the role of ammonia, a well-known stabilizer of binary sulfuric acid-water clusters, in the gas-to-nanoparticle conversion in the Earth atmosphere is critically important for the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing associated with the climate changes. The sulfuric acid H2SO4 is present in the atmosphere in the form of the gas-phase hydrates (H2SO4)(H2O)n, whose interaction with NH3 leads to the formation of more stable bisulfate clusters (NH3)(H2SO4)(H2O)n. Although the impact of NH3 on the thermochemical stability of binary clusters nucleating homogeneously has been studied in some detail in the past, the effect of ammonia on other microphysical properties relevant to nucleation remains insufficiently well understood. In the present study, the effect of ammonia on the electrical dipole moment controlling the nucleation of airborne ions via the dipole-charge interaction has been investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT), ab initio MP2 and model chemistry G3 methods. The presence of ammonia in (H2SO4)(H2O)n is found to lead to very large enhancement in the dipole moment, which exceeds 2.0-2.5 Debyes (˜60-80%), 3.7-5.0 Debyes (˜90-180%), 1.4-4.5 Debyes (˜50-150%) and 2.1-5.5 Debyes (˜60-700%) for n = 0, n = 1, n = 2 and n = 3, respectively. The implications of this include the significantly increased uptake of the sulfuric acid, the key atmospheric nucleation precursor, by airborne ions and neutrals (due to dipole-dipole interaction), enhanced nucleation rates and the elevated production of ultrafine particles, which cause adverse health impacts.

  5. 固体酸催化蓖麻油制备生物柴油%Preparation of biodiesel from castor seed oil using solid acid as a catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳福全; 牛宇岚; 李晓红

    2011-01-01

    以一水硫酸氢钠固体酸为催化剂,对蓖麻油酯交换制备生物柴油进行了研究.在反应温度为75℃条件下,考察了醇油摩尔比、催化剂用量(占油质量)及反应时间对酯交换反应的影响.在反应温度为75℃、醇油摩尔比为9:1、催化剂用量为4%、反应时间为8 h的优化工艺条件下,平均甘油收率达93%,产物中甲酯总含量为95.20%.甲酯和甘油静置分层快,后处理简单,对环境无污染.%The transesterification of castor seed oil to produce biodiesel catalyzed by solid acid sodium bisulfate monohydrate was studied. At the temperature of 75 ℃, effects of molar ratio of methanol to oil, catalyst dosage ( mass ratio of catalyst to oil) and reaction time on the transesterification were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of reaction temperature 75 ℃, molar ratio of methanol to oil 9: 1, catalyst dosage 4% and reaction time 8 h, the average yield of glycerine arrived 93% . The products were analyzed by GC - MS and the mass fraction of methyl ester was 95.20%. The methyl ester and the glycerine were easily separated, and the method had no pollution to the environment.

  6. Microwave-assisted Heating Synthesis of Vanillin Propylene Glycol Acetal Catalyzed by NaHSO4%微波促进硫酸氢钠催化合成香兰素1.2-丙二醇缩醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文陵; 林明穗; 王仁章; 吴泽民; 叶欣

    2012-01-01

    在微波辐射条件下,香兰索与1.2-丙二醇在硫酸氢钠的催化下.合成了香兰索丙二醇缩醛。探讨了原料配比、催化剂用量、微波辐射功率及时问等因素对反应的影响。适宜反应条件为:n(1,2-丙二醇):n(香兰素)=2.2,20ml环已烷作带水剂,3.0g/mol硫酸氢钠作催化剂,辐射功率500w,辐射时间10min,香兰素转化率可达68.2%。结果表明,微波辐射与催化荆联用,可大大缩短反应时间,反应过程环保简便。%The vanillin 1, 2 - propylene glycol acetal was synthesized by the reaction of vanillin and 1, 2-propylene glycol using sodium bisulfate as catalyst under microwave irradiation. Factors influencing the reaction, such as different mole ratio of materials, catalyst amounts, microwave irradiation power and time, were discussed. The optimal synthetic technology was obtained as follows: n (1, 2 - propylene glycol) : n (vanillin) = 2.2, irradiation power 500 W, irradiation time 10 rain, NariS04 3.0 g/mol ( based on the amount of vanillin), 20ml cyclohexane to give in 68.2% yield.

  7. Altered DNA methylation patterns of the H19 differentially methylated region and the DAZL gene promoter are associated with defective human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation disturbance is associated with defective human sperm. However, oligozoospermia (OZ and asthenozoospermia (AZ usually present together, and the relationship between the single-phenotype defects in human sperm and DNA methylation is poorly understood. In this study, 20 infertile OZ patients and 20 infertile AZ patients were compared with 20 fertile normozoospermic men. Bisulfate-specific PCR was used to analyze DNA methylation of the H19-DMR and the DAZL promoter in these subjects. A similar DNA methylation pattern of the H19-DMR was detected in AZ and NZ(control, with only complete methylation and mild hypomethylation(0.05. However, the methylation pattern of severe hypomethylation (>50% unmethylated CpGs and complete unmethylation was only detected in 5 OZ patients, and the occurrence of these two methylation patterns was 8.54±10.86% and 9±6.06%, respectively. Loss of DNA methylation of the H19-DMR in the OZ patients was found to mainly occur in CTCF-binding site 6, with occurrence of 18.15±14.71%, which was much higher than that in patients with NZ (0.84±2.05% and AZ (0.58±1.77% (P20% methylated clones in the DAZL promoter only in infertile patients, there was no significant difference between the AZ and OZ patients in the proportion of moderately-to-severely hypermethylated clones (p>0.05. In all cases, global sperm genome methylation analyses, using LINE1 transposon as the indicator, showed that dysregulation of DNA methylation is specifically associated with the H19-DMR and DAZL promoter. Therefore, abnormal DNA methylation status of H19-DMR, especially at the CTCF-binding site 6, is closely associated with OZ. Abnormal DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter might represent an epigenetic marker of male infertility.

  8. The evolutionary foundation of genomic imprinting in lower vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE BingHua; ZHANG Lei; ZHENG Kang; LUO Chen

    2009-01-01

    In mammals,genomic imprinting confers developmental asymmetry and complementation on the a-rental genomes and makes both parental genomes essential for complete development.Genomic im-printing is,therefore,the first regulatory step of genome-wide gene expression of embryogeneais and thought to be the epigenetic foundation of bisexual reproduction.However,how the genomic imprint-ing is originated,established and maintained during vertebrate evolution remains unknown.Because no endogenous imprinting gene has been identified in non-mammalian vertebrates,genomic imprinting is thought to be a unique evolutionary event of mammals.Here,in order to study the evolutionary origin of genomic imprinting in vertebrates,we examined whether parent-specific methylation occurred in the teleost homologue of mammalian imprinting gene during gametogenesis.Bisulfate sequencing analy-sis showed that,as mammalian Igf2 CpG island,goldfish Igf2 CpG island was a parental differentially methylated region (DMR) that was hypermethylated in sperm but unmethylated in eggs.Unlike mam-malian imprinting gene DMR,however,the parent-specific methylation pattern of goldfish Igf2 DMR was not maintained during embryogenesis,suggesting that the parent-specific methylation of goldfish Igf2 DMR might be a primitive genomic imprinting in the early period of vertebrate evolution.These results indicate that the evolutionary foundation of genomic imprinting exists in lower vertebrates and ge-nomic imprinting should not be considered as a unique evolutionary event of mammals.

  9. Effect Observation on Lushi Runzao Decoction for Prim ary Sjogren's Syndrome for Three Months of Dry Eye Symptoms%路氏润燥汤对原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状的改善效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽萍; 孙玲; 崔长春

    2016-01-01

    Objective Discussion on the Lushi Runzao Decoction with primary Sjogren's syndrome improving effect of three months of dry eye symptoms. Methods71 patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome three months of dry eye symptoms in patients randomized to the treatment group (n = 36)in the application's Lushi Runzao Decoction ,control group (n = 35) using oral chloroquine bisulfate tablets for the treatment,compared to group 2 efficacy.ResultsAfter treatment of dry eye VAS score,the total effective rate were better than the control group(P<0.05).ConclusionLushi Runzao Decoction for three months of dry eye syndrome improving effect is certainly worth learning.%目的:探讨路氏润燥汤对原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状的改善效果。方法将71例原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状患者随机分组,治疗组(n=36)应用路氏润燥汤,对照组(n=35)口服硫酸氢氯喹片治疗,对比2组疗效。结果治疗组治疗后VAS眼干评分、治疗总有效率均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论路氏润燥汤对原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状的改善效果肯定。

