WorldWideScience

Sample records for bisphenol a-exposed atlantic

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-08-08

    Aug 8, 2014 ... A simplified method based on ratio derivative ultraviolet spectrometry for simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) in environmental water is presented. The method provides a direct analysis of the samples without tedious sample preparation. In this method, the overlapping ...

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-08-08

    Aug 8, 2014 ... Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol A and. Bisphenol S in Environmental Water using Ratio Derivative. Ultraviolet Spectrometry. Guiping Cao*, Yafeng Zhuang and Baoliang Liu. Department of Chemical Engineering, Changzhou Institute of Technology, Changzhou, 213022, P.R. China. Received 18 ...

  3. Bisphenol A and its diglycidylether.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maclaine Pont, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards recommends an occupational exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 of bisphenol A and for bisphenol A- diglycidylether in the form of inhalable dust and of 5 mg/m3 for these compounds in the form of respirable dust as an 8 h Time-Weighted Average

  4. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...

  5. Bisphenol A: invisible pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Tricia

    2010-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume chemical used in a wide variety of products, including plastic bottles and canned goods. Based on widespread human exposure and endocrine effects observed first in animal studies and now in humans, this chemical is being extensively studied. Most physicians have not had formal teaching regarding human risks from environmental exposures such as BPA. This article aims to provide: 1) a basis for learning about BPA as an environmental exposure and 2) practical advice for healthcare providers to share with concerned families. Human exposure to BPA is nearly universal. Animal studies have documented a variety of endocrine effects of this chemical and recent studies involving humans are resulting in growing concerns. These studies suggest that increased exposure to BPA is correlated with diseases such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Based on the metabolism of BPA and its endocrine effects, scientists hypothesize that the impact on children will be magnified. Further studies are needed to clarify this issue; funding has increased dramatically in recent years and scientists are hopeful that many of the currently unanswered questions will be addressed. The evidence for harmful health effects on humans from BPA exposure is incomplete, but is sufficient to suggest that limiting exposure is warranted. Further studies involving pregnant women and young children are needed to clarify the endocrine effects of BPA on this vulnerable population.

  6. Aerobic Soil Biodegradation of Bisphenol (BPA) Alternatives Bisphenol S and Bisphenol AF Compared to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Jeong; Lee, Linda S

    2017-12-05

    Pressures to ban bisphenol A (BPA) has led to the use of alternate chemicals such as BPA analogues bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) in production of consumer products; however, information on their environmental fate is scarce. In this study, aerobic degradation of BPA, BPAF, and BPS at 100 μg/kg soil and 22 ± 2 °C was monitored for up to 180 days in a forest soil and an organic farm soil. At each sampling point, soils were extracted three times and analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass or time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Based on compound mass recovered from soils compared to the mass applied, BPS had short half-lives of BPA. BPAF was much more persistent with observed half-lives of 32.6 and 24.5 days in forest and farm soils, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on BPAF degradation. For all three compounds, half-lives were longer in the higher organic carbon (OC) forest soil which correlates well to sorption studies showing higher sorption with higher OC. Metabolites identified for all three bisphenols support degradation pathways that include meta-cleavage as well as ortho-cleavage, which has not been previously shown.

  7. Biodegradation of Bisphenol A, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol S in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiko Ike

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of compounds structurally similar to bis(4-hydroxyphenylpropane (bisphenol A, BPA are called bisphenols (BPs, and some of them can partially replace BPA in industrial applications. The production and consumption of BPs other than BPA, especially those of bis(4-hydroxyphenylmethane (bisphenol F, BPF and bis(4-hydroxy-phenylsulfone (bisphenol S, BPS, have increased recently, leading to their detection as contaminants in the aquatic environment. The three compounds tested 100% positive for estrus response in 1936 and concerns about their health risks have been increasing. Abundant data on degradation of bisphenols (BPs has been published, but results for biodegradation of BPs in seawater are lacking. However, several research groups have focused on this topic recently. In this study, the biodegradation behaviors of three BPs, namely BPA, BPF and BPS, in seawater were investigated using TOC Handai (TOC, potential test and river (sea die-away (SDA, simulation test methods, which are both a kind of river-die-away test. The main difference between the tests is that indigenous microcosms remain in the sampled raw seawater for the SDA experiments, but they are removed through filtration and dispersed into artificial seawater for the TOC experiments. The BPs, except for BPS, were degraded using both methods. The SDA method produced better biodegradation results than the TOC method in terms of degradation time (both lag and degradation periods. Biodegradation efficiencies were measured at 75-100% using the SDA method and 13-63% using the TOC method. BPF showed better degradation efficiency than BPA, BPF was > 92% and BPA 83% depleted according to the SDA tests. BPS degradation was not observed. As a conclusion, the biodegradability of the three BPs in seawater could be ranked as BPF > BPA >> BPS. BPF is more biodegradable than BPA in seawater and BPS is more likely to accumulate in the aquatic environment. BPS poses a lower risk to human health and

  8. Cytotoxicity of seven bisphenol analogues compared to bisphenol A and relationships with membrane affinity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Capuozzo, Antonella; Barbato, Francesco; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Grumetto, Lucia

    2018-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in numerous industrial applications. Due to its well ascertained toxicity as endocrine disruptor, industries have started to replace it with other bisphenols whose alleged greater safety is scarcely supported by literature studies. In this study, the toxicity of seven BPA analogues was evaluated using both in silico and in vitro techniques, as compared to BPA toxicity. Furthermore, their affinity indexes for phospholipids (i.e. phospholipophilicity) were determined by immobilized artificial membrane liquid chromatography (IAM-LC) and possible relationships with in vitro toxic activity were also investigated. The results on four different cell cultures yielded similar ranking of toxicity for the bisphenols considered, with IC 50 values confirming their poor acute toxicity. As compared to BPA, bisphenol AF, bisphenol B, bisphenol M, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether resulted more toxic, while bisphenol S, bisphenol F and bisphenol E were found as the less toxic congeners. These results are partly consistent with the scale of phospholipid affinity showing that toxicity increases at increasing membrane affinity. Therefore, phospholipophilicity determination can be assumed as a useful preliminary tool to select less toxic congeners to surrogate BPA in industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bisphenol A levels in multimedia samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Levels of bisphenol A in multimedia samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Morgan, M., M. Nash, D. Boyd Barr, J. Starr, M. Clifton, and...

  10. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  11. Are Structural Analogues to Bisphenol A Safe Alternatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Dybdahl, Marianne; Pedersen, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical with widespread human exposure suspected of causing low-dose effects. Thus, a need for developing alternatives to BPA exists. Structural analogues of BPA have already been detected in foods and humans. Due to the structural analogy of the alternatives......, there is a risk of effects similar to BPA.Objectives: The aim was to elucidate and compare the hazards of bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and 4-cumylphenol (HPP) to BPA.Methods: In vitro studies on steroidogenesis, receptor activity, and biomarkers of effect, as well...

  12. TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF BISPHENOL A ON ZEBRAFISH (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Akbulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has easy reproductive capacity and transparent embryos and therefore generally preffered for scientific studies as a vertebrate model. Because of bisphenol A is produced too much and used for making plastics, many organisms including human are exposed to this substance. Bisphenol A has estrogenic activity and thus it effects fertility. So, in our study, effects of low doses of bisphenol A (4mg/L and 8 mg/L on embryo and larva development was investigated.

  13. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquito...

  14. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, li...

  15. Evaluation of bisphenol A content in food from lacquered cans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the migration of bisphenol A from the cans to the food content through experimental tests using internal lacquered cans full of distilled water. Bisphenol A concentrations ranged between 3 and 320 µg.L-1 and increased with the increment of the storage duration, the temperature of storage and the ...

  16. Urinary bisphenol A levels in young Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...

  17. Bisphenols, Benzophenones, and Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ethers in Textiles and Infant Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchuan; Liu, Wenbin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-02

    Little is known with regard to the occurrence of potentially toxic chemicals in textiles and clothes. In this study, 77 textiles and infant clothing pieces were analyzed for the determination of bisphenols including bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS), benzophenones, bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs), and novolac glycidyl ethers (NOGEs). BPA and BPS occurred in 82% and 53% of the textile samples, respectively, and at mean concentrations of 366 and 15 ng/g, respectively. Benzophenone-3 (BP3) occurred in 70% of the samples at a mean concentration of 11.3 ng/g. Among 11 BADGEs and NOGEs analyzed, BFDGE was the predominant compound, with a mean concentration of 13.6 ng/g. Concentrations of target chemicals were assessed by fabric type, color, and uses. Socks contained the highest concentrations of BPA (mean: 1810 ng/g) with concentrations as high as 13 300 ng/g in a 97% polyester fabric marketed for infants. Calculated dermal exposure dose to BPA by infants via textiles was as high as 7280 pg/kg BW/d. This is the first study to report the occurrence of, and exposure to, BPA, BPS, BADGEs, and NOGEs in textiles and clothing.

  18. Analytical determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol analogues in paper products by GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, A; Leitner, E

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA; 4-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]phenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with a weak estrogenic activity, is used in a variety of consumer products, including food-contact materials made of paper and cardboard products. Due to restrictions on the use of BPA because of its potential health risks, BPA is gradually being replaced by other bisphenols because no limitations exist for these substances. This study presents a method for the simultaneous analysis of BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) in paper and board products using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Paper samples were extracted by liquid extraction, as well as by Folch extraction, derivatised with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and the results compared. The developed method showed good linearity (R 2  > 0.9965) and precision, yielding relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.6% for reproducibility and 19.8% for repeatability. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the different bisphenols ranged from 0.23 to 2.70 µg kg - 1 paper and from 0.78 to 9.10 µg kg - 1 paper, respectively. Analysis of different paper products (recycled, virgin fibre) showed that all the analysed bisphenols were present in the samples, except for BPAF and BPB. A calculation of the 'worst-case' scenario assuming a maximum potential migration of 100% of the analytes into food showed that the analysed products can be assumed to be safe regarding the migration of bisphenols.

  19. Ubiquity of bisphenol A in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Pingqing, E-mail: pqfu@pop.lowtem.hokudai.ac.j [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Kawamura, Kimitaka, E-mail: kawamura@lowtem.hokudai.ac.j [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a suspected endocrine disruptor in the environment. However, little is known about its distribution and transport in the atmosphere. Here, the concentrations of BPA in the atmospheric aerosols from urban, rural, marine, and the polar regions were measured using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The concentrations of BPA (1-17,400 pg m{sup -3}) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude in the world with a declining trend from the continent (except for the Antarctica) to remote sites. A positive correlation was found between BPA and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, a tracer for plastic burning, in urban regions, indicating that the open burning of plastics in domestic waste should be a significant emission source of atmospheric BPA. Our results suggest that the ubiquity of BPA in the atmosphere may raise a requirement for the evaluation of health effects of BPA in order to control its emission sources, for example, from plastic burning. - This study gives first insight into the sources and global distributions of bisphenol A (BPA) in the atmosphere.

  20. Migration of bisphenol A from polycarbonate plastic of different qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Hvilsted, Søren; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    The study covers a review of literature and available industry information regarding release of bisphenol A from polycarbonate and the parameters affecting this bisphenol A release. Moreover in part two of the study, different samples of polycarbonate was characterised and analysed in order...... to examine the potential correlation between material specific parameters and the release of bisphenol A. It is concluded, from industry information, that only highly pure reagent grade chemicals, including additives, should be used for all polycarbonate grades to reduce photodegradation and hydrothermal...

  1. An Improved, Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Bisphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of bisphenols is described by condensation of substituted phenols with corresponding cyclic ketones in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a catalyst in extremely high purity and yields.

  2. Bisphenol A in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Parra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are uremic toxins of intestinal origin formed by bacteria during protein metabolism. Of these molecules, p-cresol is the most studied and has been associated with renal function impairment and vascular damage. Bisphenol A (BPA is a molecule with structural similarity with phenols found in plastic food and beverage containers as well as in some dialyzers. BPA is considered an environmental toxicant based on animal and cell culture studies. Japanese authorities recently banned BPA use in baby bottles based on observational association studies in newborns. BPA is excreted in urine and uremic patients present higher serum levels, but there is insufficient evidence to set cut-off levels or to link BPA to any harmful effect in CKD. However, the renal elimination and potential exposure during dialysis warrant the monitoring of BPA exposure and the design of observational studies in which the potential health risks of BPA for end-stage renal disease patients are evaluated.

  3. Bacteria-mediated bisphenol A degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yin, Kun; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, food cans, and other daily used chemicals. Daily and worldwide usage of BPA and BPA-contained products led to its ubiquitous distribution in water, sediment/soil, and atmosphere. Moreover, BPA has been identified as an environmental endocrine disruptor for its estrogenic and genotoxic activity. Thus, BPA contamination in the environment is an increasingly worldwide concern, and methods to efficiently remove BPA from the environment are urgently recommended. Although many factors affect the fate of BPA in the environment, BPA degradation is mainly depended on the metabolism of bacteria. Many BPA-degrading bacteria have been identified from water, sediment/soil, and wastewater treatment plants. Metabolic pathways of BPA degradation in specific bacterial strains were proposed, based on the metabolic intermediates detected during the degradation process. In this review, the BPA-degrading bacteria were summarized, and the (proposed) BPA degradation pathway mediated by bacteria were referred.

  4. Bisphenol A--sources, toxicity and biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound used in massive amounts in the production of synthetic polymers and thermal paper. In this review, the sources of BPA, which influence its occurrence in the environment and human surrounding will be presented. Data concerning BPA occurrence in food, water and indoor environments as well as its appearance in tissues and body fluids of human body will be shown. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies and the results of epidemiological surveys showing toxic, endocrine, mutagenic and cancerogenic action of BPA will also be discussed. Moreover, data suggesting that exposure of human to BPA may elevate risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart diseases will be presented. Finally, biotransformation of BPA in animals, plants and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae), resulting in the formation of various metabolites that exhibit different from BPA toxicity will be described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of selected bisphenols, parabens and estrogens in human plasma using LC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolatorova Sosvorova, L.; Chlupacova, T.; Vitku, J.; Vlk, Martin; Heráček, J.; Stárka, L.; Šaman, David; Šimková, M.; Hampl, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 174, NOV 1 (2017), s. 21-28 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Alternative bisphenol * Bisphenol A * Bisphenol F * Endocrine disruptor * lc-ms/ms * Paraben Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Organic chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  6. Metabolism and cytotoxicity of bisphenol A and other bisphenols in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y; Tayama, S

    2000-04-01

    The relation between the metabolism and the cytotoxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) has been studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated hepatic mitochondria. The incubation of hepatocytes with BPA (0.25-1.0 mM) elicited a concentration- and time-dependent cell death, accompanied by losses of intracellular ATP and total adenine nucleotide pools. BPA at a low-toxic level (0.25 mM) in the hepatocyte suspensions was rapidly converted to its major conjugate, BPA-glucuronide, and other minor products without marked loss of cell viability, although at a toxic level (0.5 mM), more than 65% of the compound presented in an unaltered form 2 h after the incubation. Addition of salicylamide (2 mM), non-toxic to hepatocytes during the incubation period, enhanced BPA-induced cytotoxicity and reduced the loss of BPA and the formation of BPA-glucuronide. The addition of BPA to isolated hepatic mitochondria caused a concentration (0-0.5 mM)-dependent increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption in the presence of an FAD-linked substrate (succinate), indicating an uncoupling effect, whereas the rate of state 3 oxygen consumption was inhibited by BPA. Further, the addition of BPA (0.25 mM) reduced state 3 respiration with NAD+-linked substrates (pyruvate plus malate) and/or with the FAD-linked substrate, whereas state 3 respiration with ascorbate plus tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (cytochrome oxidase-linked respiration) was not significantly affected by BPA. A comparative study of the toxic effects of BPA and some bisphenols on cell viability (at 1.0 mM) and mitochondrial respiration (at 0.25 mM) revealed that 4,4'-(1,2-diethyl-1,2-ethenediyl)bisphenol (diethylstilbestrol) was more toxic than BPA, followed by 4,4'-methylenediphenol and 4,4'-biphenol. These results indicate that the onset of cytotoxicity caused by BPA may depend on the intracellular energy status and that mitochondria are important targets of the compound. The

  7. Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Pedersen, G A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2015-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F.; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed

  9. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-04-19

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  10. Bisphenol A in edible part of seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Repossi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC, epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015 on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  11. Green Disposal of Waste Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Lesley; Nyland, Chris; Parson, Kristine

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important precursor for polycarbonates and epoxy resins that are used to make products that many would consider essential for modern living. Unfortunately, BPA is an endocrine disrupter and more and more evidence is being uncovered about its negative effects on humans as well as on organisms in the environment. Sustainable chemistry means we take everything into account in designing a chemical process: the risks, the costs, the benefits, and so on. BPA is not likely to be replaced by a less toxic chemical in the foreseeable future, nor is our society willing to give up valuable polycarbonate products. As part of sustainable green chemistry, we want to assure that any toxic chemicals that leave a manufacturing plant pose a minimal risk to the environment. Using a green method to clean up effluent before it is released into the environment would be ideal. In this report, little bluestem seeds are shown to be capable of degrading BPA in aqueous solutions. This gives them the potential to be used in reducing the amount of BPA that may be in effluent. Additionally, an enzyme was isolated that was responsible for degrading BPA and this could also have potential for the treatment of effluent.

  12. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect

    OpenAIRE

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Singh, Jyotirmay

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA) might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting per...

  13. Bisphenol A in Reproduction: Epigenetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Troisi, Jacopo; Richards, Sean; Scafuro, Marika; Fasano, Silvia; Guida, Maurizio; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2018-02-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resin to produce a multitude of consumer products, food and drink containers, and medical devices. BPA is similar to estradiol in structure and thus interferes in steroid signalling with different outcomes on reproductive health depending on doses, life stage, mode, and timing of exposure. In this respect, it has an emerging and controversial role as a "reproductive toxicant" capable of inducing short and long-term effects including the modulation of gene expression through epigenetic modification (i.e. methylation of CpG islands, histone modifications and production of non-coding RNA) with direct and trans-generational effects on exposed organisms and their offspring, respectively. This review provides an overview about BPA effects on reproductive health and aims to summarize the epigenetic effects of BPA in male and female reproduction. BPA exerts epigenetic effects in both male and female reproduction. In males, BPA affects spermatogenesis and sperm quality and possible trans-generational effects on the reproductive ability of the offspring. In females, BPA affects ovary, embryo development, and gamete quality for successful in vivo and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The exact mechanisms of BPA-mediated effects in reproduction are not fully understood; however, the environmental exposure to BPA - especially in fetal and neonatal period - deserves attention to preserve the reproductive ability in both sexes and to reduce the epigenetic risk for the offspring. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Biomonitoring Equivalents for bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline. BE values are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for bisphenol A (BPA) from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). BE values were derived based on data on BPA urinary excretion in humans. The BE value corresponding to the oral provisional tolerable daily intake (pTDI) of 25 microg/kg-d from Health Canada is 1mg/L (1.3mg/g creatinine); value corresponding to the US EPA reference dose (RfD) and EFSA tolerable daily intake (TDI) estimates (both of which are equal to 50 microg/kg-d) is 2mg/L (2.6 mg/g creatinine). These values are estimates of the 24-h average urinary BPA concentrations that are consistent with steady-state exposure at the respective exposure guidance values. These BE values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of central tendency measures of population biomonitoring data for BPA in a risk assessment context and can assist in prioritization of the potential need for additional risk assessment efforts for BPA relative to other chemicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S Induce Distinct Transcriptional Profiles in Differentiating Human Primary Preadipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Boucher

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is increasingly used as a replacement plasticizer for bisphenol A (BPA but its effects on human health have not been thoroughly examined. Recent evidence indicates that both BPA and BPS induce adipogenesis, although the mechanisms leading to this effect are unclear. In an effort to identify common and distinct mechanisms of action in inducing adipogenesis, transcriptional profiles of differentiating human preadipocytes exposed to BPA or BPS were compared. Human subcutaneous primary preadipocytes were differentiated in the presence of either 25 μM BPA or BPS for 2 and 4 days. Poly-A RNA-sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Functional analysis of DEGs was undertaken in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. BPA-treatment resulted in 472 and 176 DEGs on days 2 and 4, respectively, affecting pathways such as liver X receptor (LXR/retinoid X receptor (RXR activation, hepatic fibrosis and cholestasis. BPS-treatment resulted in 195 and 51 DEGs on days 2 and 4, respectively, revealing enrichment of genes associated with adipogenesis and lipid metabolism including the adipogenesis pathway and cholesterol biosynthesis. Interestingly, the transcription repressor N-CoR was identified as a negative upstream regulator in both BPA- and BPS-treated cells. This study presents the first comparison of BPA- and BPS-induced transcriptional profiles in human differentiating preadipocytes. While we previously showed that BPA and BPS both induce adipogenesis, the results from this study show that BPS affects adipose specific transcriptional changes earlier than BPA, and alters the expression of genes specifically related to adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The findings provide insight into potential BPS and BPA-mediated mechanisms of action in inducing adipogenesis in human primary preadipocytes.

  16. Biosensor immunoassays for the detection of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; meulenberg, E.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen found in the environment, in consequence, for the biosensor detection of BPA we raised antibodies (polyclonal (PAbs) and monoclonal (MAbs)) against a structural analogue of BPA, 4,4 bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BVA). The kinetics of the MAb-BPA interaction

  17. Effect of Bisphenol A on the Levels of Vitellogenin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential role of bisphenol A (BPA) in inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Methods: Adult male koi carps, Cyprinus carpio carpio (n = 60, mean body weight = 125 ± 12.288 g and mean length = 24 ± 1.392 cm) were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a ...

  18. EVALUATION OF BISPHENOL A CONTENT IN FOOD FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... concentrations were found in canned foods, they could give rise to toxicological effects on the consumer. KEY WORDS: ... Bisphenol A concentrations were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography ..... National Toxicology Program (NTP) Technical report on the carcinogenesis bioassay of.

  19. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...

  20. Evaluation of bisphenol A, physicochemical properties and microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bisphenol A (BPA), physicochemical properties and microbial characterization of borehole water stored in plastic containers. Three brands of plastic containers filled with borehole water were collected from homes in Ugbowo, Benin city. Physicochemical parameters were determined ...

  1. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  2. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  3. Determination of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether content in foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to avoid migration issues of chemical compounds from tin cans to foods, covering internal surface of the tin cans with epoxyphenolic and organosol resins is widespread. However, monomers like Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), number among the constituents of these resins capable of migrating to foods.

  4. Biosensor immunoassays for the detection of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen found in the environment, in consequence, for the biosensor detection of BPA we raised antibodies (polyclonal (PAbs) and monoclonal (MAbs)) against a structural analogue of BPA, 4,4 bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BVA). The kinetics of the MAb¿BPA interaction

  5. Bisphenol A Detection in Various Brands of Drinking Bottled Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bisphenol A Detection in Various Brands of Drinking Bottled Water in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer. ... amounts of BPA leached from bottle containers into the water. Long storage of bottled water under direct sunlight should be avoided to reduce the risk of human exposure to BPA.

  6. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  7. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  8. Dynamics of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) in the European paper cycle: Need for concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used as an additive in conventional point-of-sale thermal paper receipts. Due to BPA being an endocrine disruptor and a substance of very high concern, the European Union (EU) has proposed to ban its use in thermal paper from 2020. Potential similaritie...

  9. Human and Rat ABC Transporter Efflux of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol A Glucuronide: Interspecies Comparison and Implications for Pharmacokinetic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physi...

  10. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Singh, Jyotirmay

    2012-05-01

    Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA) might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting period and in conjunction with fluid sorption and desorption over time and this chemical leach from dental sealants may be bioactive. Researchers found an estrogenic effect with BPA, Bis-DMA, and Bis-GMA because BPA lacks structural specificity as a natural ligand to the estrogen receptor. It generated considerable concern regarding the safety of dental resin materials. This review focuses on the BPA in dental sealants and its estrogen-like effect.

  11. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting period and in conjunction with fluid sorption and desorption over time and this chemical leach from dental sealants may be bioactive. Researchers found an estrogenic effect with BPA, Bis-DMA, and Bis-GMA because BPA lacks structural specificity as a natural ligand to the estrogen receptor. It generated considerable concern regarding the safety of dental resin materials. This review focuses on the BPA in dental sealants and its estrogen-like effect.

  12. High bioavailability of bisphenol A from sublingual exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Gayrard, Véronique; Lacroix, Marlène; Collet, Séverine; Viguie, Catherine; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Picard-Hagen, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) risk assessment is currently hindered by the rejection of reported higher-than-expected plasma BPA concentrations in humans after oral ingestion. These are deemed incompatible with the almost complete hepatic first-pass metabolism of BPA into its inactive glucurono-conjugated form, BPA glucuronide (BPAG). Objectives: Using dogs as a valid model, we compared plasma concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after intravenous, orogastric, and sublingual administrati...

  13. Bisphenol A Synthesis - Modeling of Industrial Reactor and Catalyst Deactivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokop, Zdeněk; Hanková, Libuše; Jeřábek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 60, - (2004), s. 77-83 Sp/Iss/ SI ISSN 1381-5148. [Asia-Pacific Congress on Catalysis /3./. Dalian, 12.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : bisphenol A * catalyst deactivation * ion exchanger catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2004

  14. Bisphenol A and Its Analogues Activate Human Pregnane X Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Yipeng; Ai, Ni; Park, Se-Hyung; Rios-Pilier, Jennifer; Perkins, Jordan T.; Welsh, William J.; Zhou, Changcheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a base chemical used extensively in many consumer products. BPA and its analogues are present in environmental and human samples. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including BPA, have been shown to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that functions as a master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which these chemicals activate PXR remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the mechanism by which BPA ...

  15. Identification and quantification of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in polyvinylchloride and polycarbonate medical devices by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Spinau, Coline; Lassu, Nelly; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    A gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method has already been developed and published for the identification and quantification of 14 phthalates and five nonphthalate plasticizers in polyvinylchloride medical devices. In order to assay, in addition to plasticizers, bisphenols A and B possibly present in polyvinylchloride samples, this previous method was extended to the assay of these additional potential endocrine disruptors. Furthermore, as bisphenol A could also be present in polycarbonate samples, the method used for the polyvinylchloride sample was tested and validated for the assay of bisphenols A and B in polycarbonate medical devices. The separation of all compounds, including bisphenols A and B, is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column using a temperature gradient. For both plastics, samples are dissolved in tetrahydrofuran followed by a precipitation of the plastic by addition of ethanol. Results obtained point out residual bisphenol A amounts for polycarbonate samples ranging from 0.6 to 0.8% and for polyvinylchloride samples less or equal to 5 ppm. No bisphenol B was detected in the samples tested. For bisphenols A and B, mean recoveries obtained on spiked polyvinylchloride or polycarbonate sample preparations ranged from 87 to 108% in accordance with in-house specification (80-110%). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Elimination of Bisphenol A from Wastewater through Membrane Filtration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dudziak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New priorities for the environment have resulted in a reassessment of modern technology for treatment of urban wastewater. Urban wastewater treatment mainly involves the elimination or reduction of anthropogenic organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment. In this paper, the effectiveness of bisphenol A elimination from waste-water, after biological treatment, through a complex ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis purification process was evaluated. The effectveness of the wastewater treatment process in the tested system was also evaluated with a number of other physical and chemical analyses for pH, turbidity, colour, absorbance, TOC, phenol index, conductivity and the concentration of selected heavy metals. Within this study, the change in the hydraulic performance of the membranes was also investigated. The effectiveness of the reduction of bisphenol A concentrations during the process of ultrafiltration was small, due to the significant difference between the size of the pores of the membrane and the size of eliminated micropollutants. In the process of reverse osmosis, the wastewater treatment system reported that the concentration of bisphenol A was reduced by 68%. In the tested treatment system, the ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis completely removed colour, lead and chromium. Other contaminants were eliminated by more than 31%. In both membrane processes, there was evidence that the membrane pores were blocked, but this occurred to a greater extent during the process of reverse osmosis.

  17. Structural bisphenol analoques differentially target steroidogenesis in murine MA-10 Leydig cells as well as the glucocorticoid receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, M.J.E.; Berg, van den M.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Piersma, A.H.; Duursen, van M.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although much information on the endocrine activity of bisphenol A (BPA) is available, a proper human hazard assessment of analogues that are believed to have a less harmful toxicity profile is lacking. Here the possible effects of BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), as well as the brominated

  18. Structural bisphenol analogues differentially target steroidogenesis in murine MA-10 Leydig cells as well as the glucocorticoid receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Maarke J; van den Berg, Martin; Bovee, Toine F H; Piersma, Aldert H; van Duursen, Majorie B

    2015-01-01

    Although much information on the endocrine activity of bisphenol A (BPA) is available, a proper human hazard assessment of analogues that are believed to have a less harmful toxicity profile is lacking. Here the possible effects of BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), as well as the brominated

  19. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP

  20. Reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and cadmium in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and modulation of bisphenol A effects by different test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Stange, Daniela; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    An OECD initiative for the development of mollusc-based toxicity tests for endocrine disrupters and other chemicals has recommended three test species with respective test designs for further standardisation. Preparing a subsequent pre-validation study we performed a reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, determining the concentration range of the selected test substances, bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd). At 16 deg. C, the recommended test temperature, the number of embryos in the brood pouch was increased by BPA and decreased by Cd (NOEC: 20 μg BPA/L and 1 μg Cd/L). Coinstantaneous BPA tests at 7 deg. C and 25 deg. C demonstrated a temperature dependency of the response, resulting in lower NOECs (5 μg/L respectively). As expected, reproduction in control groups significantly varied depending on temperature. Additional observations of the brood stock showed seasonal fluctuations in reproduction under constant laboratory conditions. The recommended temperature range and test conditions have to be further investigated. - Highlights: → We performed a reproduction test with the mollusc Potamopyrgus antipodarum. → We defined the test substance concentration range for a pre-validation study. → The bisphenol A effect (increased reproduction) depends on the test temperature. → Reproduction of control groups significantly varies depending on temperature. → The brood stock shows seasonal fluctuations in reproduction at constant conditions. - A reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum with 2 substances for subsequent pre-validation is presented and bisphenol A effects show a temperature dependency.

  1. Biosorption of Bisphenol A by Agricultural Waste: A Kinetic and Isothermic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available B Abstract Background and Objectives: Bisphenol A is a phenolic compound, which even in low concentration, is harmful and toxic for human and environment and is abundantly found in industrial effluents. In the present study, the removal of bisphenol A by Canola wastes, was investigated. Methods: In this experimental study, first canola waste was collected and their stem was removed, and then were dried in fur (105°C for 24h and were sized using ASTM. The changes of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and bisphenol A concentration, were assessed and the remaining concentration of bisphenol A was analyzed using HPLC. Equilibrium data were investigated by various types of adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Results: In this study, the specific surface area of adsorbent was 52.5m2/g. The maximum absorption of bisphenol A was obtained at pH=3, adsorbent dosage was 4g/L and contact time was 75 min. The bisphenol A removal efficiency decreased from 98.9% to 65.4% with increasing concentrations of bisphenol A from 25 to 200mg/L. Also, the results of adsorption study showed the highest correlation with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic model. Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, bisphenol adsorbent can be used as an effective and low-cost adsorbent to treat the industrial wastewater and/or aqueous solution containing phenolic compounds.

  2. Effects of early exposure to phthalates and bisphenols on cardiometabolic outcomes in pregnancy and childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, E.M. (Elise M.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Trasande, L. (Leonardo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women are exposed to various chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as phthalates and bisphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that early life exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may contribute to cardiometabolic risks. The aim of this narrative

  3. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  4. Are environmental levels of bisphenol a associated with reproductive function in fertile men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function.......Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function....

  5. Transcriptome profiling reveals bisphenol A alternatives activate estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticizers with estrogenic activity, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have potential adverse health effects in humans. Due to mounting evidence of these health effects, BPA is being phased out and replaced by other bisphenol variants in “BPA-free” products. We have compared estrogeni...

  6. Bisphenol A differentially activates protein kinase C isoforms in murine placental tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Huang, Hui; Wang, Yanfei; Wong, Tsz Yan; Wang, C.C.; Leung, Lai K.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A is utilized to make polycarbonate plastics and is an environmental pollutant. Recent research has indicated that it is an endocrine disruptor and may interfere with reproductive processes. Our lab has previously shown that bisphenol A could regulate corticotrophin releasing hormone and aromatase in cultured placental cells. In the present study, the effect of bisphenol A on these two genes in the placenta was investigated in mice. Pregnant ICR mice were gavaged with bisphenol A at 2, 20 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day from E13 to E16 and were euthanized at E17. Compared to the control mice, increased plasma estrogen and corticotrophin releasing hormone were observed in bisphenol A-treated mice. Messenger RNA quantification indicated that placental crh but not cyp19 was induced in mice treated with bisphenol A. Tracking the related signaling pathway, we found that protein kinase C ζ/λ and δ were activated in the placentas of bisphenol A-treated mice. As the gene promoter of crh contains CRE and the half site of ERE, either phospho-PKC or estrogen could stimulate the gene transactivation. These results indicate that bisphenol A might increase plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, corticotrophin releasing hormone and placental phospho-PKC ζ/λ and δ in mice. Ultimately, the incidence of premature birth in these mice could increase. - Highlights: • The pollutant bisphenol A differentially activated PKC isoforms in the placenta. • CRE-binding activity in the nuclear protein of placenta was increased. • Bisphenol A induces CRH mRNA expression in mice

  7. Bisphenol A differentially activates protein kinase C isoforms in murine placental tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Huang, Hui; Wang, Yanfei [Biochemistry Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Wong, Tsz Yan [Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Wang, C.C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Leung, Lai K., E-mail: laikleung@cuhk.edu.hk [Biochemistry Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong); Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-01

    Bisphenol A is utilized to make polycarbonate plastics and is an environmental pollutant. Recent research has indicated that it is an endocrine disruptor and may interfere with reproductive processes. Our lab has previously shown that bisphenol A could regulate corticotrophin releasing hormone and aromatase in cultured placental cells. In the present study, the effect of bisphenol A on these two genes in the placenta was investigated in mice. Pregnant ICR mice were gavaged with bisphenol A at 2, 20 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day from E13 to E16 and were euthanized at E17. Compared to the control mice, increased plasma estrogen and corticotrophin releasing hormone were observed in bisphenol A-treated mice. Messenger RNA quantification indicated that placental crh but not cyp19 was induced in mice treated with bisphenol A. Tracking the related signaling pathway, we found that protein kinase C ζ/λ and δ were activated in the placentas of bisphenol A-treated mice. As the gene promoter of crh contains CRE and the half site of ERE, either phospho-PKC or estrogen could stimulate the gene transactivation. These results indicate that bisphenol A might increase plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, corticotrophin releasing hormone and placental phospho-PKC ζ/λ and δ in mice. Ultimately, the incidence of premature birth in these mice could increase. - Highlights: • The pollutant bisphenol A differentially activated PKC isoforms in the placenta. • CRE-binding activity in the nuclear protein of placenta was increased. • Bisphenol A induces CRH mRNA expression in mice.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in aqueous media: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Venkata Laxma; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kavitha, Beluri; Kumar, Vanish; Raza, Nadeem; Kalagara, Sudhakar

    2018-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is known to be an emerging pollutant in various environmental compartments. Human exposure to BPA occurs widely because it is commonly used as the raw material in a variety of industrial processes (e.g., the preparation of epoxy and polycarbonate resins). In this review, a brief survey was carried out to cover a range of photocatalytic materials (e.g., titania, zinc, silver, carbon, and bismuth) and their modified forms as an effective means to treat water systems contaminated with BPA. The overall efficiency and limitations of these catalysts are described for the photocatalytic treatment of BPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output......, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 μg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint...

  10. Low-dose effect of developmental bisphenol A exposure on sperm count and behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A is widely used in food contact materials and other products and is detected in human urine and blood. Bisphenol A may affect reproductive and neurological development; however, opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on bisphenol A (EFSA J, 13, 2015 and 3978) concluded...... that none of the available studies were robust enough to provide a point of departure for setting a tolerable daily intake for bisphenol A. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats (n = 17–21) were gavaged from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 with bisphenol A doses of 0, 25 μg, 250 μg, 5 mg or 50 mg/kg bw....... Decreased sperm count was found at the lowest bisphenol A dose, that is 25 μg/kg/day, but not at the higher doses. Reproductive organ weight and histology were not affected and no behavioural effects were seen in male offspring. In the female offspring, exposure to 25 μg/kg bw/day bisphenol A dose resulted...

  11. Is bisphenol S a safe substitute for bisphenol A in terms of metabolic function? An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile, E-mail: cecile.helies@toulouse.inra.fr [INRA, TOXALIM, 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, 31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse III, INP, ENVT, UPS, 31027 Toulouse (France); Peyre, Ludovic [INRA, UMR 1331 TOXALIM, 400 route des Chappes, BP 167, 06903 Sophia-Antipolis (France); Costanzo, Claudia [INRA, TOXALIM, 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, 31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse III, INP, ENVT, UPS, 31027 Toulouse (France); Chagnon, Marie-Christine [Nutox Laboratory, Derttech “Packtox”, INSERM UMR 866, AgroSup Dijon, 1 esplanade Erasme, 21000 Dijon (France); Rahmani, Roger [INRA, UMR 1331 TOXALIM, 400 route des Chappes, BP 167, 06903 Sophia-Antipolis (France)

    2014-10-15

    As bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce adverse effects on human health, especially through the activation of endocrine pathways, it is about to be withdrawn from the European market and replaced by analogues such as bisphenol S (BPS). However, toxicological data on BPS is scarce, and so it is necessary to evaluate the possible effects of this compound on human health. We compared the effect of BPA and BPS on obesity and hepatic steatosis processes using low doses in the same range as those found in the environment. Two in vitro models were used, the adipose cell line 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells, representative of hepatic functions. We analyzed different parameters such as lipid and glucose uptakes, lipolysis, leptin production and the modulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy balance. BPA and BPS induced an increase in the lipid content in the 3T3-L1 cell line and more moderately in the hepatic cells. We also observed a decrease in lipolysis after bisphenol treatment of adipocytes, but only BPS was involved in the increase in glucose uptake and leptin production. These latter effects could be linked to the modulation of SREBP-1c, PPARγ, aP2 and ERRα and γ genes after exposure to BPA, whereas BPS seems to target the PGC1α and the ERRγ genes. The findings suggest that both BPA and BPS could be involved in obesity and steatosis processes, but through two different metabolic pathways. - Highlights: • The non-monotonic effects of BPA and BPS act through 2 different metabolic pathways. • BPA and BPS induce an increase in the lipid content in adipocytes and hepatic cells. • BPS increased leptin production and glucose uptake in adipocyte and hepatocyte. • BPA and BPS could participate in metabolic deregulations leading to obesity or NAFLD.

  12. A simple approach for ultrasensitive detection of bisphenols by multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bleye, C., E-mail: cdebleye@ulg.ac.be; Dumont, E.; Hubert, C.; Sacré, P.-Y.; Netchacovitch, L.; Chavez, P.-F.; Hubert, Ph.; Ziemons, E.

    2015-08-12

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is well known for its use in plastic manufacture and thermal paper production despite its risk of health toxicity as an endocrine disruptor in humans. Since the publication of new legislation regarding the use of BPA, manufacturers have begun to replace BPA with other phenolic molecules such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol B (BPB), but there are no guarantees regarding the health safety of these compounds at this time. In this context, a very simple, cheap and fast surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method was developed for the sensitive detection of these molecules in spiked tap water solutions. Silver nanoparticles were used as SERS substrates. An original strategy was employed to circumvent the issue of the affinity of bisphenols for metallic surfaces and the silver nanoparticles surface was functionalized using pyridine in order to improve again the sensitivity of the detection. Semi-quantitative detections were performed in tap water solutions at a concentrations range from 0.25 to 20 μg L{sup −1} for BPA and BPB and from 5 to 100 μg L{sup −1} for BPF. Moreover, a feasibility study for performing a multiplex-SERS detection of these molecules was also performed before successfully implementing the developed SERS method on real samples. - Highlights: • Development of a simple, fast and ultrasensitive SERS method to detect bisphenols. • Multiplexed-SERS detection of bisphenol A, bisphenol B and bisphenol F. • Implementation of the SERS developed method on real samples to detect bisphenols.

  13. Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Corrales

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because bisphenol A (BPA is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs.

  14. Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joella Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has a widespread exposure to humans. BPA is of concern for developmental exposure resulting in immunomodulation and disease development due to its ability to cross the placental barrier and presence in breast milk. BPA can use various mechanisms to modulate the immune system and affect diseases, including agonistic and antagonistic effects on many receptors (e.g., estrogen receptors, epigenetic modifications, acting on cell signaling pathways and, likely, the gut microbiome. Immune cell populations and function from the innate and adaptive immune system are altered by developmental BPA exposure, including decreased T regulatory (Treg cells and upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Developmental BPA exposure can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergy, asthma and mammary cancer disease by altering immune function. Multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus may also be exacerbated by BPA, although more research is needed. Additionally, BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS, have been increasing in use, and currently, little is known about their immune effects. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to determine if developmental exposure BPA and its analogs modulate immune responses and lead to immune-related diseases.

  15. Screening occupational contact allergy to bisphenol F epoxy resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Suuronen, Katri; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2014-09-01

    Epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) are widely used as such in applications requiring chemical resistance, and also together with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R). Concomitant patch test reactions to DGEBA-R and DGEBF resin (DGEBF-R) are common. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results on the frequency of independent DGEBF-R contact allergies. To report the results of over 11 years of screening with DGEBF-R. An in-house test substance of DGEBF-R (Epikote 862) was tested in the baseline patch test series, first at 1% and later at 0.25%. Test files were screened for allergic reactions to DGEBF-R and DGEBA-R, and the clinical records of positively reacting patients were analysed for occupation and exposure. Among 1972 patients, 66 (3.3%) reacted to DGEBF-R and 96 (4.9%) to DGEBA-R. Independent DGEBF-R allergies were seen in 5 patients only, and independent DGEBA-R allergies in 35. Specific exposure to DGEBF-R was found in 26 patients. The main occupational fields were the aircraft industry, the electrical and sports equipment industry, boat building, painting/floor coating, tile setting, and pipe relining. Independent contact allergies to DGEBF-R were rare, and screening with it was not found to be useful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A in Five Different Production Companies in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinälä, Milla; Ylinen, Katriina; Tuomi, Tapani; Santonen, Tiina; Porras, Simo P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess occupational exposure to bisphenol A in Finland. Five companies took part in the research project: two paint factories (liquid and powder paints), a composite product factory, a thermal paper factory, and a tractor factory. Exposure was assessed by measuring total bisphenol A excretion (free and conjugated) from urine samples, and its concentrations in the air. The results revealed the specific work tasks in two of five companies in which significant occupational exposure to bisphenol A may occur. In the manufacturing of liquid paint hardener, urine samples collected after the working day showed bisphenol A levels of up to 100-170 µg l-1. Workers in thermal paper manufacturing were also exposed to bisphenol A, especially those working in the manufacture of coating material and operating coating machines. Median concentrations of the post-shift urine samples of coating machine workers were in the range of 130-250 µg l-1. The highest bisphenol A concentrations were in the range of 1000-1500 µg l-1. Recommendations for more effective personal protection resulted in decreased exposure, particularly among coating machine operators. In the rest of the companies, urinary bisphenol A levels were typically in the range of those of the general population. Bisphenol A concentrations in air samples were typically low (<40 µg m-3), except in some short-term duties related to the handling of solid bisphenol A (maximum 17.6 mg m-3). Low air levels, even in the companies with high urinary levels, suggest exposure via dermal contact. According to the results, exposure to bisphenol A may occur particularly in work tasks that involve the use of pure bisphenol A. In these tasks, special attention should be paid to the prevention of skin exposure. Inhalation exposure may become relevant in dusty work tasks. Since skin exposure is of potential concern in these tasks, biomonitoring is recommended as the method for assessing occupational exposure to

  17. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  18. Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S release in milk under household conditions from baby bottles marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Barbato, Francesco; Cardone, Eleonora; Fattore, Margherita; Albrizio, Stefania; Grumetto, Lucia

    2018-02-01

    A simple and sensitive validated analytical method based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem fluorescence (FD) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was applied to monitor the presence of bisphenol A and bisphenol S in plastic baby bottles marketed in Italy. The limits of detection (LOD) were 3.75 ng mL -1 and 80.00 ng mL -1 , and those of quantification (LOQ) were 12.51 ng mL -1 and 260.00 ng mL -1 for BPA (FD detection) and for BPS (UV detection), respectively. BPA was found in only four samples, two samples undergone to microwave heating and two samples undergone to bottle warmer heating either at 40°C or at 80°C. Although the quantities of leached BPA were well below the reference dose for daily intake established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (4.0 µg kg -1 bw/day), the release of BPA and BPS from these plastic materials should be carefully considered by the government authorities to increase people's awareness on this issue and to protect the most vulnerable population group.

  19. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations are associated with reproductive parameters in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adoamnei, Evdochia; Mendiola, Jaime; Vela-Soria, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a pervasive environmental toxicant with known reproductive effects on sperm parameters and hormone levels. Several observational studies have investigated the associations between BPA exposure and male reproductive function, but findings are inconsistent. The objective...

  20. Efficiency of Multispecies Probiotic Supplements in Bioremoval of Bisphenol A: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogand Solouki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Bisphenol A is a well-known industrial compound which is widely used in producing plastic throughout the world. Containers made with these plastics may expose people to small amounts of bisphenol A in food and water and cause adverse effects on human health. In this study, the effect of commercial probiotic formulations on reduction of bisphenol A in aqueous solution is investigated.Materials and Methods: One dose of six types of commercial mixtures of probiotic strains were added to a certain amount of bisphenol A in saline basal medium at 37°C. During a 24 h treatment with probiotics, samples were taken from the environments at different times and prepared for further analysis with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The experimental framework was set up in a way that compares formulations and determines the most efficient strains for bisphenol A reduction. In addition, the effect of peripheral conditions such as pH and temperature were also studied.Results and Conclusion: Multi-strain probiotics had an impressively high performance in bio-removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solutions. Up to 80% of bisphenol A concentration was decreased during the first hour of treatment in almost all trials. Among them, the synergy of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum strains were the most successful. On the other hand, mixture of probiotics had more persistent effect and robust binding ability than single strains. Finally, it can be expected that regular usage of probiotic supplementation with special mixture of strains can suppress the harmful effects of bisphenol A.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  1. Application of Agricultural Waste for Adsorption Bisphenol A from Aqueous Solution: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is classified as a toxic and priority hazardous compound; it is required to be degraded prior to discharging the contaminated streams to the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is investigation of Bisphenol A adsorption by biomass agricultural waste Rice straw. Material and methods: This study was performed in laboratory at batch scale. The effects of different parameters including contact time, pH, Bisphenol A initial concentration and biomass dosage were studied for removal of Bisphenol A. All experiments were repeated triplicate and then adsorption isotherms and kinetics of different models were analyzed by comparing the coefficient of determination. The concentration of Bisphenol A was measured by HPLC. Results: The results indicated that by increasing of contact time and dose of adsorbent the amount of bisphenol adsorption increases, so that by increasing contact time from 10 to 75 min, the adsorption increased from 38.3% to 96.9% and by increasing adsorbent dosage from 1 to 5 gr/L adsorption increased from 35.5% to 94.9%. The adsorption was increased by decreasing of initial concentration of bisphenol A and the pH of 3 was the best for bisphenol A removal. The adsorption data was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model.  The Langmuir equation and pseudo- second order model showed the best fit for the experimental data Conclusion:  The results showed that the agricultural waste Rice straw can be used as a high efficiency and inexpensive adsorbent for  treatment of industrial effluent. 

  2. Chemical analysis of monomers in epoxy resins based on bisphenols F and A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, A; Zimerson, E; Sörensen, O; Bruze, M

    2004-05-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) is the monomer and most important contact allergen in epoxy resin(s) based on bisphenol A (DGEBA-R). Both thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods are available for the analysis of products containing DGEBA-R. With respect to detection and quantification, epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type, i.e. epoxy resins containing the isomers of diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol F (DGEBF), are not as well investigated as DGEBA-R. The isomers of DGEBF are p,p'-DGEBF, o,p'-DGEBF and o,o'-DGEBF. Both p,p'-DGEBF and o,p'-DGEBF have been shown to be contact allergens in humans, and all 3 isomers are sensitizers in the guinea pig maximization test. We aimed (i). to develop HPLC methods for separation and purification of the individual DGEBF isomers, (ii). to detect and quantify the DGEBF isomers in epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and (iii). to evaluate and develop the TLC as a method for the detection of the DGEBF monomers. We found the total content of the DGEBF isomers in the investigated epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type to vary from 17.0 to 81.7% w/w. Some of them also contained 0.1-2.4% w/w DGEBA. The HPLC method showed a sensitivity that was 2000-20 000x higher than that obtained with the TLC method for the DGEBF monomers. We concluded that the range of the DGEBF isomer content in epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type is approximately the same as the monomer content in liquid compared to solid DGEBA-R. The relevance of contact allergy to DGEBA-R can remain unrecognized if the suspected product is an epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type, which is analysed with the TLC method.