  10. Hypermethylations of RASAL1 and KLOTHO is associated with renal dysfunction in a Chinese population environmentally exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chen; Liang, Yihuai [School of Public Health, Fudan University, 130 DongAn Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, 130 DongAn Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lei, Lijian [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi (China); Zhu, Guoying; Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jin, Taiyi, E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Fudan University, 130 DongAn Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, 130 DongAn Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wu, Qing, E-mail: qingwu@fudan.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Fudan University, 130 DongAn Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, 130 DongAn Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) can affect both DNA methylation and renal function, but there are few examples of the association between epigenetic markers and Cd-induced kidney damage. It has been suggested that hypermethylation of the genes RASAL1 and KLOTHO is associated with renal fibrogenesis. To investigate whether hypermethylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO in peripheral blood DNA can be associated with Cd exposure and/or Cd-induced renal dysfunction, the degrees of methylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO in peripheral blood DNA from 81 residents in Cd-polluted and non-polluted areas were measured using bisulfate-PCR-pyrosequencing. Changes in blood cadmium (BCd), urinary cadmium (UCd), and kidney parameters were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated. The levels of BCd and UCd correlated positively with the levels of DNA methylation in RASAL1 and in KLOTHO. The more heavily exposed residents (BCd, 4.23–13.22 μg/L; UCd, 8.65–32.90 μg/g creatinine) exhibited obvious renal dysfunction. Notably, when Cd concentration in blood and urine was adjusted, the increased methylation level in RASAL1 was inversely correlated with eGFR (P < 0.01) but the relationship between hypermethylation of KLOTHO and eGFR was not statistically significant. The methylation of RASAL1 increased along with the increased abnormal prevalence of eGFR. Our findings suggest that Cd exposure can induce the hypermethylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO. Hypermethylation of RASAL1 may be an indicator of the progress for chronic kidney disease. - Highlights: • A long term heavily Cd exposure induced renal dysfunction. • Cd exposure correlated positively with DNA methylation in RASAL1 and KLOTHO. • Hypermethylation of RASAL1 correlated with adjusted renal function indicators.

  11. Epigenetic signature of panic disorder: a role of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) DNA hypomethylation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, Katharina; Tidow, Nicola; Schrempf, Marie; Schwarte, Kathrin; Klauke, Benedikt; Reif, Andreas; Kersting, Anette; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Glutamate decarboxylases (GAD67/65; GAD1/GAD2) are crucially involved in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and thus were repeatedly suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. In the present study, DNA methylation patterns in the GAD1 and GAD2 promoter and GAD1 intron 2 regions were investigated for association with panic disorder, with particular attention to possible effects of environmental factors. Sixty-five patients with panic disorder (f=44, m=21) and 65 matched healthy controls were analyzed for DNA methylation status at 38 GAD1 promoter/intron2 and 10 GAD2 promoter CpG sites via direct sequencing of sodium bisulfate treated DNA extracted from blood cells. Recent positive and negative life events were ascertained. Patients and controls were genotyped for GAD1 rs3762556, rs3791878 and rs3762555, all of which are located in the analyzed promoter region. Patients with panic disorder exhibited significantly lower average GAD1 methylation than healthy controls (p<0.001), particularly at three CpG sites in the promoter as well as in intron 2. The occurrence of negative life events was correlated with relatively decreased average methylation mainly in the female subsample (p=0.01). GAD1 SNP rs3762555 conferred a significantly lower methylation at three GAD1 intron 2 CpG sites (p<0.001). No differential methylation was observed in the GAD2 gene. The present pilot data suggest a potentially compensatory role of GAD1 gene hypomethylation in panic disorder possibly mediating the influence of negative life events and depending on genetic variation. Future studies are warranted to replicate the present finding in independent samples, preferably in a longitudinal design.

  12. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI.

  13. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.

    2011-12-01

    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  14. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Mohr, C.; Kostenidou, E.; Lanz, V. A.; Bougiatioti, A.; Decarlo, P. F.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Donahue, N. M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2010-05-01

    Aged organic aerosol (OA) was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008), which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1), and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm-3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  15. Airborne pollutant characteristics in an urban, industrial and agricultural complex metroplex with high emission loading and ammonia concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Li-Peng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-10-01

    The size distribution of particulate mass and water-soluble ionic constituents and their gaseous precursors was investigated in a subtropical area, southern Taiwan. Field sampling and chemical analysis of particulate matter (PM) were conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI, and gaseous pollutants were determined by a denuder-filter pack system. PM size mass distribution, mass concentration and ionic species concentration were measured during the day and at night in the winter and summer. Average PM concentrations in the winter were as high as 132 ± 42 μg/m(3), and PM mass concentrations in the summer were as low as 38 ± 19 μg/m(3). Generally, PM concentration was 111 ± 60 μg/m(3) at night, which was 20% higher than that in the daytime. The size-segregated mass distribution of PM mass concentration was over 85% in the 0.1-3.2 μm range. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate were the dominant water-soluble ionic species in PM, contributing 34%-48% of PM mass. High ammonia (12.9-49 μg/m(3)) and SO2 (2.6-27 μg/m(3)) were observed in the gas precursors. The molar ratio [Formula: see text] was 3.18 ± 1.20 at PM1.0, which indicated that the PM was rich in ammonium. Therefore, the excess ammonium could neutralize nitrate to form ammonium nitrate, after the more stable ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate formation. PMID:25037046

  16. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  17. Possible involvement of locus-specific methylation on expression regulation of leafy homologous gene (CiLFY during precocious trifoliate orange phase change process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an essential role in regulating plant development. Here, we described an early flowering trifoliate orange (precocious trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf was treated with 5-azacytidine and displayed a number of phenotypic and developmental abnormalities. These observations suggested that DNA methylation might play an important role in regulating many developmental pathways including early flowering trait, and then the expression level of five key or integrated citrus flowering genes were analyzed. Our results showed that flowering locus T (CiFT relative expression level was increased with the increasing concentrations of 5-AzaC. However, leafy (CiLFY, APETELA1 (CiAP1, terminal flower1 (CiTFL1, and flowering locus C (CiFLC showed highest relative expression levels at 250 µΜ treatment, while decreased sharply at higher concentrations. In order to further confirm DNA methylation affects the expression of these genes, their full-length sequences were isolated by genome-walker method, and then was analyzed by using bioinformatics tools. However, only one locus-specific methylation site was observed in CiLFY sequence. Therefore, DNA methylation level of the CiLFY was investigated both at juvenile and adult stages of precocious trifoliate orange by bisulfate sequencing PCR; it has been shown that the level of DNA methylation was altered during phase change. In addition, spatial and temporal expression patterns of CiLFY promoter and a series of 5' deletions were investigated by driving the expression of a β-glucuronidase reporter gene in Arabidopsis. Exogenous GA3 treatment on transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that GA3 might be involved in the developmental regulation of CiLFY during flowering process of precocious trifoliate orange. These results provided insights into the molecular regulation of CiLFY gene expression, which would be helpful for studying citrus flowering.

  18. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aged organic aerosol (OA was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008, which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1, and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm−3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  19. Identification of new differentially methylated genes that have potential functional consequences in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin W Kim

    Full Text Available Many differentially methylated genes have been identified in prostate cancer (PCa, primarily using candidate gene-based assays. Recently, several global DNA methylation profiles have been reported in PCa, however, each of these has weaknesses in terms of ability to observe global DNA methylation alterations in PCa. We hypothesize that there remains unidentified aberrant DNA methylation in PCa, which may be identified using higher resolution assay methods. We used the newly developed Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in PCa (n = 19 and adjacent normal tissues (n = 4 and combined these with gene expression data for identifying new DNA methylation that may have functional consequences in PCa development and progression. We also confirmed our methylation results in an independent data set. Two aberrant DNA methylation genes were validated among an additional 56 PCa samples and 55 adjacent normal tissues. A total 28,735 CpG sites showed significant differences in DNA methylation (FDR adjusted P<0.05, defined as a mean methylation difference of at least 20% between PCa and normal samples. Furthermore, a total of 122 genes had more than one differentially methylated CpG site in their promoter region and a gene expression pattern that was inverse to the direction of change in DNA methylation (e.g. decreased expression with increased methylation, and vice-versa. Aberrant DNA methylation of two genes, AOX1 and SPON2, were confirmed via bisulfate sequencing, with most of the respective CpG sites showing significant differences between tumor samples and normal tissues. The AOX1 promoter region showed hypermethylation in 92.6% of 54 tested PCa samples in contrast to only three out of 53 tested normal tissues. This study used a new BeadChip combined with gene expression data in PCa to identify novel differentially methylated CpG sites located within genes. The newly identified differentially methylated genes may be used as biomarkers for PCa diagnosis.