  3. DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN THERMAL PAPER RECEIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Serkan YALÇIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a chemical substance which is produced in great quantities globally and of which serious negative effects on endocrine system are suspected. It’s a commonly used color developer in thermal paper. BPA used for this purpose is in free, unbound form and one of the potential sources for BPA exposure of humans. In this study, 12 thermal paper receipt samples were collected from various workplaces selected randomly and analyzed. BPA was determined in all samples. Average value of high BPA concentrations obtained from 10 samples was found as 13.83 mg BPA/g paper. At the same time, low values being 0.40 mg BPA/g paper and 0.11 mg BPA/g paper respectively were found in two samples as compared to others.

  4. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...... sandwich ELISA. Quantification of internal liver and muscle concentrations of non-metabolised BPA was performed by LC-MS at the end of the exposure period. A significant induction of the VTG synthesis was obtained at 500 µg BPA/l exposure, although an increase in the ratio of responding animals...... was observed already between 40 and 70 µg BPA/l. An increase in VTG levels was observed for the 500 µg BPA/l group over the study period, whereas constant or decreasing levels could be detected in the low exposure groups between days 6 and 12. Average internal liver concentrations of BPA increased from 0...

  5. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  6. Bisphenol A and replacements in thermal paper: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K; de Boer, Jacob; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), which is used as a color developer. BPA has been reported in thermal paper in concentrations up to 42,600 μg g -1 . The exposure to BPA via dermal transfer has been recently discussed as a significant contribution to the overall human exposure and the estimated daily intake (EDI) has been reported up to 218 μg d -1 . BPA has been also detected in recycled paper with concentrations up to 46 μg g -1 . Due to the fact that BPA is a known endocrine disruptor and migrates from materials, regulatory restrictions have been established to prevent risks for the human health. As a consequence, structural analogues, such as bisphenol S (BPS) have been introduced into the market. Little is known about the presence and toxicity of these emerging replacements, and concern has risen about them. The present review gives an overview of the occurrence and levels of BPA and replacements in thermal paper. BPA is still the most common color developer found in thermal paper, followed by BPS. The analytical methods used for quantification of BPA and BPA replacements in paper products are also reviewed. BPA is transferred from thermal paper products to the finger pads upon handling it. Paper-skin transfer followed by penetration of BPA depends on conditions (e.g. greasiness of fingers and use of hand cream). It is, however, still debated whether thermal paper as a source for human exposure contributes significantly to the overall internal BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence and partitioning of bisphenol analogues in water and sediment from Liaohe River Basin and Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hangbiao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-10-15

    Bisphenol analogues are widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and the demand and production capacity of these compounds are growing rapidly in China. The occurrence and distribution of bisphenol analogues other than bisphenol A (BPA) in the aquatic environment is still poorly understood. In this study, nine bisphenol analogues were measured in water and sediment samples from Taihu Lake (TL), Liaohe River basin, including Liaohe River (LR) and Hunhe River (HR), China. Water samples from LR and HR contained much higher total bisphenols (∑BPs) concentrations. BPA and bisphenol S (BPS) were predominant with a summed contribution of 55, 75, and 75% to the ∑BPs in TL, LR, and HR waters, respectively. This suggests that BPA and BPS were the most widely used and manufactured bisphenols in these regions. In sediment, BPA was always predominant, with the next abundant compound bisphenol F (BPF) in TL and HR sediment, but BPS in LR sediment. The average field sediment-water partitioning coefficients (log Koc) were calculated for the first time for certain bisphenols and were determined to be 4.7, 4.6, 3.8, 3.7, and 3.5 mL/g for BPF, BPAP, BPA, BPAF, and BPS, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Ming; Farajzadeh, Matthew; Pan, Chenyuan; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemical, and bisphenol S (BPS) has been considered a safer alternative for BPA-free products. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development and to explore potential mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptor (ER), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and enzyme aromatase (AROM) pathways. Environmentally relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r, gnrh3, lhβ, fshβ, and erα), and a marker for synaptic transmission (sv2). Low levels of BPS exposure led to similar effects: increased numbers of hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons and increased expression of kiss1, gnrh3, and erα. Antagonists of ER, THRs, and AROM blocked many of the effects of BPA and BPS on reproduction-related gene expression, providing evidence that those three pathways mediate the actions of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system. This study demonstrates that alternatives to BPA used in the manufacture of BPA-free products are not necessarily safer. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe the impact of low-level BPA and BPS exposure on the Kiss/Kiss receptor system during development. It is also the first report of multiple cellular pathways (ERα, THRs, and AROM) mediating the effects of BPA and BPS during embryonic development in any species.

  9. Determination of bisphenols in beverages by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-11-27

    Facing growing restrictions on the use of bisphenol A in food contact materials, several bisphenol analogs are arising as major alternatives to replace this chemical in most of its applications. This work reports a simple and robust method based on mixed-mode solid-phase extraction and stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of bisphenol A and its main analogs - bisphenol S, 4,4'-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol), bisphenol F, bisphenol E, bisphenol B, bisphenol Z, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, tetrabromobisphenol A and bisphenol P - in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, combining cationic exchange and reversed-phase mechanisms, was optimized to provide a selective extraction and purification of the target analytes. Derivatization of bisphenols with pyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride allowed increasing their ionization efficiency by electrospray ionization. Validation of the proposed method was performed in terms of selectivity, matrix effects, linearity, precision, measurement uncertainty, trueness and limits of detection. Satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision were obtained; the related relative standard deviations were ≤9% and ≤12%, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) was below 20% for all bisphenol analogs and the trueness of the method was demonstrated by recovery experiments. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 1.6ngL(-1) to 27.9ngL(-1) for all compounds. Finally, several canned and non-canned beverages were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Only bisphenol A and three bisphenol F isomers were detected in any of the samples. Bisphenol A concentration ranged from beverages, at concentration levels up to 0.12 and 0.51μgL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol A...

  11. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  12. Removal of bisphenol A by electrochemical carbon-nanotube filter: Influential factors and degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Ahmed Refaat; Rahaman, Md Saifur

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical with hazardous health effects that is largely used in the manufacture of extensively used products including adhesives, plastics, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings, and epoxy resin, and is reported to exist in nature in an accumulative manner. In this study, both pristine and boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were employed as filtration and electrochemical filtration materials, resulting in a significant removal of bisphenol A with identical performance for both MWNTs types. It was shown that the presence of salt is not critical for the greatest contaminant removal efficiency, likely due to the vital role of other electroactive species (e.g. reactive oxygen species). Near complete removal of 1 mg L -1 bisphenol A at 2 and 3 V of applied DC potentials was achieved, indicating that the electrochemical filtration process is voltage dependent at both 2 and 3 V. Increasing the residence time by 7.4 fold (from 2.0 to 14.9 s) resulted in a significant removal of bisphenol A and its toxic byproducts, up to 424 min of electrochemical filtration time at 3 V of applied potential. Based on these results, electrochemical filtration using MWNTs is considered a promising technology for the removal of the accumulative bisphenol A and the reduction of its hazardous effects in waters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Burstyn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a case-referent study of the effect of exposure to bisphenol-A on fetal growth in utero in full-term, live-born singletons in Alberta, Canada. Newborns <10 percentile of expected weight for gestational age and sex were individually matched on sex, maternal smoking and maternal age to referents with weight appropriate to gestational age. Exposure of the fetus to bisphenol-A was estimated from maternal serum collected at 15–16 weeks of gestation. We pooled sera across subjects for exposure assessment, stratified on case-referent status and sex. Individual 1:1 matching was maintained in assembling 69 case and 69 referent pools created from 550 case-referent pairs. Matched pools had an equal number of aliquots from individual women. We used an analytical strategy conditioning on matched set and total pool-level values of covariates to estimate individual-level effects. Pools of cases and referents had identical geometric mean bisphenol-A concentrations (0.5 ng/mL and similar geometric standard deviations (2.3–2.5. Mean difference in concentration between matched pools was 0 ng/mL, standard deviation: 1 ng/mL. Stratification by sex and control for confounding did not suggest bisphenol-A increased fetal growth restriction. Our analysis does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that bisphenol-A contributes to fetal growth restriction in full-term singletons.

  14. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic methods for sensitive determination of bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Zhou, Meng; Gu, Jia; Li, Xiangmei

    2014-03-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A based on a diazotization-coupling reaction was developed. In acidic solution, clenbuterol was first diazotized with sodium nitrite, then coupled with bisphenol A to from an azo-compound [I] in NH3-NH4Cl buffer, which shows a maximum absorption at 410 nm. The effects of the amount of sodium nitrite, diazo reaction time, the amount of clenbuterol, coupling reaction time and coupling reaction temperature have been examined. Under the optional conditions, the determination of the linear range of bisphenol A is 0.24-8.4 μg/mL, correlation coefficient is 0.9905 and detection limit of this method is 0.15 μg/mL. The spectrophotometric method is simple, rapid, high sensitivity with better accuracy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique combined with this new spectrophotometric method has been also developed for the measurement of bisphenol A. The analysis was achieved on a C18 column using water and methanol as a mobile phase and the detection was done spectrophotometrically at 410 nm. These reported methods were applied to the determination of bisphenol A in hot water in contact with commercially available table-water bottle samples.

  15. Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K.; Jonker, Willem; Legradi, Jessica; Kool, Jeroen; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the

  16. Atlantic Nessologies: Image, Territory, Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-]. Hernández Adrián

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses the emerging field of Atlantic Studies and questions the status of "the Atlantic" as an object of study. Rather than assuming a self-evident grid where Atlantic cultural phenomena oscillate between such poles as "centers and peripheries," or "the colonizer and the colonized," I consider a different formulation of the Atlantic. Taking as a starting point an analysis of a poem by Tomás Morales, a modernista poet from the Canary Islands, my essay outlines the notion of "Atlantic nessologies." Three parallel departures are offered from this analysis: image (or the realm of the imaginary; territory (or spatial and geopolitical inscriptions of the Atlantic in western space-time; and value (or those ethical and political dimensions that can be drawn from Atlantic specificities. Critical engagements with the Atlantic, my essay concludes, can be anchored in "nessological" readings in which neither local, singular perspectives contained in islands, nor wider, more panoramic views of the Atlantic, ought to escape critics. Instead, the work of engaging the Atlantic from multiple perspectives and locations should express itself as a field of critical/political strategies coordinated against perennial re-inscriptions of Eurocentric totality.

  17. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National... hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region, and blacknose sharks and non-blacknose SCS in the Atlantic region...

  18. Bisphenol A and phthalates exhibit similar toxicogenomics and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sher; Li, Steven Shoei-Lung

    2012-02-15

    Plastics are widely used in modern life, and their unbound chemicals bisphenol A and phthalates can leach out into the surrounding environment. BPA and PAEs have recently attracted the special attention of the scientific community, regulatory agencies and the general public because of their high production volume, widespread use of plastics, and endocrine-disrupting effects. In The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, BPA and five most frequently curated PAEs (DEHP/MEHP and DBP/BBP/MBP) were found to have 1932 and 484 interactions with genes/proteins, respectively. Five of their top ten toxicity networks were found to be involved in inflammation, and their top ten diseases included genital, prostatic, endomentrial, ovarian and breast diseases. BPA and PAEs were found to exhibit similar toxicogenomics and adverse effects on human health owning to their 89 common interacting genes/proteins. These 89 genes/proteins may serve as biomarkers to assay the toxicities of different chemicals leached out from the widely used plastics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bisphenol A, an endocrine-disrupting chemical, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2012-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical, widely used in various industries and the field of dentistry. The consequent increase in BPA exposure among humans has led us to some concerns regarding the potential deleterious effects on reproduction and brain development. The emphasis of this review is on the effects of prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA on brain development in mice. We demonstrated that prenatal exposure to BPA affected fetal murine neocortical development by accelerating neuronal differentiation/migration during the early embryonic stage, which was associated with up- and down-regulation of the genes critical for brain development, including the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In the adult mice brains, both abnormal neocortical architecture and abnormal corticothalamic projections persisted in the group exposed to the BPA. Functionally, BPA exposure disturbed murine behavior, accompanied with a disrupted neurotransmitter system, including monoamines, in the postnatal development period and in adult mice. We also demonstrated that epigenetic alterations in promoter-associated CpG islands might underlie some of the effects on brain development after exposure to BPA. © 2012 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  1. Bisphenol A Interaction With Brain Development and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Negri-Cesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain development is an organized, but constantly adaptive, process in which genetic and epigenetic signals allow neurons to differentiate, to migrate, and to develop correct connections. Gender specific prenatal sex hormone milieu participates in the dimorphic development of many neuronal networks. Environmental cues may interfere with these developmental programs, producing adverse outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA, an estrogenic/antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor widely diffused in the environment, produces adverse effects at levels below the acceptable daily intake. This review analyzes the recent literature on the consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA environmental doses on the development of a dimorphic brain. The BPA interference with the development and function of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus and of the nuclei controlling energy balance, and with the hippocampal memory processing is also discussed. The detrimental action of BPA appears complex, involving different hormonal and epigenetic pathways activated, often in a dimorphic way, within clearcut susceptibility windows. To date, discrepancies in experimental approaches and in related outcomes make unfeasible to translate the available information into clear dose–response models for human risk assessment. Evaluation of BPA brain levels in relation to the appearance of adverse effects in future basic studies will certainly give better definition of the warning threshold for human health.

  2. Bisphenol A and human health: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Johanna R

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) may adversely affect humans. BPA is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be harmful in laboratory animal studies. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between BPA and health effects in humans. However, in the last year, the number of these studies has more than doubled. A comprehensive literature search found 91 studies linking BPA to human health; 53 published within the last year. This review outlines this body of literature, showing associations between BPA exposure and adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive and developmental effects, metabolic disease, and other health effects. These studies encompass both prenatal and postnatal exposures, and include several study designs and population types. While it is difficult to make causal links with epidemiological studies, the growing human literature correlating environmental BPA exposure to adverse effects in humans, along with laboratory studies in many species including primates, provides increasing support that environmental BPA exposure can be harmful to humans, especially in regards to behavioral and other effects in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetics of bisphenol A degradation by Sphingomonas paucimobilis FJ-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Soda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masanori; Ike, Michihiko

    2016-09-01

    A chemostat was operated to characterize degradation of bisphenol A by Sphingomonas paucimobilis FJ-4. The chemostat at 30°C was fed with a medium containing 150 mg L(-1) of BPA as the sole carbon and energy source. At the short cell retention time of 8 h, the bacterial cells were washed out from the chemostat. At long cell retention times of 12, 16, 24, and 48 h, steady-states of the bacterial growth on BPA degradation were achieved after a lag time of 16-57 h. A mathematical model was applied to evaluate the BPA degradation ability of strain FJ-4. The maximum specific degradation rate, the half saturation constant, the cell yield, and the specific decay rate were estimated respectively as 0.46 mg-BPA (mg-VSS h)(-1), 13.1 mg L(-1), 0.39 mg-VSS mg-BPA(-1), and 0.0014 h(-1). Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sonophotochemical Degradation of Bisphenol A with Solid Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myunghee Lim,; Younggyu Son,; Beomguk Park,; Jeehyeong Khim,

    2010-07-01

    In order to investigate the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) solution under sono, photo, sonocatalytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic processes, the BPA concentration and the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration were analyzed. The degradation rate of BPA was higher at high frequency (1 MHz) than at low frequency (300 kHz). At high frequency the acoustic period is shorter, and a high H2O2 concentration is therefore produced in aqueous solutions, which can enhance the degradation rate. The degradation rates of BPA were 0.0060, 0.0258, and 0.0451 min-1 under the sonocatalytic (1 MHz), photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic processes respectively. The combined system of the sonochemical and photocatalytic processes can enhance the degradation rate of BPA compared with individual processes (sono and photocatalytic processes). The order of degradation of BPA (CuO>ZnO≈TiO2) and TOC (TiO2>ZnO>CuO) differed for each of the three types of catalysts. The separation characteristics of catalysts were dissimilar for each of the two frequencies.

  5. Bisphenol A degradation in water by ligninolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D

    2013-08-01

    Many endocrine disruptor compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA) are used today and released into the environment at low doses but they are barely degraded in wastewater treatment plants. One of the potential alternatives to effectively degrade endocrine disruptor compounds is based on the use of the oxidative action of extracellular fungal enzymes. The aim of this work is to study the ability of free and encapsulated enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase and laccase) to degrade BPA. Higher degradation of BPA (90%) by ligninolytic enzymes encapsulated on polyacrylamide hydrogel and pectin after 8h was obtained. The degradation of BPA while using the free enzyme (26%) was lower than the value obtained with encapsulated enzymes. The presence of pectin in the formulation significantly (p>0.05) enhanced the activity of enzymes. Kinetics of BPA degradation showed an increase in Vm, while Km remained constant when enzymes were encapsulated. Hence, encapsulation protected the enzymes from non-competitive inhibition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estrogen receptor-dependent effects of bisphenol a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bulzomi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, commonly used as building block of polycarbonate plastics, significantly affects human and animal health interfering with the action of natural hormones. Within BPA disrupting effects, a mitogenic activity and, consequently, an increased incidence of neoplastic transformations has been reported in exposed organisms. Among the several mechanisms proposed for the mitogenic BPA effects, its ability to bind to estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ deserves particular attention. Aim of this work is to investigate ERα- and ERβ-dependent mechanisms underlying BPA proliferative effect. Binding assay confirms that BPA binds to both ERs. Cell vitality assay and Western blot analysis of protein involved in cell proliferation demonstrate that BPA acts as a double side disruptor of estrogenic effects. In fact in the presence of ERα, BPA mimics E2, increasing cell proliferation. On the contrary, in the presence of ERβ, BPA acts as an E2 antagonist preventing the hormone-induced cancer cells apoptosis. These two divergent aspects could act synergistically in the exposed organisms leading to the disruption of the balance between proliferation and apoptosis typical of E2 effects.

  7. The Potential Roles of Bisphenol A (BPA Pathogenesis in Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datis Kharrazian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a monomer found in commonly used consumer plastic goods. Although much attention in recent years has been placed on BPA’s impact as an endocrine disruptor, it also appears to activate many immune pathways involved in both autoimmune disease development and autoimmune reactivity provocation. The current scientific literature is void of research papers linking BPA directly to human or animal onset of autoimmunity. This paper explores the impact of BPA on immune reactivity and the potential roles these mechanisms may have on the development or provocation of autoimmune diseases. Potential mechanisms by which BPA may be a contributing risk factor to autoimmune disease development and progression include its impact on hyperprolactinemia, estrogenic immune signaling, cytochrome P450 enzyme disruption, immune signal transduction pathway alteration, cytokine polarization, aryl hydrocarbon activation of Th-17 receptors, molecular mimicry, macrophage activation, lipopolysaccharide activation, and immunoglobulin pathophysiology. In this paper a review of these known autoimmune triggering mechanisms will be correlated with BPA exposure, thereby suggesting that BPA has a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  8. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bisphenol A and Metabolic Syndrome: Results from NHANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Teppala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is detected in the urine of >95% of US adults. Recent evidence from population-based studies suggests that BPA is associated with individual components for metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, no previous study has examined the direct association between BPA and MetS. Methods. We examined 2,104 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008. The main outcome was the presence of MetS (n=741. Results. Increasing levels of urinary BPA were positively associated with MetS, independent of confounders such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and urinary creatinine. Compared to tertile 1 (referent, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval of MetS in tertile 3 was 1.51 (1.07–2.12; P-trend was 0.02. Conclusions. Urinary BPA levels are positively associated with MetS, in a representative sample of US adults and independent of traditional risk factors for MetS. Future, prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  10. Effects of bisphenol A on chlorophyll fluorescence in five plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Wang, Lihong; Li, Man; Jiao, Liya; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on plant photosynthesis and determine whether the photosynthetic response to BPA exposure varies in different plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence techniques were used to investigate the effects of BPA on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. Low-dose (1.5 or 3.0 mg L(-1)) BPA exposure improved photosystem II efficiency, increased the absorption and conversion efficiency of primary light energy, and accelerated photosynthetic electron transport in each plant, all of which increased photosynthesis. These effects weakened or disappeared after the withdrawal of BPA. High-dose (10.0 mg L(-1)) BPA exposure damaged the photosystem II reaction center, inhibited the photochemical reaction, and caused excess energy to be released as heat. These effects were more evident after the highest BPA dose (17.2 mg L(-1)), but they weakened after the withdrawal of BPA. The magnitude of BPA exposure effects on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in the five plants followed the order: lettuce > tomato > soybean > maize > rice. The opposite order was observed following the removal of BPA. In conclusion, the chlorophyll fluorescence response in plants exposed to BPA depended on BPA dose and plant species.

  11. Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeneix Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA, used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, is produced at over 2.5 million metric tons per year. Concerns have been raised that BPA acts as an endocrine disruptor on both developmental and reproductive processes and a large body of evidence suggests that BPA interferes with estrogen and thyroid hormone signaling. Here, we investigated BPA effects during embryonic development using the zebrafish and Xenopus models. Results We report that BPA exposure leads to severe malformations of the otic vesicle. In zebrafish and in Xenopus embryos, exposure to BPA during the first developmental day resulted in dose-dependent defects in otolith formation. Defects included aggregation, multiplication and occasionally failure to form otoliths. As no effects on otolith development were seen with exposure to micromolar concentrations of thyroid hormone, 17-ß-estradiol or of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 we conclude that the effects of BPA are independent of estrogen receptors or thyroid-hormone receptors. Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ouabain can rescue the BPA-induced otolith phenotype. Conclusions The data suggest that the spectrum of BPA action is wider than previously expected and argue for a systematic survey of the developmental effects of this endocrine disruptor.

  12. Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Yann; Sassi-Messai, Sana; Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Bernard, Laure; Zalko, Daniel; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Balaguer, Patrick; Andersson-Lendahl, Monika; Demeneix, Barbara; Laudet, Vincent

    2011-01-26

    The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, is produced at over 2.5 million metric tons per year. Concerns have been raised that BPA acts as an endocrine disruptor on both developmental and reproductive processes and a large body of evidence suggests that BPA interferes with estrogen and thyroid hormone signaling. Here, we investigated BPA effects during embryonic development using the zebrafish and Xenopus models. We report that BPA exposure leads to severe malformations of the otic vesicle. In zebrafish and in Xenopus embryos, exposure to BPA during the first developmental day resulted in dose-dependent defects in otolith formation. Defects included aggregation, multiplication and occasionally failure to form otoliths. As no effects on otolith development were seen with exposure to micromolar concentrations of thyroid hormone, 17-ß-estradiol or of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 we conclude that the effects of BPA are independent of estrogen receptors or thyroid-hormone receptors. Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ouabain can rescue the BPA-induced otolith phenotype. The data suggest that the spectrum of BPA action is wider than previously expected and argue for a systematic survey of the developmental effects of this endocrine disruptor.

  13. Influence of Bisphenol A on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Paola Provvisiero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies on humans and preclinical studies on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models indicate that BPA, mostly at low doses, may have a role in increasing type 2 diabetes mellitus developmental risk, directly acting on pancreatic cells, in which BPA induces the impairment of insulin and glucagon secretion, triggers inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis, and acts on muscle, hepatic, and adipose cell function, triggering an insulin-resistant state. The current review summarizes the available evidences regarding the association between BPA and type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on both clinical and preclinical studies.

  14. Enamel Defects Reflect Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, Katia; De la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Brookes, Steven J.; Loiodice, Sophia; Marciano, Clémence; Kirkham, Jennifer; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Boudalia, Sofiane; Bergès, Raymond; Harada, Hidemitsu; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are environmental ubiquitous pollutants and associated with a growing health concern. Anecdotally, molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is increasing concurrently with EDC-related conditions, which has led us to investigate the effect of BPA on amelogenesis. Rats were exposed daily to BPA from conception until day 30 or 100. At day 30, BPA-affected enamel exhibited hypomineralization similar to human MIH. Scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed an abnormal accumulation of organic material in erupted enamel. BPA-affected enamel had an abnormal accumulation of exogenous albumin in the maturation stage. Quantitative real-timePCR, Western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays revealed increased expression of enamelin but decreased expression of kallikrein 4 (protease essential for removing enamel proteins) via transcriptional regulation. Data suggest that BPA exerts its effects on amelogenesis by disrupting normal protein removal from the enamel matrix. Interestingly, in 100-day-old rats, erupting incisor enamel was normal, suggesting amelogenesis is only sensitive to MIH-causing agents during a specific time window during development (as reported for human MIH). The present work documents the first experimental model that replicates MIH and presents BPA as a potential causative agent of MIH. Because human enamel defects are irreversible, MIH may provide an easily accessible marker for reporting early EDC exposure in humans. PMID:23764278

  15. Bisphenol A sulfonation is impaired in metabolic and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Emine B; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Slitt, Angela L; King, Roberta

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and suspected endocrine disruptor to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. The liver metabolizes and facilitates BPA excretion through glucuronidation and sulfonation. The sulfotransferase enzymes contributing to BPA sulfonation (detected in human and rodents) is poorly understood. To determine the impact of metabolic and liver disease on BPA sulfonation in human and mouse livers. The capacity for BPA sulfonation was determined in human liver samples that were categorized into different stages of metabolic and liver disease (including obesity, diabetes, steatosis, and cirrhosis) and in livers from ob/ob mice. In human liver tissues, BPA sulfonation was substantially lower in livers from subjects with steatosis (23%), diabetes cirrhosis (16%), and cirrhosis (18%), relative to healthy individuals with non-fatty livers (100%). In livers of obese mice (ob/ob), BPA sulfonation was lower (23%) than in livers from lean wild-type controls (100%). In addition to BPA sulfonation activity, Sult1a1 protein expression decreased by 97% in obese mouse livers. Taken together these findings establish a profoundly reduced capacity of BPA elimination via sulfonation in obese or diabetic individuals and in those with fatty or cirrhotic livers versus individuals with healthy livers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early embryogenesis in zebrafish is affected by bisphenol A exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. F. Tse

    2013-03-01

    Exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs has been hypothesized to increase the propensity of an individual to develop a disease or dysfunction in his/her later life. Although it is important to understand the effects of EDCs on early development in animals, sufficient information about these effects is not available thus far. This is probably because of the technical difficulties in tracing the continuous developmental changes at different stages of mammalian embryos. The zebrafish, an excellent model currently used in developmental biology, provides new insights to the field of toxicological studies. We used the standard whole-mount in situ hybridization screening protocol to determine the early developmental defects in zebrafish embryos exposed to the ubiquitous pollutant, bisphenol A (BPA. Three stages (60–75% epiboly, 8–10 somite, and prim-5 were selected for in situ screening of different molecular markers, whereas BPA exposure altered early dorsoventral (DV patterning, segmentation, and brain development in zebrafish embryos within 24 hours of exposure.

  17. Bisphenol A Induces Hepatotoxicity through Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab K. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are cytotoxic agents that lead to significant oxidative damage. Bisphenol A (BPA is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to limited information concerning the effect of BPA on liver, this study investigates whether BPA causes hepatotoxicity by induction of oxidative stress in liver. Rats were divided into five groups: The first four groups, BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 50 mg/kg/day were administrated orally to rats for four weeks. The fifth group was taken water with vehicle. The final body weights in the 0.1 mg group showed a significant decrease compared to control group. Significant decreased levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and catalase activity were found in the 50 mg BPA group compared to control groups. High dose of BPA (50 mg/kg significantly increased the biochemical levels of ALT, ALP and total bilirubin. BPA effect on the activity of antioxidant genes was confirmed by real time PCR in which the expression levels of these genes in liver tissue were significantly decrease compared to control. Data from this study demonstrate that BPA generate ROS and reduce the antioxidant gene expression that causes hepatotoxicity.

  18. BISPHENOL A AND ITS POTENTIAL TOXIC EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Šutiaková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, 2, 2,-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl propane, CAS No. 80-05-7, is an industrial chemical that is made by combining acetone and phenol. Food is acknowledged to be a main source of exposure to BPA as a consequence of BPA migration from food containers. Several studies have reported BPA migrations from can surface coatings or plastics into foods and food-simulating liquids at high temperatures, and with repeated use of plastic products. Evaluation of BPA confirmed a no-observable adverse effect level (NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/body weight/day and established a maximum total daily intake (TDI of 0.05 mg/kg body weight. A metabolism of BPA is characterized mainly by phase II conjugation reactions in the gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. The presence of BPA in the environment can cause serious health problems (endocrine disruptions, neurotoxic, genotoxic and other problems. However, there are controversial opinions about BPA. Based on current knowledge of literature the need for further experimental studies in addressing health of human and animal populations living in different ecosystems may be still useful.

  19. Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, is produced at over 2.5 million metric tons per year. Concerns have been raised that BPA acts as an endocrine disruptor on both developmental and reproductive processes and a large body of evidence suggests that BPA interferes with estrogen and thyroid hormone signaling. Here, we investigated BPA effects during embryonic development using the zebrafish and Xenopus models. Results We report that BPA exposure leads to severe malformations of the otic vesicle. In zebrafish and in Xenopus embryos, exposure to BPA during the first developmental day resulted in dose-dependent defects in otolith formation. Defects included aggregation, multiplication and occasionally failure to form otoliths. As no effects on otolith development were seen with exposure to micromolar concentrations of thyroid hormone, 17-ß-estradiol or of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 we conclude that the effects of BPA are independent of estrogen receptors or thyroid-hormone receptors. Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ouabain can rescue the BPA-induced otolith phenotype. Conclusions The data suggest that the spectrum of BPA action is wider than previously expected and argue for a systematic survey of the developmental effects of this endocrine disruptor. PMID:21269433

  20. Comparison of risks due to bisphenol A and radiation with trad-MCN assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. K.; Chon, K. J.; Lee, B. H.

    2001-01-01

    Many kinds of synthetic chemicals have been being used for various purposes. Some of them are called 'environmental hormones' because they can disturb the endocrine system of organisms. Presently no technique is established for the quantitative assessment of biological risk of the environmental hormones. The pollen mother cells (PMC) of Tradescantia are very sensitive to chemical toxicants or ionizing radiation, and thus can be used as a biological end-point assessing their effect. Micronucleus frequencies in PMC showed a good dose- and concentration-response relationship for radiation and bisphenol A. From the dose-response relationship, it is possible to estimate the equivalent bisphenol A concentration, or vice versa. One μM/ml of bisphenol A is equivalent to 1.8 cGy of radiation in the induction of micronuclei. It is known from the result that Trad-MCN assay can be an excellent tool for detection of biological risk due to environmental toxicants or synthetic chemicals

  1. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  2. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  3. Temperature determines toxicity: Bisphenol A reduces thermal tolerance in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Alexander G.; Seebacher, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous pollutant around the globe, but whether environmental concentrations have toxic effects remains controversial. BPA interferes with a number of nuclear receptor pathways, including several that mediate animal responses to environmental input. Because thermal acclimation is regulated by these pathways in fish, we hypothesized that the toxicity of BPA would change with ambient temperature. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ecologically relevant and artificially high concentrations of BPA at two acclimation temperatures, and tested physiological responses at two test temperatures that corresponded to acclimation temperatures. We found ecologically relevant concentrations of BPA (20 μg l −1 ) impair swimming performance, heart rate, muscle and cardiac SERCA activity and gene expression. We show many of these responses are temperature-specific and non-monotonic. Our results suggest that BPA pollution can compound the effects of climate change, and that its effects are more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for. - Highlights: • Whether environmental levels of BPA have toxic effects on local ecology remains controversial. • We show that ecological concentrations of BPA impair physiological performance in fish. • We also show that the toxic effects of BPA are temperature-specific and non-monotonic with dose. • BPA pollution will likely compound the effects of climate change, and vice-versa. • The toxic effects of BPA appear to be more dynamic than toxicological assessments account for. - BPA pollution is likely to compound the effects of climate change, and climate change may worsen the effects of BPA exposure. Its effects are likely to be more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for

  4. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 μg/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  5. Bisphenol a exposure disrupts genomic imprinting in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Susiarjo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disruptors is associated with developmental defects. One compound of concern, to which humans are widely exposed, is bisphenol A (BPA. In model organisms, BPA exposure is linked to metabolic disorders, infertility, cancer, and behavior anomalies. Recently, BPA exposure has been linked to DNA methylation changes, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms may be relevant. We investigated effects of exposure on genomic imprinting in the mouse as imprinted genes are regulated by differential DNA methylation and aberrant imprinting disrupts fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Through allele-specific and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we demonstrated that maternal BPA exposure during late stages of oocyte development and early stages of embryonic development significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in embryonic day (E 9.5 and 12.5 embryos and placentas. The affected genes included Snrpn, Ube3a, Igf2, Kcnq1ot1, Cdkn1c, and Ascl2; mutations and aberrant regulation of these genes are associated with imprinting disorders in humans. Furthermore, the majority of affected genes were expressed abnormally in the placenta. DNA methylation studies showed that BPA exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of differentially methylated regions (DMRs including the Snrpn imprinting control region (ICR and Igf2 DMR1. Moreover, exposure significantly reduced genome-wide methylation levels in the placenta, but not the embryo. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that these epigenetic defects were associated with abnormal placental development. In contrast to this early exposure paradigm, exposure outside of the epigenetic reprogramming window did not cause significant imprinting perturbations. Our data suggest that early exposure to common environmental compounds has the potential to disrupt fetal and postnatal health through epigenetic changes in the embryo and abnormal development of the

  6. Bisphenol A alters gut microbiome: Comparative metagenomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keng-Po; Chung, Yan-Tung; Li, Rong; Wan, Hin-Ting; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Mounting evidence has shown that an alteration of the gut microbiota is associated with diet, and plays an important role in animal health and metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the influence of environmental contaminants on the gut microbial community. Bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used for manufacturing plastic products, has recently been classified as an environmental obesogen. Although many studies have demonstrated the metabolic-disrupting effects of BPA on liver and pancreatic functions, the possible effects of this synthetic compound on the metabolic diversity of the intestinal microbiota is unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on caecum samples of CD-1 mice, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary BPA intake may influence the gut microbiota composition and functions, an important attributing factor to development of the metabolic syndrome. A high-fat diet (HFD) and high-sucrose diet (HSD) were included as the positive controls for comparing the changes in the intestinal microbial profiles. Our results demonstrated a significant reduction of species diversity in the gut microbiota of BPA-fed mice. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed that dietary BPA intake led to a similar gut microbial community structure as that induced by HFD and HSD in mice. In addition, comparative analysis of the microbial communities revealed that both BPA and a HFD favored the growth of Proteobacteria, a microbial marker of dysbiosis. Consistently, growth induction of the family Helicobacteraceae and reduction of the Firmicutes and Clostridia populations were observed in the mice fed BPA or a HFD. Collectively, our study highlighted that the effects of dietary BPA intake on the shift of microbial community structure were similar to those of a HFD and HSD, and revealed microbial markers for the development of diseases associated with an unstable microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrochemical degradation of bisphenol A on different anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-hong; Li, Xiao-yan; Chen, Guohua

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on the kinetics, pathways and mechanisms of electrochemical (EC) degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) on four types of anodes, Ti/boron-doped diamond (BDD), Ti/Sb-SnO(2), Ti/RuO(2) and Pt. There were considerable differences among the anodes in their effectiveness and performance of BPA electrolysis. BPA was readily destructed at the Ti/Sb-SnO(2) and Ti/BDD anodes, the Pt anode had a moderate ability to remove BPA, and the Ti/RuO(2) anode was incapable of effectively oxidising BPA. The intermediate products of EC degradation of BPA were detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a general BPA degradation pathway was proposed based on the analytical results. It was suggested that OH radicals produced by water electrolysis attacked BPA to form hydroxylated BPA derivatives that were then transformed into one-ring aromatic compounds. These compounds underwent ring breakage, which led to the formation of aliphatic acids that were eventually mineralised by electrolysis to CO(2). Compared to the Pt and Ti/RuO(2) anodes, the Ti/Sb-SnO(2) and Ti/BDD anodes were found to have higher oxygen evolution potentials and higher anodic potentials for BPA electrolysis under the same current condition. However, the stability and durability of the Ti/Sb-SnO(2) anode still needs to be greatly improved for actual application. In comparison, with its high durability and good reactivity for organic oxidation, the Ti/BDD anode appears to be the more promising one for the effective EC treatment of BPA and similar endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) pollutants.

  8. Maternal bisphenol a exposure impacts the fetal heart transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C Chapalamadugu

    Full Text Available Conditions during fetal development influence health and disease in adulthood, especially during critical windows of organogenesis. Fetal exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA affects the development of multiple organ systems in rodents and monkeys. However, effects of BPA exposure on cardiac development have not been assessed. With evidence that maternal BPA is transplacentally delivered to the developing fetus, it becomes imperative to examine the physiological consequences of gestational exposure during primate development. Herein, we evaluate the effects of daily, oral BPA exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta on the fetal heart transcriptome. Pregnant monkeys were given daily oral doses (400 µg/kg body weight of BPA during early (50-100 ± 2 days post conception, dpc or late (100 ± 2 dpc--term, gestation. At the end of treatment, fetal heart tissues were collected and chamber specific transcriptome expression was assessed using genome-wide microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on select genes and ventricular tissue glycogen content was quantified. Our results show that BPA exposure alters transcription of genes that are recognized for their role in cardiac pathophysiologies. Importantly, myosin heavy chain, cardiac isoform alpha (Myh6 was down-regulated in the left ventricle, and 'A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12', long isoform (Adam12-l was up-regulated in both ventricles, and the right atrium of the heart in BPA exposed fetuses. BPA induced alteration of these genes supports the hypothesis that exposure to BPA during fetal development may impact cardiovascular fitness. Our results intensify concerns about the role of BPA in the genesis of human metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Bisphenol A and congenital developmental defects in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Maurizio [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Troisi, Jacopo, E-mail: j.troisi@studenti.unisa.it [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Ciccone, Carla [“G. Moscati” Hospital Avellino (Italy); Granozio, Giovanni; Cosimato, Cosimo [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Sardo, Attilio Di Spiezio; Ferrara, Cinzia [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Guida, Marco [Department of Biology, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Nappi, Carmine [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Zullo, Fulvio [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Di Carlo, Costantino [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and fetal malformations in humans. • We show that a reduced ability to metabolize the BPA in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformations. • The average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater in case of chromosomal malformations than the controls. - Abstract: Over 50% of the causes of fetal malformations in humans are still unknown. Recent evidence suggests the relationship between environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors and fetal malformations. Our study aims to establish the role of Bisphenol A (BPA), if any, in altering human reproduction. We enrolled 151 pregnant women who were divided into two groups: case group (CS, n = 101), women with established diagnosis of developmental defect, and control group (CL, n = 50), pregnant women with normally developed fetus. Total, free and conjugated BPA were measured in their blood using GC–MS with isotopic dilution. The results show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and the genesis of fetal malformations. Conjugated BPA, which was higher in the CL, casts light on the hypothesis that a reduced ability to metabolize the chemical in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformation. In a more detailed manner, in case of chromosomal malformations, the average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater than that of the controls. Similarly, in case of central and peripheral nervous system non-chromosomal malformations, the value of free BPA is nearly two times greater than that of the controls.

  10. Bisphenol A induces spermatocyte apoptosis in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Cheng, Mengqian; Wu, Lang; Zhang, Guo; Wang, Zaizhao, E-mail: zzwang@nwsuaf.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Adult male G. rarus were exposed to 225 μg/L BPA for 7, 21 and 63 days. • BPA could induce spermatocyte apoptosis in rare minnow testis. • The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway participated in the germ cell apoptosis. • The spermatocyte apoptosis was likely initiated by BPA induced meiosis arrest. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor, and could induce germ cells apoptosis in the testis of mammals. But whether it could affect fish in the same mechanism has not’ been studied till now. In the present study, to investigate the influence of BPA on testis germ cells in fish, adult male rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus were exposed to 225 μg L{sup −1} (0.99 μM) BPA for 1, 3 and 9 weeks. Through TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis, we found that the amount of apoptotic spermatocytes significantly increased in a time dependent manner following BPA exposure. Western Blot results showed that the ratio of Bcl2/Bax, the important apoptosis regulators in intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, was significantly decreased. qPCR showed that mRNA expression of several genes in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway including bcl2, bax, casp9, cytc and mcl1b were significantly changed following BPA exposure. In addition, mRNA expression of meiosis regulation genes (kpna7 and wee2), and genes involved in both apoptosis and meiosis (birc5, ccna1, and gsa1a) were also affected by BPA. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that BPA could induce spermatocytes apoptosis in rare minnow testis, and the apoptosis was probably under regulation of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Moreover, the spermatocyte apoptosis was likely initiated by BPA induced meiosis arrest.

  11. Bisphenol A exposure enhances atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fang

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s. BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37% accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60% but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  12. Bisphenol A sulfonation is impaired in metabolic and liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, Emine B.; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Slitt, Angela L.; King, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and suspected endocrine disruptor to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. The liver metabolizes and facilitates BPA excretion through glucuronidation and sulfonation. The sulfotransferase enzymes contributing to BPA sulfonation (detected in human and rodents) is poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the impact of metabolic and liver disease on BPA sulfonation in human and mouse livers. Methods: The capacity for BPA sulfonation was determined in human liver samples that were categorized into different stages of metabolic and liver disease (including obesity, diabetes, steatosis, and cirrhosis) and in livers from ob/ob mice. Results: In human liver tissues, BPA sulfonation was substantially lower in livers from subjects with steatosis (23%), diabetes cirrhosis (16%), and cirrhosis (18%), relative to healthy individuals with non-fatty livers (100%). In livers of obese mice (ob/ob), BPA sulfonation was lower (23%) than in livers from lean wild-type controls (100%). In addition to BPA sulfonation activity, Sult1a1 protein expression decreased by 97% in obese mouse livers. Conclusion: Taken together these findings establish a profoundly reduced capacity of BPA elimination via sulfonation in obese or diabetic individuals and in those with fatty or cirrhotic livers versus individuals with healthy livers. - Highlights: • Present study demonstrates that hepatic SULT 1A1/1A3 are primarily sulfonate BPA in mouse and human. • Hepatic BPA sulfonation is profoundly reduced steatosis, diabetes and cirrhosis. • With BPA-S detectable in urine under low or common exposures, these findings are novel and important.

  13. Removal of bisphenol A by the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium braunii and the role of natural organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattullo, C. Eliana, E-mail: e.gattullo@agr.uniba.it [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale e Ambientale, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari (Italy); Baehrs, Hanno; Steinberg, Christian E.W. [Department of Biology, Freshwater and Stress Ecology, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Spaethstr. 80/81, 12437 Berlin (Germany); Loffredo, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale e Ambientale, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Phytoremediation of waters by aquatic organisms such as algae has been recently explored for the removal of organic pollutants possessing endocrine disrupting capacity. Monoraphidium braunii, a green alga known for rapid growth and good tolerance to different natural organic matter (NOM) qualities, was tested in this study for the ability to tolerate and remove the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 mg L{sup -1}, either in NOM-free or NOM-containing media. NOM at concentrations of 2, 5 and 20 mg L{sup -1} of DOC, was added because it may interfere with xenobiotics and modify their effects, modulate algal growth performances or produce a trade-off of both effects. After 2 and 4 days of algal growth, the cell number and size, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II in the dark or light adapted state, and the chlorophyll a content were recorded in order to evaluate the algal response to bisphenol A. Moreover, the residual bisphenol A was measured in the algal cultures by chromatographic technique. Results indicated that after 2 and 4 days bisphenol A at the lower concentrations was not toxic for alga, whereas at the highest concentration it reduced algal growth and photosynthetic efficiency. The sole NOM and its combinations with bisphenol A at the lower concentrations increased the cell number and the chlorophyll a content of algae. After 4-day growth, good removal efficiency was exerted by M. braunii at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 mg L{sup -1} removing, respectively, 39%, 48% and 35% of the initial bisphenol A. Lower removal percentages were found after 2-day growth in the different treatments. NOM at any concentration scarcely influenced the bisphenol A removal. On the basis of data obtained, the use of M. braunii could be reasonably recommended for the phytoremediation of aquatic environments from bisphenol A. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alga Monoraphidium braunii tolerates high concentrations of bisphenol A

  14. Removal of bisphenol A by the freshwater green alga Monoraphidium braunii and the role of natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattullo, C. Eliana; Bährs, Hanno; Steinberg, Christian E.W.; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation of waters by aquatic organisms such as algae has been recently explored for the removal of organic pollutants possessing endocrine disrupting capacity. Monoraphidium braunii, a green alga known for rapid growth and good tolerance to different natural organic matter (NOM) qualities, was tested in this study for the ability to tolerate and remove the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 mg L −1 , either in NOM-free or NOM-containing media. NOM at concentrations of 2, 5 and 20 mg L −1 of DOC, was added because it may interfere with xenobiotics and modify their effects, modulate algal growth performances or produce a trade-off of both effects. After 2 and 4 days of algal growth, the cell number and size, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II in the dark or light adapted state, and the chlorophyll a content were recorded in order to evaluate the algal response to bisphenol A. Moreover, the residual bisphenol A was measured in the algal cultures by chromatographic technique. Results indicated that after 2 and 4 days bisphenol A at the lower concentrations was not toxic for alga, whereas at the highest concentration it reduced algal growth and photosynthetic efficiency. The sole NOM and its combinations with bisphenol A at the lower concentrations increased the cell number and the chlorophyll a content of algae. After 4-day growth, good removal efficiency was exerted by M. braunii at concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 mg L −1 removing, respectively, 39%, 48% and 35% of the initial bisphenol A. Lower removal percentages were found after 2-day growth in the different treatments. NOM at any concentration scarcely influenced the bisphenol A removal. On the basis of data obtained, the use of M. braunii could be reasonably recommended for the phytoremediation of aquatic environments from bisphenol A. - Highlights: ► The alga Monoraphidium braunii tolerates high concentrations of bisphenol A. ► The alga Monoraphidium

  15. Enforcement of the Danish Bisphenol A restriction on Food Contact Materials and Articles for infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In Denmark a national restriction was implemented in 2010 banning the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in any Food Contact Materials intended for children in the age 0-3 years. The ban includes BPA in baby bottles, baby cups, food cans for infant formulas and lids for glass containers with baby food. To ...

  16. Low-dose developmental exposure to bisphenol A alters the femoral bone geometry in wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklou, M. H.; Christiansen, Sofie; Orberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical produced in large volumes for use in manufacturing of consumer products and industrial applications, and an endocrine disruptor known to affect several hormonal systems. Bone produces hormones and is additionally a sensitive hormone target tissue, and i...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  18. Trace determination of bisphenol-A in landfill leachate samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and efficient sample pretreatment technique, termed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), was developed as an extraction methodology to determine bisphenol-A (BPA), in landfill leachate samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet detection. Some effective ...

  19. “Orange alert”: A fluorescent detector for bisphenol A in water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liyun; Er, Jun Cheng; Xu, Wang; Qin, Xian; Samanta, Animesh; Jana, Santanu; Lee, Chi-Lik Ken; Chang, Young-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report a BODIPY-based turn-on fluorescent bisphenol A sensor. • We tested the superior selectivity toward BPA against several bisphenol analogs and phenol. • We demonstrated the stability and robustness of this probe for analyzing BPA in real, complex water samples. - Abstract: Due to the prevalent use of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins in packaging materials and paints for ships, there has been a widespread global contamination of environmental water sources with bisphenol A (BPA). BPA, an endocrine disruptor, has been found to cause tremendous health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detecting BPA in a convenient and sensitive manner to ensure water safety. Herein, we develop a fluorescent turn-on BPA probe, named Bisphenol Orange (BPO), which could conveniently detect BPA in a wide variety of real water samples including sea water, drain water and drinking water. BPO shows superior selectivity toward BPA and up to 70-fold increase in fluorescence emission at 580 nm when mixed with BPA in water. Mechanistic studies suggest a plausible water-dependent formation of hydrophobic BPA clusters which favorably trap and restrict the rotation of BPO and recover its inherent fluorescence

  20. Surface plasmon resonance sensor for detection of bisphenol A in drinking water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hegnerová, Kateřina; Homola, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2010), s. 177-179 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance biosensor * bisphenol A * drinking water Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2010

  1. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and childhood respiratory tract infections and allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Casas, M.; Morales, E.; Valvi, D.; Ballesteros-Gomez, A.M.; Luque, N.; Rubio, S.; Monfort, N.; Ventura, R.; Martinez, D.; Sunyer, J.; Vrijheid, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing concern that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, which are widely used in consumer products, might affect susceptibility to infections and the development of allergy and asthma in children, but there are currently very few prospective studies. Objective

  2. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodin, J.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Wendt, A.; Eliasson, L.; Becher, R.; Kuper, F.; Løvik, M.; Nygaard, U.C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA) accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese

  3. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely detected in human urine and blood. BPA has been reported to impair many endpoints for reproductive and neurological development; however, it is controversial whether BPA has effects in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The aim of the current study was to examine...

  4. The Association between Exposure to Environmental Bisphenol A and Gonadotropic Hormone Levels among Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hong; Xu, Wenping; Chen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an extensively used chemical with endocrine disrupting properties. Although animal and in vivo studies have suggested possible effects of BPA on levels of gonadotropic hormones, human studies are limited and inconclusive. The study examined whether environmental BPA exposure...

  5. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup; Boberg, Julie; Isling, Louise Krag

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food contact materials, toys, and other products. Several studies have indicated that effects observed at doses near human exposure levels may not be observed at higher doses. Many studies have shown effects on mammary glands at low doses of BPA, however, because...

  6. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children...

  7. Epichlorhydrin og bisphenol A i mat-kontaktmaterialer af epoxylakeret metal og/eller af plast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie

    Det er ikke længere tilladt af bruge bisphenol A baseret polycarbonatplast til fremstilling af tåteflasker. Mattilsynet udtog i vinteren 2012/2013 7 typer af sutteflasker som blev kontrolleret for om de indeholdt polycarbonatbaserede plastdele. I alt 28 enkeltdele blev kontrolleret ved infrarød...... spektrometri. Herudover blev 6 tutekopper, bestående af 38 enkeltdele, analyseret med samme teknik. Der blev ikke påvist bisphenol A baseret plast ved analyserne. Dåser, bægre, tuber og skruelåg kan være lakeret på matkontaktsiden med epoxylakker fremstillet af monomererne epichlorhydrin og bisphenol A. Alle...... 50 enkeltdele fra disse prøver blev undersøgt ved infrarød spektrometri og 9 af prøverne viste tegn på at indeholde epoxylak. Disse prøver blev undersøgt ved en ”worst case” ekstraktionstest hvor der kunne påvises små indhold af bisphenol A i ekstrakterne mens der ikke kunne påvises epichlorhydrin...

  8. Detection of bisphenol A using a novel surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hegnerová, Kateřina; Piliarik, Marek; Šteinbachová, M.; Flegelová, Z.; Černohorská, H.; Homola, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 398, č. 5 (2010), s. 1963-1966 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701; GA MŠk OC09058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance biosensor * bisphenol A * endocrine disruptor Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.841, year: 2010

  9. “Orange alert”: A fluorescent detector for bisphenol A in water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liyun [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Er, Jun Cheng [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Xu, Wang; Qin, Xian [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Samanta, Animesh; Jana, Santanu [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Chi-Lik Ken [Centre for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Singapore Polytechnic, 139651 Singapore (Singapore); Chang, Young-Tae, E-mail: chmcyt@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report a BODIPY-based turn-on fluorescent bisphenol A sensor. • We tested the superior selectivity toward BPA against several bisphenol analogs and phenol. • We demonstrated the stability and robustness of this probe for analyzing BPA in real, complex water samples. - Abstract: Due to the prevalent use of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins in packaging materials and paints for ships, there has been a widespread global contamination of environmental water sources with bisphenol A (BPA). BPA, an endocrine disruptor, has been found to cause tremendous health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detecting BPA in a convenient and sensitive manner to ensure water safety. Herein, we develop a fluorescent turn-on BPA probe, named Bisphenol Orange (BPO), which could conveniently detect BPA in a wide variety of real water samples including sea water, drain water and drinking water. BPO shows superior selectivity toward BPA and up to 70-fold increase in fluorescence emission at 580 nm when mixed with BPA in water. Mechanistic studies suggest a plausible water-dependent formation of hydrophobic BPA clusters which favorably trap and restrict the rotation of BPO and recover its inherent fluorescence.

  10. Occurrence of nonylphenol and bisphenol-A in surface waters from Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Débora de A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the endocrine disruptor compounds, such as 4-nonylphenol isomers and bisphenol A was determined in surface water samples from Portugal. The analytical method used involved the preconcentration of 200 mL of water sample by solid phase extraction (SPE using a OASIS (Waters cartridge, followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS determination. Recoveries and limits of detection of 4-nonylphenol isomers and bisphenol-A were 73 % and 119 %, respectively, 0.01 mug L-1 and 0.002 mug L-1. The method was applied to the determination of these estrogenic pollutants in river and coastal waters during three months (August-October/1999. The total samples analyzed were 135. Concentrations of 4-nonylphenol isomers and bisphenol-A ranged from 0.03-30 mug L-1 and 0.07-4.0 mug L-1, respectively. Only in two river samples, concentrations of 4-nonylphenol isomers were above 10 mug L-1 and bisphenol-A were above 2 mug L-1. These values can cause estrogenic effects in fish and these sampling points require further investigation in order to verify the maintenance of these levels.

  11. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andra, Syam S.; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (Cl(x)BPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA

  12. Examining the biodegradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A and nonylphenol in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine biodegradation of the endocrine disrupting chemicals bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) in activated sludge. Experiments were performed in a pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Copenhagen, Denmark. During standard operation the BPA concentration...

  13. Prenatal exposure to bisphenols and parabens and impacts on human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolatorova, L; Duskova, M; Vitku, J; Starka, L

    2017-09-26

    In modern societies, living organisms are exposed daily to multiform pollution from industrial chemical products. Some of these substances have been shown to affect the endocrine system, and have been termed endocrine disruptors (EDs). Bisphenol A (BPA), which can leach from plastics, and parabens, used in cosmetic products, are among the most well-studied. Prenatal development is a vulnerable phase of human life, and disruptions during this period may have lifelong consequences. Since EDs are known to cross the placental barrier and BPA may accumulate in the fetus, "BPA-free" products have been introduced to the market. However, such products often contain alternative bisphenols (e.g. BPS, BPF) that have not yet been extensively examined or regulated. Moreover, alternative bisphenols often occur together with BPA. The human organism is thus exposed to a mixture of EDs, some of which can have additive or synergic effects. Recent findings have also shown that paraben exposure can alter bisphenol pharmacokinetics. Taking into account the widespread occurrence of various EDs and the potential multiplicity of their effects, doses of EDs currently considered safe may not actually be as safe as they appear, especially during pregnancy.

  14. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyllenhammar, I.; Glynn, A.; Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Delft, R. van; Aune, M.

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still

  15. Fetal growth and prenatal exposure to bisphenol A: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia); D. Heederik (Dick); F.H. Pierik (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.M. Koch (Holger M); M.P. Longnecker (Matthew); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We investigated the relation of prenatal BPA exposure with intrauterine growth and evaluated the effect of the number of

  16. Fetal growth and prenatal exposure to bisphenol A: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, C.A.; Heederik, D.; Pierik, F.H.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Koch, H.M.; Longnecker, M.P.; Burdorf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We investigated the relation of prenatal BPA exposure with intrauterine growth and evaluated the effect of the number of

  17. Endocrine disruption in a terrestrial isopod under exposure to bisphenol A and vinclozin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos, M.F.L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope In the past decade there has been an increasing awareness about the possible consequences of human and wildlife exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) are EDCs which impacts on vertebrates have been largely investigated.

  18. Transmaternal bisphenol a exposure accelerates diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodin, J.; Bølling, A.B.; Becher, R.; Kuper, F.; Løvik, M.; Nygaard, U.C.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 is an autoimmune disease with a genetic predisposition that is triggered by environmental factors during early life. Epidemiological studies show that bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, has been detected in about 90% of all analyzed human urine samples. In this

  19. Reproducibility of urinary bisphenol A concentrations measured during pregnancy in the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Shaw, P.A.; Snijder, C.A.; Pierik, F.H.; Koch, H.M.; Hauser, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Burdorf, A.; Hofman, A.; Tiemeier, H.; Longnecker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential human health effects of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure are a public health concern. In order to design adequately powered epidemiological studies to address potential health effects, data on the reproducibility of BPA concentration in seri al urine specimens taken during pregnancy are

  20. Effects of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Bisphenol A on the Fathead Minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a wide-spread environmental contaminant of concern due, in part, to possible effects on the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, including activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). There is a reasonable amount of toxicological information fo...

  1. Effects of Bisphenol A on the Ovarian Transcriptome of Two Small Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and many other commercial products. BPA has long been characterized as a xenoestrogen, and recent work suggests potential additional modes of endocrine ac...

  2. The psychology of 'regrettable substitutions': Examining consumer judgements of Bisphenol A and its alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D; Maynard, Andrew; Dolinoy, Dana C; Fagerlin, Angela; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical used to make certain types of plastics and is found in numerous consumer products. Because scientific studies have raised concerns about Bisphenol A's potential impact on human health, it has been removed from some (but not all) products. What many consumers do not know, however, is that Bisphenol A is often replaced with other, less-studied chemicals whose health implications are virtually unknown. This type of situation is known as a potential 'regrettable substitution', because the substitute material might actually be worse than the material that it replaces. Regrettable substitutions are a common concern among policymakers, and they are a real-world manifestation of the tension that can exist between the desire to avoid risk (known possible consequences that might or might not occur) and ambiguity (second-order uncertainty), which is itself aversive. In this article we examine how people make such trade-offs using the example of Bisphenol A. Using data from Study 1, we show that people have inconsistent preferences toward these alternatives and that choice is largely determined by irrelevant contextual factors such as the order in which the alternatives are evaluated. Using data from Study 2 we further demonstrate that when people are informed of the presence of substitute chemicals, labeling the alternative product as 'free' of Bisphenol A causes them to be significantly more likely to choose the alternative despite its ambiguity. We discuss the relevance of these findings for extant psychological theories as well as their implications for risk, policy and health communication.

  3. The psychology of ‘regrettable substitutions’: Examining consumer judgements of Bisphenol A and its alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D.; Maynard, Andrew; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Fagerlin, Angela; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical used to make certain types of plastics and is found in numerous consumer products. Because scientific studies have raised concerns about Bisphenol A’s potential impact on human health, it has been removed from some (but not all) products. What many consumers do not know, however, is that Bisphenol A is often replaced with other, less-studied chemicals whose health implications are virtually unknown. This type of situation is known as a potential ‘regrettable substitution’, because the substitute material might actually be worse than the material that it replaces. Regrettable substitutions are a common concern among policymakers, and they are a real-world manifestation of the tension that can exist between the desire to avoid risk (known possible consequences that might or might not occur) and ambiguity (second-order uncertainty), which is itself aversive. In this article we examine how people make such trade-offs using the example of Bisphenol A. Using data from Study 1, we show that people have inconsistent preferences toward these alternatives and that choice is largely determined by irrelevant contextual factors such as the order in which the alternatives are evaluated. Using data from Study 2 we further demonstrate that when people are informed of the presence of substitute chemicals, labeling the alternative product as ‘free’ of Bisphenol A causes them to be significantly more likely to choose the alternative despite its ambiguity. We discuss the relevance of these findings for extant psychological theories as well as their implications for risk, policy and health communication. PMID:29386966

  4. Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shoei-Lung Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic effects on DNA methylation, histone modification, and expression of non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs of environmental chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates have expanded our understanding of the etiology of human complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic modifications caused by in utero exposure to environmental toxicants can induce alterations in gene expression that may persist throughout life. Epigenetics is an important mechanism in the ability of environmental chemicals to influence health and disease, and BPA and phthalates are epigenetically toxic. The epigenetic effect of BPA was clearly demonstrated in viable yellow mice by decreasing CpG methylation upstream of the Agouti gene, and the hypomethylating effect of BPA was prevented by maternal dietary supplementation with a methyl donor like folic acid or the phytoestrogen genistein. Histone H3 was found to be trimethylated at lysine 27 by BPA effect on EZH2 in a human breast cancer cell line and mice. BPA exposure of human placental cell lines has been shown to alter microRNA expression levels, and specifically, miR-146a was strongly induced by BPA treatment. In human breast cancer MCF7 cells, treatment with the phthalate BBP led to demethylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 promoter-associated CpG islands, indicating that altered ESR1 mRNA expression by BBP is due to aberrant DNA methylation. Maternal exposure to phthalate DEHP was also shown to increase DNA methylation and expression levels of DNA methyltransferases in mouse testis. Further, some epigenetic effects of BPA and phthalates in female rats were found to be transgenerational. Finally, the available new technologies for global analysis of epigenetic alterations will provide insight into the extent and patterns of alterations between human normal and diseased tissues.

  5. Coupled Abiotic-Biotic Degradation of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, J.; Prevatte, C.; Campagna, S. R.; Loeffler, F.

    2014-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with weak estrogenic activity. BPA is readily biodegradable with oxygen available, but is recalcitrant to microbial degradation under anoxic conditions. However, BPA is susceptible to abiotic transformation under anoxic conditions. To better understand the fate of BPA in anoxic environments, the kinetics of BPA transformation by manganese oxide (d-MnO2) were investigated. BPA was rapidly transformed by MnO2 with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.413 min-1. NMR and LC-MS analyses identified 4-hydroxycumyl alcohol (HCA) as a major intermediate. Up to 64% of the initial amount of BPA was recovered as HCA within 5 min, but the conversion efficiency decreased with time, suggesting that HCA was further degraded by MnO2. Further experiments confirmed that HCA was also susceptible to transformation by MnO2, albeit at 5-fold lower rates than BPA transformation. Mass balance approaches suggested that HCA was the major BPA transformation intermediate, but other compounds may also be formed. The abiotic transformation of BPA by MnO2 was affected by pH, and 10-fold higher transformation rates were observed at pH 4.5 than at pH 10. Compared to BPA, HCA has a lower octanol-water partitioning coefficient (Log Kow) of 0.76 vs 2.76 for BPA and a higher aqueous solubility of 2.65 g L-1 vs 0.31 g L-1 for BPA, suggesting higher mobility of HCA in the environment. Microcosms established with freshwater sediment materials collected from four geographically distinct locations and amended with HCA demonstrated rapid HCA biodegradation under oxic, but not under anoxic conditions. These findings suggest that BPA is not inert under anoxic conditions and abiotic reactions with MnO2 generate HCA, which has increased mobility and is susceptible to aerobic degradation. Therefore, coupled abiotic-biotic processes can affect the fate and longevity of BPA in terrestrial environments.

  6. Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, M; Fujii, S; Furukawa, M; Kiguchi, M; Ikka, T; Harazono, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the low-dose effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in a rat two-generation reproduction study. Groups of 25 male and 25 female Crj: CD (SD) IGS rats were given BPA at 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 microg/kg/day by gastric intubation throughout the study beginning at the onset of a 10- and 2-week premating period, in F0 males and females, respectively, and continuing through the mating, gestation, and lactation periods, for two generations. There were adult (F0, F1, F2) and postnatal day (PND) 22 (F1, F2) necropsies: the oldest F2 males and females being killed at postnatal weeks 7 and 14, respectively. No compound-related clinical signs or effects on body weight or food consumption were observed in any generation. There were no compound-related changes in surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis reflex, mid-air righting reflex, pinna detachment, incisor eruption, eye opening, testes descent, preputial separation, or vaginal opening in F1 and F2 generations, or behavior in the open field or water filled multiple T-maze in the F1 generation. No test compound-related changes in estrous cyclicity, copulation index, fertility index, number of implantations, gestation length, litter size, pup weight, pup sex ratio, pup viability, or other functional reproductive measures were noted in any generation. A few significant changes in the anogenital distance (AGD) per cube root of body weight ratio were found at 0.2 and 20 microg/kg in F1 males, at 2, 20, and 200 microg/kg in F1 females, and at 20 and 200 microg/kg in F2 females. However, the changes in the AGD were consistently small (within 5% of control values), and no continuous changes in the AGD or AGD/cube root of body weight ratio were detected. There were no compound-related changes in epididymal sperm counts or motility in F0 and F1 males. No compound-related necropsy findings or effects on organ weight including the reproductive organs were found in any generation. Histopathologic examinations

  7. Impact of Pregnancy on the Levels of Parabens and Bisphenol A: Data from NHANES 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram B. Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between the levels of bisphenol A and selected parabens and pregnancy status among females 20–44 years old with adjustments made for factors that may affect the levels of these chemicals. Pregnancy did not affect the levels of bisphenol A, ethyl paraben, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben, but the pregnancy was found to be associated with increased levels of butyl paraben. Also, the levels of bisphenol A and butyl, ethyl, and methyl parabens increased as pregnancy progressed from the first trimester to the third trimester. The increasing levels of bisphenol A and parabens during pregnancy are of concern and need further clinical explanation.

  8. Cross-reactivity among epoxy acrylates and bisphenol F epoxy resins in patients with bisphenol A epoxy resin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han N; Pokorny, Christopher D; Law, Sandra; Pratt, Melanie; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J

    2002-09-01

    The study's objective was 2-fold: first, to evaluate the potential cross-reactivity between Bis-A epoxy resins and epoxy acrylates and second, to study the cross reactivity between Bis-A epoxy resins and newer Bis-F epoxy resins in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resins and had positive patch test to the standard epoxy resin based on bisphenol A. Forty-one patients were patch tested to 23 chemicals including epoxy acrylates, Bis-A epoxy resins, and Bis-F epoxy resins, as well as reactive diluents and nonbisphenol epoxy resins. Questions concerning exposure to epoxy resins, occupational history, and problems with dental work were completed. All patients included in the study had positive reactions to the standard Bis-A epoxy resin. Twenty percent (8 of 41) of the patients reacted to at least one of the epoxy acrylates; the most common reaction was to Bis-GMA. Five of 8 patients who reacted to the epoxy acrylates had dental work, but only one patient had problems from her dental work. Six of 8 patients (75%) who reacted to epoxy resins and epoxy acrylates did not react to aliphatic acrylates. Thirty-two percent (13 of 41) reacted to tosylamide epoxy resin, and none reacted to triglycidyl isocyanurate resin. In addition, all patients (100%) had positive reactions to at least one of the Bis-F epoxy resins that were tested. Most patients with sensitivity to Bis-A epoxy resins do not cross-react with epoxy acrylates. Patients with positive patch test reactions to epoxy acrylates used in dentistry usually do not have symptoms from their dental work. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of patients with sensitivity to the standard Bis-A epoxy resin that have been patch tested with the more recently introduced Bis-F epoxy resins. There is significant cross-reactivity between Bis-A and Bis-F epoxy resins, which can be explained by their structural similarity. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  9. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  10. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  11. Resin-based dental sealants as a source of human exposure to bisphenol analogues, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Pranav; Kumosani, Taha A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2018-04-01

    Although studies have examined leaching of bisphenol A (BPA) from dental sealants into saliva, occurrence of BPA, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their derivatives in dental sealants themselves has not been investigated. In this study, concentrations of eight bisphenol analogues (BPs), BADGE and its derivatives (BADGEs), including BADGE‧H 2 O, BADGE‧HCl, BADGE‧2H 2 O, BADGE‧2HCl, and BADGE‧H 2 O‧HCl, were determined in 70 dental sealants collected from the U.S. market. Of the 70 dental sealants analyzed, 65 contained at least one of the target chemicals measured. BADGE‧2H 2 O was the most abundant compound, found at concentrations of up to 1780µg/g. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of total BADGEs was 47.8µg/g, which was two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of total BPs (GM: 539ng/g). BPA was found in 46% of the sealants and BADGEs was found in 87% of the sealants analyzed. Majority of the dental sealants analyzed in this study were manufactured in the United States and Korea; no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of BPs and BADGEs between the two countries. An exposure assessment was made based on the concentrations of BPs and BADGEs measured in sealants and their application rates in dentistry. The worst-case exposure scenario with the highest measured concentration of total BPs and BADGEs and application on 8 teeth at 8mg each yielded an estimated daily intake (EDI) of 1670 and 5850ng/kg·bw/day for adults and children, respectively. Although the EDI is below the specific migration limit set by the European Food Safety Authority, dental sealants are a source of exposure to BPs and BADGEs, especially in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of pre- and neonatal exposure to bisphenol A on murine brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tando, So; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Jun; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Fushiki, Shinji

    2007-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), known as an environmental endocrine disrupter, is widely used in industry and dentistry. We investigated the effects of fetal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on the brain development of mice. The density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in substantia nigra was significantly decreased in BPA-exposed female mice (3 microg/g powder food), but not in the male mice, as compared with that of the control mice. The densities of calbindin D-28 K-, calretinin- and parvalbumin-IR neurons in the cerebral cortex were not different between BPA-exposed and the control mice. The present study indicates that chronic exposure of BPA during prenatal and neonatal periods causes a decrease of TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra only in female mice brain.

  13. Aerobic degradation of bisphenol-A and its derivatives in river sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bea-Ven; Liu, Jing-Hua; Liao, Chien-Sen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the aerobic degradation ofbisphenol-A (BPA) and the derivatives bisphenol-B (BPB), bisphenol-F (BPF), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and tetrachlorobisphenol-A (TCBPA) in river sediment. The degradation rates of BPA and BPF were enhanced by adding brij 30, brij 35, rhamnolipid, surfactin, or crude enzyme; a higher degradation rate was observed with crude enzyme than with the other additives. The degradation rates of BPA and its derivatives (BPAs) in the sediment were BPF > BPA > BPB > TCBPA > TBBPA. Different BPAs affected the changes in the microbial community in the sediment. Sediment fractions with larger particle sizes demonstrated higher degradation rates. Different sediment particle sizes affected the changes in the microbial communities. Pseudomonas sp. may be the dominant bacteria in the process of degradation of BPAs in river sediment.

  14. Data on spermatogenesis in rat males gestationally exposed to bisphenol A and high fat diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheruza Tarapore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled “High butter-fat diet and bisphenol A additively impair male rat spermatogenesis” (P. Tarapore, M. Hennessy, D. Song, J. Ying, B. Ouyang, V. Govindarajah, et al., [1]. Sprague–Dawley females were fed AIN, high fat butter, 17α-ethinyl estradiol, or high fat butter plus four bisphenol A doses (2500 µg/kg bw-d, 250 µg/kg bw-d, 25 µg/kg bw-d, and 2.5 µg/kg bw-d before and during pregnancy. All diets were switched to AIN after the pups were born. Male offspring received testosterone (T- and estradiol-17β (E2-filled implants from postnatal day 70–210 for 20 weeks (T+E2 rat model. The testes were weighed, and examined for impairments in spermatogenesis.

  15. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  16. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhang'e; Wu Feng; Deng Nansheng

    2006-01-01

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe 3+ ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe 3+ ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 10 9 cells L -1 raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L -1 humic acid and 20 μmol L -1 Fe 3+ . The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment

  17. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  18. Associations of Prenatal Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations with Child Behaviors and Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Joseph M.; Muckle, Gina; Arbuckle, Tye; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Fraser, William D.; Ouellet, Emmanuel; Séguin, Jean R.; Oulhote, Youssef; Webster, Glenys M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment in epidemiological studies. However, prior studies had limited statistical power to examine sex-specific effects, and few examined child cognition. Objectives: We estimated the association between prenatal BPA exposure and child neurobehavior at 3 y of age in a prospective cohort of 812 mothers and their children. Methods: We measured BPA concentration in urine samples collected at ∼ 12 wk gestat...

  19. Effects of bisphenol analogues on steroidogenic gene expression and hormone synthesis in H295R cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yixing; Jiao, Zhihao; Shi, Jiachen; Li, Ming; Guo, Qiaozhen; Shao, Bing

    2016-03-01

    The use of Bisphenol A (BPA) has been regulated in many countries because of its potential adverse effects on human health. As a result of the restriction, structural anologues such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) have already been used for industrial applications as alternatives to BPA. Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is mainly used as a crosslinker in the synthesis of specialty fluoroelastomers. These compounds have been detected in various environmental matrices and human samples. Previous studies have shown that these compounds have potential endocrine disrupting effects on wildlife and mammals in general. However, the effects on adrenocortical function and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, the H295R cell line was used as a model to compare the cell toxicity and to investigate the potential endocrine disrupting action of four BPs (including BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF). The half lethal concentration (LC50) values at 72 h exposure indicated that the rank order of toxicities of the chemicals was BPAF > BPA > BPS > BPF. The hormone results demonstrated that BPA analogues, such as BPF, BPS and BPAF were capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells. BPA and BPS exhibited inhibition of hormone production, BPF predominantly led to increased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels and BPAF showed induction of progesterone and reduction of testosterone. Inhibition effects of BPA and BPAF on hormone production were probably mediated by down-regulation of steroidogenic genes in H295R cells. However, the mechanisms of the endocrine interrupting action of BPF and BPS are still unclear, which may have additional mechanisms that have not been detected with BPA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling of Bisphenol A (BPA) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli; Farzaneh Veisi; Amir Veisi

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound that has many applications in various industries and is known as persistent pollutant. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of bone ash and banana peel as adsorbents for BPA adsorption from aqueous solution by using Response Surface Methodology. The effects of some variables such as sorbent dose, detention time, solution pH, and BPA concentration on the sorption efficiency was examined. All analyses were carried out accordi...

  1. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Genomic and Morphological Effects of Bisphenol A on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Frejd

    Full Text Available The environmental toxin bisphenol A (BPA is a known mammalian hormone disrupter but its effects on plants have not been well established. The effect of BPA on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana was determined using microarray analysis and quantitative gene PCR. Many hormone responsive genes showed changes in expression after BPA treatment. BPA disrupted flowering by a mechanism that may involve disruption of auxin signaling. The results presented here indicate that BPA is a plant hormone disrupter.

  3. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Determinatıon of bisphenol a migrating from canned food and beverages in markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Şana; Köroğlu, Muaz; Özkan, Abdo

    2014-01-01

    The determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in foods and beverages sold in Turkish markets was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography. In this research, foods packed in packages with an inner surface covered with plastic film, such as milk, fruit juice, cream, pudding and tuna samples were used. Furthermore, foods in glass jar and metal cans such as green peas, garniture, corn, tomato paste, pepper paste, pickles, mushroom and bean samples were also used. BPA concentrations were 21.86±0.80-1858.71±8.24μg kg(-1) for canned foodstuffs, 36.48±0.95-554.69±3.18μgkg(-1) for foods in paper box, "not detected" - 399.21±3.26μgkg(-1)for foods in glass jar. The change in the amount of bisphenol A in all of these food, based on expiration date, the amount of glucose and sodium chloride in it has been determined. We see that in these kind of food the amount of bisphenol A increases with an increase in the amount of glucose, NaCl and expiration date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Theoretical studies on thermal degradation reaction mechanism of model compound of bisphenol A polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinbao; He, Chao; Li, Xinsheng; Pan, Guiying; Tong, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Density functional theory methods (DFT) M062X have been used to investigate the thermal degradation processes of model compound of bisphenol A polycarbonate (MPC) and to identify the optimal reaction paths in the thermal decomposition of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC). The bond dissociation energies of main bonds in MPC were calculated, and it is found that the weakest bond in MPC is the single bond between the methylic carbon and carbon atom and the second weakest bond in MPC is the single bond between oxygen atom and the carbonyl carbon. On the basis of computational results of kinetic parameters, a mechanism is proposed where the hydrolysis (or alcoholysis) reaction is the main degradation pathways for the formation of the evolved products, and the homolytic cleavage and rearrangement reactions are the competitive reaction pathways in the thermal degradation of PC. The proposed mechanism is consistent with experimental observations of CO 2 , bisphenol A and 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethane as the main degradation products, together with a small amount of CO, alkyl phenol and diphenyl carbonate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Imidazolium Linear Bisphenol Polycarbonate Hydroxides for Anion Exchange Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hohyoun; Hossain, Md Awlad; Lee, Soonho; Ha, Jaesung; Yoo, Jihoo; Kim, Kyungchul; Kim, Whangi

    2015-11-01

    A novel anion exchange membrane of imidazolium functionalized bisphenol polycarbonate was prepared for application in alkaline fuel cell. Di-imidazolium polycarbonate anionic membrane was synthesized by sequential interfacial polymerization, chloromethylation, substitution with 1-methylimidazole and ion exchange with 1.0 M KOH. Chloromethylation reaction was quantitative to achieve a high content of hydroxide ions. Introduction of conjugated imidazole ring in polymer plays an important role to improve both thermal and chemical stability. Bisphenol polycarbonate is a flexible polymer and shows a good solubility in polar organic solvent. The alkaline imidazolium bisphenol polycarbonate rendered an elevated molecular weight with excellent solubility in polar aprotic solvent. Different levels of substitution and ion exchange were investigated; the resulting membranes showed high ion exchange capacities (IECs) of up to 2.15 mmol g(-1). The imidazolium-functionalized copolymer membranes showed lower water affinity (14.2-42.8% at 30 degrees C) that satisfied an essential criterion for fuel cell application. The chemical structure of the imidazolium functionalized polycarbonate membrane was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and also the membrane properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake (WU), IEC and conductivity assessment. They exhibited hydroxide conductivity above 10(-2) S cm(-1) at room temperature and good chemical stability for up to five days without significant losses of ion conductivity.

  7. Influence of the different carbon nanotubes on the development of electrochemical sensors for bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart, Lorena Athie, E-mail: lorenaathie@hotmail.com; Cruz de Moraes, Fernando, E-mail: fcmoraes@hotmail.com; Mascaro, Lucia Helena, E-mail: lmascaro@ufscar.br

    2016-01-01

    Different methods of functionalisation and the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotube sizes were investigated on the bisphenol A electrochemical determination. Samples with diameters of 20 to 170 nm were functionalised in HNO{sub 3} 5.0 mol L{sup −1} and a concentrated sulphonitric solution. The morphological characterisations before and after acid treatment were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The size and acid treatment affected the oxidation of bisphenol A. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes with a 20–40 nm diameter improved the method sensitivity and achieved a detection limit for determination of bisphenol A at 84.0 nmol L{sup −1}. - Highlights: • The dimension and type of the acid treatment of CNTs directly were influenced at the determination of BPA. • The best results were obtained for the MWCNTs with a smaller diameter. • The functionalisation of MWCNTs with a sulphonitric solution was more efficient. • There is a need to clearly specify the characteristics of CNTs when using this material as a sensor.

  8. Natural derivatives of diphenolic acid as substitutes for bisphenol-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Johanna; Cerri, Elisa; Rizzuto, Matteo; Caretti, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    Diphenolic acid had been originally used in the first epoxy resins and was later on forgotten as it was substituted by the cheaper bisphenol A. But in the recent years major health concerns have been raised as bisphenol A has a pseudo-hormonal effect on the body, playing the role of estrogen it can cause a severe impact on the organism, especially in males. Moreover it is produced from acetone and phenol, both from fossil, and thus limited resources. On the contrary, diphenolic acid is synthesized from levulinic acid and phenol. Levulinic acid being directly produced by hydrolysis of biomass. By substituting the fossil phenol with natural phenols from lignin or plant extraction we are able to synthesize a fully renewable substitute for bisphenol A. The reactions to yield an epoxy resin have been examined and the reactivity with epichlorohydrin is satisfying. Moreover, some of the derivatives of diphenolic acid have interesting curing properties and preliminary results show excellent properties of the cured resin, including thermal stability and pencil hardness.

  9. Visible light active photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A using nitrogen doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, N; Vinu, A; Anandan, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Murugesan, V

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen doped titania was prepared by low temperature sol-gel method using titanium precursor and nitrogen containing bases like triethylamine and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide compounds. The materials were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, XPS, DRS-UV, and FT-IR techniques. DRS-UV study substantially indicates shift of the absorption edge of TiO2 to lower energy region. The phase composition, crystallinity, specific surface area, and visible light activity of nitrogen doped titania depend upon the preparation conditions. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A in aqueous medium was investigated by TiO2 and nitrogen doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation in a batch photocatalytic reactor. The results indicate higher visible light activity for nitrogen doped TiO2 than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) for bisphenol-A degradation. The influence of various parameters such as initial concentration of bisphenol-A, catalyst loading and pH was examined for maximum degradation efficiency.

  10. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS...

  11. Cell-specific biotransformation of benzophenone-2 and bisphenol-s in zebrafish and human in vitro models used for toxicity and estrogenicity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fol, Vincent; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Cabaton, Nicolas; Dolo, Laurence; Grimaldi, Marina; Balaguer, Patrick; Perdu, Elisabeth; Debrauwer, Laurent; Brion, François; Zalko, Daniel

    2015-03-17

    Several human and fish bioassays have been designed to characterize the toxicity and the estrogenic activity of chemicals. However, their biotransformation capability (bioactivation/detoxification processes) is rarely reported, although this can influence the estrogenic potency of test compounds. The fate of two estrogenic chemicals, the UV filter benzophenone-2 (BP2) and the bisphenol A substitute bisphenol S (BPS) was deciphered in eight human and zebrafish in vitro cell models, encompassing hepatic and mammary cellular contexts. BP2 and BPS were metabolized into a variety of gluco- and sulfo-conjugated metabolites. Similar patterns of BP2 and BPS biotransformation were observed among zebrafish models (primary hepatocytes, ZFL and ZELH-zfER cell lines). Interestingly, metabolic patterns in zebrafish models and in the human hepatic cell line HepaRG shared many similarities, while biotransformation rates in cell lines widely used for estrogenicity testing (MELN and T47D-KBLuc) were quantitatively low and qualitatively different. This study provides new data on the comparative metabolism of BP2 and BPS in human and fish cellular models that will help characterize their metabolic capabilities, and underlines the relevance of using in vitro zebrafish-based bioassays when screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  12. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  13. Modeling the interaction of binary and ternary mixtures of estradiol and bisphenol A or its analogues in an in vitro estrogen mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBlue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A is a ubiquitous monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics. Exposure ofhuman and wildlife populations to bisphenol A and its analogs is widespread and well documented. Bisphenol A is hypothesized to be estrogenic in both in vivo and in vitro studies and has be...

  14. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  15. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for selective extraction of bisphenol analogues in beverages and canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjia; Yu, Jianlong; Yin, Jie; Shao, Bing; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-19

    This study aimed to develop a selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven bisphenol analogues in beverage and canned food samples by using a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). Liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify the target analytes. The MIP-SPE method exhibited a higher level of selectivity and purification than the traditional SPE method. The developed procedures were further validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The obtained recoveries varied from 50% to 103% at three fortification levels and yielded a relative standard deviation (RSD, %) of less than 15% for all of the analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQ) for the seven analytes varied from 0.002 to 0.15 ng/mL for beverage samples and from 0.03 to 1.5 ng/g for canned food samples. This method was used to analyze real samples that were collected from a supermarket in Beijing. Overall, the results revealed that bisphenol A and bisphenol F were the most frequently detected bisphenols in the beverage and canned food samples and that their concentrations were closely associated with the type of packaging material. This study provides an alternative method of traditional SPE extraction for screening bisphenol analogues in food matrices.

  16. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    of xenoestrogen metabolism was examined by measurements of whole body concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and its conjugation product bisphenol A glucuronic acid (BPAGA). Exposure to 500 ng E2/l led to an increase in E2 levels in the embryos and fry while 10 ng E2/l did not. Metabolic conversion of BPA to BPAGA...

  17. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia

    2015-06-30

    Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of thermal properties and flame retardancy of epoxy-amine thermosets by introducing bisphenol containing azomethine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel bisphenol 1, 4'-bis{4-[(4-hydroxy phenyliminomethylidene] phenoxy} benzene (BHPB, which contains azomethine moiety and flexible aromatic ether linkage, was synthesized and introduced into the curing system composed of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA and diamine. The curing behavior of DGEBA/diamine changed dramatically due to the introduction of BHPB. The resultant epoxy thermosets containing BHPB had high Tgs (127-160 °C, high Td, 5% (>=330°C and high integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT values (662-1230°C and good flame retardancy for their high Limited Oxygen Index (LOI values (above 29.5.

  19. The Effects of Low-Dose Bisphenol A and Bisphenol F on Neural Differentiation of a Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Progenitor Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuki; Miyazaki, Wataru; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Katoh, Takahiko

    2018-01-01

    Environmental chemicals are known to disrupt the endocrine system in humans and to have adverse effects on several organs including the developing brain. Recent studies indicate that exposure to environmental chemicals during gestation can interfere with neuronal differentiation, subsequently affecting normal brain development in newborns. Xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used in plastic products, is one such chemical. Adverse effects of exposure to BPA during pre- and postnatal periods include the disruption of brain function. However, the effect of BPA on neural differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of BPA or bisphenol F (BPF), an alternative compound for BPA, on neural differentiation using ReNcell, a human fetus-derived neural progenitor cell line. Maintenance in growth factor-free medium initiated the differentiation of ReNcell to neuronal cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We exposed the cells to BPA or BPF for 3 days from the period of initiation and performed real-time PCR for neural markers such as β III-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Olig2. The β III-tubulin mRNA level decreased in response to BPA, but not BPF, exposure. We also observed that the number of β III-tubulin-positive cells in the BPA-exposed group was less than that of the control group. On the other hand, there were no changes in the MAP2 mRNA level. These results indicate that BPA disrupts neural differentiation in human-derived neural progenitor cells, potentially disrupting brain development.

  20. The Effects of Low-Dose Bisphenol A and Bisphenol F on Neural Differentiation of a Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Progenitor Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujiwara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals are known to disrupt the endocrine system in humans and to have adverse effects on several organs including the developing brain. Recent studies indicate that exposure to environmental chemicals during gestation can interfere with neuronal differentiation, subsequently affecting normal brain development in newborns. Xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA, which is widely used in plastic products, is one such chemical. Adverse effects of exposure to BPA during pre- and postnatal periods include the disruption of brain function. However, the effect of BPA on neural differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of BPA or bisphenol F (BPF, an alternative compound for BPA, on neural differentiation using ReNcell, a human fetus-derived neural progenitor cell line. Maintenance in growth factor-free medium initiated the differentiation of ReNcell to neuronal cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We exposed the cells to BPA or BPF for 3 days from the period of initiation and performed real-time PCR for neural markers such as β III-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and Olig2. The β III-tubulin mRNA level decreased in response to BPA, but not BPF, exposure. We also observed that the number of β III-tubulin-positive cells in the BPA-exposed group was less than that of the control group. On the other hand, there were no changes in the MAP2 mRNA level. These results indicate that BPA disrupts neural differentiation in human-derived neural progenitor cells, potentially disrupting brain development.

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Is a Target for Halogenated Analogs of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riu, Anne; Grimaldi, Marina; le Maire, Albane; Bey, Gilbert; Phillips, Kevin; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Perdu, Elisabeth; Zalko, Daniel; Bourguet, William

    2011-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of halogenated analogs of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) has been recently demonstrated both in environmental and human samples. These analogs include brominated [e.g., tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] and chlorinated [e.g., tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA)] bisphenols, which are both flame retardants. Because of their structural homology with BPA, such chemicals are candidate endocrine disruptors. However, their possible target(s) within the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily has remained unknown. Objectives: We investigated whether BPA and its halogenated analogs could be ligands of estrogen receptors (ERs) and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) and act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Methods: We studied the activity of compounds using reporter cell lines expressing ERs and PPARs. We measured the binding affinities to PPARγ by competitive binding assays with [3H]-rosiglitazone and investigated the impact of TBBPA and TCBPA on adipocyte differentiation using NIH3T3-L1 cells. Finally, we determined the binding mode of halogenated BPAs to PPARγ by X-ray crystallography. Results: We observed that TBBPA and TCBPA are human, zebrafish, and Xenopus PPARγ ligands and determined the mechanism by which these chemicals bind to and activate PPARγ. We also found evidence that activation of ERα, ERβ, and PPARγ depends on the degree of halogenation in BPA analogs. We observed that the bulkier brominated BPA analogs, the greater their capability to activate PPARγ and the weaker their estrogenic potential. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that polyhalogenated bisphenols could function as obesogens by acting as agonists to disrupt physiological functions regulated by human or animal PPARγ. PMID:21561829

  2. Bisphenol A and alternatives in thermal paper receipts - a German market analysis from 2015 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Martin; Simat, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) was commonly used as color developer for thermal paper such as cash register receipts, labels or tickets. Therefore, thermal paper was considered by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as the main source of human exposure to BPA beside epoxy based food contact materials. In this study, a German market analysis on the use of BPA and alternative color developers in thermal paper receipts is provided for the years 2015, 2016 and 2017.114 (2015), 98 (2016) and 99 (2017) samples were randomly collected and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. In summary, BPA was still the most frequently found color developer (48.2% in 2015, 46.9% in 2016 and 52.5% in 2017). The most commonly used alternative was the phenol-free substance Pergafast ® 201 (34.2%, 33.7%, 40.4%). The bisphenol analogs bisphenol S (BPS; 11.4%, 9.2%, 6.1%) and D8 (6.1%, 7.1%, 1.0%) were less common. Another phenol-free substituent, a urea urethane compound (UU), was also detected (3.1% in 2016). Concentrations of color developers in thermal paper ranged from 1.4 to 32.4 mg/g (median values between 2.5 and 15.9 mg/g). Concentrations of BPA were found to be highest followed by BPS, UU, Pergafast ® 201 and D8. In addition, two pharmacologically active substances, dapsone (6.0 mg/g) and tolbutamide (5.5 mg/g), were detected in a non-marketed thermal paper, that was supposed to use ascorbic acid as initial color developer. Different release experiments of the detected color developers were performed. Sensitizers 1,2-diphenoxy-ethane, 1-phenylmethoxy-naphthalene and diphenylsulfone, used frequently in the thermal paper processes, were quantified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma ray induced electrical conductivity in bisphenol-A type epoxy resin and polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideaki; Nakakita, Tsuneo

    1978-01-01

    The insulation materials to support magnets for nuclear fusion reactors are exposed to high energy neutron beam and the gamma ray due to the accompanying induced radio activity through blankets or radiation shields. In such materials, radiation-induced conduction (RIC) is a problem, which occurs due to the charged particles generated in the insulation materials during irradiation. As one of such materials, use of epoxy composite material is expected, but its RIC has been scarcely measured. An approach to measure the wave form of transient current (or electric charge) caused by irradiating the radiation pulses of nano-second order to the materials has been developed. This paper reports the results of having measured RIC in bisphenol-A type epoxy resin at the electric field from 1 x 10 4 to 3 x 10 5 V/cm and γ dose rate from 9 x 10 3 to 9 x 10 5 R/h over the temperature range of -170 deg. C to +110 deg. C. The RIC of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was also measured in the same regions, whose molecular structure is comparatively similar to the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin, and of which the fundamental processes for RIC have been clarified pretty well. The radiation sources of 4.3 kCi 60 Co of NAIG and 45 kCi 60 Co of JAERI were used. The experimental circuits and the cryostat are described, then as for the results, explanation and discussion are given to the characteristics of induced current, dependence on dose rate and dependence on temperature of RIC conductivity. The process of capturing carrier in deep traps seems to be dominant in the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin, similarly to that of PET. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Phytoremediation of Benzophenone and Bisphenol A by Glycosylation with Immobilized Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Shimoda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzophenone and bisphenol A are environmental pollutions, which have been listed among “chemicals suspected of having endocrine disrupting effects” by the World Wildlife Fund, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in the USA and the Japanese Environment Agency. The cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum glycosylated benzophenone to three glycosides, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylbenzophenone (9%, diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside (14%, and diphenylmethyl 6-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (12% after 48 h incubation. On the other hand, incubation of benzophenone with immobilized cells of N. tabacum in sodium alginate gel gave products in higher yields, i.e. the yields of 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylbenzophenone, diphenylmethyl β-D-glucopyranoside, and diphenylmethyl 6-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside were 15, 27, and 22%, respectively. Bisphenol A was converted into three glycosides, 2,2-bis(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenylpropane (16%, 2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-3-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-gluco- pyranosyloxyphenyl propane (8%, and 2-(3-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphe nylpropane (5%. Also the use of immobilized N. tabacum cells improved the yield of products; the glycosylation of bisphenol A with immobilized N. tabacum gave 2,2-bis(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenylpropane (24%, 2-(4-β-D-gluco- pyranosyloxy-3-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenyl propane (15%, and 2-(3-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy- 4-hydroxyphenyl-2-(4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxyphenylpropane (11%.

  5. Bisphenol S impairs blood functions and induces cardiovascular risks in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pal

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial chemical which is recently used to replace the potentially toxic Bisphenol A (BPA in making polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and thermal receipt papers. The probable toxic effects of BPS on the functions of haemopoietic and cardiovascular systems have not been reported till to date. We report here that BPS depresses haematological functions and induces cardiovascular risks in rat. Adult male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were given BPS at a dose level of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg BW/day respectively for 30 days. Red blood cell (RBC count, white blood cell (WBC count, Hb concentration, and clotting time have been shown to be significantly (*P < 0.05 reduced in a dose dependent manner in all exposed groups of rats comparing to the control. It has also been shown that BPS increases total serum glucose and protein concentration in the exposed groups of rats. We have observed that BPS increases serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycerol free triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL concentration, whereas high density lipoprotein (HDL concentration has been found to be reduced in the exposed groups. BPS significantly increases serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities dose dependently. Moreover, serum calcium, bilirubin and urea concentration have been observed to be increased in all exposed groups. In conclusion, BPS probably impairs the functions of blood and promotes cardiovascular risks in rats. Keywords: Bisphenol S, Red blood cell count, White blood cell count, Clotting time, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, Cardiovascular risks

  6. Developmental programming: gestational bisphenol-A treatment alters trajectory of fetal ovarian gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Luense, Lacey J; Christenson, Lane K; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a ubiquitous environmental endocrine disrupting chemical, is a component of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Because of its estrogenic properties, there is increasing concern relative to risks from exposures during critical periods of early organ differentiation. Prenatal BPA treatment in sheep results in low birth weight, hypergonadotropism, and ovarian cycle disruptions. This study tested the hypothesis that gestational exposure to bisphenol A, at an environmentally relevant dose, induces early perturbations in the ovarian transcriptome (mRNA and microRNA). Pregnant Suffolk ewes were treated with bisphenol A (0.5 mg/kg, sc, daily, produced ∼2.6 ng/mL of unconjugated BPA in umbilical arterial samples of BPA treated fetuses approaching median levels of BPA measured in maternal circulation) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes, steroid/gonadotropin receptors, key ovarian regulators, and microRNA biogenesis components were measured by RT-PCR using RNA derived from fetal ovaries collected on gestational days 65 and 90. An age-dependent effect was evident in most steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and key ovarian regulators. Prenatal BPA increased Cyp19 and 5α-reductase expression in day 65, but not day 90, ovaries. Fetal ovarian microRNA expression was altered by prenatal BPA with 45 down-regulated (>1.5-fold) at day 65 and 11 down-regulated at day 90 of gestation. These included microRNAs targeting Sry-related high-mobility-group box (SOX) family genes, kit ligand, and insulin-related genes. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure to BPA at an environmentally relevant dose alters fetal ovarian steroidogenic gene and microRNA expression of relevance to gonadal differentiation, folliculogenesis, and insulin homeostasis.

  7. Seasonal variations of bisphenol A in the Danube River by the municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of bisphenol A (BPA were investigated in the Danube along the Novi Sad bank, Serbia using solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method. The obtained results confirmed the presence of BPA above the limit of quantification (6 ng/L in 22 out of 32 water samples at all eight sampling sites. Тhe BPA concentration varied from 1 for autumn, spring and summer. The high potential risk which is attributed to the elevated summer concentrations is probably the result of the increased human activates and weather conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  8. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  9. Non-occupational contact sensitization to epoxy resin of bisphenol A among general dermatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majasuo, Susanna; Liippo, Jussi; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2012-03-01

    Sensitization to epoxy resins often results from occupational exposure in various fields of construction and industry. Non-occupational sensitization sources and environments have remained overlooked. To analyse non-occupational and occupational contact sensitization to epoxy resin of bisphenol A among general dermatology patients. Special attention was paid to patients sensitized from non-occupational sources. During a 10-year period, 6042 general dermatology patients were patch tested with epoxy resin (bisphenol A) in the Dermatology Clinic of Turku University Hospital. The clinical data and the sources of occupational and non-occupational exposure to epoxy resin were analysed in sensitized patients. Epoxy resin sensitization was found in 59 patients. Non-occupational sensitization was found in 21 (35%) patients, whereas the number of occupational cases was 38 (65%). The most common sources of non-occupational epoxy resin sensitization were materials used in domestic renovation and construction projects and in boat repair. Non-occupational sensitization sources account for approximately one-third of epoxy resin sensitization cases, and therefore represent an important risk among hobbies and leisure activities. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Neurotoxic effects of bisphenol AF on calcium-induced ROS and MAPKs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Yoo Kyeong; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), a newly introduced chemical structurally related to bisphenol A, is used extensively in fluoroelastomers and polyesters, and has been known to induce estrogen-dependent responses. However, the toxicity of BPAF is largely unknown except for its endocrine-related effects. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity of BPAF and underlying mechanisms of action using hippocampal cell line (HT-22) and mouse primary neuronal cells. We found that BPAF induced apoptosis in both HT-22 and primary neuronal cells. In order to clarify the underlying mechanisms of BPAF-induced apoptosis, various signaling molecules were evaluated. BPAF increased the level of intracellular calcium, followed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). BPAF upregulated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. Using specific inhibitors, we confirmed that calcium, ROS, p38, and JNK mediated the BPAF-induced apoptosis. In addition, BPAF inhibited microglial activation in a microglia/neuroblastoma coculture model by the reduction of nitric oxide production. We found that BPAF interrupted the normal physiologic functions of microglia at non-toxic levels. Taken together, our results suggest that BPAF, the substitute of BPA, also have neurotoxic properties.

  11. Selectivity Enhancement in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Binding of Bisphenol A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noof A. Alenazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogen-mimicking chemical that can be selectively detected in water using a chemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs. However, the utility of BPA-MIPs in sensor applications is limited by the presence of non-specific binding sites. This study explored a dual approach to eliminating these sites: optimizing the molar ratio of the template (bisphenol A to functional monomer (methacrylic acid to cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and esterifying the carboxylic acid residues outside of specific binding sites by treatment with diazomethane. The binding selectivity of treated MIPs and non-treated MIPs for BPA and several potential interferents was compared by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection. Baclofen, diclofenac and metformin were demonstrated to be good model interferents to test all MIPs for selective binding of BPA. Treated MIPs demonstrated a significant decrease in binding of the interferents while offering high selectivity toward BPA. These results demonstrate that conventional optimization of the molar ratio, together with advanced esterification of non-specific binding sites, effectively minimizes the residual binding of interferents with MIPs to facilitate BPA sensing.