  20. 乳酸异十三酯的合成%Synthesis of Iso-tridecyl Lactate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢峰; 招丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Using potassium bisulphate as a catalyst and cyclohexane as a co-boiling reagent, the iso-tridecyl lactate, one of emulsifiers in cosmetics, was synthesized via direct esterification of lactic acid and iso-tridecanol. The structure of objective product was confirmed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) and GC-MS. The result showed that the potassium bisulphate was suited to synthesize iso-tridecyl lactate. When the amount of potassium bisulfate added was 1 % of the gross mass, mole ratio of lactic acid to iso-tridecanol was 1.7, the amount of cyclohexane was 30 ml and reaction time was 4 h, the high conversion of iso-tridecanol of 91.77 % could be achieved.%  文章以乳酸和异十三醇为原料,直接酯化合成了乳酸异十三酯,考察了催化剂、酸醇比、带水剂的用量和反应时间对转化率的影响,通过红外光谱和气质联用仪对产品进行了结构表征。实验证明,硫酸氢钾具有较高的催化活性,最佳反应条件为:硫酸氢钾用量为乳酸和异十三醇总量的1%,带水剂用量为30 mL,乳酸和异十三醇的摩尔比为1.7∶1,反应时间为4 h,异十三醇转化率达91.77%。

  1. Bridge-bonded formate: active intermediate or spectator species in formic acid oxidation on a Pt film electrode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-X; Heinen, M; Jusys, Z; Behm, R J

    2006-12-01

    We present and discuss the results of an in situ IR study on the mechanism and kinetics of formic acid oxidation on a Pt film/Si electrode, performed in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) flow cell configuration under controlled mass transport conditions, which specifically aimed at elucidating the role of the adsorbed bridge-bonded formates in this reaction. Potentiodynamic measurements show a complex interplay between formation and desorption/oxidation of COad and formate species and the total Faradaic current. The notably faster increase of the Faradaic current compared to the coverage of bridge-bonded formate in transient measurements at constant potential, but with different formic acid concentrations, reveals that adsorbed formate decomposition is not rate-limiting in the dominant reaction pathway. If being reactive intermediate at all, the contribution of formate adsorption/decomposition to the reaction current decreases with increasing formic acid concentration, accounting for at most 15% for 0.2 M DCOOH at 0.7 VRHE. The rapid build-up/removal of the formate adlayer and its similarity with acetate or (bi-)sulfate adsorption/desorption indicate that the formate adlayer coverage is dominated by a fast dynamic adsorption-desorption equilibrium with the electrolyte, and that formate desorption is much faster than its decomposition. The results corroborate the proposal of a triple pathway reaction mechanism including an indirect pathway, a formate pathway, and a dominant direct pathway, as presented previously (Chen, Y. X.; et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 981), in which adsorbed formates act as a site-blocking spectator in the dominant pathway rather than as an active intermediate.

  2. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI. PMID:25855780

  3. CpG promoter methylation status is not a prognostic indicator of gene expression in beryllium challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Brian C; Ozawa, Katherine; Newman, Lee S

    2016-05-01

    Individuals exposed to beryllium (Be) may develop Be sensitization (BeS) and progress to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Recent studies with other metal antigens suggest epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in inflammatory disease processes, including granulomatous lung disorders and that a number of metal cations alter gene methylation. The objective of this study was to determine if Be can exert an epigenetic effect on gene expression by altering methylation in the promoter region of specific genes known to be involved in Be antigen-mediated gene expression. To investigate this objective, three macrophage tumor mouse cell lines known to differentially produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but not interferon (IFN)-γ, in response to Be antigen were cultured with Be or controls. Following challenges, ELISA were performed to quantify induced TNFα and IFNγ expression. Bisulfate-converted DNA was evaluated by pyrosequencing to quantify CpG methylation within the promoters of TNFα and IFNγ. Be-challenged H36.12J cells expressed higher levels of TNFα compared to either H36.12E cells or P388D.1 cells. However, there were no variations in TNFα promoter CpG methylation levels between cell lines at the six CpG sites tested. H36.12J cell TNFα expression was shown to be metal-specific by the induction of significantly more TNFα when exposed to Be than when exposed to aluminum sulfate, or nickel (II) chloride, but not when exposed to cobalt (II) chloride. However, H36.12J cell methylation levels at the six CpG sites examined in the TNFα promoter did not correlate with cytokine expression differences. Nonetheless, all three cell lines had significantly more promoter methylation at the six CpG sites investigated within the IFNγ promoter (a gene that is not expressed) when compared to the six CpG sites investigated in the TNFα promoter, regardless of treatment condition (p beryllium had no impact on promoter methylation status, despite its ability to induce pro

  4. Synthesis of Foliar Fertilizer from Titanium-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag and Cultivation Experiment of Sweet Corn%由含钛高炉渣制备叶面肥及甜玉米栽培实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 薛向欣

    2016-01-01

    The foliar fertilizer was synthesized with the titanium-bearing blast furnace slag, potassium bisulfate,citric acid,urea and magnesium oxide as raw materials by melting and chelating methods.The field cultivation experiments of sweet corns were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of the foliar fertilizer on the growth,yield,characters and the SPAD value of nitrogen,magnesium,sugar and heavy metal in grains.The results showed that the foliar fertilizer contained nutritional elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, iron, titanium and magnesium.The application of the foliar fertilizer shortened the growing period of the sweet corn by 2 days,and also made the yield,plant heights,diameters of the stem and ears,grain number per panicle,weight of single spike,and the number of efficient panicles per plant,together with the SPAD value of chlorophyll in leaves,nitrogen and magnesium in grains significantly increase. However,there was no difference in the mass fraction of sugar,titanium,vanadium and chromium in the sweet corn.In addition,mass fractions of the heavy metal elements like vanadium and chromium in the sweet corn were below the maximum residue limit set by National Standards of China.%以含钛高炉渣、硫酸氢钾、柠檬酸、尿素和氧化镁为原料,采用熔融和螯合法制备叶面肥,并通过大田栽培实验研究了该叶面肥对甜玉米生长状况、产量、性状及籽粒的氮、镁、糖和重金属质量分数的影响。结果表明,该叶面肥含有植物营养元素氮、硫、钾、镁、铁和钛;该叶面肥的施用使甜玉米生育期缩短2d;产量、株高、茎粗、穗粗、穗粒数、单穗重、单株有效穗数、叶片中叶绿素的 SPAD 值、籽粒中氮和镁的质量分数明显增加,籽粒中糖、钛、钒和铬的质量分数无明显变化,且重金属元素钒和铬的质量分数符合国家标准。

  5. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  6. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO(sub x) control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO(sub x) while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO(sub x) reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO(sub x) reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO(sub x) emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO(sub x) reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm(sup 3) (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification problem

  7. Evaluating Chemical Mitigation of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in Animal Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Roger A; Huss, Anne R; Aldrich, Gregory C; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a potential feed safety hazard in animal feed ingredients. Thermal mitigation of Salmonella spp. during rendering is effective but does not eliminate the potential for cross-contamination. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals to mitigate postrendering Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 contamination in rendered proteins over time. Treatments were arranged in a 6 × 4 factorial with six chemical treatments and four rendered protein meals. The chemical treatments included (i) control without chemical treatment, (ii) 0.3% commercial formaldehyde product, (iii) 2% essential oil blend, (iv) 2% medium chain fatty acid blend, (v) 3% organic acid blend, and (vi) 1% sodium bisulfate. The four rendered protein meals included (i) feather meal, (ii) blood meal, (iii) meat and bone meal, and (iv) poultry by-product meal. After matrices were chemically treated, they were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, stored at room temperature, and enumerated via plate counts on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 postinoculation. The Salmonella concentration in ingredients treated with medium chain fatty acid and commercial formaldehyde were similar to one another (P = 0.23) but were 2 log lower than the control (P < 0.05). Ingredients treated with organic acids and essential oils also had lower Salmonella concentrations than the control (P < 0.05). Time also played a significant role in Salmonella mitigation, because all days except days 14 and 21 (P = 0.92) differed from one another. Rendered protein matrix also affected Salmonella stability, because concentrations in meat and bone meal and blood meal were similar to one another (P = 0.36) but were greater than levels in feather meal and poultry by-product meal (P < 0.05). In summary, chemical treatment and time both mitigated Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, but their effectiveness was matrix dependent. Time and chemical treatment with medium

  8. 巨峰桃红干葡萄酒主发酵的研究%Primary Fermentation of Kyoho Dry Rose Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思达; 刘成梅; 余波

    2016-01-01

    Kyoho grape is a kind of edible grape with unique aroma. It is rare using Kyoho grape to produce grape wine and there is few related researches. In this study, Kyoho grape was used as raw materials to produce Kyoho dry rose wine with unique aroma. Through single factor test, the best technical parameters were determined as follows: sugar content in the range of 19~21° Bx, the adding level of citric acid was 0.1%, fermenting temperature was at 26℃,yeast inoculating quantity was 0.15%, and the adding level of sodium bisulfate was 100~130 mg/L. The produced wine had typical Kyoho grape aroma and slight strawberry aroma, its alcohol content was about 11%vol, and its resid-ual sugar content and acidity met the requirements of dry wine.%巨峰葡萄是一种具有独特香味的食用葡萄,以巨峰葡萄酿造葡萄酒很少见,而且相关研究较少。以巨峰葡萄为原料,酿造具有独特香味的巨峰桃红干葡萄酒。通过单因素对比实验,确定最佳初始酸度、初始糖度、二氧化硫浓度、发酵温度、活性葡萄酒酵母接种量等工艺技术参数。结果表明,糖度为19~21°Bx,柠檬酸添加量0.1%,发酵温度为26℃,酵母接种量为0.15%,亚硫酸氢钠添加量100~130 mg/L为最佳。以此工艺酿造的萄萄酒,具有巨峰葡萄典型清香,并带有淡淡草莓香味,口感好,酒精度为11%vol左右,残还原糖、酸度均符合干葡萄酒的要求。