  12. Directed Hierarchical Patterning of Polycarbonate Bisphenol A Glass Surface along Predictable Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new approach in designing textured and hierarchical surfaces on polycarbonate bisphenol A type glass to improve hydrophobicity and dust repellent application for solar panels. Solvent- and vapor-induced crystallization of thermoplastic glass polycarbonate bisphenol A (PC is carried out to create hierarchically structured surfaces. In this approach dichloromethane (DCM and acetone are used in sequence. Samples are initially immersed in DCM liquid to generate nanopores, followed by exposing to acetone vapor resulting in the generation of hierarchical structure along the interporous sites. The effects of exposure time on the size, density, and distance of the generated spherules and gaps are studied and correlated with the optical transmittance and contact angle measurements at the surface. At optimized exposure time a contact angle of 98° was achieved with 80% optical transmittance. To further increase the hydrophobicity while maintaining optical properties, the hierarchical surfaces were coated with a transparent composite of tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor and hexamethyldisilazane as silylation agent resulting in an average contact angle of 135.8° and transmittance of around 70%. FTIR and AFM characterization techniques are employed to study the composition and morphology of the generated surfaces.

  13. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Zhang' e [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: zhepeng@126.com; Wu Feng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: fengwu@whu.edu.cn; Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: nsdengwhu@163.com

    2006-12-15

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe{sup 3+} ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe{sup 3+} ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 10{sup 9} cells L{sup -1} raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L{sup -1} humic acid and 20 {mu}mol L{sup -1} Fe{sup 3+}. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment.

  14. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity.

  15. Transgenerational inheritance of heart disorders caused by paternal bisphenol A exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombó, Marta; Fernández-Díez, Cristina; González-Rojo, Silvia; Navarro, Claudia; Robles, Vanesa; Herráez, María Paz

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor used in manufacturing of plastic devices, resulting in an ubiquitous presence in the environment linked to human infertility, obesity or cardiovascular diseases. Both transcriptome and epigenome modifications lie behind these disorders that might be inherited transgenerationally when affecting germline. To assess potential effects of paternal exposure on offspring development, adult zebrafish males were exposed to BPA during spermatogenesis and mated with non-treated females. Results showed an increase in the rate of heart failures of progeny up to the F2, as well as downregulation of 5 genes involved in cardiac development in F1 embryos. Moreover, BPA causes a decrease in F0 and F1 sperm remnant mRNAs related to early development. Results reveal a paternal inheritance of changes in the insulin signaling pathway due to downregulation of insulin receptor β mRNAs, suggesting a link between BPA male exposure and disruption of cardiogenesis in forthcoming generations. - Highlights: • We examine the effects of adult male exposure to BPA on the progeny (F1 and F2). • Paternal exposure promotes similar cardiac malformations to those caused by direct exposure. • BPA applied during spermatogenesis decrease the insra and insrb transcripts in spermatozoa. • Sperm insrb transcript controls embryonic expression being the downregulation inherited by F1. • Paternal BPA exposure impairs heart development in F1 and F2 disrupting insulin signaling pathway. - Paternal bisphenol A exposure impairs cardiac development throughout generations.

  16. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  17. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Baumann, Lisa; Farber, H

    2012-01-01

    aimed at evaluating the long-term effects and toxicity-increasing behavior of PFOS in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were maintained in flow-through conditions and exposed to single and binary mixtures of PFOS and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at nominal concentrations of 0...

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of some new demulsifiers based on bisphenols for treating water-in-crude oil emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Al-Sabagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper endeavors to synthesize nine types of demulsifiers based on bisphenols (bisphenol A (BA, bisphenol AC (BAC and bisphenol CH (BCH having different ethylene oxide units (n = 27, 34, 45 namely; E (x + y (where E represents BA, BCH or BAC and (x + y which represents the ethylene oxide units (27, 34, 45. The chemical structures of the prepared demulsifier were elucidated using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. Effect of the chemical structure (hydrophobic and ethoxylated degree of hydrophilic parts and the mechanism of demulsification process was investigated. The data were discussed on the light of the chemical structure of the demulsifiers and the factors, effecting the demulsification process. The efficiency of these demulsifiers was tested on water-in-oil emulsions (w/o at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 ppm, 7.4% asphaltene content and 30%, 50% and 70% water content. From the obtained data the best demulsifier was E(34BA which shows 100% demulsification after 58 min at 30% water content and 300 ppm of the demulsifier.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Chlorinated Bisphenol-Based Polymers and Polycarbodiimides as Inherently Fire-Safe Polymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... The first class, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene (bisphenol C) based polymers, were found to be among the most fire- resistant polymers with peak heat release capacities as low as 20 J/g-K...

  20. Adsorption and removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solution by p-phenylenediamine modified magnetic graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaosheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available p-Phenylenediamine functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites (PPD-MGO were prepared and utilized in the adsorption and removal of bisphenol A in aqueous solution. The novel nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier infrared spectrometry (FT-IR and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The factors affected the adsorption of bisphenol A including adsorption time, temperature and pH of solution, adsorption kinetics and isotherms were all investigated. The results showed that PPD-MGO nanomaterial exhibited good adsorption ability for bisphenol A and good resuability. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 155.0 mg g-1 at 45°C and pH 7. The removal rate was 99.2 % after three times of adsorption with new nanomaterials. After five cycles adsorption, the adsorption capacity of PPD-MGO remained at 94.0 %. The adsorption of bisphenol A was found that fitted pseudo second order kinetics equations and the Freundlich adsorption model. The experimental results showed the PPD-MGO nanomaterial had a good adsorption ability to remove organic compounds in aqueous solution.

  1. Phthalate esters, parabens and bisphenol-A exposure among mothers and their children in Greece (Rhea cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myridakis, Antonis; Fthenou, Eleni; Balaska, Eirini; Vakinti, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors, used as additives, preservatives, plasticisers and solvents in numerous consumer products, might cause adverse health effects. Humans exposed to these chemicals, metabolise and excrete them mostly via urine. Urinary metabolite concentrations are used as biomarkers of exposure. We evaluated the exposure of 4-month pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age to phthalates, parabens and bisphenol-A. Concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites, six parabens and bisphenol-A were measured in 239 mother-child pairs of the "Rhea" cohort in Greece. Concentration levels in mother and children were comparable with corresponding concentrations in other countries worldwide. Low Spearman correlation coefficients (CC 0.1-0.2, p-value paraben (EPB) between mothers and their children. We observed higher median daily intake (DIu) for mothers (e.g. di-ethyl phthalate 6.9 μg d(-1) kg(-1)) than for their children (1.4 μg d(-1) kg(-1)) for all examined compounds, except for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol-A. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated two main sources of exposure (plastic related and personal care-hygiene products) for phthalates, parabens and bisphenol-A. Differences in DEHP metabolism were observed among mothers-children and female-male children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset...

  3. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... The Council will consider input from the workgroup and workshops during its June meeting in Orlando... Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... public meeting and public workshop. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will...

  4. 77 FR 58982 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a... October 18, 2012. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Radisson Resort at the Port, 8701 Astronaut...

  5. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark... cancellation of the Federal moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey... Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES: Effective July 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: Emily Menashes, Acting Director...

  6. 75 FR 35432 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) recommendations 09-02 and 09-03, which maintain the U.S. allocation of... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by.... 1801 et seq., and the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (ATCA), 16 U.S.C. 971 et seq. Regulations issued...

  7. 75 FR 57407 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) Recommendations 09-02 and 09-03, which maintain the U.S. allocation of... fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by...., and the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (ATCA), 16 U.S.C. 971 et seq. Regulations issued under the...

  8. Occurrence and temporal variations of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, and tech. 4-nonylphenol in two German wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Cornelia; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2008-07-01

    The xenoestrogens bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech. 4-nonylphenol) belong to the group of chemicals which are called endocrine disrupters due to their property of causing hormonal dysfunctions in the endocrine system of organisms at very low concentrations. Bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, and the tech. 4-nonylphenol (mixture of isomers) were determined in water samples collected from the influent and effluent of two German wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) during a long-time sampling period from February 2003 till August 2005 to assess their occurrence and temporal variations in WWTPs. The compounds were extracted and concentrated from water by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Bond Elut PPL cartridges and quantified by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influent concentrations were as follows: Bisphenol A xenoestrogens bisphenol A, tech. 4-nonylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenol in WWTPs in the time span between 2003 and 2005.

  9. NIEHS/EPA CEHCs: Novel Methods to Assess Effects of Bisphenol A & Phthalates on Child Development - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    At this center, researchers study the effects of two endocrine disruptors that are commonly used in pesticides, plastics and many other products and are also found in vehicle exhaust: bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates.

  10. Modification of Bisphenol-A Based Bismaleimide Resin (BPA-BMI) with an Allyl-Terminated Hyperbranched Polyimide (AT-PAEKI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Haihu; Mather, Patrick T; Baek, Jong-Beom; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2006-01-01

    As a continuation of previous work involving synthesis of an allyl-functionalized hyperbranched polyimide, AT-PAEKI, we have studied the use of this reactive polymer as a modifier of bisphenol-A based...

  11. Bisphenol A and other phenols in urine from Danish children and adolescents analyzed by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Aksglaede, Lise; Sorensen, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), dichoro- and phenyl phenols are industrial chemicals present in numerous consumer products such as polycarbonate plastics, preservatives in personal care products, sun screens, pesticides and fungicides, respectively, and they are all...

  12. The role of polycarbonate monomer bisphenol-A in insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Pjanic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a synthetic unit of polycarbonate polymers and epoxy resins, the types of plastics that could be found in essentially every human population and incorporated into almost every aspect of the modern human society. BPA polymers appear in a wide range of products, from liquid storages (plastic bottles, can and glass linings, water pipes and tanks and food storages (plastics wraps and containers, to medical and dental devices. BPA polymers could be hydrolyzed spontaneously or in a photo- or temperature-catalyzed process, providing widespread environmental distribution and chronic exposure to the BPA monomer in contemporary human populations. Bisphenol A is also a xenoestrogen, an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC that interferes with the endocrine system mimicking the effects of an estrogen and could potentially keep our endocrine system in a constant perturbation that parallels endocrine disruption arising during pregnancy, such as insulin resistance (IR. Gestational insulin resistance represents a natural biological phenomenon of higher insulin resistance in peripheral tissues of the pregnant females, when nutrients are increasingly being directed to the embryo instead of being stored in peripheral tissues. Gestational diabetes mellitus may appear in healthy non-diabetic females, due to gestational insulin resistance that leads to increased blood sugar levels and hyperinsulinemia (increased insulin production from the pancreatic beta cells. The hypothesis states that unnoticed and constant exposure to this environmental chemical might potentially lead to the formation of chronic low-level endocrine disruptive state that resembles gestational insulin resistance, which might contribute to the development of diabetes. The increasing body of evidence supports the major premises of this hypothesis, as exemplified by the numerous publications examining the association of BPA and insulin resistance, both epidemiological and

  13. Atlantic interdecadal ocean-atmosphere interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnir, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We study the climatic scale fluctuation of North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), and related atmospheric variability. Time series of North Atlantic SST, based on marine observations, display an almost century long swing from cold condition before 1925 to warm conditions between 1930 and the early 1960s, and back to cold conditions after 1965 or so

  14. Analytical methods for the determination of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Casero, N.; Lunar, L.; Rubio, S., E-mail: qa1rubrs@uco.es

    2016-02-18

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in humans and the environment. Its potential adverse effects through genomic and non-genomic pathways have fostered BPA replacement by bisphenol analogs that, unfortunately, exert similar adverse effects. Many of these analogs, as well as their derivatives, have already found in humans and the environment and major concerns have arisen over their low dose- and mixture-related effects. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the main analytical methods reported so far for the determination of mixtures of bisphenol analogs and/or derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. Approaches followed for removal of background contamination, sample preparation and separation and detection of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives are critically discussed. Sample treatment is matrix-dependent and common steps include analyte isolation, removal of interferences, evaporation of the extracts and solvent reconstitution. Separation and quantification has been almost exclusively carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS), in the last case prior derivatization, but LC-fluorescence detection has also found some applications. Main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of these methods will be comparatively discussed. Although at an early stage, some approaches for the assessment of the risk to mixtures of bisphenols, mainly based on the combination of chemical target analysis and toxicity evaluation, have been already applied and they will be here presented. Current knowledge gaps hindering a reliable assessment of human and environmental risk to mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives will be outlined. - Highlights: • Analytical methods for the (bio)monitoring of mixtures of bisphenols are reviewed. • LC and CG coupled to MS are the preferred techniques. • Method-dependent sample treatments are required to remove matrix

  15. Glucuronide and Sulfate Conjugates of Bisphenol A: Chemical Synthesis and Correlation Between Their Urinary Levels and Plasma Bisphenol A Content in Voluntary Human Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka-Lok; Yuen, Ka-Ki; Yau, Man-Shan; Murphy, Margaret B; Wan, Yi; Fong, Bonnie M-W; Tam, Sidney; Giesy, John P; Leung, Kelvin S-Y; Lam, Michael H-W

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) glucuronide and sulfate conjugates are major products of Phase II metabolism of BPA in humans. In the past, their determination in body fluids usually involves tedious enzymatic hydrolysis and multiresidual analysis. The recent availability of authentic standards of these conjugates enables our better understand of the human metabolism of BPA and the distribution of their metabolites in body fluids. In this work, we report the chemical synthesis and purification of BPA mono- and di-glucuronide and BPA mono- and di-sulfate. Their levels, as well as that of BPA, in 140 paired human plasma and urine samples collected randomly from voluntary donors in Hong Kong SAR, China, were determined by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). BPA was found in more than 135 human plasma and urine samples. Its Phase II metabolites, ranging from N.D. to 36.7 µg g -1 -creatinine, also were detected in 139 of the 140 urine samples. Good correlation (r = 0.911) between molar concentration of BPA in the plasma and that of "total urinary BPA" (i.e., ln [(BPA + ∑ BPA phase II conjugate) molar concentration ]) was observed. Direct quantification of Phase II metabolites of BPA in human urine can be a useful assessment tool for population exposure to this potent endocrine disrupting chemical.

  16. Bisphenol A accelerates toxic amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide: a possible link between bisphenol A exposure and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Gong

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a chemical compound widely used in manufacturing plastic products. Recent epidemiological studies suggest BPA exposure is positively associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, however the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pancreatic β-cells. Misfolding of hIAPP into toxic oligomers and mature fibrils can disrupt cell membrane and lead to β-cell death, which is regarded as one of the causative factors of T2DM. To test whether there are any connections between BPA exposure and hIAPP misfolding, we investigated the effects of BPA on hIAPP aggregation using thioflavin-T based fluorescence, transmission electronic microscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, size-exclusion chromatography, fluorescence-dye leakage assay in an artificial micelle system and the generation of reactive oxygen species in INS-1 cells. We demonstrated that BPA not only dose-dependently promotes the aggregation of hIAPP and enhances the membrane disruption effects of hIAPP, but also promotes the extent of hIAPP aggregation related oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that BPA exposure increased T2DM risk may involve the exacerbated toxic aggregation of hIAPP.

  17. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , emphasizing black and white racial binaries and outdated geographical boundaries, The American South and the Atlantic World seeks larger thematic and spatial contexts. This is the first book to focus explicitly on how contacts with the peoples, cultures, ideas, and economies of the Atlantic World have...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...... Atlantic World connections with the kinds of innovative cultural and literary scholarship associated with developments in the New Southern Studies. Ultimately, the volume reveals that there is still much to be learned about both the Atlantic World and the American South by considering them in tandem...

  18. Evaluation of the in vitro estrogenicity of emerging bisphenol analogs and their respective estrogenic contributions in municipal sewage sludge in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ting; Liang, Dong; Song, Shanjun; Song, Maoyong; Wang, Hailin; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    There is a potential risk to the environment from persistent estrogenic compounds in sewage sludge. In this study, eight bisphenols (BPs) were identified in sewage sludge collected from wastewater treatment plants in 15 cities in China. The estrogenic potencies of the eight BPs and the estrogenic activities of sludge samples were evaluated using a bioluminescence yeast estrogen screen (BLYES) assay. All sludge samples elicited considerable estrogenic activity at a range of 2.8-4.7 ng E2 g(-1) dry weight (dw). All BPs exhibited estrogenic activity in the BLYES assay, but there were significant differences between the potency of individual chemicals. Bisphenol AF had the highest activity, followed by tetrachlorobisphenol A, bisphenol F, bisphenol A, bisphenol E, bisphenol S and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. Tetrabromobisphenol A showed weak estrogenic activity at 1×10(4)nM, but significant cytotoxicity above this concentration. The total estradiol equivalency quantities (EEQs) of BPs were in the range of 2.16-49.13 pg E2 g(-1) dw, accounting for 0.05-1.47% of the total EEQs in sewage sludge samples. The results indicate that BPs made a minor contribution to the estrogenic activity of the investigated sewage sludge. Nevertheless, our results suggest that considerable attention should be directed to the estrogenic potentials of emerging organic pollutants because of their widespread use and their potential to persist in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence and estrogenic potency of eight bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge from the U.S. EPA targeted national sewage sludge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Xue, Jingchuan; Yao, Hong; Wu, Qian; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-12-15

    As health concerns over bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products are mounting, this weak estrogen mimicking compound is gradually being replaced with structural analogs, whose environmental occurrence and estrogen risks are not well understood yet. We used high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of eight bisphenol analogs in 76 sewage sludge samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006/2007 from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 35 states. Bisphenols were detected at the following concentration ranges (ng/g dry weight) and detection frequencies: BPA (6.5-4700; 100%); bisphenol S (BPS; sewage sludge were an order of magnitude higher than those reported in China but similar to those in Germany. The calculated 17β-estradiol equivalents (E2EQ) of bisphenols present in sludge samples were 7.74 (0.26-90.5) pg/g dw, which were three orders of magnitude lower than the estrogenic activity contributed by natural estrogens present in the sludge. The calculated mass loading of bisphenols through the disposal of sludge and wastewater was sewage sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diamond-based electrochemical aptasensor realizing a femtomolar detection limit of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yibo; Liu, Junsong; Li, Hongdong

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we designed and fabricated an electrochemical impedance aptasensor based on Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) coated boron-doped diamond (BDD) modified with aptamers, and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) for the detection of bisphenol A (BPA). The constructed BPA aptasensor exhibits good linearity from 1.0×10 -14 to 1.0×10 -9 molL -1 . The detection limitation of 7.2×10 -15 molL -1 was achieved, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of combining BDD with Au-NPs, aptamers, and MCH. The examine results of BPA traces in Tris-HCl buffer and in milk, UV spectra of aptamer/BPA and interference test revealed that the novel aptasensors are of high sensitivity, specificity, stability and repeatability, which could be promising in practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modified silyl-terminated polyether polymer blends with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy for adhesive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenieks, J; Meri, R Merijs; Zicans, J; Berzins, R; Umbraško, J; Rekners, U

    2016-01-01

    Modified silyl-terminated polyether polymer (MS Polymer) was blended with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBPA) epoxy at MS Polymer/epoxy ratio from 30/70 to 70/30. MS Polymer/epoxy systems were examined for two-component adhesive formulation with additional fillers. Applicability of the MS Polymer/epoxy system at the ratio of the components 60/40 is demonstrated for the development of adhesive formulation. Rheological analysis of the components A and B shows suitable viscosity values for development of two- component adhesives formulation. Curing dynamics as well as tensile stress-strain properties and Shore A hardness of the chosen adhesive formulation are reasonable for the development of MS Polymer/epoxy type adhesive. (paper)

  2. Exposure to bisphenol A is directly associated with inflammation in healthy Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2017-01-01

    It was recently discovered that bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are cardiovascular disruptors. Inflammation is central to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated whether BPA and different phthalate metabolites are associated with the inflammation marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in healthy Korean adults. This research is part of an ongoing, population-based study of Korean adults (30-64 years of age) conducted at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC). The study enrolled 200 healthy volunteers (96 men, 104 women). Plasma hs-CRP was measured as an inflammation marker. BPA and five phthalate metabolites in urine were analyzed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. BPA and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) differed significantly between the low-hs-CRP (inflammation regardless of obesity or insulin resistance.

  3. Mechanical and dielectric properties of epoxy/dicyclopentadiene bisphenol cyanate ester/glass fabric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact and flexural strengths of epoxy-dicyclopentadiene bisphenol cyanate ester (EP-DCPDCE hybrid thermoset as well as the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS and flexural strength of the composites consisting of the hybrid thermoset and glass fabric were studied. It is found that the addition of epoxy resin (EP-51 can improve the mechanical properties, particularly, the impact strength of DCPDCE matrix and the ILSS of glass fabric reinforced composites. The improvements of the mechanical properties were obvious when the content of EP-51 is from 15 to 30 wt%. The investigations of the interphase of composites by scanning electron microscope (SEM and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA confirm the improvement of mechanical properties of the composites. However the addition of EP-51 has negative effects on the thermal and dielectric property of the composites.

  4. Di(cyanate Ester) Networks Based on Alternative Fluorinated Bisphenols with Extremely Low Water Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    moisture  uptake, and a very low coefficient of  hygroscopic  expansion,12  as well as an unusually low dielectric constant and dielectric  loss factor...Bisphenol  A.   A variation on  the AroCy F® monomer  in an oligomeric  liquid  form has also been studied by Yameen et al.21   Recently, the use of polymers...co‐workers,31‐33  synthesized a variety of fluoroaliphatic dicyanate ester mon‐ omers.  These  monomers were  liquids  at room temperature,  and cured

  5. Fenton-like degradation of Bisphenol A catalyzed by mesoporous Cu/TUD-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachamuthu, Muthusamy P.; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Maheswari, Rajamanickam; Lee, Adam F.; Ramanathan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    A family of copper oxide catalysts with loadings spanning 1-5 wt% were dispersed on a three dimensional, mesoporous TUD-1 silica through a hydrothermal, surfactant-free route employing tetraethylene glycol as a structure-directing agent. Their bulk and surface properties were characterized by N2 physisorption, XRD, DRUVS, EPR, TEM and Raman spectroscopy, confirming the expected mesoporous wormhole/foam support morphology and presence of well-dispersed CuO nanoparticles (∼5-20 nm). The catalytic performance of Cu/TUD-1 was evaluated as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalysts for Bisphenol A (BPA) oxidative degradation in the presence of H2O2 as a function of [H2O2], and CuO loading. Up to 90.4% of 100 ppm BPA removal was achieved over 2.5 wt% Cu/TUD-1 within 180 min, with negligible Cu leaching into the treated water.

  6. Degradation of bisphenol A using electrochemical assistant Fe(II-activated peroxydisulfate process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-wei Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of bisphenol A (BPA in aqueous solution using sulfate radicals was investigated using the Fe(II-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS process, electrochemical process, electrochemical process with 2.5 mmol/L Na2S2O8 without Fe(II, and electrochemical assistant Fe(II-activated PDS process. It was found that the electrochemical assistant Fe(II-activated PDS process performed best in the degradation of BPA. The variables considered to influence the degradation efficiency of BPA were the initial concentration of Fe2+, the initial concentration of Na2S2O8, and the current density. More than 97% of the BPA removals were achieved within 120 min under the optimum operational condition. The degradation of BPA was accompanied by the formation of phenol, hydroquinone, and small-molecule compounds such as succinic acid. The electron transfer was the principal step in the oxidation of BPA.

  7. The bisphenol A toxicological paradox: The more we learn the less we know for sure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J.R. Paumgartten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming need for toxicological data on unstudied substances, a search in Pubmed reveals >7300 entries for a single chemical (bisphenol A, BPA, most of which published in the last 25 years. BPA, a component of plastics and resins and a putative xenoestrogen, is certainly the molecule for which there are more studies in the toxicological literature. It was reported that fetal / perinatal exposures of mice to BPA (in the ppb range alter prostate weight in adult males, and cause persistent changes of mammary gland morphogenesis in females. Several studies, however, failed to replicate these findings. More recently, debate on BPA health risks was boosted by a few cross-sectional epidemiology studies that reported associations between total-BPA (in urine and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other health problems. The urine levels, however, reflect recent BPA exposures (within hours, and aforementioned disorders start much earlier in individuals' life.

  8. The Politics of Plastics: The Making and Unmaking of Bisphenol A “Safety”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical used in the production of plastics since the 1950s and a known endocrine disruptor, is a ubiquitous component of the material environment and human body. New research on very-low-dose exposure to BPA suggests an association with adverse health effects, including breast and prostate cancer, obesity, neurobehavioral problems, and reproductive abnormalities. These findings challenge the long-standing scientific and legal presumption of BPA's safety. The history of how BPA's safety was defined and defended provides critical insight into the questions now facing lawmakers and regulators: is BPA safe, and if not, what steps must be taken to protect the public's health? Answers to both questions involve reforms in chemical policy, with implications beyond BPA. PMID:19890158

  9. Biotransformation and reduction of estrogenicity of bisphenol A by the biphenyl-degrading Cupriavidus basilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zühlke, Marie-Katherin; Schlüter, Rabea; Mikolasch, Annett; Zühlke, Daniela; Giersberg, Martin; Schindler, Henning; Henning, Ann-Kristin; Frenzel, Heidi; Hammer, Elke; Lalk, Michael; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Riedel, Katharina; Kunze, Gotthard; Schauer, Frieder

    2017-05-01

    The biphenyl-degrading Gram-negative bacterium Cupriavidus basilensis (formerly Ralstonia sp.) SBUG 290 uses various aromatic compounds as carbon and energy sources and has a high capacity to transform bisphenol A (BPA), which is a hormonally active substance structurally related to biphenyl. Biphenyl-grown cells initially hydroxylated BPA and converted it to four additional products by using three different transformation pathways: (a) formation of multiple hydroxylated BPA, (b) ring fission, and (c) transamination followed by acetylation or dimerization. Products of the ring fission pathway were non-toxic and all five products exhibited a significantly reduced estrogenic activity compared to BPA. Cell cultivation with phenol and especially in nutrient broth (NB) resulted in a reduced biotransformation rate and lower product quantities, and NB-grown cells did not produce all five products in detectable amounts. Thus, the question arose whether enzymes of the biphenyl degradation pathway are involved in the transformation of BPA and was addressed by proteomic analyses.

  10. Tailoring the toughness and CTE of high temperature bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thunga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to enhancing the toughness and minimizing the CTE of a special class of bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy resin by blending it with a thermoplastic toughening agent. Poly(ether sulfone was chosen as a high temperature resistant thermoplastic resin to enhance the thermo-mechanical properties of BECy. The influence of poly(ether sulfone/BECy blend composition on the morphology and phase behavior was studied using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The mechanical properties of the blends were evaluated by flexural tests, which demonstrated significant enhancement in the material’s toughness with an increase in PES concentration from 0 to 15 wt%. The coefficient of thermal expansion of pure BECy was reduced from 61 to 48 ppm/°C in the blends with PES, emphasizing the multi-functional benefits of PES as a toughening agent in BECy.

  11. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 °C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater.

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA Increases Blood Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoproteins in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguazu CE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from these products into containerized foods and drinks, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In this present study the possible effect of BPA on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in rats. Female albino Wistar rats were administrated oral doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 and micro;g BPA/kgbw/day once to determine effect of acute exposure and repeatedly for seven days in another set of test animals to determine the effects of sub-chronic exposure. Following the treatment, serum levels of lipid parameters were examined using the Chemwell Chemical Analyser. All data were expressed as means and plusmn; SD. The result of the study revealed that BPA increased blood triglycerides and LDL of exposed rats at both acute and sub-chronic phases.

  13. Interaction between bisphenol A and dietary sugar affects global gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T. Branco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to environmental toxins is a public health issue. The microarray data available in the Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE55655 and GSE55670 show the isolated and combined effects of dietary sugar and two organic compounds present in a variety of plastics [bisphenol A (BPA and Bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP] on global gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. The study was carried out with samples collected from flies exposed to these compounds for a limited period of time (48 h in the adult stage, or throughout the entire development of the insect. The arrays were normalized using the limma/Bioconductor package. Differential expression was inferred using linear models in limma and BAGEL. The data show that each compound had its unique consequences to gene expression, and that the individual effect of each organic compound is maximized with the joint ingestion of dietary sugar.

  14. Effect of Ultrasound on Bisphenol A Adsorption on the Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myunghee Lim,; Younggyu Son,; Mingcan Cui,; Jeehyeong Khim,

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ultrasound (power, frequency) on bisphenol A (BPA) adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC). The result of adsorption isotherm in a BPA solution, using sonicated GAC (at 35 kHz) can more successfully adsorb BPA than sonicated GAC (at 300 kHz) and the original GAC. At low frequency GAC has a high cavitation effect. Therefore, the amount of adsorbed BPA at a low frequency was higher than at a high frequency. In isotherm experiments, ultrasound can enhance the adsorption process in GAC in both frequencies (35 and 300 kHz). These results agree with other previous researches. The effect of power intensity in the adsorption of BPA is increased the adsorption of BPA with increasing power. The optimum power exists and differs from frequencies because the cavitation effect is not the same with different frequencies.

  15. Bisphenol A removal by combination of powdered activated carbon adsorption and ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongchang; Tong, Hao; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Yalei; Zhao, Jianfu

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) removal from surface water in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) by combination of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated in this study. It was especially focused on the effects of various factors on BPA removal, such as PAC dosage, NOM concentration and pH value. BPA removal by UF+PAC process increased sharply from 4% to 92%, when PAC dosage increased from 0 to 120 mg/L. The optimal PAC dosage was determined to be 30 mg/L. The results also showed that BPA retention was slightly favored in the presence of NOM. As pH increased from 7.0 to 10.5, BPA removal substantially decreased from 90% to 59%. PAC+UF process is recommended to be used as an emergence facility in drinking water treatment, especially when an accidental spilling of deleterious substance, e.g., BPA, in the water resources happens.

  16. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for bisphenol A in pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yuko; Matsuyama, Wakoto; Wada, Masahiro; Hishikawa, Junko; Chan, Melissa Pui Ling; Nakayama, Aki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used to produce polymers for food contact and other applications, so there is potential for oral exposure of humans to trace amounts via ingestion. To date, no physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been located for BPA in pregnant mice with or without fetuses. An estimate by a mathematical model is essential since information on humans is difficult to obtain experimentally. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of our experiment following single oral administration of BPA to pregnant mice. The risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) on the development of human offspring is an important issue. There have been limited data on the exposure level of human fetuses to BPA (e.g. BPA concentration in cord blood) and no information is available on the pharmacokinetics of BPA in humans with or without fetuses. In the present study, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the pharmacokinetics of BPA in a pregnant mouse with the prospect of future extrapolation to humans. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of an experiment we executed on pregnant mice following single oral administration of BPA. The model could describe the rapid transfer of BPA through the placenta to the fetus and the slow disappearance from fetuses. The simulated time courses after three-time repeated oral administrations of BPA by the constructed model fitted well with the experimental data, and the simulation for the 10 times lower dose was also consistent with the experiment. This suggested that the PBPK model for BPA in pregnant mice was successfully verified and is highly promising for extrapolation to humans who are expected to be exposed more chronically to lower doses

  17. Molybdenum disulfide nanoflower-chitosan-Au nanoparticles composites based electrochemical sensing platform for bisphenol A determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ke-Jing, E-mail: kejinghuang@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Yan-Ming; Wang, Ling-Ling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This work constructs a novel electrochemical biosensor for bisphenol A detection. • Flower-like MoS{sub 2} are prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure. • AuNPs are assembled on MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers modified electrode for signal amplification. • The developed sensor exhibits low detection limit and wide linear range. - Abstract: Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide are attracting increasing attention in electrochemical sensing due to their unique electronic properties. In this work, flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed the MoS{sub 2} nanoflower had sizes with diameter of about 200 nm and was constructed with many irregular sheets as a petal-like structure with thickness of several nanometers. A novel electrochemical sensor was constructed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) based on MoS{sub 2} and chitosan-gold nanoparticles composites modified electrode. The sensor showed an efficient electrocatalytic role for the oxidation of BPA, and the oxidation overpotentials of BPA decreased significantly and the peak current increased greatly compared with bare GCE and other modified electrode. A good linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and BPA concentration was obtained in the range from 0.05 to 100 μM with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10{sup −9} M (S/N = 3). The developed sensor exhibited high sensitivity and long-term stability, and it was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in different samples. This work indicated MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers were promising in electrochemical sensing and catalytic applications.

  18. Comparison of degradation between indigenous and spiked bisphenol A and triclosan in a biosolids amended soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, Kate A.; Warne, Michael StJ.; Smernik, Ronald J.; Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the degradation of indigenous bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in a biosolids-amended soil, to the degradation of spiked labelled surrogates of the same compounds (BPA-d 16 and TCS- 13 C 12 ). The aim was to determine if spiking experiments accurately predict the degradation of compounds in biosolids-amended soils using two different types of biosolids, a centrifuge dried biosolids (CDB) and a lagoon dried biosolids (LDB). The rate of degradation of the compounds was examined and the results indicated that there were considerable differences between the indigenous and spiked compounds. These differences were more marked for BPA, for which the indigenous compound was detectable throughout the study, whereas the spiked compound decreased to below the detection limit prior to the study completion. The rate of degradation for the indigenous BPA was approximately 5-times slower than that of the spiked BPA-d 16 . The indigenous and spiked TCS were both detectable throughout the study, however, the shape of the degradation curves varied considerably, particularly in the CDB treatment. These findings show that spiking experiments may not be suitable to predict the degradation and persistence of organic compounds following land application of biosolids. - Highlights: ► Degradation of indigenous and spiked compounds from biosolids were compared. ► Differences were observed for both the rate and pattern of degradation. ► Spiked bisphenol A entirely degraded however the indigenous compound remained. ► TCS was detectable during the experiment however the degradation patterns varied. ► Spiking experiments may not be suitable to predict degradation of organic compounds

  19. Comparison of degradation between indigenous and spiked bisphenol A and triclosan in a biosolids amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, Kate A., E-mail: Kate.Langdon@csiro.au [School of Agriculture, Food and Wine and Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Adelaide (Australia); Water for a Healthy Country Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Adelaide (Australia); Warne, Michael StJ. [Water for a Healthy Country Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Adelaide (Australia); Smernik, Ronald J. [School of Agriculture, Food and Wine and Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Adelaide (Australia); Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S. [Water for a Healthy Country Research Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Adelaide (Australia)

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the degradation of indigenous bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in a biosolids-amended soil, to the degradation of spiked labelled surrogates of the same compounds (BPA-d{sub 16} and TCS-{sup 13}C{sub 12}). The aim was to determine if spiking experiments accurately predict the degradation of compounds in biosolids-amended soils using two different types of biosolids, a centrifuge dried biosolids (CDB) and a lagoon dried biosolids (LDB). The rate of degradation of the compounds was examined and the results indicated that there were considerable differences between the indigenous and spiked compounds. These differences were more marked for BPA, for which the indigenous compound was detectable throughout the study, whereas the spiked compound decreased to below the detection limit prior to the study completion. The rate of degradation for the indigenous BPA was approximately 5-times slower than that of the spiked BPA-d{sub 16}. The indigenous and spiked TCS were both detectable throughout the study, however, the shape of the degradation curves varied considerably, particularly in the CDB treatment. These findings show that spiking experiments may not be suitable to predict the degradation and persistence of organic compounds following land application of biosolids. - Highlights: ► Degradation of indigenous and spiked compounds from biosolids were compared. ► Differences were observed for both the rate and pattern of degradation. ► Spiked bisphenol A entirely degraded however the indigenous compound remained. ► TCS was detectable during the experiment however the degradation patterns varied. ► Spiking experiments may not be suitable to predict degradation of organic compounds.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of poly (bisphenol A borate) with high thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shujuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Jia, Beibei [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Jing, Xinli, E-mail: xljing@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • PBAB with excellent thermal resistance and high char yield was synthesized. • The chemical reaction of BPA with BA, and chemical structure of PBAB were studied. • PBAB show excellent thermal resistance in N{sub 2} and air atmospheres. • The thermal stability of PBAB is greatly influenced by boron content. • Boron oxide and boron carbide are formed during the pyrolysis of PBAB. - Abstract: In this work, poly (bisphenol A borate) (PBAB), which has excellent thermal resistance and a high char yield, was synthesized via a convenient A{sub 2} + B{sub 3} strategy by using bisphenol A (BPA) and boric acid (BA). The chemical reaction between BPA and BA and the chemical structure of PBAB were investigated. The results demonstrate that PBAB consists of aromatic, Ph–O–B and B–O–B structures, as well as a small number of boron hydroxyl groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups. The thermal properties of PBAB were studied by DMA and TGA. The results indicate that the glass transition temperature and char yield are gradually enhanced by increasing the boron content, where the char yield of PBAB at 800 °C in nitrogen (N{sub 2}) reaches up to 71.3%. It is of particular importance that PBAB show excellent thermal resistance in N{sub 2} and air atmospheres. By analysing the pyrolysis of PBAB, the high char yield of PBAB can be attributed to the formation of boron oxide and boron carbide at high temperatures, which reduced the release of volatile carbon dioxide and improved the thermal stability of the carbonization products. This study provides a new perspective on the design of novel boron-containing polymers and possesses significant potential for the improvement of the comprehensive performance of thermosetting resins to broaden their applicability in the field of advanced composites.

  1. Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris extract against bisphenol A induced reproductive damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Zhihui; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against reproductive damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Rats were administrated 200 mg/kg BPA for 4 weeks and treated with C. militaris (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day). By the end of the fourth week, the level of oxidative damage, sperm parameters, hormone levels, and histopathological changes were examined. In the group that only received BPA, there was a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normal control (NC) group. C. militaris significantly alleviated the BPA-induced reproductive damage by increasing testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and glutathione (GSH); as well as by reducing serum malondialdehyde (MDA). C. militaris not only obviously enhanced the levels of serum LH and T, but it also improved the sperm count and motility compared to the BPA-treated group. These results suggest that C. militaris could be used as a potential natural substance for preventing BPA induced reproductive damage. Abbreviations BPA: bisphenol A; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; T: testosterone; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; UPLC: ultra performance liquid chromatography; RIA: radioimmunoassay; q quantitative real time PCR; NC: normal control group; BPA: 200 mg/kg BPA administered group; H: 800 mg/kg C. militaris extract administered group; LB, MB, and HB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg C. militaris administered group, respectively; VeB: 200 mg/kg BPA + 300 mg/kg Vitamin E administered group; Star: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 3β-HSD: 3beta-hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase; CYP11A1: cytochrome P 450 family 11 subfamily A member 1; CYP17A1: cytochrome P 450 family 17 subfamily A member 1.

  2. Bisphenol S exposure impairs glucose homeostasis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Guobin; Wei, Penghao; Wang, Hongfang; Ru, Shaoguo

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is a substitute of the plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA). Its concentrations detected in surface waters and urine samples are on the same order of magnitude as BPA. Human exposure to BPA has been implicated in the development of diabetes mellitus; however, whether BPS can disrupt glucose homeostasis and increase blood glucose concentration remains unclear. We extensively investigated the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of BPS on glucose metabolism in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Male zebrafish were exposed to 1, 10, or 100μg/L of BPS for 28 d. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, glycogen levels in the liver and muscle, and mRNA levels of key glucose metabolic enzymes and the activities of the encoded proteins in tissues were evaluated to assess the effect of BPS on glucose metabolism. Plasma insulin levels and expression of preproinsulin and glucagon genes in the visceral tissue were also evaluated. Compared with the control group, exposure to 1 and 10μg/L of BPS significantly increased FBG levels but decreased insulin levels. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver were promoted, and glycogen synthesis in the liver and muscle and glycolysis in the muscle were inhibited. Exposure to 100μg/L of BPS did not significantly alter plasma insulin and blood glucose levels, but nonetheless pronouncedly interfered with gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, and glycogen synthesis. Our data indicates that BPS at environmentally relevant concentrations impairs glucose homeostasis of male zebrafish possibly by hampering the physiological effect of insulin; higher BPS doses also pronouncedly interfered with glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for assessment of human exposure to bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    A previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys was modified to characterize the pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II conjugates in adult humans following oral ingestion. Coupled with in vitro studies on BPA metabolism in the liver and the small intestine, the PBPK model was parameterized using oral pharmacokinetic data with deuterated-BPA (d 6 -BPA) delivered in cookies to adult humans after overnight fasting. The availability of the serum concentration time course of unconjugated d 6 -BPA offered direct empirical evidence for the calibration of BPA model parameters. The recalibrated PBPK adult human model for BPA was then evaluated against published human pharmacokinetic studies with BPA. A hypothesis of decreased oral uptake was needed to account for the reduced peak levels observed in adult humans, where d 6 -BPA was delivered in soup and food was provided prior to BPA ingestion, suggesting the potential impact of dosing vehicles and/or fasting on BPA disposition. With the incorporation of Monte Carlo analysis, the recalibrated adult human model was used to address the inter-individual variability in the internal dose metrics of BPA for the U.S. general population. Model-predicted peak BPA serum levels were in the range of pM, with 95% of human variability falling within an order of magnitude. This recalibrated PBPK model for BPA in adult humans provides a scientific basis for assessing human exposure to BPA that can serve to minimize uncertainties incurred during extrapolations across doses and species. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in adult humans. • Serum concentrations of aglycone BPA are available for model calibration. • Model predicted peak BPA serum levels for adult humans were in the range of pM. • Model predicted 95% of human variability fell within an order of magnitude.

  4. Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also contain BPA. BPA is used in the recycling of thermal paper, such as receipts, self-adhesive labels, and fax paper. It is also used to make polyvinyl chloride plastics. Plastic products made with BPA will have a #7 recycling symbol on them or contain the letters “PC” ...

  5. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  6. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A fluidized bed reactor, filled with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on GAC, has been used for BPA removal. • BPA removal resulted from a biological activated carbon (BAC) process. • Equations describing the results have been indicated. • BPA removal was analyzed as a function of time and biofilm reuse. - Abstract: Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems

  7. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mita, Luigi [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Grumiro, Laura [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto [Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Gallo, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Chimica, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via della Salute 2, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano Gustavo, E-mail: mita@igb.cnr.it [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Institute of Genetic and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples Italy (Italy); Diano, Nadia [National Laboratory on Endocrine Disruptors, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples Italy (Italy)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • A fluidized bed reactor, filled with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on GAC, has been used for BPA removal. • BPA removal resulted from a biological activated carbon (BAC) process. • Equations describing the results have been indicated. • BPA removal was analyzed as a function of time and biofilm reuse. - Abstract: Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems.

  8. Alteration Effect of Exendin-4 on Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Disorders Induced by Bisphenol A in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangarpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Exendin-4 is a similar peptide to GLP-1 and can interfere with various receptors of GLP-1. Bisphenol A (BPA, as an endocrine disruptor chemical, is used in a wide range of plastic products. Objectives The aim of this study was to clarify several exendin-4 aspects in treatment of metabolic disorders. Methods In in vivo condition, the BPA (100 µg/kg and exendin-4 (4 nmol/kg/d were administered for 20 days in four different groups, and blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, adipocyte hormones and oxidative stress markers were examined. Results The results indicate that co-administration of exendin-4 and BPA modified hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia induced by BPA. Bisphenol A reduced antioxidant level, whereas exendin-4 improved these effects. Conclusions The findings of these studies suggest that the use of exendin-4 is useful in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and metabolic disorders, induced by BPA.

  9. Analogues of the epoxy resin monomer diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F: effects on contact allergenic potency and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Niamh M; Delaine, Tamara; Luthman, Kristina; Natsch, Andreas; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2012-11-19

    Diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and bisphenol F (DGEBF) are widely used as components in epoxy resin thermosetting products. They are known to cause occupational and nonoccupational allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate analogues of DGEBF with regard to contact allergy and cytotoxicity. A comprehensive knowledge of the structural features that contribute to the allergenic and cytotoxic effects of DGEBF will guide the development of future novel epoxy resin systems with reduced health hazards for those coming into contact with them. It was found that the allergenic effects of DGEBF were dependent on its terminal epoxide groups. In contrast, it was found that the cytotoxicity in monolayer cell culture was dependent not only on the presence of epoxide groups but also on other structural features.

  10. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Piña-Guzmán, Belem

    2015-01-01

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kg bw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12–15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. - Highlights: • Bisphenol A targets the fertilization ability of oocytes. • Bisphenol A does not alter ovulation. • Young adult females may be susceptible to the effects of bisphenol A on fertilization.

  11. Screening of bisphenol A, triclosan and paraben analogues as modulators of the glucocorticoid and androgen receptor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolšek, Katra; Gobec, Martina; Mlinarič Raščan, Irena; Sollner Dolenc, Marija

    2015-02-01

    A homeostasis of the glucocorticoid and androgen endocrine system is essential to human health. Their disturbance can lead to various diseases, for example cardiovascular, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, infertility, cancer. Fifteen widely used industrial chemicals that disrupt endocrine activity were selected for evaluation of potential (anti)glucocorticoid and (anti)androgenic activities. The human breast carcinoma MDA-kb2 cell line was utilized for reporter gene assays, since it expresses both the androgen and the glucocorticoid-responsive reporter. Two new antiandrogens, 4,4'-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol) (dBPS) and 4,4'-thiodiphenol (THIO), and two new antiglucocorticoids, bisphenol Z and its analog bis[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl] sulfone (BHEPS) were identified. Moreover, four new glucocorticoid agonists (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben and bisphenol F) were found. To elucidate the structure-activity relationship of bisphenols, we performed molecular docking experiments with androgen and glucocorticoid receptor. These docking experiments had shown that bulky structures such as BHEPS and bisphenol Z act as antiglucocorticoid, because they are positioned toward helix H12 in the antagonist conformation and could therefore be responsible for H12 conformational change and the switch between agonistic and antagonistic conformation of receptor. On the other hand smaller structures cannot interact with H12. The results of in vitro screening of fifteen industrial chemicals as modulators of the glucocorticoid and androgen receptor activities demand additional in vivo testing of these chemicals for formulating any relevant hazard identification to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic exposure to bisphenol a impairs progesterone receptor-mediated signaling in the uterus during early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy rem...

  13. New insights into bisphenols removal by nitrogen-rich nanocarbons: Synergistic effect between adsorption and oxidative degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peiyuan; Wang, Pei; Li, Huimin; Li, Qiuyun; Shi, Yanpeng; Wu, Xi-Lin; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong; Wang, Xiangke

    2018-03-05

    In this work, nitrogen-rich graphene-like carbon sheets (N-GLCS) with high specific surface area (488.4m 2 /g), narrow pore distribution and high N-doping (18.4 at%) were prepared and applied as both adsorbent and catalyst for the removal of bisphenols. Adsorption experiments demonstrated the high adsorption capacities of the N-GLCS toward bisphenol F (BPF) (222.9mg/g), bisphenol A (BPA) (317.8mg/g), and bisphenol C (BPC) (540.4mg/g). Results showed that about 98.6% of BPA (70mg/L) was removed at pH 7.0 within 80min after the adsorption-catalytic degradation process. The N-GLCS also showed a superb reusability for the catalytic oxidative degradation of BPA (70mg/L) with the removal percentage maintains over 83% after 5 cycles. With the synergistic combination of the excellent adsorption and catalytic properties of the N-GLCS, trace amount of pollutants can be preconcentrated and immobilized at the surface of N-GLCs, at the same time, active radicals were also produced at the surface of the N-GLCS by the activation of peroxydisulfate (PS), and finally the pollutants can be degraded in-situ by the active radicals. These findings provide a new avenue towards the efficient removal of trace-level EDCs from water solution by using the coupled adsorption-advanced oxidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of bisphenol A metabolites produced by Portulaca oleracea cv. by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ippei; Harada, Kazuo; Matsui, Takeshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Kato, Ko; Bamba, Takeshi; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01

    The garden plant portulaca (Portulaca oleracea cv.) efficiently removes bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, from a hydroponic solution, but the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA metabolism by portulaca remain unclear. In this study, BPA metabolites converted by portulaca were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We observed the hydroxylation of BPA and the oxidization of it to quinone. Polyphenol oxidases are likely to contribute to BPA degradation by portulaca.

  15. Bisphenol A Inhibits Follicle Growth and Induces Atresia in Cultured Mouse Antral Follicles Independently of the Genomic Estrogenic Pathway1

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, Jackye; Craig, Zelieann R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical used to manufacture many commonly used plastic and epoxy resin-based products. BPA ubiquitously binds to estrogen receptors throughout the body, including estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in the ovary. Few studies have investigated the effects of BPA on ovarian antral follicles. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BPA alters cell cycle regulators and induces atresia in antral follicles via the genomic estrogenic pathway, inhibiting follicle growth. To...

  16. Low-dose effects of Bisphenol A on human primary vascular endothelial cells and colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Varandas, Edna Soraia Gregório Ribeiro Varandas

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Biologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Bisphenol A (BPA) is an extensively utilized endocrine disruptor for which human exposure is considered generalized through ingestion. Information regarding BPA effects on vascular and digestive tract tissues is scarce. Therefore, in this work primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) and human colon adenocarcinona cell line HT29 were used to evaluate BPA effects at two distinct low-dose concentrations r...

  17. Determination of bisphenol-A levels in human amniotic fluid samples by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei; Edlow, Andrea G; Lin, Tao; Smith, Nicole A; McElrath, Thomas F; Lu, Chensheng

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals used widely in common consumer products. There is an increasing concern about human exposure to BPA, particularly in fetuses, due to the potential adverse effects related to the estrogenic activity of BPA. In assessing environmental exposure to BPA, it is essential to have a sensitive, accurate and specific analytical method, particularly for low BPA levels in complex sample matrices. In this study, we developed and ...

  18. A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of China and the U.S. The estimated GM daily intakes of 4-NP, ∑OPs (sum of 4-OP and 4-t-OP), ∑BPs (sum of eight bisphenols), and TCS through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs were 0.932, 0.093, 0.072, and 0.016 μg/day, respectively, for adult Chinese women and 0.340, 0.054, 0.120, and 0.068 μg/day, respectively, for adult U.S. women. Body lotions, face creams, and liquid foundations accounted for the majority (>85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics.

  19. Mass spectrometry investigation of DNA adduct formation from bisphenol A quinone metabolite and MCF-7 cell DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongzhi; Wei, Juntong; Xiang, Li; Cai, Zongwei

    2018-05-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used additive in the plastic industry and has been reported to have genotoxicity. A hypothesis that BPA may enhance breast cancer risk through the formation of its metabolic intermediate or DNA adduct has been proposed. In this study, breast cancer cell MCF-7 was cultured and the cellular DNA was extracted from the cells. The adducts of bisphenol A 3,4-quinone (BPAQ) with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), calf thymus DNA and MCF-7 cell DNA were investigated. DNA adducts were characterized by using electrospray ionization Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The BPA-DNA adducts of BPAQ with dG, calf thymus and MCF-7 cell DNA were identified as 3-hydroxy-bisphenol A-N7-guanine (3-OH-BPA-N7Gua). The MS/MS fragmentation pathway of 3-OH-BPA-N7Gua was proposed based on obtained accurate mass data. BPA quinone metabolites can react with MCF-7 cell DNA in vitro. The findings provide evidence that BPA might covalently bind to DNA in MCF-7 cells mediated by quinone metabolites, which may increase our understanding of health risk associated with BPA exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  1. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  2. Temperature fluctuations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoello, Solfrid Saetre

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the temperature fluctuations in connection with drought in Africa, the climate in North America, the European heat waves and the frequent tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. Problems with climate modelling and some pollution aspects are mentioned

  3. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging

  4. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  5. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  6. Atlantic-THORpex Observing System Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atlantic - THORpex Observing System Test (ATOST) is part of an international research program to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of 1 to 14 day weather...

  7. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  8. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Fanli; Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng; Peng, Danhong; Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  9. Novel routes in flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate/impact modifier/aryl phosphate blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawrzyn, Eliza

    2013-07-01

    The massive use of electronic engineering products accompanied by high demands on fire safety has led to increasing interest in environmentally friendly flame retardancy of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) based materials. In this work, novel routes for enhancing the flame retardancy of PC/Impact Modifier/Aryl phosphate were studied with respect to pyrolysis (TG, TG-FTIR, ATR-FTIR, NMR), flammability (LOI and UL 94) and fire behavior (cone calorimeter at different irradiations). To improve charring of PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, the exchange of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) with novel aryl phosphates was proposed. Two novel flame retardants were synthesized: 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylbisphenol-bis(diphenyl phosphate) (TMC-BDP) and bisphenol A-bis(diethylphosphate) (BEP). TMC-BDP was more stable than BDP, thus gave a potential to increase the chemical reactions between the components of the PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+Aryl phosphate, whereas more reactive BEP was expected to increase the cross linking activity with the polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the corresponding blends did not enhance the flame retardancy compared to PC/ABS{sub PTFE}+BDP. BEP in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} preferred to cross-link with itself instead of with PC, thus it showed poor fire protection performance. TMC-BDP gave as good results as BDP in PC/ABS PTFE material. The results delivered evidence that BDP possesses a high degree of optimization in PC/ABS{sub PTFE} system. To provide a novel impact modifier improving not only mechanical properties but also the fire retardancy of PC/BDP material, the replacement of highly flammable acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) with silicon acrylate rubber (SiR) with high content of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was studied. In PC/SiR{sub PTFE}/BDP the replacement of ABS is beneficial, but PDMS worsened the BDP gas phase and condensed phase action. PDMS reacted also with PC during combustion. PDMS-PC and PDMS-BDP interactions led to silicon dioxide. In fact, the

  10. Exposure to Bisphenol AF disrupts sex hormone levels and vitellogenin expression in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jia; Chen, Minjie; Peng, Di; Liang, Yong; Song, Maoyong; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is widely used in food-contact products, electronic devices, and as a cross-linking reagent in fluoroelastomers. There are growing concerns about its toxicity and endocrine-disrupting effects based on its structural similarity with bisphenol A (BPA). The endocrine-disrupting effects of BPAF were studied by exposing 2-month-old zebrafish to 0, 0.05, 0.25, or 1 mg/L BPAF for 28 days and evaluating the effect on growth, histopathology, hormone levels, enzyme activity, and gene expression. The overall fitness was not significantly affected. There were no apparent alterations in the gills and intestine tissues of both sexes after BPAF exposure. However, exposure to 1 mg/L BPAF caused damage to the liver in the male fish, characterized by hepatocellular swelling and vacuolation. There was no obvious effect in the liver of female fish, suggesting that the hepatic toxicity of BPAF is gender dependent. Gonadal examination indicated that exposure to 1 mg/L BPAF caused induction of acellular areas in the testis and retardation of oocyte development in the ovary. BPAF exposure increased free triiodothyronine levels of females in a dose-dependent manner. In males, the testosterone levels decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, estradiol levels increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were significantly higher in males exposed to 1 mg/L BPAF compared with the controls. In females, 0.05 and 0.25 mg/L BPAF caused an increase in testosterone levels. Furthermore, the estradiol levels increased in females exposed to 0.05 and 1 mg/L. We observed an upregulation of hepatic vitellogenin in both sexes and significantly higher levels in males exposed to 1 mg/L BPAF and females exposed to 0.25 mg/L BPAF, suggesting that BPAF has an estrogenic activity. Our results indicate that BPAF is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that exerts reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects on zebrafish. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Corrosion protection products as a source of bisphenol A and toxicity to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Dietschweiler, Conrad; Werner, Inge; Burkhardt, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days. Two experiments were conducted, one with a 1 day and one with a 7 day curing period. Using a suite of bioassays, we tested samples for: agonistic and antagonistic effects on various mammalian nuclear receptors; inhibition of photosynthesis and growth in algae; inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence; and inhibition of water flea reproduction. Concentrations of BPA, bisphenol F and various BPA transformation products were determined by chemical analysis (LC-MS/MS). Bioassay results were evaluated using a scheme developed by DIBt (Centre of Competence for Construction, Berlin, Germany). Three products induced responses in one or more of the measured endpoints and toxicity profiles varied markedly in intensity across products. One product released high amounts of BPA which was associated with effects on nuclear receptor transactivation, requiring a more than 700-fold dilution for effect induction to fall below 20%. The same product was also the most toxic to water flea reproduction, requiring ca. 70-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. Another product was highly toxic in terms of bacterial bioluminescence, particularly after a shorter curing time, requiring a ca. 1'300-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. The third product required a 22-fold dilution for inhibition of water flea reproduction to drop below 20%. Results show that anti-corrosion coatings based on epoxy resins can be a source of toxicity to the aquatic environment

  12. A fast and simple air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction procedure for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols, parabens, benzophenones, triclosan, and triclocarban in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bruno Alves; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes; Barbosa, Fernando

    2018-06-01

    The increasing awareness and public concern with hazard exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals calls for methods capable to handle numerous samples in short analysis time. In this present study, a novel method combining air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the extraction, preconcentration, and determination of 7 bisphenols (bisphenol A, bisphenol S, bisphenol AP, bisphenol P, bisphenol F, bisphenol AF, bisphenol Z), 7 parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, benzyl-paraben, methyl-protocatechuic acid, and ethyl-protocatechuic acid), 5 benzophenones (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-8, and 4-hydroxybenzophenone), and two antimicrobials (triclosan and triclocarban) in human urine samples. Type and volume of solvent, extraction time (cycles), pH sample, ionic strength, agitation, and needle dimensions were evaluated. The matrix-matched calibration curves of all analytes were linear with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 in the range level of 1.0-20.0 ng mL -1 . The relative standard deviation, precision, at three concentrations (1.0, 10.0 and 20.0 ng mL -1 ) was lower than 15% with accuracy ranging from 90% to 114%. The biomonitoring capability of the new proposed method was confirmed with the analysis of 50 human urine samples randomly collected from Brazilian children. High urinary concentrations of several EDCs associated with usage of personal care products were found. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... meeting of its Law Enforcement AP in Orlando, FL. DATES: The meeting will take place July 20, 2011. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Marriott Renaissance Orlando Hotel, 5445... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine...

  14. The role of Atlantic-Arctic exchange in North Atlantic multidecadal climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multidecadal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature occurs with two dominant periods. In this paper we investigate the origin of these two time scales in a 500 year control run of the GFDL CM2.1 model. We focus on the exchange between the Atlantic

  15. Response of the Atlantic overturning circulation to South Atlantic sources of buoyancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Sterl, A.; Drijfhout, S.

    2001-01-01

    The heat and salt input from the Indian to Atlantic Oceans by Agulhas Leakage is found to influence the Atlantic overturning circulation in a low-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. The model used is the Hamburg Large-Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model, which is forced by mixed boundary

  16. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...-BB29 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National... Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild... Tuesday, October 11, 2011. ADDRESSES: The scoping meeting was held at the Dolce Seaview Resort at 401...

  17. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS is transferring 68 metric tons (mt) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark... adjustments, and applies to commercial Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer is...

  18. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National Marine...-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform fishermen and dealers about the fishery opening date. DATES: The commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery will...

  19. 78 FR 28758 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic 2013 Commercial Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) Recommendations 11-02 and 12-01. This..., including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This action implements ICCAT recommendations, consistent with the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (ATCA), and furthers domestic management objectives under the...

  20. 78 FR 20258 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) daily retention limit that applies to vessels permitted in the Highly Migratory... 73 inches). This retention limit is effective in all areas, except for the Gulf of Mexico, where NMFS...

  1. 77 FR 45273 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas and Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Tunas (Commission) Recommendation 11-02, which maintains the U.S. North Atlantic swordfish base quota... Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. DATES: Effective on August 30, 2012. ADDRESSES: Copies of the supporting... (Magnuson-Stevens Act), and the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (ATCA). Under ATCA, the Secretary shall...

  2. 76 FR 2640 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... information about fishery participation in South Carolina, Georgia, or Florida. South Atlantic Trip Ticket... Northeast dealer reports and South Atlantic Trip Ticket reports. Under Alternative 1, the recommended... percent had gross sales of $1,000 or less, and 80 percent had gross sales of $10,000 or less. This likely...

  3. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Outlet Boulevard, North Charleston, SC 29418, telephone: (843) 740-7028. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... unchanged. The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction... Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and...

  4. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... lobster, South Atlantic coral, South Atlantic snapper-grouper, South Atlantic shrimp, Atlantic dolphin and... installation, use, operation, or maintenance of a vessel monitoring system (VMS) unit or communication service...

  5. Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Sandø, Anne Britt; Drange, Helge; Hansen, Bogi; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2005-09-16

    During the past decade, record-high salinities have been observed in the Atlantic Inflow to the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean, which feeds the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). This may counteract the observed long-term increase in freshwater supply to the area and tend to stabilize the North Atlantic THC. Here we show that the salinity of the Atlantic Inflow is tightly linked to the dynamics of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre circulation. Therefore, when assessing the future of the North Atlantic THC, it is essential that the dynamics of the subpolar gyre and its influence on the salinity are taken into account.

  6. Investigation on bisphenol A levels in human milk and dairy supply chain: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Santonicola, Serena

    2018-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as additive in food packaging, is an environmental and food contaminant that shows a weak estrogenic activity in general population and toxicity in the infant population. A temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and a migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg in food from plastic materials, intended to come in contact with food, were fixed. Dietary milk is important in the human diet. The review investigated the contamination levels in human milk and along the dairy supply chain. Despite the reported levels are generally below the fixed limits, breast milk is considered a continuous low-level exposure to endocrine-active compounds for infants. In addition, BPA residues are detected in milk and dairy products posing a risk to human health. BPA enters into milk chain via multiple pathways at various points during milk production (e.g., PVC tubing used during the milking process, transfer from bulk milk to storage tanks, during milk processing). To prevent or mitigate this hazard, a specific TDI for infants is recommended and evaluation of risk factors at each phase of the dairy supply chain, in the quality systems, is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer obtained from a combinatorial library for the extraction of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Esteban, Antonio; Tadeo, Jose Luis

    2006-12-01

    In the present work, an analytical methodology based on molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) has been developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in environmental and food samples. In order to select the optimum material, a combinatorial library of molecularly imprinted polymers in small-scale (mini-MIPs) was prepared using BPA as template. Different monomers (methacrylic acid or 4-vinylpyridine), crosslinkers (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate or trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) and porogens (methanol, acetonitrile or toluene) were used leading to 24 different polymerisation mixtures. After BPA removal, the ability of mini-MIPs to recognise BPA was evaluated by equilibrium rebinding-elution experiments. The copolymer of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) prepared in toluene showed the higher affinity for the template. Subsequently, a scaled-up version of the optimum polymer was prepared and used in the development of MISPE procedures for the extraction of BPA. The optimised MISPE protocols were successfully applied to the selective extraction of BPA from soils and aqueous canned peas samples.

  8. Intrauterine bisphenol A exposure leads to stimulatory effects on Sertoli cell number in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistuba, Joachim; Brinkworth, Martin H.; Schlatt, Stefan; Chahoud Ibrahim; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Using the optical disector for quantifying cell numbers, we investigated whether oral treatment of rats on days 6-21 of gestation with the weakly estrogenic bisphenol A (BPA, 0.1 or 50 mg/kg) or the highly estrogenic ethinyl estradiol (EE, 0.02 mg/kg) alters testicular histology, in those offspring 9-12 month of age. Since production of male germ cells depends on Sertoli cell number, possible changes in that parameter were investigated using unbiased stereology. Spermatogenesis was qualitatively normal in all groups. BPA increases Sertoli cell number per organ but not when expressed as per gram testis. EE did not affect cell number per organ but did affect numbers on a per gram testis basis due to a lowered testis weight. I contrast to the lowering of Sertoli cell numbers that might have been expected according to the estrogen hypothesis, intrauterine administration of these xenoestrogens in fact resulted in minor increases in Sertoli cell numbers and had no qualitative effect on spermatogenesis

  9. The xenoestrogens ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A regulate BCRP at the blood-brain barrier of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Sabrina; Mahringer, Anne

    2014-11-01

    1. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ABC-transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitating efflux of xenobiotics into blood. Expression and function are regulated via estrogen-receptors (ERs). 2. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA) represent two prominent xenoestrogens. We studied whether EE2 and BPA regulate BCRP function and expression upon a 6 h treatment in an ER-dependent manner in a rat BBB-ex-vivo-model. 3. Isolated brain capillaries were incubated with EE2 or BPA. BCRP function and expression were analyzed by confocal microscopy and Western-Blot. ERα-antagonist MPP and ER-antagonist ICI182.780 were used to study involvement of ERs. 4. EE2 and BPA down-regulated BCRP transport function and expression. EE2 effects occurred at pharmacologically relevant doses, BPA exhibited only weak influences. Down-regulation by EE2 was reversed by ICI but not MPP. BPA effects were not reversed by either antagonist. 5. EE2 is a potent regulator of BCRP expression and function acting by ERβ-stimulation. Oral contraception could alter uptake of pharmaceuticals to the brain and might thus be considered as an origin of central nervous system (CNS) side-effects. EE2 could also present a novel co-treatment to improve CNS-pharmacotherapy. BPA is a weak modulator of BCRP expression. Its effects appear not to be caused by ERs.

  10. Combined Effects of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A on the Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Line RWPE-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP and bisphenol A (BPA are regarded as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs which have widespread occurrence in our daily life. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze the combined effects of NP and BPA on the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 using two mathematical models based on the Loewe additivity (LA theory and the Bliss independence (BI theory. RWPE-1 cells were treated with NP (0.01–100 µM and BPA (1–5000 µM in either a single or a combined format. A cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage rate assay were employed as endpoints. As predicted by the two models and based on the cell viability assay, significant synergism between NP and BPA were observed. However, based on the LDH assay, the trends were reversed. Given that environmental contaminants are frequently encountered simultaneously, these data indicated that there were potential interactions between NP and BPA, and the combined effects of the chemical mixture might be stronger than the additive values of individual chemicals combined, which should be taken into consideration for the risk assessment of EDCs.

  11. Novel approach to hydroxy-group-containing porous organic polymers from bisphenol A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We successfully employed bisphenol A and several different formyl-containing monomers as useful building blocks to construct a series of hydroxy-group-containing porous organic polymers in a sealed tube at high temperature. Fourier transform infrared and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy are utilized to characterize the possible structure of the obtained polymers. The highest Brunauer–Emmet–Teller specific surface area of the phenolic-resin porous organic polymers (PPOPs is estimated to be 920 m2 g–1. The PPOPs exhibit a highest carbon dioxide uptake (up to 15.0 wt % (273 K and 8.8 wt % (298 K at 1.0 bar, and possess moderate hydrogen storage capacities ranging from 1.28 to 1.04 wt % (77 K at 1.0 bar. Moreover, the highest uptake of methane for the PPOPs is measured as 4.3 wt % (273 K at 1.0 bar.

  12. Food intolerance at adulthood after perinatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Sandrine; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Leveque, Mathilde; Braniste, Viorica; Lencina, Corinne; Naturel, Manon; Moussa, Lara; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Gaultier, Eric; Theodorou, Vassilia; Houdeau, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The food contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) is pointed out as a risk factor in development of food allergy and food intolerance, two adverse food reactions increasing worldwide. We evaluated the consequences of perinatal exposure to low doses of BPA on immune-specific response to the food antigen ovalbumin (OVA) at adulthood. Perinatal exposure to BPA (0.5, 5, or 50 μg/kg/d) from 15th day of gravidity to pups weaning resulted in an increase of anti-OVA IgG titers at all BPA dosages in OVA-tolerized rats, and at 5 μg/kg/d in OVA-immunized rats compared to control rats treated with vehicle. In BPA-treated and OVA-tolerized rats, increased anti-OVA IgG titers were associated with higher IFNγ secretion by the spleen. This result is in accordance with the increase of activated CD4(+)CD44(high)CD62L(low) T lymphocytes observed in spleen of BPA-exposed rats compared to controls. Finally, when BPA-treated OVA-tolerized rats were orally challenged with OVA, colonic inflammation occurred, with neutrophil infiltration, increased IFNγ, and decreased TGFβ. We show that perinatal exposure to BPA altered oral tolerance and immunization to dietary antigens (OVA). In summary, the naive immune system of neonate is vulnerable to low doses of BPA that trigger food intolerance later in life. © FASEB.

  13. Environmental applications of inorganic-organic clays for recalcitrant organic pollutants removal: Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Suramya I; Xi, Yunfei; Frost, Ray L; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-05-15

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adsorption onto inorganic-organic clays (IOCs) was investigated. For this purpose, IOCs synthesised using octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA, organic modifier) and hydroxy aluminium (Al13, inorganic modifier) were used. Three intercalation methods were employed with varying ODTMA concentration in the synthesis of IOCs. Molecular interactions of clay surfaces with ODTMA and Al13 and their arrangements within the interlayers were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface area and porous structure of IOCs were determined by applying Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method to N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Surface area decreased upon ODTMA intercalation while it increased with Al13 pillaring. As a result, BET specific surface area of IOCs was considerably higher than those of organoclays. Initial concentration of BPA, contact time and adsorbent dose significantly affected BPA adsorption into IOCs. Pseudo-second order kinetics model is the best fit for BPA adsorption into IOCs. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applicable for BPA adsorption (R(2)>0.91) for IOCs. Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity for IOCs was as high as 109.89mgg(-1) and it was closely related to the loaded ODTMA amount into the clay. Hydrophobic interactions between long alkyl chains of ODTMA and BPA are responsible for BPA adsorption into IOCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A, Propyl Paraben, and Triclosan on Caenorhabditis elegans

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    María Cecilia García-Espiñeira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a ubiquitous plasticizer which is absorbed by ingestion and dermal contact; propyl paraben (PPB inhibits the microbiome and extends the shelf life of many personal care products, whereas triclosan (TCS is commonly found in antiseptics, disinfectants, or additives. In this work, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a biological model to assess the toxic effects of BPA, PPB, and TCS. The wild type strain, Bristol N2, was used in bioassays with the endpoints of lethality, growth, and reproduction; green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic strains with the hsp-3, hsp-4, hsp-16.2, hsp-70, sod-1, sod-4, cyp-35A4, cyp-29A2, and skn-1 genes were evaluated for their mRNA expression through fluorescence measurement; and quick Oil Red O (q ORO was utilized to stain lipid deposits. Lethality was concentration-dependent, while TCS and PPB showed more toxicity than BPA. BPA augmented worm length, while PPB reduced it. All toxicants moderately increased the width and the width–length ratio. BPA and PPB promoted reproduction, in contrast to TCS, which diminished it. All toxicants affected the mRNA expression of genes related to cellular stress, control of reactive oxygen species, and nuclear receptor activation. Lipid accumulation occurred in exposed worms. In conclusion, BPA, PPB, and TCS alter the physiology of growth, lipid accumulation, and reproduction in C. elegans, most likely through oxidative stress mechanisms.

  15. Bisphenol A exposure in utero disrupts early oogenesis in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Susiarjo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen plays an essential role in the growth and maturation of the mammalian oocyte, and recent studies suggest that it also influences follicle formation in the neonatal ovary. In the course of studies designed to assess the effect of the estrogenic chemical bisphenol A (BPA on mammalian oogenesis, we uncovered an estrogenic effect at an even earlier stage of oocyte development--at the onset of meiosis in the fetal ovary. Pregnant mice were treated with low, environmentally relevant doses of BPA during mid-gestation to assess the effect of BPA on the developing ovary. Oocytes from exposed female fetuses displayed gross aberrations in meiotic prophase, including synaptic defects and increased levels of recombination. In the mature female, these aberrations were translated into an increase in aneuploid eggs and embryos. Surprisingly, we observed the same constellation of meiotic defects in fetal ovaries of mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of ERbeta, one of the two known estrogen receptors. This, coupled with the finding that BPA exposure elicited no additional effects in ERbeta null females, suggests that BPA exerts its effect on the early oocyte by interfering with the actions of ERbeta. Together, our results show that BPA can influence early meiotic events and, importantly, indicate that the oocyte itself may be directly responsive to estrogen during early oogenesis. This raises concern that brief exposures during fetal development to substances that mimic or antagonize the effects of estrogen may adversely influence oocyte development in the exposed female fetus.

  16. Preparation of polyethersulfone-organophilic montmorillonite hybrid particles for the removal of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fuming; Bai Pengli; Li Haocheng; Ma Yunli; Deng Xiaopei; Zhao Changsheng

    2009-01-01

    Polyethersulfone (PES)-organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) hybrid particles, with various proportions of OMMT, were prepared by using a liquid-liquid phase separation technique, and then were used for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solution. The adsorbed BPA amounts increased significantly when the OMMT were embedded into the particles. The structure of the particle was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); and these particles hardly release small molecules below 250 deg. C which was testified by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental data of BPA adsorption were adequately fitted with Langmuir equations. Three simplified kinetics model including the pseudo-first-order (Lagergren equation), the pseudo-second-order, and the intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the adsorption process. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorbed BPA amount reached an equilibrium value after 300 min, and the experimental data could be expressed by the intraparticular mass transfer diffusion model. Furthermore, the adsorbed BPA could be effectively removed by ethanol, which indicated that the hybrid particles could be reused. These results showed that the PES-OMMT hybrid particles have the potential to be used in the environmental application

  17. Adipogenic Effects of a Combination of the Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Bisphenol A, Diethylhexylphthalate, and Tributyltin

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    Ronald Biemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The food contaminants bisphenol A (BPA, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP, and tributyltin (TBT are potent endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC known to interfere with adipogenesis. EDC usually act in mixtures and not as single compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous exposure of BPA, DEHP, and TBT on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes. Methods: Multipotent murine mesenchymal stem cells (C3H10T1/2 were exposed to EDC mixtures in high concentrations, i.e. MIX-high (10 µmol/l BPA, 100 µmol/l DEHP, 100 nmol/l TBT, and in environmentally relevant concentrations, i.e. MIX-low (10 nmol/l BPA, 100 nmol/l DEHP, 1 nmol/l TBT. The exposure was performed either for the entire culture time (0-12 days or at distinct stages of adipogenic differentiation. At day 12 of cell culture, the amount of adipocytes, triglyceride content (TG, and adipogenic marker gene expression were analyzed. Results: MIX-high increased the development of adipocytes and the expression of adipogenic marker genes independently of the exposure window. The total TG amount was not increased. The low-concentrated EDC mixture had no obvious impact on adipogenesis. Conclusion: In EDC mixtures, the adipogenic effect of TBT and DEHP predominates single effects of BPA. Mixture effects of EDC are not deducible from single compound experiments.

  18. Characteristic Evaluation of Graphene Oxide for Bisphenol A Adsorption in Aqueous Solution

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    Thatchaphong Phatthanakittiphong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of graphene oxide (GO for Bisphenol A (BPA adsorption in water. Batch experiments on the influence of significant parameters were performed. While an improvement of the adsorption capacity of BPA was obtained by the increment of contact time and the initial BPA concentration, the increment of pH above 8, GO dosage, and temperature showed the reverse results. The thermodynamic study suggested that BPA adsorption on GO was an exothermic and spontaneous process. The kinetics was explained by the pseudo-second-order model which covers all steps of adsorption. The fit of the results with the Langmuir isotherm indicated the monolayer adsorption. At 298 K, the adsorption reached equilibrium within 30 min with the maximum adsorption capacity of 49.26 mg/g. The low BPA adsorption capacity of GO can be interpreted by the occurrence of oxygen-containing functional groups (OCFGs that are able to form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding OCFGs and water molecules. This effect inhibited the role of π–π interactions that are mainly responsible for the adsorption of BPA.

  19. Bisphenol A in relation to behavior and learning of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2013-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to affect brain and behavior in rodents and nonhuman primates, but there are few studies focusing on its relationship to human neurobehavior. We aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental exposure to BPA and childhood neurobehavior. Urinary BPA concentrations and behavioral and learning characteristics were assessed in a general population of 1,089 children, aged 8-11 years. The main outcome measures were the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Urinary levels of BPA were positively associated with the CBCL total problems score and negatively associated with the learning quotient from the LDES. The linear association with the CBCL anxiety/depression score and the quadratic association with the LDES listening score were significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Environmental exposure to BPA might be associated with childhood behavioral and learning development. The results suggest possible nonmonotonic relationships. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Study on Electrical Properties of PALF Reinforced Bisphenol-A Composite

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    Vinod B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, composite materials successfully substitute the traditional materials due to its various significant applications. This paper examines the influence of fiber orientation and fiber length on electrical properties of PALF reinforced Bisphenol-A composite and explores the potential of using PALF as reinforcing material for electrical applications such as terminals, connectors, motor body cover, industrial and household plugs and circuit boards. The resistance and inductance of resin material is increased by 24.19% and 24.13% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different orientations and its value increased by 37.93% and 37.81% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different lengths. Similarly, Capacitance and Dielectric constant of resin material decreased by 19.44% and 19.39% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different orientations and its value decreased by 27.67% and 27.50% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different lengths. It can be inferred from this study that the fiber orientations and fiber lengths greatly effects the electrical properties of PALF composite.

  1. Bisphenol A in artificial soil: Effects on growth, reproduction and immunity in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, I; Trigo, D; Martínez-Guitarte, J L; Novo, M

    2018-01-01

    The application of biosolids in agricultural fields is increasing annually. They contain not only nutrients but also xenobiotics, such as Bisphenol A (BPA). These compounds are not regulated in the use of biosolids in agriculture, which highlights the need to assess their effects on soil life, of which earthworms are most abundant of the animal representatives. In this study the effect of BPA on life-history parameters, such as mortality, growth and reproduction, and on immunity, is evaluated for Dendrobaena veneta and Eisenia fetida. Sublethal concentrations were evaluated by a modified OECD artificial soil test. Decline in growth with increasing concentration of BPA was detected during the first two weeks and the opposite effect for the next two, although these differences were only significant at the highest concentration. Reproduction traits were only significantly different for E. fetida, for which the number of juveniles decreased at higher concentrations, thus showing different sensitivity in both species. By using a contact test, the potentially harmful effect of direct contact with BPA was shown to be much higher than in soil (resembling natural) conditions. Finally, results indicate that BPA may not affect the immune system of these animals, at least in terms of coelomocyte viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of bisphenol A (BPA) in oil-in water emulsions under riboflavin photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Yeong; Park, Chan Uk; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2012-08-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium azide, which are a metal chelator or a singlet oxygen quencher, respectively. Also, the distribution of BPA between the continuous and dispersed phases in O/W emulsions was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of BPA in O/W emulsions significantly decreased by 38.6% after 2 h under visible light irradiation and in the presence of riboflavin (P riboflavin photosensitization (P riboflavin photodegradation in O/W emulsions. Concentration of BPA, an endocrine disrupting chemical, was decreased significantly in oil-in-water emulsions under riboflavin and visible light irradiation. BPA in continuous aqueous phase was major target of riboflavin photosensitization. However, BPA was distributed more densely in lipid phase and more protected from riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions. This study can help to decrease the level of BPA in foods made of O/W emulsions containing riboflavin, which could be displayed under visible light irradiation. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  4. Effects of Bisphenol A on glucose homeostasis and brain insulin signaling pathways in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fangfang; Chen, Donglong; Yu, Pan; Qian, Wenyi; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Jingli; Gao, Rong; Wang, Jun; Xiao, Hang

    2015-02-01

    The potential effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on peripheral insulin resistance have recently gained more attention, however, its functions on brain insulin resistance are still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BPA on insulin signaling and glucose transport in mouse brain. The male mice were administrated of 100 μg/kg/day BPA or vehicle for 15 days then challenged with glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The insulin levels were detected with radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the insulin signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot. Our results revealed that BPA significantly increased peripheral plasma insulin levels, and decreased the insulin signals including phosphorylated insulin receptor (p-IR), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS1), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) and phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK1/2) in the brain, though insulin expression in both hippocampus and profrontal cortex was increased. In parallel, BPA exposure might contribute to glucose transport disturbance in the brain since the expression of glucose transporters were markedly decreased. In conclusion, BPA exposure perturbs the insulin signaling and glucose transport in the brain, therefore, it might be a risk factor for brain insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Murine neocortical histogenesis is perturbed by prenatal exposure to low doses of Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Tohru; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone function. We therefore studied whether prenatal exposure to low-doses of BPA affects the morphology and the expression of some genes related to brain development in the murine fetal neocortex. Pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with 20 microg/kg of BPA daily from embryonic day 0 (E0). Control animals received vehicle alone. For evaluating cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally into pregnant mice with various regimens and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. The total RNA was extracted from the embryonic telencephalon at various embryonic stages. The BrdU-labeled cells examined 1 hour after BrdU injection showed no differences between the BPA-treated and control groups (n = 10, each), which indicated that the proliferation of precursor cells was not affected. The BrdU-labeled cells, analysed 2 days after BrdU injection, were decreased in the ventricular zone of BPA-treated mice at E14.5 and E16.5, whereas they were increased in the cortical plate at E14.5 as compared with those in control mice (n = 10, each). Furthermore, the expression of Math3, Ngn2, Hes1, LICAM, and THRalpha was significantly upregulated at E14.5 in the BPA-treated group. These results suggested that BPA might disrupt normal neocortical development by accelerating neuronal differentiation/migration. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Liu, Hao [Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Cancer Research Institute, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Wang, Hongsheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Xu, Meiying, E-mail: xumy@gdim.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  7. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang; Liu, Hao; Wang, Hongsheng; Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui; Xu, Meiying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health

  8. Removal of bisphenol A and some heavy metal ions by polydivinylbenzene magnetic latex particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzougui, Zied; Chaabouni, Amel; Elleuch, Boubaker; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-08-01

    In this study, magnetic polydivinylbenzene latex particles MPDVB with a core-shell structure were tested for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), copper Cu(II), lead Pb(II), and zinc Zn(II) from aqueous solutions by a batch-adsorption technique. The effect of different parameters, such as initial concentration of pollutant, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial pH solution on the adsorption of the different adsorbates considered was investigated. The adsorption of BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) was found to be fast, and the equilibrium was achieved within 30 min. The pH 5-5.5 was found to be the most suitable pH for metal removal. The presence of electrolytes and their increasing concentration reduced the metal adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. Whereas, the optimal pH for BPA adsorption was found 7, both hydrogen bonds and π-π interaction were thought responsible for the adsorption of BPA on MPDVB. The adsorption kinetics of BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) were found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data for BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) adsorption were fitted well by the Langmuir isotherm model. Furthermore, the desorption and regeneration studies have proven that MPDVB can be employed repeatedly without impacting its adsorption capacity.

  9. Dynamic Stocks and Flows Analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Daqian; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zeng, Xianlai; Tang, Linbin

    2018-03-08

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic organic chemical, is creating a new category of ecological and human health challenges due to unintended leakage. Effectively managing the use and leakage of BPA can benefit from an understanding of the anthropogenic BPA cycles (i.e., the size of BPA flows and stocks). In this work, we provide a dynamic analysis of the anthropogenic BPA cycles in China for 2000-2014. We find that China's BPA consumption has increased 10-fold since 2000, to ∼3 million tonnes/year. With the increasing consumption, China's in-use BPA stock has increased 500-fold to 14.0 million tonnes (i.e., 10.2 kg BPA/capita). It is unclear whether a saturation point has been reached, but in 2004-2014, China's in-use BPA stock has been increasing by 0.8 kg BPA/capita annually. Electronic products are the biggest contributor, responsible for roughly one-third of China's in-use BPA stock. Optical media (DVD/VCD/CDs) is the largest contributor to China's current End-of-Life (EoL) BPA flow, totaling 0.9 million tonnes/year. However, the EoL BPA flow due to e-waste will increase quickly, and will soon become the largest EoL BPA flow. The changing quantities and sources of EoL BPA flows may require a shift in the macroscopic BPA management strategies.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel bacterium, Sphingomonas bisphenolicum strain AO1, that degrades bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiman, Ko-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Nishida, Tomoaki; Matsumura, Yoshinobu

    2007-04-01

    Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, BPA), which is used as a synthetic resin material or a plasticizer, is a pollutant that possesses endocrine-disrupting activity. Bioremediation of BPA is used to decrease its polluting effects, and here we report a novel bacterial strain AO1, which is able to degrade BPA. This strain was isolated using enrichment cultivation from a soil sample from a vegetable-growing field; the sample was one of 500 soil samples collected across Japan. Strain AO1 degraded 100 mg/l BPA to an undetectable level within 6 h in MYPG medium (containing malt extract, yeast extract, peptone, and glucose) and within 48 h in minimum medium containing 1% glucose at 30 degrees C. Strain AO1 can utilize BPA as a sole source of carbon and as an energy source under aerobic conditions. The estrogenic activity of BPA in MYPG medium was ultimately reduced by strain AO1, although the activity initially increased. Taxonomical analysis showed that strain AO1 is closely related to Sphingomonas chlorophenolicum and S. herbicidovorans, neither of which have a capacity for BPA degradation. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain AO1 is a novel species of the Sphingomonas genus, and we designated AO1 as S. bisphenolicum.

  11. In vitro percutaneous absorption and metabolism of Bisphenol A (BPA) through fresh human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Frank; Allan, Graham; Dimond, Stephen S; Waechter, John M; Beyer, Dieter

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume compound. It is mainly used as a monomer to make polymers for various applications including food-contact materials. The primary route of exposure to BPA in the general population is through oral intake (EFSA 2015) however, other potential sources of exposure have also been identified, such as dermal contact. In the present study, the percutaneous absorption through human skin has been investigated in an in vitro study according to OECD TG 428 (Skin Absorption: In Vitro Method). In order to investigate potential dermal BPA metabolism during absorption, radiolabelled BPA was applied to fresh, metabolically competent, human skin samples (ring labelled 14 C BPA concentrations tested were 2.4, 12, 60 and 300mg/L). Measured as total radioactivity the mean absorbed dose (receptor compartment) ranged from 1.7-3.6% of the applied doses and the dermal delivery (epidermis+dermis+receptor compartment), sometimes also named bioavailable dose was 16-20% of the applied doses, with the majority of the radioactivity associated with epidermis compared to dermis and receptor fluid. No metabolism was observed in any of the epidermis samples; however some metabolism was observed in dermis and receptor fluid samples with formation of BPA-glucuronide and BPA-sulfate, and some polar metabolites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. Application of ozone for the removal of bisphenol A from water and wastewater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad; Roddick, Felicity; Fan, Linhua; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2013-02-01

    The extensive use of Bisphenol A (BPA) in the plastics industry has led to increasing reports of its presence in the aquatic environment, with concentrations of ng L(-1) to μg L(-1). Various advanced oxidation processes, including ozonation, have been shown to effectively degrade BPA. This paper reviews the current advancements in using ozone to remove BPA from water and wastewater. Most of the published work on the oxidation of BPA by ozone has focused on the efficiency of BPA removal in terms of the disappearance of BPA, and the effect of various operational parameters such as ozone feed rate, contact time and pH; some information is available on the estrogenic activity of the treated water. Due to increasing operational reliability and cost effectiveness, there is great potential for industrial scale application of ozone for the treatment of BPA. However, there is a significant lack of information on the formation of oxidation by-products and their toxicities, particularly in more complex matrices such as wastewater, and further investigation is needed for a better understanding of the environmental fate of BPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperbranched polysiloxane functionalized graphene oxide for dicyclopentadiene bisphenol dicyanate ester nanocomposites with high performance

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    H. X. Yan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report an efficient and novel method to functionalize graphene oxide (GO with hyperbranched polysiloxane and successfully compound them with dicyclopentadiene bisphenol dicyanate ester (DCPDCE to prepare nanocomposites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR were employed to examine the surface functionalization of GO. The effects of functionalized GO on the curing reaction, mechanical, dielectric and thermal properties of DCPDCE resin were investigated systematically. Results of DSC show that the addition of modified GO can facilitate the curing reaction of DCPDCE and decrease the curing temperature of DCPDCE. Compared with pure DCPDCE resin, the impact and flexural strengths of the nanocomposite materials are improved markedly with up to 66 and 50% increasing magnitude, respectively. Meanwhile, the modified GO/DCPDCE systems exhibit lower dielectric constant and loss than pure DCPDCE resin over the testing frequency from 10 to 60 MHz. In addition, the thermal stability and moisture resistance of modified GO/DCPDCE nanocomposties are also superior to that of pure DCPDCE resin.

  15. Bisphenol A Release: Survey of the Composition of Dental Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Elisabeth; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Attal, Jean-Pierre; Raskin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with potential toxicity. Composite resins may not contain pure BPA, but its derivatives are widely used. Several studies found doses of BPA or its derivatives in saliva or urine of patients after composite resin placement. The aims of this study were to establish an exhaustive list of composite resins marketed in Europe and their composition, and to assess the extent of BPA derivatives used. A research on manufacturers' websites was performed to reference all composite resins marketed in Europe, then their composition was determined from both material safety data sheets and a standardized questionnaire sent to manufacturers. Manufacturers had to indicate whether their product contained the monomers listed, add other monomers if necessary, or indicate "not disclosed". 160 composite resins were identified from 31 manufacturers and 23 manufacturers (74.2%) responded to the survey. From the survey and websites, the composition of 130 composite resins (81.2%) was: 112 (86.2%) based on BPA derivatives, 97 (74.7%) on bis-GMA, 17 (13.1%) without monomer derived from BPA (UDMA, sometimes with TEGDMA) and 6 (4.6%) with UDMA (only); 1 (0.8%) did not contain a BPA derivative or UDMA or TEGDMA. Pure BPA was never reported. This work has established a list of 18 composite resins that contain no BPA derivative. Manufacturers should be required to report the exact composition of their products as it often remains unclear or incomplete.

  16. Study of experiment on leaching of bisphenol A from infant books to artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajiki, Junko; Yanagibori, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Yaeko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the risk of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure when infants suck or chew infant books, the concentration of BPA leaching from infant books published by Japanese makers to artificial saliva was measured. The concentration of BPA leaching from 10 infant books to 15 ml artificial saliva or water was measured at 37 degrees C for 20 hrs. BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) with solid-phase extraction. BPA was leached from all books when pieces of them were dipped both into saliva and water for 20 hrs. The highest concentration of BPA leaching from one out of 10 books was 43.4 ng/ml (for 2 hrs) in saliva, which was estimated to be approximately 0.052 mg/kg body weight/day for infants aged 6-10 months. As BPA has endocrine-disrupting effects and poses higher risks in infants than in adults, it is desired to reduce BPA use in the printing of infant books from the viewpoint of child health.

  17. Urinary Concentrations of Triclosan, Benzophenone-3, and Bisphenol A in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents

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    Fu-Kuei Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of urinary triclosan (TCS, benzophenone-3 (BP-3, and bisphenol A (BPA in 52 children and 71 adolescents. The effects of age and sex on the levels of urinary TCS, BP-3, and BPA were explored, respectively. Results demonstrated the overall detection rates of urinary TCS, BP-3, and BPA were 18.7%, 8.1%, and 49.6%, respectively. The females had higher TCS concentrations than males (p = 0.051. The detection rate of urinary BP-3 in females (12.3% was higher than that in males (0% (p = 0.015. Moreover, the detection rate of urinary BP-3 in adolescents (14.1% was higher than that in children (0% (p = 0.005. For children, no urinary BP-3 was found. There were no differences in detection rates and concentrations of urinary TCS, BP-3, and BPA between males and females, respectively. For adolescents, urinary BP-3 was only found in the females. Urinary TCS levels in females were higher than those in males (p = 0.047. The present study showed that urinary TCS concentrations in females were significantly higher than those in males, respectively. In addition, BP-3 was only detected in urine samples of female adolescents. Sex and age were the important factors influencing urinary TCS and BP-3 concentrations.

  18. Removal of bisphenol A in canned liquid food by enzyme-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Meléndez-Saavedra, Fanny; Figueroa, Mario; Gimeno, Miquel; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2018-02-01

    Laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on TiO2 nanoparticles; the nanocomposites obtained were used for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) in a liquid food matrix. To achieve a high enzymatic stability over a wide pH range and at temperatures above 50 °C, the nanocomposite structures were prepared by both physical adsorption and covalent linking of the enzyme onto the nanometric support. All the nanocomposite structures retained 40% of their enzymatic activity after 60 days of storage. Proof-of-concept experiments in aqueous media using the nanocomposites resulted on a > 60% BPA removal after 48 h and showed that BPA was depleted within 5 days. The nanocomposites were tested in canned liquid food samples; the removal reached 93.3% within 24 h using the physically adsorbed laccase. For the covalently linked enzyme, maximum BPA removal was 91.3%. The formation of BPA dimers and trimers was observed in all the assays. Food samples with sugar and protein contents above 3 and 4 mg mL-1 showed an inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity.

  19. Bisphenol A exposure disturbs the bone metabolism: An evolving interest towards an old culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Zar Chi; Froemming, Gabriele Ruth Anisah; Muid, Suhaila

    2018-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) (2,2,-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane), a well-known endocrine disruptor (ED), is the exogenous chemical that mimic the natural endogenous hormone like oestrogen. Due to its extensive exposure to humans, BPA is considered to be a major toxicological agent for general population. Environmental exposure of BPA results in adverse health outcomes including bone loss. BPA disturbs the bone health by decreasing the plasma calcium level and inhibiting the calcitonin secretion. BPA also stimulated differentiation and induced apoptosis in human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the untoward effect of BPA against bone metabolism. The present review gives an overview on the possible mechanisms of BPA towards bone loss. The previous literature shows that BPA exerts its toxic effect on bone cells by binding to the oestrogen related receptor-gamma (ERγ), reducing the bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. BPA interrupts the bone metabolism via RANKL, apoptosis and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. It is, however, still debated on the exact underlying mechanism of BPA against bone health. We summarised the molecular evidences with possible mechanisms of BPA, an old environmental culprit, in bone loss and enlightened the underlying understanding of adverse action of BPA in the society. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Zero-valent aluminum-mediated degradation of Bisphenol A in the presence of common oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, I; Olmez-Hanci, T; Dogan, M; Ozturk, T

    2017-11-01

    The use of a commercial, nano-scale zero-valent aluminum (ZVA) powder was explored for the treatment of aqueous Bisphenol A (BPA). The study focused on the (i) activation of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and persulfate (PS) oxidants with ZVA to accelerate BPA degradation, (ii) comparison of the treatment performance in pure and real surface water (SW) samples, (iii) effects on toxicity and (iv) reuse potential of ZVA nanoparticles after ZVA/HP and ZVA/PS treatments. In pure water, ZVA coupled with HP or PS provided an effective means of BPA treatment particularly when PS was employed as the oxidant. On the other hand, in BPA-spiked SW, the ZVA/HP treatment combination outperformed ZVA/PS oxidation in terms of BPA removal, whereas ZVA/PS oxidation was superior in terms of organic carbon removal. According to the bioassays conducted in pure and real SW samples with the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri and the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the toxicity response of BPA and its oxidation products was sensitive to the test organism and water matrix. The inhibitory effect of the reaction solution increased at the early stages of ZVA/PS treatment. The reuse potential of the ZVA/HP treatment system was higher than that of the ZVA/PS treatment system.

  1. The rapid degradation of bisphenol A induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Cheng, Min; Deng, Linjing; Zhang, Chen; Wan, Jia; Liu, Linshan

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, sediment was spiked with bisphenol A (BPA) solution to explore the interaction between indigenous bacterial communities and BPA biodegradation in sediment. Results showed that BPA could be adsorbed to the sediment and then biodegraded rapidly. Biodegradation efficiency of BPA in treatments with 10 and 50 mg/L BPA reached 64.3 and 61.8% on the first day, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that BPA affected the densities, species, and diversities of bacteria significantly. The response of bacterial community to BPA favored BPA biodegradation by promoting the growth of BPA-reducing bacteria and inhibiting other competitors. According to the results of sequencing, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas played vital roles in the degradation of BPA. They presented over 73% of the original bacterial community, and both of them were promoted by BPA comparing with controls. Laccase and polyphenol oxidase contributed to the degradation of BPA and metabolic intermediates, respectively. This paper illustrates the rapid biodegradation of BPA induced by the response of indigenous bacterial communities to the BPA stress, which will improve the understandings of BPA degradation in sediment.

  2. Comparison of degradation between indigenous and spiked bisphenol A and triclosan in a biosolids amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kate A; Warne, Michael Stj; Smernik, Ronald J; Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the degradation of indigenous bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in a biosolids-amended soil, to the degradation of spiked labelled surrogates of the same compounds (BPA-d16 and TCS-(13)C12). The aim was to determine if spiking experiments accurately predict the degradation of compounds in biosolids-amended soils using two different types of biosolids, a centrifuge dried biosolids (CDB) and a lagoon dried biosolids (LDB). The rate of degradation of the compounds was examined and the results indicated that there were considerable differences between the indigenous and spiked compounds. These differences were more marked for BPA, for which the indigenous compound was detectable throughout the study, whereas the spiked compound decreased to below the detection limit prior to the study completion. The rate of degradation for the indigenous BPA was approximately 5-times slower than that of the spiked BPA-d16. The indigenous and spiked TCS were both detectable throughout the study, however, the shape of the degradation curves varied considerably, particularly in the CDB treatment. These findings show that spiking experiments may not be suitable to predict the degradation and persistence of organic compounds following land application of biosolids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Partial ozonation pre-treatment for sludge solubilization and simultaneous degradation of bisphenol A: quantification studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2012-12-01

    Ozonation pre-treatment was investigated for the enhancement of sludge solids and organic matter solubilization and simultaneous degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor compound from wastewater sludge (WWS). The ultrafast method (15 s per sample) used for the analysis of BPA in WWS is based on Laser Diode Thermal Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization coupled to tandem Mass Spectrometry. The statistical methods used for optimization studies comprised the response surface method with fractional factorial designs and central composite designs. The ozonation pre-treatment process was carried out with four independent variables, namely WWS solids concentration (15-35 g l(-1)), pH (5-7), ozone dose (5-25 mg g(-1) SS) and ozonation time (10-30 min). It was observed that among all the variables studied, ozone dose had more significantly (probability (p) BPA degradation from WWS. During the optimization process, it was found that higher BPA degradation (100%) could be obtained with 24 g l(-1) SS, 6.23 pH with an ozone dose of 26.14 mg g(-1) SS for 16.47 min ozonation time. The higher ozone dose used in this study was observed to be cost effective on the basis of solids and organic matter solubilization and degradation of BPA.