  9. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification

  10. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pedernera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg, homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures, Thom, and ice melting temperatures, Tm, of various aqueous inorganic, organic and multi-component solutions are investigated with a differential scanning calorimeter. The investigated solutes are: various polyols, glucose, raffinose, levoglucosan, an aromatic compound, sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate and mixtures of dicarboxylic acids (M5, of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate (M5AS, of two polyols, of glucose and ammonium nitrate, and of raffinose and M5AS. The results indicate that aqueous solutions of the investigated inorganic solutes show Tg values that are too low to be of atmospheric importance. In contrast, aqueous organic and multi-component solutions readily form glasses at low but atmospherically relevant temperatures (≤230 K. To apply the laboratory data to the atmospheric situation, the measured phase transition temperatures were transformed from a concentration to a water activity scale by extrapolating water activities determined between 252 K and 313 K to lower temperatures. The obtained state diagrams reveal that the higher the molar mass of the aqueous organic or multi-component solutes, the higher Tg of their respective solutions at a given water activity. To a lesser extent, Tg also depends on the hydrophilicity of the organic solutes. Therefore, aerosol particles containing larger (≳150 g mol−1 and

  11. Epigenetic silencing of MAL, a putative tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelium cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify new and useful candidate biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, we performed a genome-wide survey and found that Myelin and lymphocyte-associated protein (MAL was a gene that was markedly down-regulated in HNSCC. Hence, we investigated the mechanism of MAL silencing and the effects of MAL on the proliferation, invasion, and apoptotic potential in HNSCC. Results MAL was significantly down-regulated in 91.7% of HNSCC specimens at the mRNA level as compared with adjacent normal tissues (P = 0.0004. Moreover, the relative transcript levels of the MAL gene were remarkably decreased by five-fold in nine HNSCC cell lines as compared with normal head and neck epithelium cells. MAL gene expression was restored in 44%, 67%, and 89% in HNSCC cell lines treated with TSA, 5-Aza-dC, and TSA plus 5-Aza-dC, respectively. Furthermore, bisulfate-treated DNA sequencing demonstrated that the two CpG islands (that is, M1 and M2 located in MAL promoter region were completely methylated in the HNSCC cell lines (CpG methylated ratio was more than 90%, and only one CpG island (that is, M1 was partially methylated in HNSCC tissues (CpG methylated ratio between 20% and 90%. A significant reduction in cell proliferation and a change in the cell cycle profile were also observed in MAL transfectants. Matrigel assay demonstrated that the invasiveness of HNSCC cells significantly decreased. A significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells was observed in MAL transfected cells. The exogenous expression of the MAL gene suppressed malignant phenotypes, while the cell death induced by MAL gene transfer was a result of apoptosis as demonstrated by the induction of cleavage of the poly (that is, ADP-ribose polymerase. Additionally, tumor growth was suppressed in cells expressing MAL as compared with cells not expressing MAL. Conclusion Our data suggest that the epigenetic inactivation of MAL, as a candidate tumor

  12. 酸性功能化双核离子液体催化合成酯的研究%Study of Catalyzed Synthesis of Ester by Acid Functionalized Dacational Ionic Liqiud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石月丹; 刘春光; 王楠; 徐凛然; 梅楚鹤; 郭珊珊

    2014-01-01

    In this issue,bis-(3-methyl-1-imidazole)butylidene double bisulfate(MTEIMHS) was used as a catalyst to synthetize isoamyl isobutyrate and Isoamyl butyrate. The yield of esterification rate under the influ-ence of the reaction conditions was measured. The results showed that under the optimized conditions of isoamyl isobutyrate :n(isoamylol) ∶ n(isobutyric acid)=1. 2 ∶ 1,catalyst used dosage 2. 0g and 3. 5h,the yield of isoamyl isobutyrate reached 95 . 4%. The results showed that under the optimized conditions of Isoamyl buty-rate:n(isoamylol) ∶ n(butyric acid)=1. 6 ∶ 1,catalyst used dosage 2. 0g and 3h,the yield of isoamyl isobu-tyrate reached 97 . 9%. The reaction mixture was immiscible with MTEIMHS and could be speparated simply by separatory funnel after reaction. The ionic liquid catalyst could be reused for 6 times without noticeable lowering of activity.%以自制的双-(3-甲基-1-咪唑)亚丁基二硫酸氢盐离子液体为催化合成了异丁酸异戊酯和丁酸异戊酯,考察了反应条件对酯化率的影响。结果表明,异丁酸异戊酯最佳的合成条件为:醇酸摩尔量比1.2∶1,催化剂用量为2.0 g,反应时间3.5 h,酯化率达到95.4%。丁酸异戊酯最佳的合成条件为:醇酸摩尔量比1.6∶1,催化剂用量为2.0 g,反应时间3.5 h,酯化率达到97.9%。反应结束后反应混合物与催化剂自动分层,采用分液的方式即可分离出催化剂,简化了分离过程。离子液体重复使用6次,催化效果无明显降低。

  13. Sensitivity of thermal infrared nadir instruments to the chemical and microphysical properties of UTLS secondary sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, P.; Legras, B.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring upper-tropospheric-lower-stratospheric (UTLS) secondary sulfate aerosols and their chemical and microphysical properties from satellite nadir observations is crucial to better understand their formation and evolution processes and then to estimate their impact on UTLS chemistry, and on regional and global radiative balance. Here we present a study aimed at the evaluation of the sensitivity of thermal infrared (TIR) satellite nadir observations to the chemical composition and the size distribution of idealised UTLS sulfate aerosol layers. The extinction properties of sulfuric acid/water droplets, for different sulfuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The extinction coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indices taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Étude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the extinction of idealised aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on the brightness temperature spectra observed by this satellite instrument. We found a marked and typical spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulfate and bisulfate ions and the undissociated sulfuric acid, with the main absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1. The dependence of the aerosol spectral signature to the sulfuric acid mixing ratio, and effective number concentration and radius, as well as the role of interfering parameters like the ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and ash absorption, and temperature and water vapour profile uncertainties

  14. 双核离子液体的合成及其对酯化反应的催化活性%Synthesis of Binuclear Ionic Liquids and Their Catalytic Activity for Esterification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵地顺; 刘猛帅; 葛京京; 张娟; 任培兵

    2012-01-01

    A series of functional binuclear ionic liquids based on bis-(3-methyl-l-imidazole)butylidene double P-toluene sul-fonic acid salt (Im-PTSA), bis-(3-methyl-l-imidazole)butylidene double bisulfate (Im-HSO4), bis-(l-pyridine)butylidene double p-toluene sulfonic acid salt (Py-PTSA), bis-(l-pyridine)butylidene double bisulfate (Py-HSO4) were synthesized by a two-step proceeding and their structures were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. Their thermal stabilities were characterized by TG. In addition, the acidity and solubility of functional binuclear ionic liquids were also studied. The catalytic activity of the binuclear ionic liquids for the esterification of succinic acid with ethanol was measured. The results show that under the optimized conditions of n(succinic acid) : n(ethanol)= 1 : 3, catalyst used dosage 1.90% (wt), 70 ℃ and 2.5 h, the yield of diethyl succinate reached 93.6% and the selectivity was near up to 100%. Im-PTSA was reused at least 8 times without significant decrease in activity after drying under vacuum. Austenitic stainless steel 316L was used for conducting the corrosion test under the above esterificaion condition, the corrosion rates of the steel plates dipped in the systems with these ionic liquids were less than one tenth of that with sulfuric acid. Fischer esterification of monocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids with different alcohols was observed on using Im-PTSA as catalyst which gave high product yield and selectivity. Use of such a reaction catalyst should be appreciated for its convenient separation.%合成了双-(3-甲基-1-咪唑)亚丁基双对甲苯磺酸盐(Im-PTSA)、双-(3-甲基-1-咪唑)亚丁基双硫酸氢盐(Im-HSO4)、双-(1-吡啶)亚丁基双对甲苯磺酸盐(Py-PTSA)、双-(1-吡啶)亚丁基双硫酸氢盐(Py-HSO4)等4种功能化双核离子液体.分别采用红外光谱(FT-IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1H NMR)对合成的离子液体进行结构分析;采用热重(TG)测试了离子液体的热稳