  4. Photodegradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate under blue light radiation and its effect on optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Jansen, K. M. B.; Deeben, P.; Boutelje, M.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, the degradation mechanisms of Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC) plates under blue light radiation are studied. The BPA-PC plates are used both in light conversion carriers in LED modules and encapsulantes in LED packages. Optical degradation of the products is mainly due to the degradation of BPA-PC encapsulants under blue light radiation. In this study, BPA-PC plates are irradiated with blue light at elevated temperature of 140 °C for a period up to 1920 h. Optical and chemical properties of the photo-aged plates were studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR-ATR spectrometer, integrated sphere, and Lambda 950 spectrophotometer. The results show that increasing the exposure time leads to the discoloration, loss of optical properties, decrease of light transmission, decrease in the relative radiant power value, and increase in the yellowing index (YI) of BPA-PC plates. The results also show that there are two stages in the yellowing of polycarbonate plates. The first stage is the so-called induction period in which there is no major change in the value of YI and the rate of yellowing is very slow. This stage takes until 500 h, followed by the second yellowing regime, where the yellowing is accelerated and the rate of yellowing is comparatively faster. Both photo-Fries and photo-oxidation products are identified as the mechanisms of photo-degradation, with photo-Fries predominating as ageing time increases.

  5. Heterogeneous Fenton degradation of bisphenol A catalyzed by efficient adsorptive Fe3O4/GO nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zulin; Ma, Wenqiang; Bai, Xue; Feng, Ranran; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Zhangyan

    2014-06-01

    A new method for the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution was developed. The oxidative degradation characteristics of BPA in a heterogeneous Fenton reaction catalyzed by Fe3O4/graphite oxide (GO) were studied. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were evenly distributed and were ∼6 nm in diameter. Experimental results suggested that BPA conversion was affected by several factors, such as the loading amount of Fe3O4/GO, pH, and initial H2O2 concentration. In the system with 1.0 g L(-1) of Fe3O4/GO and 20 mmol L(-1) of H2O2, almost 90% of BPA (20 mg L(-1)) was degraded within 6 h at pH 6.0. Based on the degradation products identified by GC-MS, the degradation pathways of BPA were proposed. In addition, the reused catalyst Fe3O4/GO still retained its catalytic activity after three cycles, indicating that Fe3O4/GO had good stability and reusability. These results demonstrated that the heterogeneous Fenton reaction catalyzed by Fe3O4/GO is a promising advanced oxidation technology for the treatment of wastewater containing BPA.

  6. Degradation of bisphenol A by ozonation: rate constants, influence of inorganic anions, and by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Soo Tay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The second-order rate constants for the reaction between bisphenol A (BPA and ozonewere evaluated over the pH range of 2-12. The rate constants showed minimum values (×104 M-1s-1under acidic condition (pH 10. From pH 4 to 7, the second-order rate constants were found to increase by a magnitudeof almost 102 and this was due to the increase in anionic BPA species in the solution. The rateconstants increased almost twofold when pH increased from 9.6 to 10.2. The presence of commoninorganic anions at levels commonly found in the environment did not affect the rate of degradationof BPA.The degradation by-products from the ozonation of BPA were identified as 4-(prop-1-en-2-ylphenol, hydroquinone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 2-(2-(4-hydroxyphenylpropan-2-ylsuccinaldehyde,2-(1-(4-hydroxyphenylvinylpent-2-enal, 3-formyl-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-4-methylpent-2-enoic acid, monohydroxy-BPA and dihydroxy-BPA. In conclusion, ozonation was found to be aneffective method for the removal of BPA even in the presence of common inorganic anions atenvironmental concentrations. However, incomplete treatment of BPA might produce a variety ofdegradation by-products.

  7. Efficient activation of peroxymonosulfate by magnetic Mn-MGO for degradation of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangkun; Bao, Jianguo; Liu, Ying; Ling, Haibo; Zheng, Han; Kim, Sang Hoon; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-12-15

    A heterogeneous manganese/magnetite/graphene oxide (Mn-MGO) hybrid catalyst was fabricated through the reduction of KMnO 4 by ethylene glycol in the presence of magnetite/GO (MGO) particles. The Mn-MGO catalyst exhibited high efficacy and long-term stability in activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water. The results of the batch experiments indicated that an increase in the catalyst dose and solution pH could enhance BPA degradation in the coupled Mn-MGO/PMS system. Regardless of the initial pH, the solution pH significantly dropped after the reaction, which was caused by catalytic PMS activation. The production of sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals was validated through radical quenching and electron paramagnetic resonances (EPR) tests. BPA degradation pathways were proposed on the basis of LC-MS and GC-MS analyses. Finally, a possible mechanism of catalytic PMS activation was proposed that involved electron transfer from MnO or Mn 2 O 3 to PMS with the generation of sulfate radicals, protons and MnO 2 , as well as the simultaneous reduction of MnO 2 by PMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Degradation of bisphenol A in water by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanrui; Xu, Zhencheng; Guo, Qingwei; Zhuo, Qiongfang

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a kind of a controversial endocrine disruptor, and is ubiquitous in environment. The degradation of BPA with the heterogeneous photo-Fenton system was demonstrated in this study. The Fe-Y molecular sieve catalyst was prepared with the ion exchange method, and it was characterized by X-ray radiation diffraction (XRD). The effects ofpH, initial concentration of H2O2, initial BPA concentration, and irradiation intensity on the degradation of BPA were investigated. The service life and iron solubility of catalyst were also tested. XRD test shows that the major phase of the Fe-Y catalyst was Fe2O3. The method of heterogeneous photo-Fenton with Fe-Y catalyst was superior to photolysis, photo-oxidation with only hydrogen, heterogeneous Fenton, and homogeneous photo-Fenton approaches. pH value had no obvious effects on BPA degradation over the range of 2.2-7.2. The initial concentration of H2O2 had an optimal value of 20 x 10(-4) mol/L. The decrease in initial concentration of BPA was favourable for degradation. The intensity of ultraviolet irradiation has no obvious effect on the BPA removal. The stability tests indicated that the Fe-Y catalyst can be reused and iron solubility concentration ranged from NA to 0.0062 mg/L. Based on the results, the heterogeneous photo-Fenton treatment is the available method for the degradation of BPA.

  9. Degradation of bisphenol-A using ultrasonic irradiation assisted by low-concentration hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejia; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Lin, Tsair Fuh; Ma, Yan; Li, Lei; Sui, Minghao

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the degradation of bisphenol-A (BPA) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of different additives (H2O2, air bubbles and humic acid) under various operating conditions, i.e., ultrasonic frequency, power intensity and power density. The results demonstrated that the BPA degradation followed pseudo first-order kinetics under different experimental conditions. The optimum power intensities were 0.9, 1.8, and 3.0 W/cm2 at the frequencies of 400, 670, and 800 kHz, respectively. At the fixed frequency (800 kHz), the degradation rate of BPA was shown proportional to the increase of power density applied. With this manner, the BPA sonolysis could be facilitated at H2O2 dosage being lower than 0.1 mmol/L; while BPA degradation was hindered at H2O2 concentration in excess of 1 mmol/L. Additionally, BPA removal was shown to be inhibited by the presence of aeration and humic acid during ultrasonic irradiation. The present study suggested that the degradation rate of BPA assisted by ultrasonic irradiation was influenced by a variety of factors, and high BPA removal rate could be achieved under appropriate conditions.

  10. Degradation of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A by ultrasound-assisted electrochemical oxidation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Matz; Franke, Marcus; Stelter, Michael; Braeutigam, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Micropollutants are becoming an increasing problem for the environment and wastewater treatment. One example is Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrinic disruptor, which is widely used in plastic production. Due to its endocrine disrupting effects on aquatic (micro-)organisms and its ubiquity, in surface- and wastewater alike, adequate treatment techniques are necessary. In this study, the degradation of BPA by a sonoelectrochemical hybrid system was investigated, using a low frequency (24kHz) ultrasound horn and two boron doped diamond electrodes. It was found that by the combination of the individual processes, i.e. ultrasound and electrochemical oxidation, more than 90% of BPA could be removed within 30min at an initial concentration of 1mgL -1 . Moreover, synergistic effects were discovered and a considerable improvement compared to the individual processes could be achieved by using a potential of 5V, whereas synergistic effects were absent at a potential of 10V. This study provides investigation of ultrasound amplitude, potential and electrode positioning on BPA degradation. The reaction was found to follow pseudo first order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.089min -1 . Samples were analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a diode array detector. Moreover, the presence and distribution of hydroxyl radicals within the reactor was visualized by using sonochemiluminescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hepatic tissue of female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehane I. Eid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting compound widely spread in our living environment. It is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to the limited information concerning the effect of BPA on the liver, the present study was designed to assess hepatic tissue injury induced by early life exposure to BPA in female rat offspring. Rat dams (n = 9 were gavaged with 0.5 and 50 mg of BPA/kg b.w./day throughout lactation until weaning. The sham group received olive oil for the same duration while the control group did not receive any injection. The liver tissue was collected from female pups at different pubertal periods (PND50, 90 and 110 to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers, extent of DNA damage and histopathological changes. Our results indicated that early life exposure to BPA significantly increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, induced DNA damage and chronic severe inflammation in the hepatic tissue in a time dependent manner. These data suggested that BPA causes long-term adverse effects on the liver, which leads to deleterious effects in the liver of female rat offspring.

  12. Preconception paternal bisphenol A exposure induces sex-specific anxiety and depression behaviors in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fan

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, an environmental endocrine-disrupting compound, has drawn a great attention for its adverse effect on behavioral development. Maternal exposure to this compound has been reported to induce anxiety and depression in offspring, but the effect of its paternal exposure is rarely discussed. This study investigated whether preconception paternal BPA exposure can affect the emotions of male rats and their offspring. Eighteen adult male rats (F0 received either a vehicle or 50 μg/kg/day BPA diet for 21 weeks and were then mated with non-exposed females to produce offspring (F1. The affective behaviors of F0 and F1 rats were evaluated in the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze and the forced swimming test, and their serum corticosterone were then examined. BPA exposure induced increased anxiety behaviors along with increased serum corticosterone in F0 rats. This paternal exposure also led to increased anxiety behaviors in F1 females and aggravated depression behaviors in both sexes of F1 rats. Furthermore, only F1 females exhibited increased serum corticosterone. Overall, these data indicate that preconception paternal exposure to a low dose of BPA may induce transgenerational sex-specific impairments in the affection of adult rats.

  13. Bisphenol A and Ovarian Reserve among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA exposure on ovarian reserve in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, we measured creatinine adjusted urinary BPA (BPA_Cre concentrations and used regression models to evaluate the association between urinary BPA level and antral follicle count (AFC, antimullerian hormone (AMH, day-3 follicle stimulating hormone levels (FSH and inhibin B (INHB in 268 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS. BPA was detected in all women with a median concentration of 2.35 ng/mL (the 25th and 75th percentiles of 1.47 ng/mL and 3.95 ng/mL. A unit increase in BPA_Cre was associated with a significant decrease of 0.34 in AFC (β = −0.34, 95% CI = −0.60, −0.08; p = 0.01. Likewise, BPA was negatively associated with AMH and day-3 FSH levels, but neither of them reached statistical significance. No association was observed between BPA and INHB. Our results suggest that in women with PCOS, BPA may affect ovarian follicles and, therefore, reduce ovarian reserve.

  14. Electrochemical bisphenol A sensor based on N-doped graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Haixia; Li Yan; Wu Dan; Ma Hongmin; Mao Kexia; Fan Dawei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Du Bin, E-mail: bindu0720@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li He, E-mail: lihecd@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Wei Qin, E-mail: sdjndxwq@163.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-doped graphene sheets have catalytic activity towards the BPA oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor based on N-doped graphene sheets and chitosan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was proposed for determination of BPA utilizing N-doped graphene sheets. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), which could disrupt endocrine system and cause cancer, has been considered as an endocrine disruptor. Therefore, it is very important and necessary to develop a sensitive and selective method for detection of BPA. Herein, nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (N-GS) and chitosan (CS) were used to prepare electrochemical BPA sensor. Compared with graphene, N-GS has favorable electron transfer ability and electrocatalytic property, which could enhance the response signal towards BPA. CS also exhibits excellent film forming ability and improves the electrochemical behavior of N-GS modified electrode. The sensor exhibits a sensitive response to BPA in the range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}-1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} under the optimal conditions. Finally, this proposed sensor was successfully employed to determine BPA in water samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Bisphenol A Disrupts Transcription and Decreases Viability in Aging Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ribeiro-Varandas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a widely utilized endocrine disruptor capable of mimicking endogenous hormones, employed in the manufacture of numerous consumer products, thereby interfering with physiological cellular functions. Recent research has shown that BPA alters epigenetic cellular mechanisms in mammals and may be correlated to enhanced cellular senescence. Here, the effects of BPA at 10 ng/mL and 1 µg/mL, concentrations found in human samples, were analyzed on HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC. Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR transcriptional analysis of the Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 retroelement showed that BPA induces global transcription deregulation in both cell lines, although with more pronounced effects in HUVEC cells. Whereas there was an increase in global transcription in HT29 exclusively after 24 h of exposure, this chemical had prolonged effects on HUVEC. Immunoblotting revealed that this was not accompanied by alterations in the overall content of H3K9me2 and H3K4me3 epigenetic marks. Importantly, cell viability assays and transcriptional analysis indicated that prolonged BPA exposure affects aging processes in senescent HUVEC. To our knowledge this is the first report that BPA interferes with senescence in primary vascular endothelial cells, therefore, suggesting its association to the etiology of age-related human pathologies, such as atherosclerosis.

  16. Bisphenol A Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Reduces the Motile Potential of Murine LM8 Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidani, Teruki; Yasuda, Rie; Miyawaki, Joji; Oshima, Yusuke; Miura, Hiromasa; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the proliferation and motility potential of murine LM8 osteosarcoma cells. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with or without 80 μM BPA. The effect of BPA on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. Ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) to visualize cell morphology. Cell motility was assayed using inserts with uncoated membranes in invasion chambers. Expression of cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) was determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. BPA reduced the DNA content of cultures and the number of BrdU-positive cells. BPA induced a change in morphology from cuboidal with multiple filopodia on the cell surface to spindle-shaped with a smooth cell surface. BPA-treated cells expressed less CDC42 and were less motile than untreated cells. BPA inhibited DNA replication and cell proliferation. BPA inhibited filopodia formation and motile potential by inhibiting CDC42 expression in LM8 cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Bisphenol A Disrupts Transcription and Decreases Viability in Aging Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Varandas, Edna; Pereira, H. Sofia; Monteiro, Sara; Neves, Elsa; Brito, Luísa; Boavida Ferreira, Ricardo; Viegas, Wanda; Delgado, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely utilized endocrine disruptor capable of mimicking endogenous hormones, employed in the manufacture of numerous consumer products, thereby interfering with physiological cellular functions. Recent research has shown that BPA alters epigenetic cellular mechanisms in mammals and may be correlated to enhanced cellular senescence. Here, the effects of BPA at 10 ng/mL and 1 µg/mL, concentrations found in human samples, were analyzed on HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) transcriptional analysis of the Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1) retroelement showed that BPA induces global transcription deregulation in both cell lines, although with more pronounced effects in HUVEC cells. Whereas there was an increase in global transcription in HT29 exclusively after 24 h of exposure, this chemical had prolonged effects on HUVEC. Immunoblotting revealed that this was not accompanied by alterations in the overall content of H3K9me2 and H3K4me3 epigenetic marks. Importantly, cell viability assays and transcriptional analysis indicated that prolonged BPA exposure affects aging processes in senescent HUVEC. To our knowledge this is the first report that BPA interferes with senescence in primary vascular endothelial cells, therefore, suggesting its association to the etiology of age-related human pathologies, such as atherosclerosis. PMID:25207595

  18. Urinary Bisphenol A and Hypertension in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, A.; Teppala, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, with >93% of US adults having detectable BPA levels in urine. Recent animal studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in several mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension, including weight gain, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. However, no previous human study has examined the association between markers of BPA exposure and hypertension. Methods. We examined urinary BPA levels in 1380 subjects from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2003-2004. Main outcome-of-interest was hypertension, defined as blood pressure-reducing medication use and/or blood pressures >140/90 mm of Hg (n=580). Results. We observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and hypertension independent of confounding factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus and total serum cholesterol levels. Compared to tertile 1 (referent), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension associated with tertile 3 was 1.50 (1.12-2.00); P-trend = 0.007. The association was consistently present in subgroup analyses by race/ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions. Urinary BPA levels are associated with hypertension, independent of traditional risk factors.

  19. Local effect of bisphenol A on the estradiol synthesis of ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Qinling; Dang, Xuan; He, Yaqiong; Li, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Close relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) has drawn much attention in recent years, while the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we aim to detect BPA concentration in the follicular fluid and investigate its effect on estradiol synthesis in human granulosa cells from PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected from women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. BPA concentration in the follicular fluid from PCOS patients (440.50 ± 63.70 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that from non-PCOS patients (338.00 ± 57.88 pg/ml). Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis in cultured granulosa cells was examined after treatment with BPA from 0.01 to 1 μM for 24 h. Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis was downregulated by BPA in a dose-dependent manner in PCOS, but no effect was observed in granulosa cells from non-PCOS patients. These findings provide evidence that increased BPA concentration in the follicular fluid of PCOS patients may play an important role in its pathogenesis by attenuating the expression of aromatase in granulosa cells.

  20. Handling of thermal paper: Implications for dermal exposure to bisphenol A and its alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan R Bernier

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in a wide range of consumer products including photoactive dyes used in thermal paper. Recent studies have shown that dermal absorption of BPA can occur when handling these papers. Yet, regulatory agencies have largely dismissed thermal paper as a major source of BPA exposure. Exposure estimates provided by agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA are based on assumptions about how humans interact with this material, stating that 'typical' exposures for adults involve only one handling per day for short periods of time (30% of individuals hold thermal paper with more than three fingertips, and >60% allow the paper to touch their palm. Only 11% of the participants we observed were consistent with the EFSA model for time of contact and dermal surface area. Mathematical modeling based on handling times we measured and previously published transfer coefficients, concentrations of BPA in paper, and absorption factors indicate the most conservative estimated intake from handling thermal paper in this population is 51.1 ng/kg/day, similar to EFSA's estimates of 59 ng/kg/day from dermal exposures. Less conservative estimates, using published data on concentrations in thermal paper and transfer rates to skin, indicate that exposures are likely significantly higher. Based on our observational data, we propose that the current models for estimating dermal BPA exposures are not consistent with normal human behavior and should be reevaluated.

  1. High butter-fat diet and bisphenol A additively impair male rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapore, Pheruza; Hennessy, Max; Song, Dan; Ying, Jun; Ouyang, Bin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to xenoestrogens is a probable cause of male infertility in humans. Consumption of high-fat diets and exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is pervasive in America. Here, we test the hypothesis that gestational exposure to high dietary fats and/or BPA disrupt spermatogenesis in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10kcal% butter fat (AIN), 39kcal% butter fat (HFB), or 39kcal% olive oil (HFO), with or without BPA (25μg/kg body weight/day) during pregnancy. One group of male offspring received testosterone (T)- and estradiol-17β (E2)-filled implants or sham-implants from postnatal day (PND)70-210. Another group was naturally aged to 18 months. We found that adult males with gestational exposure to BPA, HFB, or HFB+BPA, in both the aged group and the T+E2-implanted group, exhibited impairment of spermatogenesis. In contrast, gestational exposure to HFO or HFO+BPA did not affect spermatogenesis. Sham-implanted, gestational exposed groups also had normal spermatogenesis. Loss of ERα expression in round spermatids and premature expression of protamine-1 in diplotene spermatocytes were features associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Compared with the single-treatment groups, the HFB+BPA group experienced more severe effects, including atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bisphenol A and alkylphenols concentrations in selected mariculture fish species from Pulau Kukup, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nur Afifah Hanun; Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2018-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) contamination in food is a global concern. Concerning potential environmental and human health exposed to EDCs via food intake, an experiment was conducted on the selected EDCs concentration in the mariculture fish, Trachinotus blochii (golden pomfret), Lutjanus campechanus (snapper), and Lates calcarifer (sea bass) at Pulau Kukup, Johor. Mariculture activity at Pulau Kukup involves active export of fishes to Singapore and Indonesia. The recovery of BPA (bisphenol A), 4OP (4-octylphenol), and 4NP (4-nonylphenol) were 61.54%-93.00%, 16.79%-17.13%, and 61.24%-71.49%, respectively. Relatively high concentration of BPA was recorded in T. blochii (0.322ng/g), followed by L. calcarifer (0.124ng/g) and L. campechanus (0.023ng/g). Furthermore, 4OP and 4NP were detected only in T. blochii at concentrations of 0.084ng/g and 0.078ng/g, respectively. The results of the present study provide insights on monitoring and managing mariculture activity in relation to environmental protection and food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A and its intermediates with graphitic carbon nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunasee, Sharmini; Leong, Kah Hon; Wong, Kien Tiek; Lee, Gooyong; Pichiah, Saravanan; Nah, InWook; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Yoon, Yeomin; Jang, Min

    2017-03-13

    Since bisphenol A (BPA) exhibits endocrine disrupting action and high toxicity in aqueous system, there are high demands to remove it completely. In this study, the BPA removal by sonophotocatalysis coupled with nano-structured graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 , GCN) was conducted with various batch tests using energy-based advanced oxidation process (AOP) based on ultrasound (US) and visible light (Vis-L). Results of batch tests indicated that GCN-based sonophotocatalysis (Vis-L/US) had higher rate constants than other AOPs and especially two times higher degradation rate than TiO 2 -based Vis-L/US. This result infers that GCN is effective in the catalytic activity in Vis-L/US since its surface can be activated by Vis-L to transport electrons from valence band (VB) for utilizing holes (h + VB ) in the removal of BPA. In addition, US irradiation exfoliated the GCN effectively. The formation of BPA intermediates was investigated in detail by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). The possible degradation pathway of BPA was proposed.

  4. Activated charcoal based diffusive gradients in thin films for in situ monitoring of bisphenols in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-Lun; Guan, Dong-Xing; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William; Cui, Xin-Yi; Wang, Lian-Hong; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-01-06

    Widespread use of bisphenols (BPs) in our daily life results in their elevated concentrations in waters and the need to study their environmental impact, which demands reliable and robust measurement techniques. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is an in situ passive sampling approach which provides time-integrated data. In this study we developed a new methodology, based on DGT with activated charcoal (AC) as a binding agent, for measuring three BPs (BPA, BPB, and BPF) which incorporated and tested its performance characteristics. Consistent elution efficiencies were obtained using methanol when concentrations of BPs were low and a methanol-NaOH mixture at high concentrations. The diffusion coefficients of BPA, BPB, and BPF in the diffusive gel, measured using an independent diffusion cell, were 5.03 × 10(-6), 5.64 × 10(-6), and 4.44 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at 25 °C, respectively. DGT with an AC binding gel had a high capacity for BPA, BPB, and BPF at 192, 140, and 194 μg/binding gel disk, respectively, and the binding performance did not deteriorate with time, up to 254 d after production. Time-integrated concentrations of BPs measured in natural waters using DGT devices with AC gels deployed in situ for 7 d were comparable to concentrations measured by an active sampling method. This study demonstrates that AC-based DGT is an effective tool for in situ monitoring of BPs in waters.

  5. Influence of Bisphenol A on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria in quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Lei; Sun, Ruonan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2017-09-15

    The influence of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria in quartz sand was examined in both NaCl (10 and 25 mM) and CaCl 2 solutions (1.2 and 5 mM) by comparing the breakthrough curves and retained profiles of cell with BPA in suspensions versus those without BPA. Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were employed as model cells in the present study. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek interaction energy calculation revealed that the presence of BPA in cell suspensions led to a lower repulsive interaction between the cells and the quartz sand. This suggests that, theoretically, increased cell deposition on quartz sand would be expected in the presence of BPA. However, under all examined solution conditions, the presence of BPA in cell suspensions increased transport and decreased deposition of bacteria in porous media regardless of cell type, ionic strength, ion valence, the presence or absence of extracellular polymeric substances. We found that competition by BPA through hydrophobicity for deposition sites on the quartz sand surfaces was the sole contributor to the enhanced transport and decreased deposition of bacteria in the presence of BPA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Adsorption of bisphenol A from water by surfactant-modified zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wu, Deyi; Chen, Xuechu; Lin, Yan

    2010-08-15

    Zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash (ZFA) was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and was examined for the adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) from water. Two ZFAs were prepared in our laboratory and were characterized to obtain chemical and mineralogical composition, surface area, and total and external cation-exchange capacity among other parameters. HDTMA was confirmed to form bilayer micelles on external surfaces of zeolites. Results indicate that, while ZFA had no affinity for BPA, the surfactant-modified ZFA (SMZFA) showed greatly enhanced adsorption capacity. Uptake of BPA was greatly influenced by pH, increasing at alkaline pH conditions which enable the deprotonation of BPA to form organic anions. The SMZFA with higher BET area and higher amount of loaded HDTMA showed greater retention for BPA. Uptake of BPA by SMZFA was improved slightly in the presence of NaCl, and was enhanced at a low temperature. We propose that BPA anions interact strongly with the positively charged heads of HDTMA, with the two hydrophobic benzene rings of BPA pointing to the inside of HDTMA bilayers. The adsorption of uncharged BPA probably involved hydrophobic partitioning into HDTMA bilayers and the coordination of the oxygen atoms of BPA with positively charged heads of HDTMA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Curing of bisphenol A-aniline based benzoxazine using phenolic, amino and mercapto accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rucigaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The curing of bisphenol A-aniline based benzoxazine was studied applying different accelerators (4,4'-thiodiphenol, o-dianisidine, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 4-mercaptophenol to initiate the catalytic ring-opening of benzoxazine. Possible pathways of benzoxazine ring-opening, polymerization and cross-linking without and with the addition of different accelerators are presented. The curing kinetics was investigated by model-free kinetic analysis of experimental data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The addition of different accelerators significantly reduced the onset temperature of curing in dynamic experiments. The effects of accelerators on the results of isothermal conversion prediction were studied and discussed in detail. Among the used accelerators, thiodiphenol showed the best accelerating efficiency and was consequently used in further studies, where its amount was varied. By low heating rate DSC analysis the catalytic ring-opening, thermally accelerated ring-opening and the diffusion-controlled steps were identified. The amount of added accelerator affected particularly the ring-opening and diffusion-controlled steps.

  8. Bisphenol A contamination in soft drinks as a risk for children's health in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Di Francesco, Fabio; Montuori, Paolo; Amodio Cocchieri, Renata; Cirillo, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) was determined in sugary carbonated, non-carbonated and milk-based beverages, through HLPC-fluorescence detection and confirmed by LC-MS/MS, in a selection of brands that are mostly consumed by Italian children. The daily intake was determined through the WHO budget method (BM). BPA was found at detectable levels in 57% of carbonated beverages, in 50% of non-carbonated and in 100% of milk-based beverages. The median concentrations were 1.24 µg l(-1) (range = carbonated beverages and 0.18 µg l(-1) (carbonated beverages. In non-carbonated beverages, median concentrations were 0.80 µg l(-1) (drink consumption in children ranged from 0.008 to 1.765 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1). The median exposure values for the 'best' and 'worst' cases were 0.16% and 0.47% respectively of the EFSA t-TDI for BPA (4 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), and 10.59% and 35.30% of the t-TDI when the maximum levels were considered.

  9. Tuning the Pore Geometry of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons for Enhanced Adsorption of Bisphenol-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Wannes; Vandaele, Koen; De Buysser, Klaartje; Verberckmoes, An; Thybaut, Joris W.; Poelman, Hilde; De Clercq, Jeriffa; Van Der Voort, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous carbons were synthesized via both soft and hard template methods and compared to a commercial powder activated carbon (PAC) for the adsorption ability of bisphenol-A (BPA) from an aqueous solution. The commercial PAC had a BET-surface of 1027 m2/g with fine pores of 3 nm and less. The hard templated carbon (CMK-3) material had an even higher BET-surface of 1420 m2/g with an average pore size of 4 nm. The soft templated carbon (SMC) reached a BET-surface of 476 m2/g and a pore size of 7 nm. The maximum observed adsorption capacity (qmax) of CMK-3 was the highest with 474 mg/g, compared to 290 mg/g for PAC and 154 mg/g for SMC. The difference in adsorption capacities was attributed to the specific surface area and hydrophobicity of the adsorbent. The microporous PAC showed the slowest adsorption, while the ordered mesopores of SMC and CMK-3 enhanced the BPA diffusion into the adsorbent. This difference in adsorption kinetics is caused by the increase in pore diameter. However, CMK-3 with an open geometry consisting of interlinked nanorods allows for even faster intraparticle diffusion. PMID:28788023

  10. Removal of bisphenol A by adsorption mechanism using PES-SiO2 composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mimi Suliza; Salim, Mohd Razman; Lau, Woei Jye; Hadibarata, Tony; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2016-08-01

    Polyethersulphone (PES) membranes blended with silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were prepared via a dry-jet wet spinning technique for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by adsorption mechanism. The morphology of SiO2 nanoparticles was analysed using a transmission electron microscopy and particle size distribution was also analysed. The prepared membranes were characterized by several techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. The adsorption mechanism of membrane towards BPA was evaluated by batch experiments and kinetic model. The influence of natural organic matter (NOM) in feed water on membrane BPA removal was also studied by filtration experiments. Results showed that BPA adsorption capacity as high as 53 µg/g could be achieved by the PES membrane incorporated with 2 wt% SiO2 in which the adsorption mechanism was in accordance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticles diffusion model suggested that the rate limiting factor of membrane adsorption mechanism is governed by the diffusion of BPA into the membrane pores. The presence of 10 ppm NOM has reported to negatively reduce BPA removal by 24%, as it tended to compete with BPA for membrane adsorption. This work has demonstrated that PES-SiO2 membrane has the potential to eliminate trace amount of BPA from water source containing NOM.

  11. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-22

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  12. Soyabean oil supplementation effects on perivascular inflammation in lungs induced by bisphenol a: a histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Hamid, S.; Umbreen, F.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of soyabean oil supplementation on perivascular inflammation in lungs of adult mice induced by Bisphenol A (BPA). Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with the Animal House, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from June to November 2016. Methodology:Thirty male and female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, of 10 animals each. Group A animals served as control. Group B animals were given BPA at a dose of 50 mg/Kg body weight/day. Group C animals were given BPA and soyabean oil at doses of 50 mg/Kg body weight/day and 500 mg/day, respectively. All treatments were given once daily for a period of eight weeks. Animals were dissected 24 hours after receiving the last dose. Lung tissue specimen processing and H and E staining was carried out for routine histological study. Perivascular inflammation was morphometrically graded and statistically analysed using Chi-square test with p<0.05. Results: Grade 2 inflammation was recorded in two (20%) animals and grade 3 perivascular inflammation in 80% specimens in Group B; whereas 20% specimens of Group C had grade 2 inflammation and eight (80%) showed grade 1 inflammation. None of the control animals showed any inflammation. All groups were significantly different at p<0.001. Conclusion: BPA produced perivascular inflammation and con-commitant administration of soyabean oil diet protected against it in rodent. (author)

  13. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA.

  14. Influence of Bisphenol A on Thyroid Volume and Structure Independent of Iodine in School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    Full Text Available Although several studies have evaluated the relationship between bisphenol A (BPA and thyroid functions, their results are not entirely consistent. Little is known about BPA in relation to thyroid volume and structure.We examined the association of BPA with thyroid volume and thyroid nodules using data from 718 Chinese children living in the East Coast of China in 2012. First morning urine samples were collected for the determination of urinary BPA, creatinine, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC. Thyroid volume (TV and nodules were assessed by thyroid ultrasonography.The median of TV was 3.14ml. 459(63.9% children took iodized salt at home and the median of UIC was 159μg/l. BPA was detected in 99.9% of the urine samples and the medians for boys and girls were 2.64 and 2.35μg/g creatinine, respectively. Of all participants 14.0% had thyroid nodules. Urinary BPA concentration was inversely associated with thyroid volume (β = -0.033, 95% CI: -0.053, -0.013 and the risk for multiple nodules (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.97. The associations above were similar for children who consumed iodized salt and those consumed non-iodized salt.The data suggest that BPA may be one of the influencing factors for TV and thyroid nodules and its effects are independent of iodine nutrition status in children.

  15. Bisphenol-A and Female Infertility: A Possible Role of Gene-Environment Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Huo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphenol-A (BPA is widely used and ubiquitous in the environment. Animal studies indicate that BPA affects reproduction, however, the gene-environment interaction mechanism(s involved in this association remains unclear. We performed a literature review to summarize the evidence on this topic. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed using as keywords BPA, gene, infertility and female reproduction. Full-text articles in both human and animals published in English prior to December 2014 were selected. Results: Evidence shows that BPA can interfere with endocrine function of hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as by changing gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH secretion in hypothalamus and promoting pituitary proliferation. Such actions affect puberty, ovulation and may even result in infertility. Ovary, uterus and other reproductive organs are also targets of BPA. BPA exposure impairs the structure and functions of female reproductive system in different times of life cycle and may contribute to infertility. Both epidemiological and experimental evidences demonstrate that BPA affects reproduction-related gene expression and epigenetic modification that are closely associated with infertility. The detrimental effects on reproduction may be lifelong and transgenerational. Conclusions: Evidence on gene-environment interactions, especially from human studies, is still limited. Further research on this topic is warranted.

  16. Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA): A Reality That Still Needs to Be Unveiled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Edna; Ladeira, Carina; Viegas, Susana

    2017-09-13

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, is one of the most utilized industrial chemicals worldwide, with the ability to interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones with associated biological responses. Environmental human exposure to this endocrine disruptor, mostly through oral intake, is considered a generalized phenomenon, particularly in developed countries. However, in the context of occupational exposure, non-dietary exposure sources (e.g., air and contact) cannot be underestimated. Here, we performed a review of the literature on BPA occupational exposure and associated health effects. Relevantly, the authors only identified 19 studies from 2009 to 2017 that demonstrate that occupationally exposed individuals have significantly higher detected BPA levels than environmentally exposed populations and that the detection rate of serum BPA increases in relation to the time of exposure. However, only 12 studies performed in China have correlated potential health effects with detected BPA levels, and shown that BPA-exposed male workers are at greater risk of male sexual dysfunction across all domains of sexual function; also, endocrine disruption, alterations to epigenetic marks (DNA methylation) and epidemiological evidence have shown significant effects on the offspring of parents exposed to BPA during pregnancy. This overview raises awareness of the dramatic and consistent increase in the production and exposure of BPA and creates urgency to assess the actual exposure of workers to this xenoestrogen and to evaluate potential associated adverse health effects.

  17. A plurality of molecular targets: The receptor ecosystem for bisphenol-A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Harry; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2017-11-14

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), capable of affecting the normal function and development of the reproductive system, brain, adipose tissue, and more. In spite of these diverse and well characterized effects, there is often comparatively little known about the molecular mechanisms which bring them about. BPA has traditionally been regarded as a primarily estrogenic EDC, and this perspective is often what guides research into the effects of BPA. However, emerging data from in-vitro and in-silico models show that BPA binds with a significant number of hormone receptors, including a number of nuclear and membrane-bound estrogen receptors, androgen receptors, as well as the thyroid hormone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and PPARγ. With this increased diversity of receptor targets, it may be possible to explain some of the more puzzling aspects of BPA pharmacology, including its non-monotonic dose-response curve, as well as experimental results which disagree with estrogenic positive controls. This paper reviews the receptors for which BPA has a known interaction, and discusses the implications of taking these receptors into account when studying the disruptive effects of BPA on growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The combined toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and bisphenol A on zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Lin, Bencheng; Hu, Chuanlu; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Zhiqing; Xi, Zhuge

    2014-08-01

    Environmental pollutants co-exist and exhibit interaction effects that are different from those associated with a single pollutant. As one of the more commonly manufactured nanomaterials, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are most likely to bind to other contaminants in water. In this paper, we aimed to study the combined toxicological effects of TiO2-NPs and bisphenol A (BPA) on organism. First, in vitro adsorption experiments were conducted to determine the adsorptive interaction between TiO2-NPs and BPA. Second, zebrafish embryo toxicity tests were performed to monitor for changes in the toxicological effects associated with the two chemicals. The study results demonstrated that adsorptive interactions exist between the two chemicals and increased toxicity effects which included an advanced toxicological effect time, decreased survival, increased morphological abnormalities, and delayed embryo hatching. Also, we suggest that the mode of combined action has a synergistic effect. Based on this, we postulate that concomitant exposure to TiO2-NPs and BPA increased BPA bioavailability and uptake into cells and organisms. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of interactions of this mixture.

  19. NHANES Data Support Link between Handling of Thermal Paper Receipts and Increased Urinary Bisphenol A Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehn, Rebecca Simonne

    2016-01-05

    Some thermal paper receipts, commonly referred to as cash register receipts, contain high levels of bisphenol A (BPA). The goal of this study is to investigate whether increased contact with thermal paper receipts is associated with an increase in urinary BPA excretion. Individuals from the NHANES 2003-2004 survey were stratified based on occupation to compare urinary BPA excretion levels. The first major finding demonstrates that individuals with potential occupational exposure to thermal paper receipts are more likely to have detectable levels of urinary BPA compared to individuals with unlikely occupational exposure (p-value <0.001). The second major finding is that females with potential occupational exposure to thermal paper receipts have significantly higher levels of urinary BPA excretion (geometric mean (GM): 5.45 μg/L, 95% CI: (4.02, 7.39)) compared to females with unlikely occupational exposure (GM: 2.16 μg/L, 95% CI: (1.73, 2.70)). This association continues to remain statistically significant when controlling for creatinine, race, body mass index (BMI), and age. Notably, there was no statistically significant association between occupation and urinary BPA excretion among males. These results suggest that exposure to BPA from thermal paper should be considered when determining aggregate BPA exposure.

  20. Urinary Bisphenol A and Hypertension in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is a common chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, with >93% of US adults having detectable BPA levels in urine. Recent animal studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in several mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension, including weight gain, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. However, no previous human study has examined the association between markers of BPA exposure and hypertension. Methods. We examined urinary BPA levels in 1380 subjects from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2003-2004. Main outcome-of-interest was hypertension, defined as blood pressure-reducing medication use and/or blood pressures >140/90 mm of Hg (n=580. Results. We observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and hypertension independent of confounding factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index (BMI, diabetes mellitus and total serum cholesterol levels. Compared to tertile 1 (referent, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension associated with tertile 3 was 1.50 (1.12−2.00; P-trend = 0.007. The association was consistently present in subgroup analyses by race/ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions. Urinary BPA levels are associated with hypertension, independent of traditional risk factors.

  1. Bisphenol-A: Epigenetic Reprogramming and Effects on Reproduction and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guergana Mileva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a synthetic compound used in the production of many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world today and is found in most canned goods, plastics, and even household dust. Exposure to BPA is almost universal: most people have measurable amounts of BPA in both urine and serum. BPA is similar in structure to estradiol and can bind to multiple targets both inside and outside the nucleus, in effect acting as an endocrine disruptor. Research on BPA exposure has accelerated in the past decade with findings suggesting that perinatal exposure to BPA can negatively impact both male and female reproduction, create alterations in behavior, and act as a carcinogen. BPA can have both short term and long term effects with the latter typically occurring through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review will draw on both human and animal studies in an attempt to synthesize the literature and examine the effects of BPA exposure on reproduction, behavior, and carcinogenesis with a focus on the potential epigenetic mechanisms by which it acts.

  2. Impact of Bisphenol A on the Cardiovascular System — Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Gao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA’s toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area.

  3. Determination of bisphenol-type contaminants from food packaging materials in aqueous foods by solid-phase microextraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerín, C; Philo, M R; Salafranca, J; Castle, L

    2002-07-19

    A fast screening method consisting of off-line solid-phase microextraction coupled to HPLC and fluorescence detection, suitable for the analysis of several bisphenol derivatives and their degradation products in aqueous solution, has been developed. Detection limits of 0.7 ng ml(-1) for 2,2-bis[4-(glycidyloxy)phenyl]propane, 0.9 ng ml(-1) for bisphenol A bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)ether, 1.1 ng ml(-1) for 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane and 2.4 ng ml(-1) for bisphenol F diglycidyl ether have been achieved working in the linear range 10-500 ng ml(-1). The good analytical features achieved make the proposed method an interesting option for the direct determination of these compounds in aqueous canned food such as peas, tuna, olives, maize, artichokes or palm hearts. Both the optimization process and the results, including the analysis of real samples, are given and discussed.

  4. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze bisphenol A and other plasticizer metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Miriany A Moreira; André, Leiliane Coelho; Cardeal, Zenilda de Lourdes

    2017-01-20

    Phthalates and bisphenol A are important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity for humans and animals, including actions in the endocrine system. Their metabolites in urine can be used as biomarkers to assess human exposure. This paper describes the development of a new method to determine bisphenol A and eight phthalate metabolites in urine samples using hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method showed linearity, precision, limits of detection, and quantification suitable to analyze these compounds at low concentration levels in urine. Limits of detection ranged from 0.777 to 23.3μgL -1 , showing sensitivity for evaluating environmental exposure. Relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 11.7 to 19.7%. The developed method presented a good biomarker alternative for evaluating environmental exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  6. Highly selective dummy molecularly imprinted polymer as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for five bisphenols in tap and river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Jincheng; Li, Yun; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Baoqin; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Wang, Xueli; Chen, Jiping

    2014-05-23

    A simple and fast method for both dummy template selection and polymer composition optimization is proposed here. A series of dummy templates for bisphenols imprinting were screened by running them on a non-imprinted polymer (NIP) column with porogen solvent as mobile phase. The tested dummy templates mainly involved bisphenol S (BPS), bromobisphenol A (TBBPA), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol AF (BPAF), 2,2',6,6'-tetramethyl-4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol (BS-TM) and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DADPM). Different monomers and porogens were also investigated for BPS and DADPM using the same method. BPS dummy template was finally selected with acetonitrile and 4-VP as porogen and monomer. The resulting dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (DMIP) achieved superior affinities for BPF, BPE, BPA, BPB and BPAF with imprinting factors 14.5, 13.8, 8.7, 5.7 and 4.2, respectively. An efficient method based on BPS-DMIP-SPE coupled with HPLC-UV was developed for selective extraction of BPF, BPE, BPA, BPB and BPAF in water samples. The method showed excellent recoveries (89.4-102.0%) and precision (RSD 0.3-4.8%, n=5) for tap and river water samples spiked at three concentration levels each (40, 200 and 1000ngL(-1)). The detection limits ranged between 2.2 and 3.8ngL(-1) with a sample volume of 500mL. The result demonstrated the superiority of the optimized method for selective extraction of BPs in water samples at the ngL(-1) level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. North Atlantic climate model bias influence on multiyear predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2018-01-01

    The influences of North Atlantic biases on multiyear predictability of unforced surface air temperature (SAT) variability are examined in the Kiel Climate Model (KCM). By employing a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic to the model, which strongly alleviates both North Atlantic sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) biases, the freshwater flux-corrected integration depicts significantly enhanced multiyear SAT predictability in the North Atlantic sector in comparison to the uncorrected one. The enhanced SAT predictability in the corrected integration is due to a stronger and more variable Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and its enhanced influence on North Atlantic SST. Results obtained from preindustrial control integrations of models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) support the findings obtained from the KCM: models with large North Atlantic biases tend to have a weak AMOC influence on SAT and exhibit a smaller SAT predictability over the North Atlantic sector.

  8. 77 FR 31330 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC042 South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery...

  9. Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S C; vom Saal, F S; Thayer, K A; Dhar, M G; Boechler, M; Welshons, W V

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay to determine the effect of serum on the access of xenoestrogens to estrogen receptors within intact cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We used this assay to predict low dose activity of two xenoestrogens in mice. In serum-free medium, bisphenol A, a component of polycarbonates and of resins used to line metal food cans, showed a lower relative binding affinity (RBA; 0.006%) than octylphenol (0.072%) and nonylphenol (0.026%), which are used as surfactants in many commercial products (all RBAs are relative to estradiol, which is equal to 100%). In 100% serum from adult men, bisphenol A showed a higher RBA (0.01%) than in serum-free medium and thus enhanced access to estrogen receptors relative to estradiol. In contrast, octylphenol showed a 22-fold decrease in RBA (0.0029%) and nonylphenol showed a 5-fold decrease in RBA (0.0039%) when measured in adult serum. This indicates that, relative to estradiol, serum had less of an inhibitory effect on the cell uptake and binding in MCF-7 cells of bisphenol A, while serum had a greater inhibitory effect on octylphenol and nonylphenol relative to estradiol. Extrapolation of these relative activities in adult serum predicted that the estrogenic bioactivity of bisphenol A would be over 500-fold greater than that of octylphenol in fetal mouse serum. Bisphenol A and octylphenol were fed to pregnant mice at 2 and 20 micrograms/kg/day. Exposure of male mouse fetuses to either dose of bisphenol A, but to neither dose of octylphenol, significantly increased their adult prostate weight relative to control males, which is consistent with the higher predicted bioactivity of bisphenol A than octylphenol in the RBA-SMA assay. In addition, our findings show for the first time that fetal exposure to environmentally relevant parts-per-billion (ppb) doses of bisphenol A, in the range currently being consumed by people, can alter the adult reproductive

  10. Bisphenol-A exposures and behavioural aberrations: median and linear spline and meta-regression analyses of 12 toxicity studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Marco E M; Munnia, Armelle; Ceppi, Marcello

    2014-11-05

    Exposures to bisphenol-A, a weak estrogenic chemical, largely used for the production of plastic containers, can affect the rodent behaviour. Thus, we examined the relationships between bisphenol-A and the anxiety-like behaviour, spatial skills, and aggressiveness, in 12 toxicity studies of rodent offspring from females orally exposed to bisphenol-A, while pregnant and/or lactating, by median and linear splines analyses. Subsequently, the meta-regression analysis was applied to quantify the behavioural changes. U-shaped, inverted U-shaped and J-shaped dose-response curves were found to describe the relationships between bisphenol-A with the behavioural outcomes. The occurrence of anxiogenic-like effects and spatial skill changes displayed U-shaped and inverted U-shaped curves, respectively, providing examples of effects that are observed at low-doses. Conversely, a J-dose-response relationship was observed for aggressiveness. When the proportion of rodents expressing certain traits or the time that they employed to manifest an attitude was analysed, the meta-regression indicated that a borderline significant increment of anxiogenic-like effects was present at low-doses regardless of sexes (β)=-0.8%, 95% C.I. -1.7/0.1, P=0.076, at ≤120 μg bisphenol-A. Whereas, only bisphenol-A-males exhibited a significant inhibition of spatial skills (β)=0.7%, 95% C.I. 0.2/1.2, P=0.004, at ≤100 μg/day. A significant increment of aggressiveness was observed in both the sexes (β)=67.9,C.I. 3.4, 172.5, P=0.038, at >4.0 μg. Then, bisphenol-A treatments significantly abrogated spatial learning and ability in males (P<0.001 vs. females). Overall, our study showed that developmental exposures to low-doses of bisphenol-A, e.g. ≤120 μg/day, were associated to behavioural aberrations in offspring. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  12. Magnetic graphene oxide-polystyrene and magnetic activated carbon-polystyrene nanocomposites as sorbents for bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekos, Kyriazis; Kampouraki, Zoi Christina; Samanidou, Victoria; Deliyanni, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic graphene oxide-polystyrene and magnetic activated carbon-polystyrene nanocomposites as sorbents for bisphenol A. Kyriazis Rekos1, Zoi Christina Kampouraki1, Victoria Samanidou2, Eleni Deliyanni1 1 Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece 2 Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize novel composites of magnetic activated carbon or magnetic graphene oxide with polystyrene (GO/PSm), through one step simple and effective route. Μagnetite nanoparticles, prepared in the laboratory, were dispersed in the presence of activated carbon (C) or graphene oxide (GO) in a polystyrene (PS) solution in dimethylformamide, at elevated temperature, for the fabrication of the magnetite-Carbon-PS (C-PSm) and magnetite- Graphene Oxide-PS (GO-PSm) hybrid-nanoparticles. For comparison, C-PS and GO-PS composites were also prepared in the same route. The nanocomposites were tested for their sorption ability for an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A. The effect of solution pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were examined. The magnetic graphite oxide-polystyrene presented higher adsorption capacity (100 mg/g) than the non magnetic composites (70 mg/g), as well as than initial graphite oxide (20 mg/g). FTIR, XRD, BET, TGA, VSM and SEM were performed in order to investigate the role of the PS on the better adsorption performance of the mGO-PS nanocomposites. The characterization with these techniques revealed the possible interactions of the surface functional groups of activated carbon and/or graphite oxide with polystyrene that resulted in the better performance of the magnetic nanocomposites for bisphenol A adsorption.