  15. An Experimental Study of Single Suspended H2so4/nh3/h2o-aerosols : Atmospheric Relevance of Letovicite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, C. A.; Krieger, U. K.; Luo, B.; Wernli, H.; Peter, Th.

    letovicite and ammonium sulfate, which often exist as mixed-phase (solid/liquid) particles. Ammonium bisulfate is not de- tected in the electrodynamic trap. Moreover the results suggest that a new, hitherto unknown phase is observed during the experiments. In supporting experiments the new phase is identified as ammonium bisulfate monohydrate. Efflorescence usually takes place at RH values, however, de- pend on the liquid particle stoichiometry. Furthermore, it is observed that different 1 solids as well as solids and remaining liquid can coexist. In addition these mixed par- ticles crystallize in different morphologies and tend to form inclusion-particles with embedded liquid cavities, for example as veins filled with a liquid between single crystals or pores with concave surfaces. Laboratory results are applied to the atmosphere in a model that uses two input param- eters: NH+/SO24 -ratios of a GCM-study by Adams et al. [1999] and global RH-values - 4 determined from ECMWF-data by Wernli [2001]. NH+/SO24 -ratios and RH-values - 4 are followed along trajectories, calculated from ECMWF-data Wernli [2001]. In the present work a new model which combines the three data-sets is developed. Results indicate that a significant fraction of the ammoniate sulfate aerosols contain solids over large regions in the whole atmosphere, most likely in the form of letovicite. Be- cause of the varying stoichiometries of atmospheric aerosols it is expected that they form multiphase aerosols upon crystallization. The three major implications of the present work are: Crystalline ammoniated sulfate particles, especially letovicite, are very likely to occur throughout the whole atmosphere. These aerosols are not expected to be pure solids but mixtures of one or more solids and a remaining liquid. The morphologies of these aerosols are probably very diverse and complex and, hence, not easily predictable. Based on the experiments of this work letovicite appears to be an atmospherically very important

  16. Trends in cloud and rain water chemistry from 1984-2009 on Mount Washington, NH (1,534 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G.; Kimball, K.; Hill, L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2010-12-01

    Montane rain and cloud events were sampled between June-August from 1984-2009 at the Lakes of the Clouds (LOC) sampling site located at 1,540 m asl, 1.6 km SW of the summit of Mount Washington, NH (44° 16'N, 71° 18'W, 1,914 m ASL), and adjacent to two designated Class I areas (Great Gulf and Presidential Range Dry River Wildernesses). Non-volume weighted cloud and rain water sample concentrations for pre (H ion: 1984-1994, sulfate ion: 1984-1989) and post (1995-2009) full implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) showed significantly lower hydrogen ion concentrations for the later time period (non-parametric Mann Whitney U tests p<0.001). Pre and post CAAA cloud and rain water sulfate and nitrate concentrations were not significantly different, however, ammonium levels are greater in the post CAAA time frame. A hiatus in sample analysis of anions, and most cations, from 1990-1994 may contribute to the lack of significant differences in pre and post CAAA implementation. However, there was an increase in cloud water ammonium over this time period, which may be a result of dissolution of more neutralized sulfate aerosol being incorporated into clouds. Whether the increase in ammonium concentration is due to an increase in aerosol transport to this rural mountain site is unknown. Evidence of greater ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate dissolution is supported by an increase in the ratio of ammonium to sulfate in cloud water while hydrogen to sulfate ratios decreased comparatively for the pre and post CAAA time periods. A co-located filter-based aerosol measurement also shows a shift to higher ratios of ammonium to sulfate in summer daytime samples over similar time frames. This finding is mirrored at a nearby (55 km SW from LOC) but much lower (250m asl) Clean Air Status and Trends Network sampling site locate at the USFS Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, weekly samples show the ratio of ammonium to sulfate has increased, even as both ions

  17. On the composition of ammonia-sulfuric acid clusters during aerosol particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schobesberger

    2014-05-01

    were only observed at sufficiently high [NH3] / [H2SO4]. The H2SO4 molecules of these clusters are partially neutralized by NH3, in close resemblance to the acid-base bindings of ammonium bisulfate. Supported by model simulations, we substantiate previous evidence for acid-base reactions being the essential mechanism behind the formation of these clusters under atmospheric conditions and up to sizes of at least 2 nm. Our results also suggest that yet unobservable electrically neutral NH3-H2SO4 clusters grow by generally the same mechanism as ionic clusters, particularly for [NH3] / [H2SO4]>10. We expect that NH3-H2SO4 clusters form and grow also mostly by Δm / Δn>1 in the atmosphere's boundary layer, as [NH3] / [H2SO4] is mostly larger than 10. We compared our results from CLOUD with APi-TOF measurements of NH3-H2SO4 anion clusters during new particle formation in the Finnish boreal forest. However, the exact role of NH3-H2SO4 clusters in boundary layer particle formation remains to be resolved.

  18. 前列腺癌细胞株E-钙粘连素基因启动子甲基化与其表达%A specific methylation pattern of the E-cadherin gene promoter is associated with its expression in prostate cancer lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙承; 陈忠; 张旭; 叶章群; 李家贵

    2000-01-01

    目的:了解E=钙粘连素(E-cad)基因启动子CpG位点甲基化与前列腺癌细胞E-cad基因的失活的关系,并探讨E-cad基因异常甲基化机制。方法:采用硫酸氢钠基因组测序法检测良性前列腺上皮和前列腺癌细胞株的E-cad基因甲基化状态,并采用RT-PCR检测各细胞株E-cad和DNA甲基转移酶(Dnmtl)的mRNA表达。结果:有33%(2/6)的前列腺癌细胞株发生甲基化现象,相应的细胞株中E-cad mRNA水平降低。用去甲基化剂偶氮胞嘧啶(AzaC)处理后,能恢复E-cad阴性的前列腺癌细胞株中E-cad mRNA水平。前列腺癌细胞株比正常上皮细胞株有较高水平的Dnmtl表达。结论:前列腺癌细胞E-cad基因的高甲基化状态是引起该基因失活的原因,基因的异常甲基化可能与Dnmtl有关。%Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that CpG methylation ofpromoter region may inactivate the E-cadherin (E-cad)gene expression in prostate cancer line, and try tounderstand the mechanism of aberrant methylation. Methods:We studied the methylation status of E-cad gene inhuman prostate normal and cancer cell lines using the bisulfate genome sequencing technique. We also examinedthe expression of the E-cad gene and DNA methyltransferase (Dnmtl)in these lines by RT-PCR. Results:Hypermethylation was found in 33% of prostate cancer cell lines (2/6)and correlated well with decreased E-cadmRNA levels in these cell lines. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, restored E-cadmRNA levels in E-cad negative prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer cell lines had higher levels of Dnmtl mRNA thannormal cells. Conclusion:Our data clearly demonstrate that hypermethylation of E-cad in prostate cancer is acommon event that leads to the inactivation of the E-cad in prostate cancer is partly resulted by high level Dnmtl.

  19. Hypermethylation of CpG island in cystathionine-beta-synthase promoter down-regulates gene expression and function%胱硫醚-β-合酶启动子区CpG岛超甲基化导致基因表达及功能的下调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄少雄; 涂小煌; 李文生; 宋京翔

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胱硫醚-β-合酶(CBS)启动子区的超甲基化与基因表达及功能的相关性.方法 通过结合重亚硫酸盐处理的直接测序、实时定量聚合酶链反应(PCR)、荧光偏振免疫法及免疫组织化学等技术对不同叶酸浓度( 25、150 nmol/L)下培养的人正常结肠黏膜上皮细胞株(NCM460)细胞和患者组织样本(包括肿瘤组织及相应的正常组织95例)中CBS基因启动子区CpG岛超甲基化与基因表达及功能进行研究.结果 低叶酸浓度培养下NCM460细胞中CBS基因的表达下调,检测高甲基化组(H-M组:>41.7%,83例)和低甲基化组(L-M组:≤41.7%,107例)组织样本中CBS基因表达水平,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).在NCM460细胞内,CBS基因的下调能够导致同型半胱氨酸积聚,检测H-mRNA组(>3.19,45例)和L-mRNA组(≤3.19,40例)患者的血清中同型半胱氨酸的水平,L-mRNA组患者血清中同型半胱氨酸的水平显著高于H-mRNA组.结论 CBS启动子区的超甲基化极有可能导致CBS基因表达水平的下调,影响细胞内的甲基代谢,进而参与结直肠癌的发生、发展等一系列病程.%Objective To explore the association between the hypermethylation of cystathioninebeta-synthase (CBS) promoter and gene expression and function.Methods Bisulfate sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR),real-time PCR,fluorescence polarization immunoassay and immunostaining were used to investigate the relationship between the hypermethylation of CpG island in CBS promoter and gene expression and function in NCM460 cultured with varying folate concentrations and patients' tissues.Results In the NCM460 cultured with low concentrations of folate,the expression of CBS was down-regulated,and there was significant difference in the gene expression of CBS between H-M group and L-M group (P <0.01 ).In NCM460 cells,the results represented that along with the down-regultaion of CBS,there was a significant accumulation of

  20. Highly sensitive detection of DNA methylation levels by using a quantum dot-based FRET method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Honglian; Liu, Fangming; Wu, Zhenhua; Lu, Shaohua; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Zhong, Xinhua; Mao, Hongju

    2015-10-01

    amplification for the incorporation of Alexa Fluor-647 (A647) fluorophores. DNA methylation levels can be detected qualitatively through gel analysis and quantitatively by the signal amplification from QDs to A647 during FRET. Furthermore, the methylation levels of three tumor suppressor genes, PCDHGB6, HOXA9 and RASSF1A, in 20 lung adenocarcinoma and 20 corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissue (NT) samples were measured to verify the feasibility of the QD-based FRET method and a high sensitivity for cancer detection (up to 90%) was achieved. Our QD-based FRET method is a convenient, continuous and high-throughput method, and is expected to be an alternative for detecting DNA methylation as a biomarker for certain human cancers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs. Sequences of primers used for amplifying the promoter regions in bisulfate-modified DNA. Comparison of detected methylation levels in different gene promoters using the QD-based FRET method versus bisulfite pyrosequencing. Methylation levels of the RASSF1A gene in one pair of NT and cancer samples as indicated by pyrosequencing. Theoretical calculation of the Förster distance R0. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04956c

  1. Sensitivity of high-spectral resolution and broadband thermal infrared nadir instruments to the chemical and microphysical properties of secondary sulfate aerosols in the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Legras, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    the brightness temperature (BT) spectra observed by satellite instruments. We isolated a marked and typical spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulfate and bisulfate ions and the undissociated sulfuric acid, with the main absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1 (sulfuric acid vibrational bands). The dependence of the residual aerosol spectral BT signature to the sulfuric acid mixing ratio, and effective number concentration and radius, as well as the role of interfering parameters like the ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and ash absorption, and temperature and water vapour profile uncertainties, are analysed and critically discussed. The information content (degrees of freedom and retrieval uncertainties) of synthetic satellite observations is estimated for different instrumental configurations. High spectral resolution (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)-like pseudo-observations) and broadband spectral features (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI)-like pseudo-observations) approaches are proposed and discussed.

  2. Soil analyses for 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCP), sodium n-methyldithiocarbamate (metam-sodium), and their degradation products near Fort Hall Idaho, September 1999 through March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Between September 1999 and March 2000, soil samples from the Fort Hall, Idaho, area were analyzed for two soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCP) and sodium n-methyldithiocarbamate (metam-sodium), and their degradation products. Ground water is the only source of drinking water at Fort Hall, and the purpose of the investigation was to determine potential risk of ground-water contamination from persistence and movement of these pesticides in cropland soils. 1,3-DCP, metam-sodium, or their degradation products were detected in 42 of 104 soil samples. The samples were collected from 1-, 2-, and 3-foot depths in multiple backhoe trenches during four sampling events—before pesticide application in September; after application in October; before soil freeze in December; and after soil thaw in March. In most cases, concentrations of the pesticide compounds were at or near their laboratory minimum reporting limits. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 5035 was used as the guideline for soil sample preparation and analyses, and either sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4), an acidic preservative, or pesticide-free water was added to samples prior to analyses. Addition of NaHSO4 to the samples resulted in a greater number of compound detections, but pesticide-free water was added to most samples to avoid the strong reactions of soil carbonate minerals with the NaHSO4. As a result, nondetection of compounds in samples containing pesticide-free water did not necessarily indicate that the compounds were absent. Detections of these compounds were inconsistent among trenches with similar soil characteristics and histories of soil fumigant use. Compounds were detected at different depths and different trench locations during each sampling event. Overall results of this study showed that the original compounds or their degradation products can persist in soil 6 months or more after their application and are present to at least 3 feet below land surface in some areas. A few of

  3. Synthesis of food antioxidant propyl gallate under microwave radiation%微波辅助合成食品抗氧化剂没食子酸丙酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉昆; 杜彩云

    2013-01-01

    以没食子酸和正丙醇为原料,硫酸氢钠为催化剂,采用微波辐射成功合成了没食子酸丙酯.通过熔点测定、红外光谱分析和元素分析对产品进行结构表征;通过单因素考察了没食子酸和正丙醇的物质的量比、催化剂的用量、微波时间、微波功率等因素对反应的影响,在单因素实验的基础上,采用正交试验法优化确定了最佳合成条件,结果表明最佳反应条件为:没食子酸用量为0.025 mol,没食子酸与正丙醇的物质的量比为1∶15,催化剂量为3g,微波功率为500W,微波时间为45min,不加带水剂,在此条件下,没食子酸丙酯的收率可达82.58%.实验证明硫酸氢钠具有较好的催化活性和重复使用性能;与热催化酯化反应相比,微波辐射可缩短反应时间,降低能耗.该方法实现了绿色合成食品抗氧化剂没食子酸丙酯.%Propyl gallate (PG) was synthesized by 1-propyl alcohol and gallic acid with sodium bisulfate as catalyst under microwave irradiation.The reaction products were structurally identified by means of melting point measurement,Infrared (IR) spectral analysis and elemental analysis.The effects of molar ratio of gallic acid to 1-propyl alcohol,catalyst dosage,microwave time and microwave power were studied.On the basis of single facter tests,the optimal conditions were optimized by the orthogonal experiments as follows:0.025 mol gallic acid,molar ratio of gallic acid to 1-propyl alcohol 1 ∶ 15,dosage of catalyst 3.0g,microwave power 500 W,for 45min,with no water-carrying reagent.Under the above conditions,the yield of propyl gallate could reach up to 82.58%.The experiments indicated that NaHSO4 has good catalytic activity and could be used repeatedly.Over the heating esterification,microwave radiation could reduce reaction time and lower energy consumption under the same conditions.The green synthesis food antioxidant Propyl gallate was realized.

  4. 龙眼-菠萝复合果酒双酵母混合发酵研究%Study of Double Yeast Fermentation Condition in Longan-Pineapple Compound Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄夏; 陆璐; 农志荣; 杨昌鹏; 陈智理; 石少华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究不同果酒酵母菌株混合发酵对龙眼-菠萝复合果酒产品质量的影响,为龙眼-菠萝复合果酒生产提供参考依据.[方法]以2种果酒酵母菌株相混合对龙眼-菠萝复合汁液进行双酵母混合发酵试验.[结果]单因素试验发现,GJJM 1.69果酒酵母与GJJM 1.67果酒酵母相互混合比单一的GIM 2.92葡萄酒酵母或其他组合的双酵母酿出的龙眼-菠萝复合果酒色香味好,酒精生成量也较高.GJJM 1.69与GJJM 1.67在龙眼-菠萝复合果酒中的双酵母发酵的最佳工艺条件为:接种量6×103个/ml、亚硫酸氢钠添加量0.006 mg/L、发酵初始糖度26%、发酵pH 3.4.[结论]研究制得的龙眼-菠萝复合果酒口感较佳,且含丰富营养成分.%[Objective] To study the impact of double yeast fermentation on the quality of longan-pinapple compound wine, so as to provide references for its production. [Method] Two kinds of fruit wine yeast strains were mixed together to lest the fermentation effect on longan pineapple compound wine. [Result] The single-factor test showed that longan-pineapple compound wine, which was made from the mixture of fruit wine yeast GJJM 1.69 and GJJM 1.67. had a better color and flavor, as well as a higher alcohol yield rate, in compared with that made from single GJM 2. 92 grape wine yeast and other combinations of the double wine yeast. The optimal conditions for the fermentation of fruit wine yeast GJJM 1.69 and GJJM 1.67 mixture in the production of longan-pineapple compound wine were 6 × 103 cells/ml inoculations, 0. 006 mg/L sodium bisulfate, 26% of initial fermentation sugar concentration and pH 3.4. [Conclusion] The longan-pineapple compound wine produced in this study had good taste and high nutrients.