  13. Assessment of recent developmental immunotoxicity studies with bisphenol A in the context of the 2015 EFSA t-TDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Ellen V.S.; Ezendam, Janine; van Broekhuizen, Fleur A.; Hakkert, Betty; DeWitt, Jamie; Granum, Berit; Guzylack, Laurence; Lawrence, B. Paige; Penninks, Andre; Rooney, Andrew A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; van Loveren, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Summary Humans are exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) mainly through the diet, air, dust, skin contact and water. There are concerns about adverse health effects in humans due to exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has extensively reviewed the available literature to establish a temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI). This exposure level was based on all available literature published before the end of 2012. Since then, new experimental animal studies have emerged, including those that identified effects of BPA on the immune system after developmental exposure. These studies indicate that developmental immunotoxicity might occur at lower dose levels than previously observed and on which the current EFSA t-TDI is based. The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) organized an expert workshop in September 2015 to consider recently published studies on the developmental immunotoxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Key studies were discussed in the context of other experimental studies. The workshop concluded that these new experimental studies provide credible evidence for adverse immune effects after developmental exposure to BPA at 5 μg/kg BW/day from gestation day 15 to postnatal day 21. Supportive evidence for adverse immune effects in similar dose ranges was obtained from other publications that were discussed during the workshop. The dose level associated with adverse immune effects is considerably lower than the dose used by EFSA for deriving the t-TDI. The workshop unanimously concluded that the current EFSA t-TDI warrants reconsideration in the context of all currently available data. PMID:27352639

  14. Toxicity of the micropollutants Bisphenol A, Ciprofloxacin, Metoprolol and Sulfamethoxazole in water samples before and after the oxidative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jessica; Boergers, Andrea; Vom Eyser, Claudia; Bester, Kai; Tuerk, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The amount of organic micropollutants detected in surface waters increases steadily. Common waste water treatment plants are not built to remove these substances. Thus there is a need for new technologies. A promising technology is the use of advanced oxidation processes through which organic micropollutants can be removed from waste water. However, the formation of oxidation by-products is likely and needs to be investigated since the by-products not only differ from their parent compounds in regard to their chemical and physical properties but they can also differ in toxicity. Therefore this study was designed to combine chemical and toxicological analyses of the advanced oxidation (O3 [5mg/L] or UV/H2O2 [Hg-LP lamp; 15W; 1g/L H2O2]) of waste water treatment plant effluents and pure water. Effluent samples from conventional activated sludge waste water treatment (mechanical treatment, activated sludge basin, and primary as well as secondary treatment steps) and high-purity deionized water (pure water) were spiked with Bisphenol A, Ciprofloxacin, Metoprolol or Sulfamethoxazole and treated with O3 or UV/H2O2. For the toxicological analyses mammalian cells (CHO-9, T47D) were exposed to the water samples for 24h and were tested for cytotoxicity (MTT Test), genotoxicity (Alkaline Comet Assay) and estrogenicity (ER Calux(®)). The results indicate that the oxidative treatment (O3 or UV/H2O2) of Bisphenol A, Metoprolol, Sulfamethoxazole or Ciprofloxacin in waste water did not result in toxic oxidation by-products, whereas the UV/H2O2 treatment of Bisphenol A and Ciprofloxacin in pure water resulted in by-products with cytotoxic but no estrogenic effects after 60min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  16. 78 FR 76107 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) and Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  17. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing... purposes of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery, fishing areas are that portion of the EEZ shown inside... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520...

  18. Impact of interbasin exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Ruijter, W.P.M. de; Dijkstra, H.A.; Leeuwen, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    The thermohaline exchange between the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean is analyzed, using a data set based on WOCE hydrographic data. It is shown that the salt and heat transports brought about by the South Atlantic subtropical gyre play an essential role in the Atlantic heat and salt budgets. It

  19. Identification of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a Novel Target of Bisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yuki; Ito, Takumi; Karasawa, Satoki; Enomoto, Teruya; Nashimoto, Akihiro; Hase, Yasuyoshi; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) forms the backbone of plastics and epoxy resins used to produce packaging for various foods and beverages. BPA is also an estrogenic disruptor, interacting with human estrogen receptors (ER) and other related nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, the effects of BPA on human health remain unclear. The present study identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a novel BPA-binding protein. DNA-PKcs, in association with the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80), is a cr...

  20. Symmetric 4,4'-(piperidin-4-ylidenemethylene)bisphenol derivatives as novel tunable estrogen receptor (ER) modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Manabu; Ohta, Kiminori; Kaise, Asako; Aoto, Sayaka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    We designed and synthesized 4,4'-(piperidin-4-ylidenemethylene)bisphenol derivatives as novel tunable estrogen receptor (ER) modulators. The introduction of hydrophobic substituents on the nitrogen atom of the piperidine ring enhanced ERα binding affinity. In addition, the introduction of four methyl groups adjacent to the piperidine ring nitrogen atom remarkably enhanced ERα binding affinity. N-Acetyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative 3b showed high ERα binding affinity, high MCF-7 cell proliferation inducing activity, and high metabolic stability in rat liver S9 fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from MELVILLE, KNORR and other platforms in the NE Atlantic, NW Atlantic and South Atlantic Ocean from 1972-07-24 to 1989-01-13 (NODC Accession 9500080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eight data sets of Temperature, Depth, Salinity, dissolved Oxygen (CTD) data collected in South Atlantic Ocean, NE Atlantic (limit-40 W), NW Atlantic (limit-40 W)...

  2. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.ca

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of {sup 1}H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by

  3. Risk assessment based on urinary bisphenol A levels in the general Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Ko, Ahra; Jeong, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Moon, Guiim; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kho, Young-Ho; Shin, Min-Ki; Lee, Hee-Seok; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume industrial chemical used in the global production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which are used in food and drink containers, such as tableware (plates and mugs). Due to its broad applications, BPA has been detected in human blood, urine and breast milk as well as environmental substances, including water, indoor and outdoor air, and dust. Indeed, exposure to high concentrations of BPA can result in a variety of harmful effects, including reproductive toxicity, through a mechanism of endocrine disruption. Our comparison of reported BPA urinary concentrations among different countries revealed that exposures in Korea may be higher than those in other Asian countries and North America, but lower than or similar to those in European countries. The current study included a total of 2044 eligible subjects of all ages. The subjects were evenly divided between males and females (48.58% and 51.42%, respectively). The geometric mean (GM) of pre-adjusted (adjusted) urinary BPA concentrations was 1.83 μg/L (2.01 μg/g creatinine) for subjects of all ages, and there was no statistically difference in BPA concentrations between males (1.90 μg/L, 1.87 μg/g creatinine) and females (1.76 μg/L, 2.16 μg/g creatinine). Multiple regression analysis revealed only one positive association between creatinine pre-adjusted urinary BPA concentration and age (β=−0.0868, p<0.001). The 95th percentile levels of 24-hour recall (HR), food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and estimated daily intake (EDI) through urinary BPA concentrations were 0.14, 0.13, and 0.22 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. According to the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), a tolerable daily intake (tDI) of 20 μg/kg bw/day was established for BPA from the available toxicological data. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) established a temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day based on current toxicological data. By comparing these TDIs with subjects

  4. Metabolomics reveals energetic impairments in Daphnia magna exposed to diazinon, malathion and bisphenol-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Edward G.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metabolomics detected shifts with sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. • Diazinon and malathion induced comparable, non-linear responses. • Bisphenol-A resulted in energy impairment. • Overall, insight into sub-lethal toxicity was garnered using NMR-based metabolomics. - Abstract: 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to study the response of Daphnia magna to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of either an organophosphate (diazinon or malathion) or bisphenol-A (BPA). Principal component analysis (PCA) of 1 H NMR spectra were used to screen metabolome changes after 48 h of contaminant exposure. The PCA scores plots showed that diazinon exposures resulted in aberrant metabolomic profiles at all exposure concentrations tested (0.009–0.135 μg/L), while for malathion the second lowest (0.08 μg/L) and two highest exposure concentrations (0.32 μg/L and 0.47 μg/L) caused significant shifts from the control. Individual metabolite changes for both organophosphates indicated that the response to increasing exposure was non-linear and described perturbations in the metabolome that were characteristic of the severity of exposure. For example, intermediate concentrations of diazinon (0.045 μg/L and 0.09 μg/L) and malathion (0.08 μg/L) elicited a decrease in amino acids such as leucine, valine, arginine, glycine, lysine, glutamate, glutamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, with concurrent increases in glucose and lactate, suggesting a mobilization of energy resources to combat stress. At the highest exposure concentrations for both organophosphates there was evidence of a cessation in metabolic activity, where the same amino acids increased and glucose and lactate decreased, suggesting a slowdown in protein synthesis and depletion of energy stocks. This demonstrated a similar response in the metabolome between two organophosphates but also that intermediate and severe stress levels could be differentiated by changes in the

  5. Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Peterman, Paul H.; Judy, Barbara M.; Taylor, Julia A.; Orazio, Carl E.; Ruhlen, Rachel L.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2003-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer with estrogenic activity that is used in the production of food packaging, dental sealants, polycarbonate plastic, and many other products. The monomer has previously been reported to hydrolyze and leach from these products under high heat and alkaline conditions, and the amount of leaching increases as a function of use. We examined whether new and used polycarbonate animal cages passively release bioactive levels of BPA into water at room temperature and neutral pH. Purified water was incubated at room temperature in new polycarbonate and polysulfone cages and used (discolored) polycarbonate cages, as well as control (glass and used polypropylene) containers. The resulting water samples were characterized with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tested for estrogenic activity using an MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Significant estrogenic activity, identifiable as BPA by GC/MS (up to 310 micro g/L), was released from used polycarbonate animal cages. Detectable levels of BPA were released from new polycarbonate cages (up to 0.3 micro g/L) as well as new polysulfone cages (1.5 micro g/L), whereas no BPA was detected in water incubated in glass and used polypropylene cages. Finally, BPA exposure as a result of being housed in used polycarbonate cages produced a 16% increase in uterine weight in prepubertal female mice relative to females housed in used polypropylene cages, although the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that laboratory animals maintained in polycarbonate and polysulfone cages are exposed to BPA via leaching, with exposure reaching the highest levels in old cages.

  6. Developmental Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Uterus of Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Schönfelder

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to estrogenic compounds during critical periods of fetal development could result in adverse effects on the development of reproductive organs that are not apparent until later in life. Bisphenol A (BPA, which is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, is a prime candidate for endocrine disruption. We examined BPA to address the question of whether in utero exposure affects the uterus of the offspring and studied the expression and distribution of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERβ and beta (ERα, because estrogens influence the development, growth, and function of the uterus through both receptors. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered by gavage either 0.1 or 50 mg/kg per day BPA or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2 as reference dose on gestation days 6 through 21. Female offspring were killed in estrus. Uterine morphologic changes as well as ERα and ERβ distribution and expression were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Striking morphologic changes were observed in the uterine epithelium of postpubertal offspring during estrus of the in utero BPA-treated animals (the thickness of the total epithelium was significantly reduced. ERβ expression was increased in the 50-mg BPA and EE2-treated group. In contrast, we observed significantly decreased ERβ expression in all BPA- and EE2-treated animals when compared with the control. In summary, these results clearly indicate that in utero exposure of rats to BPA promotes uterine disruption in offspring. We hypothesize that the uterine disruption could possibly be provoked by a dysregulation of ERα and ERβ.

  7. Bisphenol-A Mediated Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Attenuated by Curcumin via Canonical Wnt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Agarwal, Swati; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental xenoestrogenic endocrine disruptor, utilized for production of consumer products, and exerts adverse effects on the developing nervous system. Recently, we found that BPA impairs the finely tuned dynamic processes of neurogenesis (generation of new neurons) in the hippocampus of the developing rat brain. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound, which provides neuroprotection against various environmental neurotoxicants and in the cellular and animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we have assessed the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin against BPA-mediated reduced neurogenesis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism(s). Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that curcumin protects against BPA-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity. Curcumin protects against BPA-mediated reduced neural stem cells (NSC) proliferation and neuronal differentiation and enhanced neurodegeneration. Curcumin also enhances the expression/levels of neurogenic and the Wnt pathway genes/proteins, which were reduced due to BPA exposure in the hippocampus. Curcumin-mediated neuroprotection against BPA-induced neurotoxicity involved activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which was confirmed by the use of Wnt specific activators (LiCl and GSK-3β siRNA) and inhibitor (Dkk-1). BPA-mediated increased β-catenin phosphorylation, decreased GSK-3β levels, and β-catenin nuclear translocation were significantly reversed by curcumin, leading to enhanced neurogenesis. Curcumin-induced protective effects on neurogenesis were blocked by Dkk-1 in NSC culture treated with BPA. Curcumin-mediated enhanced neurogenesis was correlated well with improved learning and memory in BPA-treated rats. Overall, our results conclude that curcumin provides neuroprotection against BPA-mediated impaired neurogenesis via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  8. Prenatal and postnatal bisphenol A exposure and social impairment in 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-07-26

    Prenatal and postnatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may affect early brain development. Rodent studies suggest that prenatal and postnatal neurodevelopmental toxicity from BPA exposure may manifest as social deficits in offspring. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to BPA and social impairments in a sample of 4-year-old children. We recruited second-trimester pregnant women between 2008 and 2011, and measured their creatinine-adjusted prenatal urine BPA levels. In 2014-2015, a subset of 4-year-old children born to these women underwent neurobehavioral assessment and physical examination. We collected urine and blood from the children and assessed social impairments, including deficits in social interaction, social communication, and other behavior patterns using the Korean version of the Social Communication Questionnaire (K-SCQ) (n = 304). We examined social impairments associated with prenatal exposure at mid-term pregnancy and postnatal exposure to BPA at 4 years of age, using linear and piecewise linear regression models. The relationship between prenatal BPA exposure and social communication was non-linear and statistically significant at or above the flexion point for BPA levels of 3.0 μg/g creatinine in girls (58.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5% to 135.8%). Each 2-fold increase in postnatal BPA exposure was significantly associated with an 11.8% (95% CI, 0.6% to 24.3%) increase in impairment in social communication in 4-year old girls, as indicated by the linear regression model. Prenatal and postnatal BPA exposure is associated with social impairment at 4 years of age, particularly in girls.

  9. Development of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays for the analysis of bisphenol A in canned vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María J; D'Arienzo, Pasquale; Manclús, Juan J; Montoya, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and highly sensitive immunoassays (ELISAs) to bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disruptor able to migrate from the internal coating of cans to food contained inside, particularly vegetables. To produce MAbs to BPA, four synthetic compounds were conjugated to proteins and used as immunizing haptens in mice. By applying hybridoma technology, several MAbs were produced and selected. These antibodies were characterized in the conjugate-coated and in the antibody-coated formats, using both homologous and heterologous conjugates. Three indirect ELISA based on the MAbs showing the highest affinity to BPA were selected. The limit of detection of the most sensitive ELISA was 0.22 nM (0.05 ng/mL), with an I₅₀ value of around 1 nM (0.23 ng/mL). An homologous ELISA based on the MAb BPAB-11 was applied to the simple, direct determination of BPA in the liquid portion of canned artichoke, peas, and sweet corn. Only sample dilution in an appropriate saline buffer was required to minimize matrix effects and to enter the ELISA working range. Recovery and precision of the method were evaluated by spiking the liquid portion of these cans with BPA at 20, 50, and 100 ng/mL. Coefficients of variation were below 20% in most cases. With regard to recovery, the analytical data obtained were also acceptable. This immunoassay has therefore proved its potential as a new tool for the rapid, sensitive and accurate determination of BPA in canned food.

  10. Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kristin; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo Ag; Giovanoulis, Georgios; Bibi, Momina; Bottai, Matteo; Bergström, Anna; Berglund, Marika

    2017-05-01

    Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier. The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266μg/g dust, respectively, and the non-phthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foam mattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling room were associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust. Children's exposure from preschool dust ingestion was below established health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2-27% of the total exposure. We found significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Bisphenol-A impairs myelination potential during development in the hippocampus of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Agarwal, Swati; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Mishra, Vijay Nath; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is the functional implication of oligodendrocytes (OLs), which is involved in insulation of axons and promoting rapid propagation of action potential in the brain. OLs are derived from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which proliferate, differentiate, and migrate throughout the central nervous system. Defects in myelination process lead to the onset of several neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Exposure to synthetic xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) causes cognitive dysfunction, impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, and causes onset of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the effects of BPA on OPC proliferation, differentiation and myelination, and associated cellular and molecular mechanism(s) in the hippocampus of the rat brain are still largely unknown. We found that BPA significantly decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell proliferation and number and size of oligospheres. We observed reduced co-localization of BrdU with myelination markers CNPase and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α), suggesting impaired proliferation and differentiation of OPCs by BPA in culture. We studied the effects of BPA exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods on cellular and molecular alteration(s) in the myelination process in the hippocampus region of the rat brain at postnatal day 21 and 90. BPA exposure both in vitro and in vivo altered proliferation and differentiation potential of OPCs and decreased the expression of genes and levels of proteins that are involved in myelination. Ultrastructural electron microscopy analysis revealed that BPA exposure caused decompaction of myelinated axons and altered g-ratio at both the developmental periods as compared to control. These results suggest that BPA exposure both during prenatal and postnatal periods alters myelination in the hippocampus of the rat brain leading to cognitive deficits.

  12. Dynamic Metabolic Disruption in Rats Perinatally Exposed to Low Doses of Bisphenol-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Tremblay-Franco

    Full Text Available Along with the well-established effects on fertility and fecundity, perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and notably to xeno-estrogens, is strongly suspected of modulating general metabolism. The metabolism of a perinatally exposed individual may be durably altered leading to a higher susceptibility of developing metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes; however, experimental designs involving the long term study of these dynamic changes in the metabolome raise novel challenges. 1H-NMR-based metabolomics was applied to study the effects of bisphenol-A (BPA, 0; 0.25; 2.5, 25 and 250 μg/kg BW/day in rats exposed perinatally. Serum and liver samples of exposed animals were analyzed on days 21, 50, 90, 140 and 200 in order to explore whether maternal exposure to BPA alters metabolism. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA was independently applied to each time point, demonstrating a significant pair-wise discrimination for liver as well as serum samples at all time-points, and highlighting unequivocal metabolic shifts in rats perinatally exposed to BPA, including those exposed to lower doses. In BPA exposed animals, metabolism of glucose, lactate and fatty acids was modified over time. To further explore dynamic variation, ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (A-SCA was used to separate data into blocks corresponding to the different sources of variation (Time, Dose and Time*Dose interaction. A-SCA enabled the demonstration of a dynamic, time/age dependent shift of serum metabolome throughout the rats' lifetimes. Variables responsible for the discrimination between groups clearly indicate that BPA modulates energy metabolism, and suggest alterations of neurotransmitter signaling, the latter finding being compatible with the neurodevelopmental effect of this xenoestrogen. In conclusion, long lasting metabolic effects of BPA could be characterized over 200 days, despite physiological (and thus metabolic changes

  13. Lifetime-dependent effects of bisphenol A on asthma development in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Petzold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are thought to contribute significantly to the increase of asthma prevalence in the last two decades. Bisphenol A (BPA is a xenoestrogen commonly used in consumer products and the plastic industry. There is evidence and an ongoing discussion that endocrine disruptors like BPA may affect human health and also exert alterations on in the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate age-dependent effects of BPA on the asthma risk using a murine model to explain the controversial results reported till date. METHODS: BALB/c mice were exposed to BPA via the drinking water for different time periods including pregnancy and breastfeeding. To induce an asthma phenotype, mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA, followed by an intrapulmonary allergen challenge. RESULTS: BPA exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding had no significant effect on asthma development in the offspring. In contrast, lifelong exposure from birth until the last antigen challenge clearly increased eosinophilic inflammation in the lung, airway hyperreactivity and antigen-specific serum IgE levels in OVA-sensitized adult mice compared to mice without BPA exposure. Surprisingly, BPA intake during the sensitization period significantly reduced the development of allergic asthma. This effect was reversed in the presence of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the impact of BPA on asthma risk is strongly age-dependent and ranges from asthma-promoting to asthma-reducing effects. This could explain the diversity of results from previous studies regarding the observed health impact of BPA.

  14. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  15. Bisphenol A attenuates phenylbiguanide-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2012-11-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a toxic chemical released from plastics, produces respiratory arrest and hypotension after a latency. The latency was similar to the reflex apnoea induced by the vagal C fibre stimulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic and acute exposure to BPA on cardio-respiratory reflexes elicited by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Acute and chronic experiments were performed on adult female rats. In chronic experiments, the animals were ingested with pellets containing BPA (2 μg/kg body weight) or without BPA (time-matched control) for 30 days. Subsequently, the animals were anaesthetized and prepared for recording blood pressure, ECG and respiratory excursions. PBG was injected through jugular vein to evoke reflexes in these animals. In acute experiments, the PBG reflexes were obtained before and after injecting BPA/ethanol. Also vagal afferent activity was recorded in some rats. In time-matched control rats, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea over a period of time. The maximal changes were around 50-65%. In BPA treated group, the PBG-induced heart rate and respiratory frequency changes were attenuated significantly. Acute exposure of animals to BPA (35 mg/kg body weight) for 30 min also attenuated the PBG-induced responses significantly. The attenuation of the PBG reflex responses by BPA in acute experiments was associated with decreased vagal afferent activity. The present results indicate that BPA attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes due to decreased vagal afferent activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescent bisphenol-A exposure decreases dendritic spine density: role of sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Khandaker, Hameda; Villafane, Joseph J; Frankfurt, Maya

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a common environmental endocrine disruptor, modulates estrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic effects throughout the lifespan. We recently showed that low dose BPA exposure during adolescence increases anxiety and impairs spatial memory independent of sex. In this study, six week old Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 males, n=24 females) received daily subcutaneous injections (40 µg/kg bodyweight) of BPA or vehicle for one week. Serum corticosterone levels in response to a 1 h restraint stress and spine density were examined at age 7 (cohort 1) and 11 (cohort 2) weeks. Adolescent BPA exposure did not alter stress dependent corticosterone responses but decreased spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal CA1 region (CA1). Sex differences in spine density were observed on basal dendrites of the mPFC and CA1 with females having greater spine density than males. This sex difference was further augmented by both age and treatment, with results indicating that BPA-dependent decreases in spine density were more pronounced in males than females on mPFC basal dendrites. Importantly, the robust neuronal alterations were observed in animals exposed to BPA levels below the current U.S.E.P.A. recommended safe daily limit. These results are the first demonstrating that BPA given during adolescence leads to enduring effects on neural morphology at adulthood. Given that humans are routinely exposed to low levels of BPA through a variety of sources, the decreased spine density reported in both male and female rats after BPA exposure warrants further investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dietary exposure assessment of infants to bisphenol A from the use of polycarbonate baby milk bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onn Wong, Kwok; Woon Leo, Lay; Leng Seah, Huay

    2005-03-01

    The residual bisphenol A (BPA) levels in 28 different brands of polycarbonate (PC) baby milk bottles available in the Singapore market were measured. With a detection limit of 3 mg/kg, BPA residues were detected in 19 out of the 28 PC baby milk bottles at levels between 4.01 and 141 mg/kg, with a mean of 28.1 +/- 31.4 mg/kg and a median of 17.2 mg/kg. The potential migration of BPA from each of the 28 PC milk bottles was also measured using food-simulating solvents and time conditions recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA), but using temperatures more severe than actual use. The highest upper-bound mean BPA migration levels of 0.64 +/- 0.48 microg/in2 in 10% ethanol at 70 degrees C and 0.43 +/- 1.25 microg/in2 in corn oil at 100 degrees C were observed after incubating cut portions of the milk bottles for 240 h. With this migration data and using US FDA's procedure for estimation of dietary exposure, the worst-case dietary exposure assessment for the intake of BPA by infants between birth and three months of age was below the oral Reference Dose of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This study showed that the dietary exposure to BPA from actual uses of PC milk bottles is unlikely to pose a health risk in infants.

  18. Urinary bisphenol A is associated with insulin resistance and obesity in reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So-Hyeon; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Hong, Young Sun; Ha, Eunhee; Jeong, Kyungah; Chung, Hyewon; Lee, Hyejin

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has markedly increased and is closely related to insulin resistance. Although lifestyle and genetic predisposition are significant factors influencing the pathophysiology within the body, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are also important triggers of metabolic disturbance. We investigated the relationship between exposure to EDCs and insulin resistance and obesity in healthy, reproductive-aged women. This cross-sectional analysis included 296 healthy, reproductive-aged women between 30 and 49 years. Metabolically healthy was defined as an absence of the components of metabolic syndrome. Urinary levels of bisphenol A (BPA), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Homoeostatic model analysis of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was utilized as an index of insulin resistance. Urinary BPA levels were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR. MEHHP, MEOHP and MnBP were not associated with any of the above parameters. In the multiple regression analysis, the BPA levels were significantly associated with BMI and waist circumference after adjusting for age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values were also significantly related to urinary BPA concentration after adjusting for confounding variables. Metabolically unhealthy women exhibited significantly higher levels of urinary BPA (P = 0·01) compared to metabolically healthy women. Higher urinary BPA levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic disruption in Korean reproductive-aged women. BPA could play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities. Further studies are required to elucidate the relationship between

  19. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 μg/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 μg/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  20. Bisphenol A exposure disrupts the development of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tando, So; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Ogi, Hiroshi; Goto, Shoko; Mori, Miyuki; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    It has been reported that bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread xenoestrogen employed in the production of polycarbonate plastics, affects brain development in both humans and rodents. In the present study employing mice, we examined the effects of exposure to BPA (500 μg/kg/day) during fetal and lactational periods on the development of the locus coeruleus (LC) at the age of embryonic day 18 (E18), postnatal 3 weeks (P3W), P8W and P16W. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells (TH-IR cells) in females exposed to BPA was decreased, compared with the control females at P3W. At P8W, the number of TH-IR cells in females exposed to BPA was significantly decreased, compared with the control females, whereas the number of TH-IR cells in males exposed to BPA was significantly increased, compared with the control males, which resulted in reversed transient sexual differences in the numbers of TH-IR cells observed in the controls at P8W. However, no significant changes were demonstrated at E18 or P16W. Next, we examined the density of the fibers containing norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortex, at P3W, P8W and P16W, because NET would be beneficial in identifying the targets of the LC noradrenergic neurons. There were no significant differences shown in the density of the NET-positive fibers, between the control and the groups exposed to BPA. These results suggested that BPA might disrupt the development of physiological sexual differences in the LC-noradrenergic system in mice, although further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanisms. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Uptake and distribution of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in vegetable crops irrigated with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Stoffella, Peter J; Wilson, P Chris

    2015-01-01

    The potential uptake and distribution of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) (from reclaimed irrigation water) in edible crops was investigated. BPA and NP were spiked into simulated reclaimed water at environmentally relevant concentrations. Two crops (lettuce, Lactuca sativa and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse using the spiked irrigation water under two irrigation exposure scenarios (overhead foliar exposure and subsurface root exposure). BPA concentrations in tomato fruit were 26.6 ± 5.8 (root exposure) and 18.3 ± 3.5 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 80.6 ± 23.1 (root exposure) and 128.9 ± 17.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). NP concentrations in tomato fruit were 46.1 ± 6.6 (root exposure) and 24.6 ± 6.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 144.1 ± 9.2 (root exposure) and 195.0 ± 16.9 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). BPA was relatively mobile in lettuce plants regardless of exposure route. Limited mobility was observed for NP in both crops and BPA in tomatoes. The estimated daily intake of BPA and NP through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water ranged from 8.9-62.9 to 11.9-95.1 μg, respectively, depending on the exposure route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The genomic response of Ishikawa cells to bisphenol A exposure is dose- and time-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naciff, Jorge M.; Khambatta, Zubin S.; Reichling, Timothy D.; Carr, Gregory J.; Tiesman, Jay P.; Singleton, David W.; Khan, Sohaib A.; Daston, George P.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable in vitro model to determine the potential estrogenic activity of chemicals of interest is still unavailable. To further investigate the usefulness of a human-derived cell line, we determined the transcriptional changes induced by bisphenol A (BPA) in Ishikawa cells at various doses (1 nM, 100 nM, 10 μM, and 100 μM) and time points (8, 24 and 48 h) by comparing the response of approximately 38,500 human genes and ESTs between treatment groups and controls (vehicle-treated). By trend analysis, we determined that the expression of 2794 genes was modified by BPA in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.0001). However, the majority of gene expression changes induced in Ishikawa cells were elicited by the highest doses of BPA evaluated (10-100 μM), while the genomic response of the cells exposed to low doses of BPA was essentially negligible. By comparing the Ishikawa cells' response to BPA vs.17α-ethynyl estradiol we determined that the change in the expression of 307 genes was identical in the direction of the change, although the magnitude of the change for some genes was different. Further, the response of Ishikawa cells to high doses of BPA shared similarities to the estrogenic response of the rat uterus, specifically, 362 genes were regulated in a similar manner in vivo as well as in vitro. Gene ontology analysis indicated that BPA results in changes to multiple molecular pathways affecting various biological processes particularly associated with cell organization and biogenesis, regulation of translation, cell proliferation, and intracellular transport; processes also affected by estrogen exposure in the uterus of the rat. These results indicate that Ishikawa cells are capable of generating a biologically relevant estrogenic response after exposure to chemicals with varied estrogenic activity, and offer an in vitro model to assess this mode of action.

  3. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

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    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  4. Bisphenol A Is More Potent than Phthalate Metabolites in Reducing Pancreatic β-Cell Function

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    Nina Mickelson Weldingh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates are common environmental contaminants that have been proposed to influence incidence and development of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Thus, effects of BPA and three phthalate metabolites (monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP were studied in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1E, after 2–72 h of exposure to 5–500 μM. Three endpoints relevant to accelerated development of types 1 or 2 diabetes were investigated: β-cell viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and β-cell susceptibility to cytokine-induced cell death. BPA and the phthalate metabolites reduced cellular viability after 72 h of exposure, with BPA as the most potent chemical. Moreover, BPA, MEHP, and MnBP increased insulin secretion after 2 h of simultaneous exposure to chemicals and glucose, with potency BPA > MEHP > MnBP. Longer chemical exposures (24–72 h showed no consistent effects on glucose-induced insulin secretion, and none of the environmental chemicals affected susceptibility to cytokine-induced cell death. Overall, BPA was more potent than the investigated phthalate metabolites in affecting insulin secretion and viability in the INS-1E pancreatic β-cells. In contrast to recent literature, concentrations with relevance to human exposures (1–500 nM did not affect the investigated endpoints, suggesting that this experimental model displayed relatively low sensitivity to environmental chemical exposure.

  5. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

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    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l, a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  6. Oral homeostasis disruption by medical plasticizer component bisphenol A in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folia, Mireille; Boudalia, Sofiane; Ménétrier, Franck; Decocq, Laurence; Pasquis, Bruno; Schneider, Charles; Bergès, Raymond; Artur, Yves; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2013-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic estrogen-like chemical mimetic widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins found in numerous consumer products including food packaging, medical devices, and dental sealants. Because it is recovered in fluids and it can reach high levels in saliva, this study aimed to evaluate its safety on oral homeostasis by examining its effects on salivary glands, mouth epithelium, water consumption, and salt preference, each parameter being estrogen sensitive. Randomized controlled trial involving rats. A dose-response study was conducted in adult Wistar rats randomized into five groups (n = 12). BPA was administered over 6 weeks via drinking water to obtain daily dose exposures of 0 μg/kg, 5 μg/kg, 50 μg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. To evaluate salt preference, 1% NaCl solution and pure water intakes were measured for 3 days by offering two-bottle choices. The rats were then killed; oral biopsies were done and submandibular glands were removed for histologic and morphometric analysis. According to the dose-response curve, BPA decreased total drinking but increased salt preference, which was inversely proportional to water consumption (Kruskal-Wallis, P < .01). It also causes oral dryness and histologic changes in the acinar structures of the submandibular glands at the lowest doses (Kruskal-Wallis, P < .01). This study shows that oral exposure to BPA in the rat disrupts thirst and buccal homeostasis and raises questions about the salivary gland secretions. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. The mass flow and proposed management of bisphenol A in selected Norwegian waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Morin, Nicolas A O; Hale, Sarah E; Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breivik, Knut; Sparrevik, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Current initiatives for waste-handling in a circular economy favor prevention and recycling over incineration or landfilling. However, the impact of such a transition on environmental emissions of contaminants like bisphenol A (BPA) during waste-handling is not fully understood. To address this, a material flow analysis (MFA) was constructed for selected waste categories in Norway, for which the amount recycled is expected to increase in the future; glass, vehicle, electronic, plastic and combustible waste. Combined, 92tons/y of BPA are disposed of via these waste categories in Norway, with 98.5% associated with plastic and electronic waste. During the model year 2011, the MFA showed that BPA in these waste categories was destroyed through incineration (60%), exported for recycling into new products (35%), stored in landfills (4%) or released into the environment (1%). Landfilling led to the greatest environmental emissions (up to 13% of landfilled BPA), and incinerating the smallest (0.001% of incinerated BPA). From modelling different waste management scenarios, the most effective way to reduce BPA emissions are to incinerate BPA-containing waste and avoid landfilling it. A comparison of environmental and human BPA concentrations with CoZMoMAN exposure model estimations suggested that waste emissions are an insignificant regional source. Nevertheless, from monitoring studies, landfill emissions can be a substantial local source of BPA. Regarding the transition to a circular economy, it is clear that disposing of less BPA-containing waste and less landfilling would lead to lower environmental emissions, but several uncertainties remain regarding emissions of BPA during recycling, particularly for paper and plastics. Future research should focus on the fate of BPA, as well as BPA alternatives, in emerging reuse and recycling processes, as part of the transition to a circular economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-Term Treatment with Bisphenol-A Leads to Metabolic Abnormalities in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit. In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22470480

  9. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Exacerbates Dental Fluorosis in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, Katia; Houari, Sophia; Loiodice, Sophia; Thuy, Tran Thu; Le Normand, Manon; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    Enamel defects resulting from environmental conditions and way of life are public health concerns because of their high prevalence. Because their etiology is unclear, the aim of this study was to analyze the various forms of enamel hypomineralization, and to characterize the genes involved in this process to determine the mechanisms involved in disruptions of amelogenesis. We used bisphenol A (BPA) and fluoride as models; both are commonly encountered in human populations and utilized in dentistry. Wistar rats were chronically exposed to 5 μg/kg/day BPA from day 1 of gestation to day 65 after birth (P65) and 5 mM fluoride from P21 to P65. Resulting enamel defects were comparable to the human enamel pathologies molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and dental fluorosis (DF) respectively, and were more severe in rats exposed to both agents than to each agent alone. Large-scale transcriptomic analysis of dental epithelium showed a small group of genes the expression of which was affected by exposure to BPA or NaF. Among the most modulated, many are directly involved in amelogenesis (Amelx, Enam, Klk4, Mmp12, Slc26a4, and Slc5a8), and can be regrouped as forming the "hypomineralization enameloma." Each of these gene expression perturbations may contribute to enamel defects. Exposure to BPA weakens enamel, making it more prone to generate frequent mineralization defects MIH and DF. Our study identifies hypomineralization genes that may enable the use of dental enamel as an early marker of exposure to environmental toxicants because of its unique ability to retrospectively record ameloblast pathophysiology. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Simultaneous production of laccase and degradation of bisphenol A with Trametes versicolor cultivated on agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shengquan; Zhao, Jie; Xia, Liming

    2017-08-01

    Solid state fermentation with Trametes versicolor was carried out on agricultural wastes containing bisphenol A (BPA). It was found that BPA degradation was along with the occurrence of laccase production, and wheat bran and corn straw were identified as suitable mixed substrates for laccase production. In the process of BPA degradation with T. versicolor, laccase activity increased rapidly at the 6th-10th day after inoculation. Moreover, BPA can enhance the production of laccase. After 10 days of fermentation, degradation rate of BPA exceeded 90% without the usage of mediators ABTS and acetosyringone at pH 4.0-8.0. In addition, metal ions did not affect the BPA degradation with T. versicolor. In vitro, the optimum pH range of BPA degradation with laccase was in the acidic region with the optimal performance of pH 5.0. Metal ions Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Co 2+ showed little effect on BPA degradation. However, Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ substantially inhibited the BPA degradation. Natural mediator acetosyringone showed optimum enhancement on BPA degradation. Greater than 90% of the estrogenic activity of BPA was removed by T. versicolor and its laccase. Compared to in vitro degradation with laccase, this study shows that the process of simultaneous laccase production and BPA degradation with T. versicolor was more advantageous since BPA can enhance the laccase production, mediators were unnecessary, degradation rate was not affected by metal ions, and the applicable pH range was broader. This study concludes that T. versicolor and laccase have great potential to treat industrial wastewater containing BPA.

  11. Biotransformation of bisphenol AF to its major glucuronide metabolite reduces estrogenic activity.

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    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol AF (BPAF, an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER. However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G, BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM, and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings.

  12. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Flaws, Jodi A; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2016-05-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention in female reproductive health due to its widespread toxic effects. Although BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we addressed the effect of prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA on embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Our studies revealed that treatment of mice with BPA led to improper endometrial epithelial and stromal functions thus affecting embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Upon further analyses, we found that the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and its downstream target gene, HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2), was markedly suppressed in BPA-exposed uterine tissues. Previous studies have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor and the MAPK signaling pathways and inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, we observed that down-regulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with enhanced activation of fibroblast growth factor and MAPK signaling in the epithelium, thus contributing to aberrant proliferation and lack of uterine receptivity. Further, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. In summary, our studies revealed that chronic exposure to BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy.

  13. Inhibition of seawater on bisphenol A (BPA) degradation by Fenton reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajiki, Junko; Yonekubo, Jun

    2004-04-01

    To investigate bisphenol-A (BPA) degradation in seawater using Fenton reagents, changes in the BPA recovery and in the concentration of BPA metabolite, BPA-o-quinone in the three water samples; BPA free deionizad water (control water), 3% aq. NaCl and seawater as a function of time after BPA fortification in the presence of radical oxygen species (ROS) at 20 degrees C were investigated. The BPA recoveries were lower in both 3% aq. NaCl and seawater than in the control water. The BPA recovery in aq. NaOCl decreased as a function of NaOCl concentration, indicating that BPA could be degraded by the potent radical ion (OCl-) at the concentration of above 2 microM. A BPA metabolite, BPA-o-quinone was formed in all the water samples after addition of ROS which was produced by Fenton reaction (reaction of 0.11 M H2O2 and 0.44 mM FeCl3.6H2O). These results indicated that BPA degradation could occur by an addition of ROS and further accelerated by the formation of OCl- in salt containing water samples. BPA recovery was the highest in seawater immediately after addition of Fenton reagents and the amount of BPA-o-quinone was very low, which suggests that seawater possesses an inhibitory system on BPA degradation. There was a positive correlation (pDegradation threshold of BPA was observed when Fenton reaction was employed in seawater fortified with high amount of BPA. The present study suggested that iron trapping caused an inhibition on BPA degradation by Fenton reagents.

  14. Degradation of bisphenol A in aqueous solution by persulfate activated with ferrous ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoxuan; Wu, Yanlin; Wang, Peng; Li, Hongjing; Dong, Wenbo

    2013-07-01

    Degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution was studied with high-efficiency sulfate radical (SO4(-·)), which was generated by the activation of persulfate (S2O8(2-)) with ferrous ion (Fe(2+)). S2O8(2-) was activated by Fe(2+) to produce SO4(-·), and iron powder (Fe(0)) was used as a slow-releasing source of dissolved Fe(2+). The major oxidation products of BPA were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer. The mineralization efficiency of BPA was monitored by total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. BPA removal efficiency was improved by the increase of initial S2O8(2-) or Fe(2+) concentrations and then decreased with excess Fe(2+) concentration. The adding mode of Fe(2+) had significant impact on BPA degradation and mineralization. BPA removal rates increased from 49 to 97% with sequential addition of Fe(2+), while complete degradation was observed with continuous diffusion of Fe(2+), and the latter achieved higher TOC removal rate. When Fe(0) was employed as a slow-releasing source of dissolved Fe(2+), 100% of BPA degradation efficiency was achieved, and the highest removal rate of TOC (85%) was obtained within 2 h. In the Fe(0)-S2O8(2-) system, Fe(0) as the activator of S2O8(2-) could offer sustainable oxidation for BPA, and higher TOC removal rate was achieved. It was proved that Fe(0)-S2O8(2-) system has perspective for future works.

  15. Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A on Immobilized ZnO or TiO2

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    Andreas Zacharakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of bisphenol A (BPA under simulated solar irradiation and in the presence of either TiO2 or ZnO catalysts immobilized onto glass plates was investigated. The effect of various operating conditions on degradation was assessed including the amount of the immobilized catalyst (36.1–150.7 mg/cm2 for TiO2 and 0.5–6.8 mg/cm2 for ZnO, initial BPA concentration (50–200 μg/L, treatment time (up to 90 min, water matrix (wastewater, drinking water, and pure water, the addition of H2O2 (25–100 mg/L, and the presence of other endocrine disruptors in the reaction mixture. Specifically, it was observed that increasing the amount of immobilized catalyst increases BPA conversion and so does the addition of H2O2 up to 100 mg/L. Moreover, BPA degradation follows first-order reaction kinetics indicating that the final removal is not practically affected by the initial BPA concentration. Degradation in wastewater is slower than that in pure water up to five times, implying the scavenging behavior of effluent’s constituents against hydroxyl radicals. Finally, the presence of other endocrine disruptors, such as 17α-ethynylestradiol, spiked in the reaction mixture at low concentrations usually found in environmental samples (i.e., 100 μg/L, neither affects BPA degradation nor alters its kinetics to a considerable extent.

  16. The effects of hydrogen peroxide on the sonochemical degradation of phenol and bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myunghee; Son, Younggyu; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2014-11-01

    This report describes the effects of H2O2 concentration (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10mM) on the sonochemical degradation of phenol and bisphenol A (BPA) using an ultrasonic source of 35kHz and 0.08W/mL. The concentration of the target pollutants (phenol or BPA), total organic carbon (TOC), and H2O2 were monitored for each input concentration of H2O2. The effects of H2O2 on the sonochemical degradation of phenol was more significant than that of BPA because phenol has a high solubility and low octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) value and is subsequently very likely to remain in the aqueous phase, giving it a greater probability of reacting with H2O2. The removal of TOC was also enhanced by the addition of H2O2. Some intermediates of BPA have a high Kow value and subsequently have a greater probability of pyrolyzing by the high temperatures and pressures inside of cavitation bubbles. Thus the removal efficiency of TOC in BPA was higher than that of phenol. The removal efficiencies of TOC were lower than the degradation efficiencies of phenol and BPA. This result is due to the fact that some intermediates cannot readily degrade during the sonochemical reaction. The H2O2 concentration decreased but was not completely consumed during the sonochemical degradation of pollutants. The initial H2O2 concentration and the physical/chemical characteristics of pollutants were considered to be important factors in determining the formation rate of the H2O2. When high concentration of H2O2 was added to the solution, the formation rates were relatively low compared to when low concentrations of H2O2 were used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption and degradation of14C-bisphenol A in a soil trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Wang, Xin-Ze; Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Yan-Ming; Wu, Hai-Lu; Feng, Ji-Meng; Tong, Xin-Nan; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2017-12-31

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has caused widespread concern among scholars as a result of its estrogenic toxicity. It exists mainly in natural waters, sediments, and soil, as well as sewage and wastewater sludge. Considering that BPA is a common environmental pollutant that is removed along with chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, and phosphorus in drainage treatment systems, it is important to research the fate of BPA in sewage treatment systems. In this research, laboratory batch experiments on soil degradation and adsorption were conducted with 14 C-BPA, aiming to discuss the transport and degradation characteristics of BPA in both simulated facilities and a soil trench. Based on the experimental results, the Freundlich model could be applied to fit the isothermal adsorption curve of the BPA in soil. A low mobility characteristic of BPA was discovered. The mineralization rate of BPA was fast and that of the reaction showed small fluctuations. After degradation, 21.3 and 17.7% of the BPA groups (the experimental group treated with ammonia oxidase (AMO) inhibitor and the control group) were converted into 14 CO 2 , respectively. This indicates that the nitrification and degradation of BPA had a certain competitive relationship. Besides, nitrification did not significantly affect the soil residue of BPA. Through the soil trench test, the average removal rate of BPA in the soil trench was 85.5%. 14 CO 2 was discharged via the mineralization of BPA, accounting for 2.5% of the initial input. BPA easily accumulated in the bottom soil of the soil trench. BPA and its metabolites in the effluent accounted for 14.5% of the initial dosage. The residual extractable BPA and its metabolites in the soil accounted for 51.3%, and the remaining part of the unextractable residue represented 19.8% of the initial radioactive dosage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bisphenol A impairs hepatic glucose sensing in C57BL/6 male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Perreault

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose sensing (eg. glucokinase activity becomes impaired in the development of type 2 diabetes, the etiology of which is unclear. Estrogen can stimulate glucokinase activity, whereas the pervasive environmental pollutant bisphenol A (BPA can inhibit estrogen action, hence we aimed to determine the effect of BPA on glucokinase activity directly. METHODS: To evaluate a potential acute effect on hepatic glucokinase activity, BPA in water (n = 5 vs. water alone (n = 5 was administered at the EPA's purported "safe dose" (50 µg/kg by gavage to lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice. Two hours later, animals were euthanized and hepatic glucokinase activity measured over glucose levels from 1-20 mmol/l in liver homogenate. To determine the effect of chronic BPA exposure on hepatic glucokinase activity, lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice were provided with water (n = 15 or water with 1.75 mM BPA (∼50 µg/kg/day; n = 14 for 2 weeks. Following the 2-week exposure, animals were euthanized and glucokinase activity measured as above. RESULTS: Hepatic glucokinase activity was signficantly suppressed after 2 hours in animals given an oral BPA bolus compared to those who received only water (p = 0.002-0.029 at glucose 5-20 mmol/l; overall treatment effect p<0.001. Exposure to BPA over 2 weeks also suppressed hepatic glucokinase activity in exposed vs. unexposed mice (overall treatment effect, p = 0.003. In both experiments, the Hill coefficient was higher and Vmax lower in mice treated with BPA. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Both acute and chronic exposure to BPA significantly impair hepatic glucokinase activity and function. These findings identify a potential mechanism for how BPA may increase risk for diabetes.

  19. Bisphenol A and Phthalate Endocrine Disruption of Parental and Social Behaviors

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    Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs can induce promiscuous neurobehavioral disturbances. Bisphenol A and phthalates are two widely prevalent and persistent EDCs reported to lead to such effects. Parental and social behaviors are especially vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these traits are programmed by the organizational-activational effects of testosterone and estrogen. BPA and other EDC exposure disrupts normal maternal care provided by rodents and non-human primates, such as nursing, time she spends hunched over and in the nest, and grooming her pups. Paternal care may also be affected by BPA. No long term study has linked perinatal exposure to BPA or other EDC and later parental behavioral deficits in humans. The fact that the same brain regions and neural hormone substrates govern parental behaviors in animal models and humans suggests that this suite of behaviors may also be vulnerable in the latter. Social behaviors, such as communication, mate choice, pair bonding, social inquisitiveness and recognition, play behavior, social grooming, copulation, and aggression, are compromised in animal models exposed to BPA, phthalates, and other EDCs. Early contact to these chemicals is also correlated with maladaptive social behaviors in children. These behavioral disturbances may originate by altering the fetal or adult gonadal production of testosterone or estrogen, expression of ESR1, ESR2, and AR in the brain regions governing these behaviors, neuropeptide/ protein hormone (oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin and their cognate neural receptors, and/or through epimutations. Robust evidence exists for all of these EDC-induced changes. Concern also exists for transgenerational persistence of such neurobehavioral disruptions. In sum, evidence for social and parental deficits induced by BPA, phthalates, and related chemicals is strongly mounting, and such effects may ultimately compromise the overall social fitness of

  20. Metabolic response to chronic bisphenol A exposure in C57bl/6n mice

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    Bhavini B. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA has induced obesity and increased glucose intolerance. We hypothesized that chronic BPA exposure would worsen the obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high fat diet (HFD. The drinking water of C57bl/6n dams was treated with vehicle (VEH or BPA (25 ng/ml from gestation day 11.5 to postnatal day 21. Another group was treated with oral diethylstilbestrol (DES, 1 μg/kg/day during gestation. Progeny were treated with VEH (VEH and DES groups or BPA (2.5 ng/ml in the drinking water and fed either a control diet (CD or HFD from weaning until euthanasia at 4 months of age. CD-fed mice were similar in size; however HFD-BPA males and HFD-DES mice were smaller than HFD-VEH mice. No CD-fed mice were glucose intolerant. All HFD-fed mice were glucose intolerant. Cholesterol and triglyceride were increased in HFD-VEH mice and HFD-BPA males. Total fat weight and adipocyte area were similar in HFD-VEH and HFD-BPA mice and reduced in HFD-DES mice. HFD-BPA females increased perirenal and reduced gonadal fat weights. Reduced leptin and increased IL-6 in CD-BPA and CD-DES mice were not found in their HFD-cohorts. Adiponectin levels were similar. Thus, although chronic BPA exposure did not increase body size or increase glucose intolerance, it induced an adipokine imbalance in CD-fed mice and sex-specifically altered the lipid response and adipose deposition when fed the HFD.