  5. Effect of Adjustable Acid Medium on the Appearance and Particles Size of Pendimethalin Microcapsules%调酸介质对二甲戊灵微胶囊囊形及粒径的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗湘仁; 徐妍; 冯建国; 马超; 严寒; 吴学民

    2012-01-01

    [目的]优选出原位聚合法制备二甲戊灵微胶囊的较佳调酸介质,为二甲戊灵的微胶囊化提供一定的理论指导.[方法]以脲醛树脂为壁材采用原位聚合法制备了二甲戊灵微胶囊,研究了不同调酸介质对二甲戊灵微胶囊囊形及粒径的影响.[结果]5%盐酸溶液作为调酸介质形成的微胶囊囊形粗糙,产生粘连,粒径分布较宽;5%硝酸铵溶液、5%硫酸氢铵溶液作为调酸介质形成的微胶囊囊形松散,容易破裂,产生粘连,粒径分布较窄;5%氯化铵溶液作为调酸介质形的微胶囊囊形光滑致密且坚固,粒径分布较窄.[结论]调酸介质对原位聚合法制备的微胶囊囊形及粒径影响很大,选择合适的调酸介质能获得囊形致密、粒径分布窄的微胶囊.%[Aims] In this paper we optimized the adjustable acid medium for microcapsules of pendimethalin by an in-situ condensation polymerization reaction in order to provide some theoretical guidance for pendimethalin microencapsulation. [Methods] Microcapsules of pendimethalin with a urea-formaldehyde resin wall were prepared by an in-situ condensation polymerization reaction, and the effect of different adjustable acid mediums on the appearance and particles size distribution of the microcapsules were investigated. [Results] When using 5% hydrogen chloride solution as adjustable acid medium, microcapsules could be formed with rough surface and wide-range particle size distribution. When using 5% ammonium nitrate solution or 5% ammonium bisulfate solution as adjustable acid medium, microcapsules which were easy to fall into fracture and conglutination could be formed with narrow-range size distribution, meanwhile, the surface of microcapsules were uncontinuous. When using 5% ammonia chloride solution as adjustable acid medium, microcapsules could be obtained with smooth and compact surface, and the particle size of microcapsules were uniform. [Conclusions] Adjustable acid

  6. Role of Substrate on Quartz Cementation in Quartz Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, J. R.; Winslow, D.; Onasch, C.

    2010-12-01

    Quartz cementation in quartz aggregates has been experimentally investigated. The starting material was disaggregated detrital quartz grains from the well-sorted, mature St. Peter Sandstone. The ‘as-is’ grains have patches of iron oxide coatings and some have euhedral overgrowths that contain iron oxide dust rims. In addition a set of experiments was run using grains that were cleaned by soaking in sodium hydrosulfite and sodium bisulfate solutions to remove exposed iron oxide coatings. Experimental charges consisted of amorphous silica powder (≈30 mg) to provide a source of silica for the quartz cement, AlCl3 powder (≈3 mg) to provide a tracer for Cathodoluminescence (CL) identification of cement formed during the experiment, 25 wt% NaCl brine solution (≈25 mg) to increase the silica solubility and to better mimic oil field brines, and the natural quartz grains (100-130 mg). The charges were weld-sealed in Au capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels at 250°C to 450°C at 150 MPa confining pressure for up to 8 weeks. After the experiments, the samples were vacuum impregnated with a low viscosity epoxy containing a blue dye. After curing, the sample charge was sawn in half along its long axis and one half was polished (to 1 micron diamond paste) for analysis. The nature and amount of quartz cement in the samples were determined by a combination of CL, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Photomosaics of the samples were created and the amount of cement, porosity, and average grain sizes were determined by point-counting. The cement formed during the experiment was easily recognized from the quartz grains (and previous overgrowths) by the difference in luminescence. The results indicate the amorphous silica powder provides a ready source for silica for quartz cementation due to its greater solubility than the quartz. The cementation rates are rapid (>14% cement formed in 2 weeks at 450°C and >7% in 8 weeks at 250°C). Compared to

  7. A Randomized Clinical study of Domestic Clopidogrel Lipoic acid and Cilostazol in Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease%硫酸氢氯吡格雷治疗糖尿病下肢动脉闭塞症的随机对照临床试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 何永城; 李旭盛; 李群

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察硫酸氢氯吡格雷治疗2型糖尿病( T2DM)下肢动脉闭塞( PAD)的有效及安全性。方法:入选94例糖尿病性PAD患者,按照随机数列表分为对照组48例,住院期间给予前列地尔、甲钴胺、羟基红花素注射液、西洛他唑联合治疗7~14天,出院后单独给予西洛他唑口服12周。治疗组在对照组基础上住院或出院均给予首次600mg,后150mg/d连续7天,后改为75mg/d连续8周。评价氯吡格雷治疗DM所致的PAD的临床效果、血流动力学及下肢溃疡坏死率。结果:治疗组显效率(75.0%vs 54.3%, P=0.036)、总有效率(95.8%vs 80.4%, P=0.020)均显著高于对照组,治疗组6个月内再次发生溃疡坏疽发生率为2.0%,对照组为13.0%,2组发生率具有统计学差异(P<0.05)。另外治疗组ABI改善程度(0.94±0.23 vs 0.72±0.31)、足背动脉血流速度(38.2±3.9 vs 33.5±2.8),腘动脉血流速度(68.2±8.9 vs 56.8±5.8)改善均优于对照组,2组血小板聚集率分别为(27.3±14.8%vs 38.4±12.6%),2组比较具有统计学差异(P<0.05)。治疗过程中,2组发生的不良反应无明显的统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:氯吡格雷治疗DM所致的PAD具有一定的疗效,可用于预防下肢溃疡发生率。%Objective:To evaluate clopidogrel bisulfate cilostazol treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease ( PAD) is ef-fective and safe sex .Methods:84 cases were randomly selected transluminal angioplasty or vascular reconstructive surgery is not the line of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease patients, all patients were treated conservatively , given lipoic acid mecobalamin + + +Danhong alprostadil injection , are intravenous administration, while the control group given cilostazol , clopidogrel therapy in the treat-ment group were given on the basis of the

  8. 熔解曲线法用于肺癌APC基因甲基化模式的研究%Investigation of Methylation Patterns of APC Gene in Lung Cancer with a Novel Fluorescence Melting Curve Analysis Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽; 潘世扬; 陈丹; 张丽霞; 谢而付; 徐建; 黄佩珺

    2012-01-01

    目的 以熔解曲线法测定4株肺癌细胞株和肺癌病人APC基因启动子区的甲基化模式.方法 以脐血淋巴细胞DNA及其转甲基后的DNA经化学修饰、克隆测序的质粒,作为完全非甲基化和完全甲基化标准品.设计通用引物,采用加入荧光染料SYBR Green I的荧光定量PCR法扩增包含21个CpG位点的APC基因启动子区的目的序列,以熔解曲线法通过与完全非甲基化和完全甲基化标准品的Tm值比较,确定四株肺癌细胞株(NCI-H446,NCI-H460,SPCA1,NCI-H520)在该区段的甲基化模式,并通过克隆测序验证.同时测定两例肺癌患者癌组织中APC基因启动子区甲基化模式.结果 四株肺癌细胞株中,NCI-H446,SPCA1和NCI-H520的Tm值与完全非甲基化标准品的Tm值相同,而NCI-H460的Tm值有两个,分别与完全非甲基化和完全甲基化标准品的Tm值吻合,并经克隆测序验证.两例肺癌患者癌组织的Tm值位于完全非甲基化和完全甲基化标准品的Tm值之间.结论 小细胞肺癌细胞株NCI-H446,肺腺癌细胞株SPCA1和肺鳞癌细胞株NCI-H520的APC基因启动子区为完全未甲基化型,而大细胞肺癌细胞株NCI-H460APC基因启动子区甲基化模式为等位基因杂合型.两例肺癌患者癌组织中的APC基因启动子均为部分甲基化型.熔解曲线法是简单、经济和实用的甲基化模式检测方法.%Objective To identify methylation patterns in the promoter region of APC gene in lung cancer cell lines and cancer patients by fluorescence melting curve analysis assay. Methods After bisulfate treatment, DNA samples of lymphocytes from cord blood without and with trans-methyl treatment were amplified. The amplicons were then cloned into plasmid vector and employed as unmethylation and methylation controls. Universal primes were designed to amplify the target sequence in the APC gene promoter region comprising 21 CpG sites. DNA melting curves were acquired by measuring the fluorescence of a

  9. Liquefaction of wheat straw catalyzed by acidic ionic liquid and analysis of liquefied products%酸性离子液体催化麦秸液化及其产物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关倩; 蒋剑春; 徐俊明; 王奎; 冯君锋

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing energy requirements and pollution problems worldwide, energy from renewable resources has received global attention in recent decades. Biomass is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It mainly includes forest residues, agricultural wastes, industrial residues, municipal solid wastes, bagasse, aquatic plants, and algae animal wastes. Due to the advantages of abundance, non-polluting, being renewable and easy to obtain, biomass is considered as the most promising energy feedstock to replace the traditional energy. Meanwhile, it is the only resource that can be converted into solid, liquid, and gaseous products for use of fuels. Thermo-chemical conversion is an effective technology of biomass conversion. Liquefaction is the typical thermo-chemical technology for the conversion of biomass to obtain liquid biofuels and valuable chemicals, such as bio-oil and fuel additives. The conversion process is not only influenced by organic reagents but also by different catalysts. Effective catalyst is an essential factor to improve liquefaction efficiency. As catalyst, sulfuric acid has very strong corrosion and needs high-quality liquefaction equipment, and its recycling is difficult. Solid acid is used to overcome shortcomings of organic acid in the liquefaction, but it is easy to form coke to cause the deactivation of catalyst, and needs to be calcined before re-use, which increases the reaction cost. Now, it is found that the ionic liquid has non-corrosiveness, low melting point, high thermal stability and low vapor pressure, and some other merits. It has a broad application prospect used as solvents and catalysts in catalytic reactions. Ionic liquid, especially sulfonated bisulfate ionic liquid can dissolve cellulose, because it has higher acidic sites that can easily break the hydrogen bonds of biomass material, and promote the degradation and conversion of cellulose. At present, ionic liquid is usually used to catalyze carbohydrate, which is