  1. Urine bisphenol-A level in relation to obesity and overweight in school-age children.

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    De-Kun Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is a potential endocrine disruptor impacting metabolic processes and increasing the risk of obesity. To determine whether urine BPA level is associated with overweight/obesity in school-age children, we examined 1,326 students in grades 4-12 from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school in Shanghai. More than 98% of eligible students participated. Total urine BPA concentration was measured and anthropometric measures were taken by trained research staff. Information on risk factors for childhood obesity was collected for potential confounders. Age- and gender-specific weight greater than 90(th percentile of the underlying population was the outcome measure. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher urine BPA level (≥2 µg/L, at the level corresponding to the median urine BPA level in the U.S. population, was associated with more than two-fold increased risk of having weight >90(th percentile among girls aged 9-12 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.65. The association showed a dose-response relationship with increasing urine BPA level associated with further increased risk of overweight (p = 0.006 for trend test. Other anthropometric measures of obesity showed similar results. The same association was not observed among boys. This gender difference of BPA effect was consistent with findings from experimental studies and previous epidemiological studies. Our study suggests that BPA could be a potential new environmental obesogen. Widespread exposure to BPA in the human population may also be contributing to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  2. Gestational high-fat diet and bisphenol A exposure heightens mammary cancer risk.

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    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Cheong, Ana; Veevers, Jennifer; Song, Dan; Gear, Robin; Zhu, Xuegong; Ying, Jun; Kendler, Ady; Medvedovic, Mario; Belcher, Scott; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-07-01

    In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose-response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group. In utero HBF and BPA exposure elicited differential effects at the gene level in PND21 mammary glands through DNA methylation, compared with HBF intake in the absence of BPA. Top HBF + BPA-dysregulated genes ( ALDH1B1 , ASTL , CA7 , CPLX4 , KCNV2 , MAGEE2 and TUBA3E ) are associated with poor overall survival in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) human breast cancer cohort ( n  = 1082). Furthermore, the prognostic power of the identified genes was further enhanced in the survival analysis of Caucasian patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. In conclusion, concurrent HBF dietary and a low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy increases mammary tumor incidence in offspring, accompanied by alterations in mammary gland development and gene expression, and possibly through epigenetic reprogramming. © 2017 The authors.

  3. Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate-based dental sealants.

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    Joskow, Renée; Barr, Dana Boyd; Barr, John R; Calafat, Antonia M; Needham, Larry L; Rubin, Carol

    2006-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common component of composites and dental sealants. The potential exists for human exposure after sealant placement. The authors prospectively enrolled 15 men in an exposure assessment study; 14 completed the study. After placement of clinically appropriate amounts of one of two sealants, the authors measured BPA in saliva and urine samples collected at prescribed intervals after the sealants were placed. They used selective and sensitive isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry-based methods for BPA measurements, thus providing the most reliable results. Helioseal F (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, N.Y.) leached negligible amounts of BPA. Urinary and salivary BPA levels in subjects who received these sealants were similar to baseline levels. Delton Light Cure (LC) Opaque pit-and-fissure sealant (Dentsply/Ash, York, Pa.) leached more BPA, resulting in low-level BPA exposures similar to those used in laboratory animal testing. BPA exposure after Delton LC sealant placement was significantly higher than exposure after placement of Helioseal F. Patients treated with Delton LC had significantly higher doses of BPA (110 microg) than did those treated with Helioseal F (5.5 microg) (P sealant resulted in low-level BPA exposure; however, exposure was negligible after placement of Helioseal F. Saliva collection after sealant placement likely reduced systemic absorption of BPA from dental sealants. Sealants should remain a useful part of routine preventive dental practice, especially those that leach negligible amounts of BPA. Dental sealants may be a point source for low-level BPA exposure at levels that show health effects in rodents. Further research is required to determine whether human exposure to BPA at these levels causes adverse effects.

  4. In vivo bisphenol-a release from dental pit and fissure sealants: a systematic review.

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    Kloukos, Dimitrios; Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore

    2013-08-01

    To search the literature and assess the short- and long-term release of bisphenol-A (BPA) in human tissues after treatment with dental sealants. Two review authors performed data extraction independently and in duplicate using data collection forms. Disagreements were resolved by discussion with an arbiter. Electronic database searches of published and unpublished literature were performed. The following electronic databases with no language and publication date restrictions were searched: MEDLINE (via Ovid and Pubmed), EMBASE (via ovid), Cochrane Trials Register and CENTRAL. The reference lists of all eligible studies were hand-searched. In the absence of RCTs, six interventional and two observational studies, examining in vivo BPA release in human salivary, blood and urinary samples, were included. Due to the heterogeneity in methodology and reporting, the main synthesis of the results was qualitative. The quantitative synthesis based on the weighted Z-test could only include two studies. BPA levels identified in saliva ranged from traces below the method's detection limit to 30 μg/ml. In urine, BPA quantities spanned from 0.17 mg/g to 45.4 mg/g. BPA was not traced in any blood sample at any point of time in the relevant studies. The quantitative analysis showed evidence of BPA release one hour after sealant placement compared to the amount traced before restoration (Stouffer's z trend: sealant placement. From the qualititative and quantitative synthesis of studies, it is reasonable to conclude that BPA is released after placement of some dental pit and fissure sealants in the oral cavity. The biggest quantities are detected in saliva immediately after or one hour after their placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concurrent determination of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in maternal and fetal rhesus monkeys

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    Patterson, Tucker A. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Twaddle, Nathan C. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Roegge, Cindy S. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Callicott, Ralph J. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Priority One Services Corp, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.doerge@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (> 90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 μg/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 μg/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) were attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources. - Highlights: ► Maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism attenuate fetal exposure to BPA. ► Serum AUC for aglycone BPA in fetal monkeys is less than half of that in the dam. ► BPA profiles in monkey fetus rule out selective deconjugation and accumulation. ► BPA levels in monkey placenta are similar to other metabolically active tissues. ► Some published human cord blood data for BPA are inconsistent with these measurements.

  6. [Isothermal studies on liquid-phase adsorption of bisphenol A and dibutyl phthalate by paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiong-yao; He, Pin-jing; Shao, Li-ming; Zheng, Zhong

    2008-08-01

    Adsorption behavior of bisphenol A (BPA) and dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) from aqueous solution onto newsprint was investigated through batch adsorption experiments. Adsorption isothermal data was interpreted by the Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Flory-Huggins (F-H), BET and Temkin equations. In order to determine the best fit isotherm, three error analysis methods were used to evaluate the data: correlation coefficient (R2), residual root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square test (chi2 test). The results show that the Freundlich and Temkin equations provide the best models for BPA and DnBP biosorption with high R2 (R2 > 0.95, p adsorption capacity increases with the hydrophobicity of adsorbate. The mean free energy of adsorption process is calculated by D-R isotherm as 1.484 and 1.609 kJ/mol while the Gibbs free energy calculated by F-H isotherm is -6.559 and -7.021 kJ/mol for BPA and DnBP, respectively. From D-R and F-H models, it is inferred that biosorption of BPA and DnBP by newsprint might be physical adsorption and a spontaneous process. As a comparison, it is indicated these Kf values in Freundlich equation (0.147 and 0.502 mg(1-n) x L(n) x g(-1) for BPA and DnBP, respectively), considered as a measure of the adsorption capacity, are higher than those obtained in the adsorption of same adsorbate by natural organic adsorbents, such as sediment. This suggests the presence of paper will retard BPA and DnBP transport and bioavalability in landfills.

  7. Online in-tube microextractor coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometer for bisphenol A detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorahong, Sujittra; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2013-01-01

    A simple and high extraction efficiency online in-tube microextractor (ITME) was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) detection in water samples. The ITME was fabricated by a stepwise electrodeposition of polyaniline, polyethylene glycol and polydimethylsiloxane composite (CPANI) inside a silico-steel tube. The obtained ITME coupled with UV-Vis detection at 278 nm was investigated. By this method, the extraction and pre-concentration of BPA in water were carried out in a single step. Under optimum conditions, the system provided a linear dynamic range of 0.1 to 100 μM with a limit of detection of 20 nM (S/N ≥3). A single in-tube microextractor had a good stability of more than 60 consecutive injections for 10.0 μM BPA with a relative standard deviation of less than 4%. Moreover, a good tube-to-tube reproducibility and precision were obtained. The system was applied to detect BPA in water samples from six brands of baby bottles and the results showed good agreement with those obtained from the conventional GC-MS method. Acceptable percentage recoveries from the spiked water samples were obtained, ranging from 83-102% for this new method compared with 73-107% for the GC-MS standard method. This new in-tube CPANI microextractor provided an excellent extraction efficiency and a good reproducibility. In addition, it can also be easily applied for the analysis of other polar organic compounds contaminated in water sample.

  8. Sex reversal effects on Caiman latirostris exposed to environmentally relevant doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A.

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    Stoker, C; Rey, F; Rodriguez, H; Ramos, J G; Sirosky, P; Larriera, A; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2003-10-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) alters the development and function of reproductive organs in several species. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical that leaches from dental materials and plastic food and beverage containers. BPA has been found in sewage, surface and drinking water, and therefore poses a potentially significant risk for human and wildlife. Prenatal exposure of rodents to environmentally relevant doses of BPA alters the development of the reproductive organs of male and female offspring. Species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) could act as sentinels of ecosystem health by providing sensitive biomarkers of endocrine disruptor's effects. We selected Caiman latirostris as an animal model to study endocrine disruption caused by BPA. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure in ovum to BPA could cause estrogen-like effects on the reproductive system of C. latirostris. Sex determination and gonadal histoarchitecture were the endpoints evaluated after in ovum exposure to different doses of BPA and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). We confirmed that C. latirostris is a species with TSD and additionally demonstrated that BPA causes estrogen-like developmental effects by reversing gonadal sex and altering gonadal histoarchitecture. Differences in responses to BPA and E(2) in our in vivo system were on the order of 100-fold. In contrast published in vitro studies have reported differences on the order of 10,000x or more. These results support the utility of C. latirostris, a species in which sex determination is temperature dependent, as a tool in assessing estrogenic activity in vivo and as a sentinel to monitor EDs in aquatic environment.

  9. Induction Effect of Bisphenol A on Gene Expression Involving Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rat

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    Sohrab Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Bisphenol A (BPA is an abundantly used xenoestrogenic chemical which may cause various disorders in body. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of various doses of BPA on hepatic oxidative stress-related gene expression in rats. Methods. Male Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g were used in this study. Three doses of the BPA (5, 25, and 125 μg/kg in corn oil were administered as gavage during 35 consecutive days. After the experiment, the rats were expired and the livers were removed and stored at −80°C freezer for RNA extraction. Findings. The Real Time PCR showed increased expression of HO-1 in the rats receiving BPA doses compared to the control group. This effect was dose-dependent and higher at doses of 25 and 125 μg/kg than 5 μg/kg of body weight (p<0.05. It was also demonstrated that various doses BPA can increase GADD45B gene expression compared to control group. That expression was significantly dominant in the lowest dose (5 μg/kg of the BPA (p<0.05. The final body weights (168.0±10.0 gr in the treatment group [BPA (125 μg/kg] showed a significant decrease compared to control group (191.60±6.50 gr. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that BPA generated ROS and increased the antioxidant gene expression that causes hepatotoxicity.

  10. Synthesis of hybrid carbon nanotubes using Brassica juncea L. application to photodegradation of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiao; Luo, Chunqiu; Yuan, Xing

    2013-06-01

    Hyperaccumulators contain tubular cellulose and heavy metals, which can be used as the sources of carbon and metals to synthesize nanomaterials. In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanoparticles, and CNTs/Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanocomposites were synthesized using Brassica juncea L. plants, and the ultraviolet (UV)-light-driven photocatalytic degradations of bisphenol A (BPA) using them as photocatalysts were studied. It was found that the outer diameter of CNTs was around 50 nm and there were a few defects in the crystal lattice. The synthesized Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanocomposites had a diameter of around 40 nm. Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanocomposites have grown on the surface of the CNTs and the outer diameter of them was around 100 nm. The synthesized hybrid carbon nanotubes using B. juncea could enhance the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation on BPA. The complete equilibration time of adsorption/desorption of BPA onto the surface of CNTs, Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanoparticles, and CNTs/Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanocomposites was within 30, 20, and 30 min, and approximately 14.9, 8.7, and 17.4 % BPA was adsorbed by them, respectively. The combination of UV light irradiation (90 min) with CNTs, Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanoparticles, and CNTs/Cu(0.05)Zn(0.95)O nanocomposites could lead to 48.3, 75.7, and 92.6 % decomposition yields of BPA, respectively. These findings constitute a new insight for synthesizing nanocatalyst by reusing hyperaccumulators.

  11. How safe is bisphenol A? Fundamentals of toxicity: metabolism, electron transfer and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The FDA recently announced concern about the safety of bisphenol A (BPA) and the need for more research. In the current controversy, scant attention is being paid to toxicity at the fundamental, molecular level, which is the topic of this report. Important information is provided by extensive studies on metabolism. The principal pathway is detoxification, mainly by conjugation leading to a glucuronide. A minor route entails oxidation by hydroxylation to a catechol followed by further transformation to an o-quinone. The catechol-o-quinone couple is capable of redox cycling with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS). o-Quinones are highly electron affinic with very favorable reduction potentials that permit electron transfer (ET) under physiological conditions. Only small amounts are sufficient to generate large quantities of ROS catalytically. There is extensive evidence for production of ROS, which buttresses ET by o-quinone as a plausible source. In addition, there are numerous reports on toxicity to body constituents by BPA. Those adversely affected include the liver, DNA, genes, CNS, reproductive system and kidney. Since a plethora of prior studies links ROS-OS with toxicity, it is reasonable to propose a similar connection for BPA. Cell signaling also plays a role. There are various other factors involved with toxic responses, including age, with the fetus and infants being the most vulnerable. A report concludes that human exposure to BPA is not negligible. The present overview represents a novel, integrated approach to BPA toxicity. A similar article was recently published in this journal which deals with toxicity of prevalent phthalate plasticizers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bisphenol A alters the cardiovascular response to hypoxia in Danio rerio embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Alysha D; Ickes, Jessica R; Bagatto, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the cardiovascular response to hypoxia was altered by the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in Danio rerio embryos. It was expected that BPA exposure would affect cardiovascular parameters during hypoxia more than normoxia due to an interaction between BPA and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) pathway. We demonstrate that BPA exposure has a minimal effect during normoxia but can severely affect the cardiovascular system during a hypoxic event. Cardiovascular response was measured in vivo using video microscopy and digital motion analysis. RBC density increased 35% in hypoxia alone but decreased 48% with addition of 0.25mg/L BPA. Tissue vascularization (% coverage) was unaffected by hypoxia alone but decreased 37% with addition of 0.25mg/L BPA. The diameter and RBC velocity of arteries were more sensitive than veins to BPA exposure during both normoxia and hypoxia. Arterial RBC velocity decreased 42% during normoxia and 52% during hypoxia with 1mg/L BPA. This decrease in velocity may in part be due to the 86% decrease in heart rate (ƒH) observed during co-exposure to hypoxia and 5mg/L BPA. While stroke volume (SV) was unaffected by treatment, cardiac output (Q) decreased by 69% with co-exposure. ƒH and Q were not affected by BPA exposure during normoxia. Development ultimately slowed by 146% and mortality rates were 95% during hypoxia when exposed to 5mg/L BPA. Our results show for the first time that BPA exposure alters the cardiovascular system during hypoxia more so than normoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of early-life bisphenol A exposure on behavior and executive function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joe M; Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Calafat, Antonia M; Yolton, Kimberly; Ye, Xiaoyun; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the impact of gestational and childhood bisphenol A (BPA) exposures on behavior and executive function at 3 years of age and to determine whether child gender modified those associations. We used a prospective birth cohort of 244 mothers and their 3-year-old children from the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, area. We characterized gestational and childhood BPA exposures by using the mean BPA concentrations in maternal (16 and 26 weeks of gestation and birth) and child (1, 2, and 3 years of age) urine samples, respectively. Behavior and executive function were measured by using the Behavior Assessment System for Children 2 (BASC-2) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P). BPA was detected in >97% of the gestational (median: 2.0 μg/L) and childhood (median: 4.1 μg/L) urine samples. With adjustment for confounders, each 10-fold increase in gestational BPA concentrations was associated with more anxious and depressed behavior on the BASC-2 and poorer emotional control and inhibition on the BRIEF-P. The magnitude of the gestational BPA associations differed according to child gender; BASC-2 and BRIEF-P scores increased 9 to 12 points among girls, but changes were null or negative among boys. Associations between childhood BPA exposure and neurobehavior were largely null and not modified by child gender. In this study, gestational BPA exposure affected behavioral and emotional regulation domains at 3 years of age, especially among girls. Clinicians may advise concerned patients to reduce their exposure to certain consumer products, but the benefits of such reductions are unclear.

  14. Short-term treatment with bisphenol-A leads to metabolic abnormalities in adult male mice.

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    Thiago M Batista

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr(308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit.In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Bisphenol A in oocytes leads to growth suppression and altered stress performance in juvenile rainbow trout.

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    Neelakanteswar Aluru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA, used in the manufacture of plastics, is ubiquitously distributed in the aquatic environment. However, the effect of maternal transfer of these xenobiotics on embryonic development and growth is poorly understood in fish. We tested the hypothesis that BPA in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, impact development, growth and stress performance in juveniles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trout oocytes were exposed to 0, 30 and 100 microg.mL(-1 BPA for 3 h in ovarian fluid, followed by fertilization. The embryos were maintained in clean water and sampled temporally over 156-days post-fertilization (dpf, and juveniles were sampled at 400-dpf. The egg BPA levels declined steadily after exposure and were undetectable after 21- dpf. Oocyte exposure to BPA led to a delay in hatching and yolk absorption and a consistently lower body mass over 152-dpf. The growth impairment, especially in the high BPA group, correlated with higher growth hormone (GH content and lower GH receptors gene expression. Also, mRNA abundances of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2 and their receptors were suppressed in the BPA treated groups. The juvenile fish grown from the BPA-enriched eggs had lower body mass and showed perturbations in plasma cortisol and glucose response to an acute stressor. CONCLUSION: BPA accumulation in eggs, prior to fertilization, leads to hatching delays, growth suppression and altered stress response in juvenile trout. The somatotropic axis appears to be a key target for BPA impact during early embryogenesis, leading to long term growth and stress performance defects in fish.

  16. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring.

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    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Soriano, Sergi; Menes, Lorena; Burks, Deborah; Quesada, Ivan; Nadal, Angel

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. In humans, epidemiological evidence has associated BPA exposure in adults with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. We examined the action of environmentally relevant doses of BPA on glucose metabolism in mice during pregnancy and the impact of BPA exposure on these females later in life. We also investigated the consequences of in utero exposure to BPA on metabolic parameters and pancreatic function in offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with either vehicle or BPA (10 or 100 microg/kg/day) during days 9-16 of gestation. Glucose metabolism experiments were performed on pregnant mice and their offspring. BPA exposure aggravated the insulin resistance produced during pregnancy and was associated with decreased glucose tolerance and increased plasma insulin, triglyceride, and leptin concentrations relative to controls. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was reduced in skeletal muscle and liver of BPA-treated pregnant mice relative to controls. BPA exposure during gestation had long-term consequences for mothers: 4 months post-partum, treated females weighed more than untreated females and had higher plasma insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and glycerol levels and greater insulin resistance. At 6 months of age, male offspring exposed in utero had reduced glucose tolerance, increased insulin resistance, and altered blood parameters compared with offspring of untreated mothers. The islets of Langerhans from male offspring presented altered Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion. BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation into insulin-producing cells was reduced in the male progeny, yet beta-cell mass was unchanged. Our findings suggest that BPA may contribute to metabolic disorders relevant to glucose homeostasis and that BPA may be a risk factor for diabetes.

  17. Metabolic and endocrine effects of bisphenol A exposure in market seller women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Mahjoob; Saeedi, Arastoo; Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Fattahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the synthetic monomer which can be found in the environment. Limited animal and human studies have demonstrated that BPA alters endocrine and or metabolic functions. The aims of the present study were to evaluate serum BPA level in marketing seller women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hormonal and metabolic effects of this exposure compared to a control paired group. In a case-control study, 62 PCOS women who work as marketing sellers and 62 healthy women with similar jobs were included. The two groups were body mass index (BMI)- and age-matched. Serum samples were analyzed for BPA content, fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, and LH:FSH ratio. Significant higher serum BPA content (0.48 ± 0.08 vs. 0.16 ± 0.04 ng/ml), triglyceride (103.05 ± 13.10 vs. 91.65 ± 12.52 mg/dl), cholesterol (165.05 ± 10.79 vs. 161.21 ± 10.31 mg/dl) levels and LH:FSH ratio (3.64 ± 0.86 vs. 0.62 ± 0.14) and significant lower TSH concentration (1.56 ± 0.68 vs. 2.15 ± 1.09 IU/ml) were detected in case against control group, respectively (P role of BPA in PCOS pathophysiology.

  18. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  19. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity in adults: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

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    Minh T. Do

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Methods: We performed analyses using biomonitoring and directly measured anthropometric data from 4733 adults aged 18 to 79 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2011. We used multinomial and binary logistic regression models to estimate associations of urinary BPA with body mass index (BMI categories (overweight vs. under/normal weight; obesity vs. under/normal weight and elevated waist circumference (males: ≥ 102 cm; females: ≥ 88 cm, respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Linear regression analyses were also performed to assess associations between urinary BPA and continuous BMI and waist circumference measures. Results: Urinary BPA was positively associated with BMI-defined obesity, with an odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–2.37 in the highest (vs. lowest BPA quartile (test for trend, p = .041. Urinary BPA was not associated with elevated waist circumference defined using standard cut-offs. Additionally, each natural-log unit increase in urinary BPA concentration was associated with a 0.33 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.10–0.57 increase in BMI and a 1.00 cm (95% CI: 0.34–1.65 increase in waist circumference. Conclusion: Our study contributes to the growing body of evidence that BPA is positively associated with obesity. Prospective studies with repeated measures are needed to address temporality and improve exposure classification.

  20. Biotransformation of Bisphenol AF to Its Major Glucuronide Metabolite Reduces Estrogenic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings. PMID:24349450

  1. Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ERα signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ERα was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ERα-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ERα-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

  2. Efficient activation of peroxymonosulfate by magnetic Mn-MGO for degradation of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jiangkun [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo@cug.edu.cn [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Ying; Ling, Haibo; Zheng, Han [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: kim_sh@kist.re.kr [Center for Materials Architecturing, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 705 Engineering Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: Manganese catalyst was immobilized on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene hybrids to facilitate magnetic separation. Magnetic manganese catalyst exhibited high efficacy and long-term stability for catalytic PMS activation. The minerlization efficiency and the biotoxicity of BPA byproducts were evaluated. The degradation pathways of BPA and the possible activation mechanism of PMS were proposed. - Abstract: A heterogeneous manganese/magnetite/graphene oxide (Mn-MGO) hybrid catalyst was fabricated through the reduction of KMnO{sub 4} by ethylene glycol in the presence of magnetite/GO (MGO) particles. The Mn-MGO catalyst exhibited high efficacy and long-term stability in activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water. The results of the batch experiments indicated that an increase in the catalyst dose and solution pH could enhance BPA degradation in the coupled Mn-MGO/PMS system. Regardless of the initial pH, the solution pH significantly dropped after the reaction, which was caused by catalytic PMS activation. The production of sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals was validated through radical quenching and electron paramagnetic resonances (EPR) tests. BPA degradation pathways were proposed on the basis of LC-MS and GC-MS analyses. Finally, a possible mechanism of catalytic PMS activation was proposed that involved electron transfer from MnO or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} to PMS with the generation of sulfate radicals, protons and MnO{sub 2}, as well as the simultaneous reduction of MnO{sub 2} by PMS.

  3. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  4. Determination of bisphenol A in, and its migration from, PVC stretch film used for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cervantes, J; Paseiro-Losada, P

    2003-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used as an additive in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, including stretch films used for food packaging. The BPA contents were investigated of several brands of stretch film bought locally but marketed internationally or throughout Spain and which were presumably produced at different manufacturing plants. Their major components were identified by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry) and horizontal attenuated total reflectance, and the migration of BPA from these materials into the standard European Union food simulants was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using both fluorescence (FL) and ultraviolet (UV) detection, the identity of the analyte being confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The two HPLC detection methods had different detection limits (30 microg x l(-1) for UV, 3 microg x l(-1) for FL), but afforded virtually identical BPA determinations for the samples tested. BPA contents ranging from 40 to 100 mg x kg(-1) were found in three of the five PVC-based films analysed, and a content of 500 mg x kg(-1) was found in a fourth; for these determinations, extraction into acetonitrile was used. In standard tests of migration into water, 3% acetic acid and olive oil over 10 days at 40 degrees C, migration from a given film was in all cases greatest into olive oil. Migration from the films with non-zero BPA contents ranged from 3 to 31 microg x dm(-2), values higher than those reported for many other food-contact materials, but lower than the European Union specific migration limit for BPA. PVC stretch film nevertheless may make a significant contribution to contamination of foodstuffs by BPA, and should be taken into account in estimating BPA intake or exposure to this substance.

  5. A developmental hepatotoxicity study of dietary bisphenol A in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradonna, Francesca; Nozzi, Valentina; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Traversi, Ilaria; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Benato, Francesca; Colletti, Elisa; Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Mita, Damiano G; Hardiman, Gary; Mandich, Alberta; Carnevali, Oliana

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies in rats have indicated that a diet enriched with Bisphenol A adversely effects metabolism and reproductive success. In rats exposed to BPA by maternal gavage, alteration in the developmental programming, higher obesity rates and reproductive anomalies were induced. Starting with this evidence, the aim of this study was to provide important insights on the effects induced by a BPA enriched diet, on the reproductive physiology and metabolism of juvenile fish, simulating the scenario occurring when wild fish fed on prey contaminated with environmental BPA. Seabream was chosen as model, as it is one of the primary commercial species valued by consumers and these results could provide important findings on adverse effects that could be passed on to humans by eating contaminated fish. A novel method for measuring BPA in the food and water by affinity chromatography was developed. Analysis of signals involved in reproduction uncovered altered levels of vtg and Zp, clearly indicating the estrogenic effect of BPA. Similarly, BPA up-regulated catd and era gene expression. A noteworthy outcome from this study was the full length cloning of two vtg encoding proteins, namely vtgA and vtgB, which are differently modulated by BPA. Cyp1a1 and EROD activity were significantly downregulated, confirming the ability of estrogenic compounds to inhibit the detoxification process. GST activity was unaffected by BPA contamination, while CAT activity was down regulated. These results collectively confirm the estrogenic effect of BPA and provide additional characterization of novel vtg genes in Sparus aurata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term oral exposure to bisphenol A induces glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Kyong; Jeong, In-Kyong; Jung Oh, Tae; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Young Joo; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used endocrine disruptor. Recent epidemiologic results have suggested an association between exposure to BPA and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. We investigated the in vivo effects of long-term oral exposure to BPA on insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In the present study, 4- to 6-week-old male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with 50 μg/kg body weight per day of BPA orally for 12 weeks. Long-term oral exposure to BPA along with an HFD for 12 weeks induced glucose intolerance in growing male mice. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that the mice that received an HFD and BPA exhibited a significantly larger area under the curve than did those that received an HFD only (119.9±16.8 vs. 97.9±18.2 mM/min, P=0.027). Body weight, percentage of white adipose tissue, and percentage of body fat did not differ between the two groups of mice. However, treatment with BPA reduced Akt phosphorylation at position Thr308 and GSK3β phosphorylation at position Ser9 in skeletal muscle. BPA tended to decrease serum adiponectin levels and to increase serum interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α, although these findings were not statistically significant. Treatment with BPA did not induce any detrimental changes in the islet area or morphology or the insulin content of β cells. In conclusion, long-term oral exposure to BPA induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in growing mice. Decreased Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle by way of altered serum adipocytokine levels might be one mechanism by which BPA induces glucose intolerance. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Bisphenol A exposure alters developmental gene expression in the fetal rhesus macaque uterus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn C Calhoun

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA exposure results in numerous developmental and functional abnormalities in reproductive organs in rodent models, but limited data are available regarding BPA effects in the primate uterus. To determine if maternal oral BPA exposure affects fetal uterine development in a non-human primate model, pregnant rhesus macaques carrying female fetuses were exposed orally to 400 µg/kg BPA or vehicle control daily from gestation day (GD 50-100 or GD100-165. Fetal uteri were collected at the completion of treatment (GD100 or GD165; tissue histology, cell proliferation, and expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and progesterone receptor (PR were compared to that of controls. Gene expression analysis was conducted using rhesus macaque microarrays. There were no significant differences in histology or in the percentage of cells expressing the proliferation marker Ki-67, ERα, or PR in BPA-exposed uteri compared to controls at GD100 or GD165. Minimal differences in gene expression were observed between BPA-exposed and control GD100 uteri. However, at GD165, BPA-exposed uteri had significant differences in gene expression compared to controls. Several of the altered genes, including HOXA13, WNT4, and WNT5A, are critical for reproductive organ development and/or adult function. We conclude that second or third trimester BPA exposure does not significantly affect fetal uterus development based on morphological, proliferation, and steroid hormone receptor assessments. However, differences in expression of key developmental genes after third trimester exposure suggest that BPA could alter transcriptional signals influencing uterine function later in life.

  8. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in girls from rural and urban Egypt: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Muna S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to endocrine active compounds, including bisphenol A (BPA, remains poorly characterized in developing countries despite the fact that behavioral practices related to westernization have the potential to influence exposure. BPA is a high production volume chemical that has been associated with metabolic dysfunction as well as behavioral and developmental effects in people, including children. In this pilot study, we evaluate BPA exposure and assess likely pathways of exposure among girls from urban and rural Egypt. Methods We measured urinary concentrations of total (free plus conjugated species of BPA in spot samples in urban (N = 30 and rural (N = 30 Egyptian girls, and compared these concentrations to preexisting data from age-matched American girls (N = 47 from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. We also collected anthropometric and questionnaire data regarding food storage behaviors to assess potential routes of exposure. Results Urban and rural Egyptian girls exhibited similar concentrations of urinary total BPA, with median unadjusted values of 1.00 and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. Concentrations of urinary BPA in this group of Egyptian girls (median unadjusted: 0.70 ng/mL were significantly lower compared to age-matched American girls (median unadjusted: 2.60 ng/mL according to NHANES 2009-2010 data. Reported storage of food in plastic containers was a significant predictor of increasing concentrations of urinary BPA. Conclusions Despite the relatively low urinary BPA concentrations within this Egyptian cohort, the significant association between food storage behaviors and increasing urinary BPA concentration highlights the need to understand food and consumer product patterns that may be closing the gap between urban and rural lifestyles.

  9. Differential effects of bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on human, rat and mouse fetal leydig cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry N'Tumba-Byn

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (ED have been incriminated in the current increase of male reproductive alterations. Bisphenol A (BPA is a widely used weak estrogenic environmental ED and it is debated whether BPA concentrations within the average internal exposure are toxic. In the present study we investigated the effects of 10(-12 to 10(-5 M BPA concentrations on fetal Leydig cell function, as fetal life is a critical period of sensitivity to ED effects on male reproductive function. To this aim, fetal testes from human at 6.5-10.5 gestational weeks (GW or from rat and mouse at a comparable critical period of development (14.5 days post-coitum (dpc for rat and 12.5 dpc for mouse were explanted and cultured using our validated organotypic culture system in the presence or absence of BPA for 1-3 days. BPA concentrations as low as 10(-8 M reduced testosterone secretion by human testes from day 1 of culture onwards, but not by mouse and rat testes where concentrations equal to 10(-5 M BPA were required. Similarly, 10(-8 M BPA reduced INSL3 mRNA levels only in human cultured testes. On the contrary, 10(-5 and 10(-6 M diethylstilbestrol (DES, a classical estrogenic compound, affected testosterone secretion only in rat and mouse testis cultures, but not in human testis cultures. Lastly, contrarily to the DES effect, the negative effect of BPA on testosterone produced by the mouse fetal testis was maintained after invalidation of estrogen receptor α (ERα. In conclusion, these results evidenced i a deleterious effect of BPA on fetal Leydig cells function in human for concentrations from 10(-8 M upwards, ii species-specific differences raising concerns about extrapolation of data from rodent studies to human risk assessment, iii a specific signaling pathway for BPA which differs from the DES one and which does not involve ERα.

  10. Bisphenol A binds to the local anesthetic receptor site to block the human cardiac sodium channel.

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    Andrias O O'Reilly

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA has attracted considerable public attention as it leaches from plastic used in food containers, is detectable in human fluids and recent epidemiologic studies link BPA exposure with diseases including cardiovascular disorders. As heart-toxicity may derive from modified cardiac electrophysiology, we investigated the interaction between BPA and hNav1.5, the predominant voltage-gated sodium channel subtype expressed in the human heart. Electrophysiology studies of heterologously-expressed hNav1.5 determined that BPA blocks the channel with a K(d of 25.4±1.3 µM. By comparing the effects of BPA and the local anesthetic mexiletine on wild type hNav1.5 and the F1760A mutant, we demonstrate that both compounds share an overlapping binding site. With a key binding determinant thus identified, an homology model of hNav1.5 was generated based on the recently-reported crystal structure of the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel NavAb. Docking predictions position both ligands in a cavity delimited by F1760 and contiguous with the DIII-IV pore fenestration. Steered molecular dynamics simulations used to assess routes of ligand ingress indicate that the DIII-IV pore fenestration is a viable access pathway. Therefore BPA block of the human heart sodium channel involves the local anesthetic receptor and both BPA and mexiletine may enter the closed-state pore via membrane-located side fenestrations.

  11. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Bisphenol A on Liver Tissue Structure and Liver Enzymes

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    Ozra Rahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bisphenol A (BPA is one of the chemical materials, which is used as monomer of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. The present study was performed with the purpose of determining the effect of A on liver enzymes level and liver tissue structure. Methods: In this experimental study 40 male rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 each: The control group received olive oil at a dose of 1μg/kg bw; group II received BPA at 10μg/kg bw; group III received BPA at 50μg/kg bw; and group IV received BPA at 100μg/kg bw. The groups were administered BPA intraperitoneally for 15 days. At the end, the rats were anesthetized and after extraction of serum, their liver were removed for examination of liver enzymes and evaluated by light microscopy after H&E staining. Results: The doses of 10 and 50μg/kg bw of BPA had no significant effect on ALT enzyme and 10μg/kg bw had no significant effect on AST enzyme (p>0.05, while BPA at dose of 100 and doses 50 and 100μg/kg bw had significant effects on ALT and AST, respectively, and increased their serum concentration. BPA only at dose of 100μg/kg bw caused inflammation and vacuolization in liver tissue, and its low concentrations had no significant effect on the liver tissue. Conclusion: The results indicated that low concentrations of BPA had no significant effect on liver tissue and enzymes, but its increased concentration can cause damage to liver tissue and increase the serum levels of liver enzymes.

  13. Gestational exposure to low dose bisphenol A alters social behavior in juvenile mice.

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    Jennifer T Wolstenholme

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins; public health concerns have been fueled by findings that BPA exposure can reduce sex differences in brain and some behaviors. We asked if a low BPA dose, within the range measured in humans, ingested during pregnancy, would affect social behaviors in prepubertal mice. We noted sex differences in social interactions whereby females spent more time sitting side-by-side, while males engaged in more exploring and sitting alone. In addition BPA increased display of nose-to-nose contacts, play solicitations and approaches in both sexes. Interactions between sex and diet were found for self grooming, social interactions while sitting side-by-side and following the other mouse. In all these cases interactions were produced by differences between control and BPA females. We examined brains from embryos during late gestation to determine if gene expression differences might be correlated with some of the sexually dimorphic or BPA affected behaviors we observed. Because BPA treatments ended at birth we took the brains during embryogenesis to increase the probability of discovering BPA mediated effects. We also selected this embryonic age (E18.5 because it coincides with the onset of sexual differentiation of the brain. Interestingly, mRNA for the glutamate transporter, Slc1a1, was enhanced by exposure to BPA in female brains. Also we noted that BPA changed the expression of two of the three DNA methyltransferase genes, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a. We propose that BPA affects DNA methylation of Sc1a1 during neural development. Sex differences in juvenile social interactions are affected by BPA and in particular this compound modifies behavior in females.

  14. 75 FR 35767 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... (SERMA) in the South Atlantic, and receive updates on state enforcement efforts of 2010 snapper grouper... ] Conservation Biology Institute (MCBI) which addresses the challenges of enforcing regulations within the vast...

  15. 76 FR 62331 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... blacknose sharks, NMFS is declaring the following stock status determinations. Sandbar sharks are still overfished, but no longer experiencing overfishing. Dusky sharks are still overfished and still experiencing...

  16. 76 FR 56120 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... recreational fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... http://www.iccat.int/en/ . One swordfish measure adopted at the 2010 meeting, and one swordfish measure...

  17. Persistent influence of tropical North Atlantic wintertime sea surface temperature on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2017-08-01

    This study explores the seasonally lagged impact of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic main development region (MDR) on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season. It is found that wintertime SST anomalies in the MDR can persist into the summer, explaining 42% of the variance in the subsequent hurricane season's SST during 1951-2010. An anomalously warm wintertime in the MDR is usually followed by an anomalously active hurricane season. Analysis shows an important constraint on the seasonal evolution of the MDR SST by the water vapor feedback process, in addition to the well-known wind-evaporation-SST and cloud-SST feedback mechanisms over the tropical North Atlantic. The water vapor feedback influences the seasonal evolution of MDR SST by modulating seasonal variations of downward longwave radiation. This wintertime thermal control of hurricane activity has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of hurricane activity over the North Atlantic.

  18. 77 FR 64317 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Crowne Plaza Hotel, 4831 Tanger Outlet Blvd., North Charleston, SC 29418; telephone: (843) 744- 4422; fax... the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council to the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council and...

  19. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ..., 4831 Tanger Outlet Blvd., North Charleston, SC 29418; telephone: (866) 358- 6255. Council address... Migratory Pelagics Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico addressing Annual...

  20. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  1. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    tenuis are strongly diminished, causing an increase in relative abundance of the lower photic zone taxa Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus. During the past 140,000 years the surface water circulation of the equatorial Atlantic has changed drastically, as can be seen from changes...

  2. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  3. Subpolar North Atlantic glider observations for OSNAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Hodges, B.; Bower, A. S.; Yang, J.; Lin, X.

    2016-02-01

    OSNAP is an international program designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water-column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The observational efforts of this program are focused largely along lines connecting Labrador to Greenland, and Greenland to Scotland. The OSNAP experimental plan includes continuous sampling by Slocum G2 gliders along the latter (easternmost) of these two sections, specifically across the northeastward-flowing North Atlantic Current in the Iceland Basin. The glider observations, a collaboration between the Ocean University of China and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, provide higher spatial resolution of water properties than is possible from moorings alone. These observations commenced in June 2015 with a mission to fly back and forth along a section between two OSNAP moorings, profiling from the surface to 1000-m depth. As of September 2015, five sections (including over 240 profiles) have been recorded. As expected, the data indicates energetic intraseasonal variability at smaller scales than can be captured by the OSNAP mooring array. We are investigating how this variability may impact calculated fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater. The glider repeatedly crossed a cyclonic eddy between the two moorings, enabling study of fine thermohaline structure during the development and dissipation of mesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic. With additional sensors measuring fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and multispectral light, the dataset also has the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the biogeochemical processes of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic.

  4. North Atlantic SST Patterns and NAO Flavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousi, E.; Rahmstorf, S.; Coumou, D.

    2017-12-01

    North Atlantic SST variability results from the interaction of atmospheric and oceanic processes. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) drives changes in SST patterns but is also driven by them on certain time-scales. These interactions are not very well understood and might be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Paleo reconstructions indicate a slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in recent decades leading to a pronounced cold anomaly ("cold blob") in the North Atlantic (Rahmstorf et al., 2015). The latter may favor NAO to be in its negative mode. In this work, sea surface temperature (SST) patterns are studied in relation to NAO variations, with the aim of discovering preferred states and understanding their interactions. SST patterns are analyzed with Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), a clustering technique that helps identify different spatial patterns and their temporal evolution. NAO flavors refer to different longitudinal positions and tilts of the NAO action centers, also defined with SOMs. This way the limitations of the basic, index-based, NAO-definition are overcome, and the method handles different spatially shapes associated with NAO. Preliminary results show the existence of preferred combinations of SSTs and NAO flavors, which in turn affect weather and climate of Europe and North America. The possible influence of the cold blob on European weather is discussed.

  5. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  6. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    model where the population structure of mackerel is described as a dynamic cline, rather than as connected contingents. Temporal changes in hydrography and mackerel behavior may affect the steepness of the cline at various locations. The new interpretation of the population structure of Atlantic...

  7. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  8. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A at ordered mesoporous carbon modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Zhai, Xiurong; Liu, Xinsheng; Wang, Ling; Liu, Herong; Wang, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    A simple bisphenol A (BPA) sensor was successfully fabricated based on ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 modified nano-carbon ionic liquid paste electrode (CMK-3/nano-CILPE). The nanostructure of CMK-3 and the surface morphologies of modified electrodes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of the fabricated electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fabricated sensor displayed excellent electroactivity towards bisphenol A using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Experimental conditions influencing the analytical performance of the modified electrode were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to BPA concentration in the range from 0.2 μM to 150 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N=3). This method was successfully used for determination of BPA leached from drinking bottle and plastic bag with good recoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A on the formation of reproductive organs in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Haruka; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Hoshi, Motonori; Matsumoto, Midori

    2011-02-01

    Planarians have a remarkable capacity for regeneration after ablation, and they reproduce asexually by fission. However, some planarians can also reproduce and maintain their sexual organs. During the regenerative process, their existing sexual organs degenerate and new ones develop. However, little is known about hormonal regulation during the development of reproductive organs in planarians. In this study, we investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol (a steroid) and bisphenol A (an endocrine disrupter) on the formation of sexual organs in the hermaphroditic planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis. Under control conditions, all worm tissues regenerated into sexual planarians with sexual organs within 4 weeks after ablation. However, in the presence of bisphenol A or 17β-estradiol, although they apparently regenerated into sexual planarians, the yolk glands, which are one of the female sexual organs, failed to regenerate even 7 weeks after ablation. These data suggest that planarians have a steroid hormone system, which plays a key role in the formation and maturation of sexual organs.

  10. Evidence of Absence: Estrogenicity Assessment of a New Food-Contact Coating and the Bisphenol Used in Its Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ana M; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Maier, Mark S; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Maffini, Maricel V

    2017-02-07

    Consumer concerns about exposure to substances found in food contact materials with estrogenic activity (EA) have created substantial demand for alternatives. We assessed the potential EA of both a new bisphenol monomer used to synthesize polymeric coatings for metal food-contact applications and the nonintentionally added substances (NIAS) that may migrate into food. We evaluated tetramethyl bisphenol F (TMBPF) using in vitro and in vivo assays. We extracted the polymeric coating using food simulants ethanol (50% v/v) and acetic acid (3% w/v) and measured migration using tandem liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) and LC time-of-flight MS for TMBPF and NIAS, respectively. We also tested migrants for EA using the E-SCREEN assay. TMBPF did not show estrogenic activity in the uterotrophic assay and did not alter puberty in male and female rats or mammary gland development in female rats. Neither TMBPF nor the migrants from the final polymeric coating increased proliferation of estrogen-sensitive MCF7 cells. TMBPF did not show estrogen-agonist or antagonist activity in the estrogen receptor-transactivation assay. TMBPF migration was below the 0.2 parts per billion detection limit. Our findings provide compelling evidence for the absence of EA by TMBPF and the polymeric coating derived from it and that human exposure to TMBPF would be negligible.

  11. Mitigating potential of Ginkgo biloba extract and melatonin against hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by Bisphenol A in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssaa M. Wahby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is one of the anthropogenic chemicals produced worldwide, currently released into the environment and causes endocrine-disruption. The largest environmental compartments of BPA are abiotic associated with water and suspended solids that becomes an integrated part of the food chain. The present study aimed to examine the possible protective role of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE, melatonin and their combination against BPA-induced liver and kidney toxicity of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: control, BPA, BPA plus GBE, BPA plus melatonin and BPA plus GBE plus melatonin. The elevated activities of plasma ALT and AST in addition to increased levels of urea and creatinine concomitant with the decreased total plasma protein could reflect the injurious effect of BPA. Liver and kidney levels of TBARS were significantly increased, while GSH, SOD and GPX were decreased in BPA-treated rats. Also, CAT and GST activities were significantly disrupted in the liver and kidney of rats treated with BPA. Moreover, BPA significantly increased the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the liver and kidney tissues. The histopathological analysis confirmed these results. All the previous alterations in the liver and kidney could be ameliorated when BPA-treated rats were co-administrated either with GBE, melatonin or their combination. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against BPA-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Ginkgo biloba extract, Melatonin, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes, Histopathological analysis

  12. Tsunami Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) is to provide advance tsunami warning and guidance to coastal communities within its Area-of-Responsibility (AOR). Predictive tsunami models, based on the shallow water wave equations, are an important part of the Center's guidance support. An Atlantic-based counterpart to the long-standing forecasting ability in the Pacific known as the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is now developed. The Atlantic forecasting method is based on ATFM version 2 which contains advanced capabilities over the original model; including better handling of the dynamic interactions between grids, inundation over dry land, new forecast model products, an optional non-hydrostatic approach, and the ability to pre-compute larger and more finely gridded regions using parallel computational techniques. The wide and nearly continuous Atlantic shelf region presents a challenge for forecast models. Our solution to this problem has been to develop a single unbroken high resolution sub-mesh (currently 30 arc-seconds), trimmed to the shelf break. This allows for edge wave propagation and for kilometer scale bathymetric feature resolution. Terminating the fine mesh at the 2000m isobath keeps the number of grid points manageable while allowing for a coarse (4 minute) mesh to adequately resolve deep water tsunami dynamics. Higher resolution sub-meshes are then included around coastal forecast points of interest. The WCATWC Atlantic AOR includes eastern U.S. and Canada, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in very close proximity to well-known tsunami sources. Because travel times are under an hour and response must be immediate, our focus is on pre-computing many tsunami source "scenarios" and compiling those results into a database accessible and calibrated with observations during an event. Seismic source evaluation determines the order of model pre

  13. Preparation of bio-based keratin-derived magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the facile and selective separation of bisphenol A from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Marjan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2018-02-21

    In this study, new bio-based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (∼23 nm) were synthesized from keratin extracted from chicken feathers and methacrylate-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles for its potential application in separation and removal of bisphenol A from water. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, alternative gradient field magnetometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The sorption of bisphenol A was investigated by changing the influencing factors such as pH, immersion time, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles dosage, and the initial concentration of bisphenol A. Results illustrated that sorption was very fast and efficient (Q m  = 600 mg g -1 ) having a removal efficiency of ∼98 % in 40 min of immersion. The adsorption process showed better conformity with the Weber-Morris kinetics and the Freundlich isotherm model. The selectivity of bisphenol A by adsorbent was checked in the presence of hydroquinone, phenol, tetrabromobisphenol, and 4,4'-biphenol as interferences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixtures of 17â-trenbolone with Ethinylestradiol or Bisphenol A Altered Tubercle Formation and Steroid Production in the Fathead Minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    The xenoestrogens, ethinylestradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA), and the androgen 17â-trenbolone (TRB) are examples of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) commonly detected in the environment. All have been shown to affect fish reproductive endocrinology individually, but littl...

  15. Variability of bisphenol-A concentrations in first morning, bedtime, and 24-hour urine samples in 50 North Carolina adults over a six-week period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a high-production volume chemical that is used to make a number of consumer products and packaged goods. Many cross-sectional studies have frequently reported detecting BPA in urine. However, limited data exist on the temporal variability of urinary BPA conce...

  16. Urinary metabolite concentrations of organophosphorous pesticides, bisphenol A, and phthalates among pregnant women in Rotterdam, The Netherlands: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, F.H.; Ye, X.; Hauser, R.; Duty, S.; Angerer, J.; Park, M.M.; Burdorf, A.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Tiemeier, H.; Longnecker, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Concern about potential health impacts of low-level exposures to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates among the general population is increasing. We measured levels of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides, a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite

  17. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...

  18. Modeling the interaction of binary mixtures of estradiol and bisphenol A or its analogues in an in vitro estrogen mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics. BPA is used in composites and sealants in dentistry, for epoxy resins used as protective liners in metallic cans, and as additives in various plastics. Approximately 1.7 billion pounds of BPA ...

  19. Modeling the interaction of binary mixtures of estradiol and bisphenol A or its analogues in an in vitro estrogen mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBIuc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics. BPA is used in composites and sealants in dentistry, for epoxy resins used as protective liners in metallic cans, and as additives in various plastics. Approximately 1.7 billion pounds of BPA ar...

  20. Towards early detection of the hydrolytic degradation of poly(bisphenol A)carbonate by hyphenated liquid chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Kaal, E.R.; Hankemeier, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrolytic degradation of poly(bisphenol A)carbonate (PC) has been characterized by various liquid chromatography techniques. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed a significant decrease in molecular mass as a result of hydrolytic degradation, while 'liquid chromatography at critical