  10. 地西他滨抗套细胞淋巴瘤胞株Jeko-1作用机制的研究%The mechanisms of action of decitabine against Jeko-1 MCL cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿梅; 费爱梅; 刘静静; 聂瑞敏; 王瑾; 糜坚青

    2011-01-01

    背景与目的:套细胞淋巴瘤(mantle cell lymphoma,MCL)是一种难治性的恶性肿瘤,预后差.地西他滨对骨髓异常增生综合征及难治性急性髓性白血病的治疗临床上已达成共识,但是目前鲜有地西他滨对MCL作用的报道.本文探讨地西他滨抗MCL细胞的作用机制.方法:以MCL细胞株Jeko-1作为研究对象,采用MTT法检测地西他滨对细胞增殖的影响,Annexin V/PI双重染色法检测其对细胞凋亡的影响,采用DiOC6(3)染色/流式细胞术检测Jeko-1细胞线粒体跨膜电位的丢失,Western blot检测细胞周期蛋白D1(Cyclin D1)及凋亡途径相关蛋白的表达,用亚硫酸氢盐测序(bisulfate sequencing PCR,BSP)技术检测地西他滨作用Jeko-1细胞前后PCDH8基因启动子CpG岛的甲基化水平变化.结果:地西他滨能有效抑制Jeko-1细胞的增殖并诱导其凋亡,凋亡率呈时间和剂量依赖性增加,并引起MCL细胞线粒体跨膜电位丢失,Cyclin D1蛋白表达水平降低,caspase 3、caspase 9表达水平增加.本研究另发现Jeko-1细胞中PCDH8基因启动子CpG岛的甲基化率为76.67%,经过0.5 μmol/L低浓度的地西他滨处理72 h后,其甲基化率下降至48.33%.结论:地西他滨在对MCL细胞的作用中,高浓度时起到细胞毒作用,低浓度时则具有去甲基化作用,为今后的临床治疗提供了新的理论依据.%Background and purpose: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the refractory malignant tumors with very poor prognosis.The treatment of decitabine against myelodysplastic syndrome and refractory acute myeloid leukemia has been widely applied.However, the effectiveness of decitabine against MCL cell lines has not been reported.This study was to explore the mechanisms of action of decitabine (DAC) against Jeko-1 MCL cell line.Methods: Jeko-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of DAC, cell growth rate was detected by MTT assay.Apoptosis of Jeko-1 cells treated with DAC was detected by using flow

  11. Effects of sodium arsenite on hypermethylation, transcription and expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene in HaCaT cells%亚砷酸钠对HaCaT细胞MGMT基因甲基化和mRNA及蛋白表达水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雪莉; 张爱华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the DNA methylation feature and DNA methylation regulation to its transcription and expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) in NaAsO2-treated HaCaT cells. Methods HaCaT cells were treated 72 hours at intervals and repeatedly by 3.13, 6.25,12.50, and 25.00 μmol/L NaAsO2, MGMT gene promoter region was amplified in the transcription initiation site - 329 - + 93 region by bisulfate-sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP), the mRNA transcription and the protein expression of MGMT was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. NaAsO2-untreated HaCaT cell was set as a blank control, and human epidermal squamous carcinoma cell strain A431 was set as a positive control. Results Among the groups of HaCaT cells treated with 3.13, 6.25, 12.50 and 25.00 μmol/L NaAsO2, the positive rates of the DNA methylation of promoter region in MGMT gene were 0.63%(l/160), 6.25% (10/160), 10.63%( 17/160) and 18.75% (30/160), respectively, and methylated CpG sites were mainly located in - 249--146 region relative to transcription start site. There was no DNA methylation in the blank control. There were significant differences between the blank control and the NaAsO2-treated cells (x2 = 76.687, P< 0.05). Average levels of MGMT mRNA were 1.518 31 ± 0.180 54, 1.425 22 ± 0.180 39, 1.014 54 ± 0.096 79 and 0.887 72 ± 0.020 00, respectively among the groups of HaCaT cells treated with 3.13, 6.25, 12.50 and 25.00 μmol/L NaAsO2, compared with the blank control cells(1.198 29 ± 0.159 97), there were significant differences(F = 37.359, P < 0.05). Average levels of MGMT protein were 1.174 47 ± 0.064 75, 0.848 83 ± 0.057 01, 0.471 63 ± 0.023 34 and 0.240 34 ± 0.014 43, respectively among the groups of HaCaT cells treated with 3.13, 6.25, 12.50 and 25.00 μmol/L NaAsO2, compared with the blank control cells (1.066 19 ± 0.061 24), there were significant differences(F = 20.687, P < 0.05). Conclusions Arsenic can cause Cp

  12. ABO血型不合肝移植治疗急危重症肝病患者的临床疗效分析%Analysis of the curative effect of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation in the treatment in patients with acute severe liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈中阳; 邓永林; 郑虹; 潘澄; 张雅敏; 蒋文涛; 张建军; 高伟; 淮明生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and evaluate the clinical effect of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation in the treatment of acute severe liver disease.Methods A retrospective clinical study was conducted.The clinical data of 4 136 patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation in Organ Transplantation Center of Tianjin First Center Hospital from September 1999 to December 2013 were analyzed.The criteria of patients enrolled were as following:model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score ≥ 20,the donor's and recipient's blood types were different,age 18-70 years,and undergone primary non-bypass orthotopic liver transplantation.According to the rate of compliance with the principles of blood transfusion,the cases were divided into two groups:ABO-compatible group (ABO-C group,n =41),ABO-incompatible group (ABO-I group,n =22).The patients in ABO-I group received basiliximab + methylprednisolone for immune induction therapy during operation,basiliximab + tacrolimus + mycophenolate + cortisol as quadruple immunosuppressive regimen after operation.They also received subcutaneous injection of low molecular heparin for anticoagulant therapy after operation,and oral warfarin or aspirin and clopidogrel bisulfate instead after 7 days.They also received routine alprostadil after operation.The remaining treatment was the same as that of ABO-C group.The clinical data,postoperative complications,rejection and survival rates of two groups were statistically analyzed.Results There were no significant differences in gender,age,MELD score,complicated with tumor,quality of donor liver,length of cold preservation of donor liver,duration of operation,and blood loss during operation between ABO-C and ABO-I groups.Number of splenectomy during operation was significantly higher in ABO-I group than that in ABO-C group (5 cases vs.1 case,x2=4.687,P=0.030).The 3-month,6-month,1-year,3-year and 5-year survival rates of ABO-C group were 89.5%,78.3%,72.5%,69.1% and 61.8

  13. 《化学通报》网络版(Chemistry Online)2001年4月论文摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    有不同的反应途径,使用不同的催化剂及合成工艺。其中某些产品的三步法非光气合成已经接近成熟。催化剂性能改进和工艺过程开发是这些合成技术工业化的关键。   There are different kinds of technology for the non\\|phosgenation processes for synthesis of isocyanates according to the stage of reaction,i.e. one\\|stage,two\\|stage and three stage reactions.This review focus on the catalysts,mechanism and technologies of these processes.Three\\|stage reaction technology for synthesis of some isocyanates is about to be commercialized.The successful industrialization will depend on the development of the synthesis routes and the improvement of the performance of catalysts. [W01034] 污染生态化学与生物信息代谢* Pollution Ecology Chemistry and Biological Information Metabolism 徐维并 许后效 (中国科学院生态环境研究中心 北京 100085)   本文提出代谢信息分子新概念,并阐述了烷化核酸碱基和一氧化氮这两个代谢信息分子作为污染生态化学与生物信息代谢相互关系的表达。   This paper raised a new concept concerning the metabolic information molecule,and it was expounded that the metabolic information moleculars of both alkylated nucleic acid bases and nitric oxide as an expression ion of interrelation between pollution ecology chemistry and biological information metabolism. [W01035] 硫酸氢钠催化合成丁酸异戊酯的研究 Study on the Catalytic Synthesis of Isoamyl Butyrate by Sodium Bisulfate 刘华亭 林 进 (河北师范大学化学系 石家庄 050016)   研究了以硫酸氢钠为催化剂,丁酸和异戊醇为原料合成丁酸异戊酯,并考察了影响反应的因素。结果表明,醇酸摩尔比为1.2∶1,催化剂用量为0.5g(丁酸为0.2mol的情况下),带水剂甲苯为10mL,反应时间为1.0h是最适宜的反应条件,酯化率达99.2%。