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Sample records for bispectral index values

  1. Lower Bispectral index values in psychiatric patients: A prospective, observational study

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    Venkatapura J Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Bispectral index score (BIS is a processed electroencephalographic parameter used to measure level of sedation in anaesthetised patients. In few studies of psychiatric patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, it was observed that the BIS values were lower at baseline. It is not clear from those studies whether the BIS values are really low. Also, it is not clear whether the lower values are related to the primary psychiatric illness or the due to the effect of ECT. Therefore, we studied the BIS values in psychiatric illnesses and compared them with the normal controls. Materials and Methods : BIS index was recorded in 237 patients with various psychiatric illness (Group P and 40 control patients without any psychiatric illness undergoing spinal surgery (Group C. BIS values were recorded in supine position before breakfast and before the morning doses of antipsychotic/benzodiazepine medications. It was recorded during resting state in all the subjects. Results : BIS values were lower in group P compared to control group (a mean of 89.8 ± 7.8 vs 95.7 ± 2.4, P < 0.0001. In the group P, the patients with psychosis and bipolar disorder had significantly lower BIS values than the patients with depression (P = 0.04. Conclusions : BIS values in psychiatric patients are lower than those in the control group. Psychotic and bipolar disorders are associated with significantly lower BIS values than the depression.

  2. Comparison of Bispectral Index and Entropy values with electroencephalogram during surgical anaesthesia with sevoflurane.

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    Aho, A J; Kamata, K; Jäntti, V; Kulkas, A; Hagihira, S; Huhtala, H; Yli-Hankala, A

    2015-08-01

    Concomitantly recorded Bispectral Index® (BIS) and Entropy™ values sometimes show discordant trends during general anaesthesia. Previously, no attempt had been made to discover which EEG characteristics cause discrepancies between BIS and Entropy. We compared BIS and Entropy values, and analysed the changes in the raw EEG signal during surgical anaesthesia with sevoflurane. In this prospective, open-label study, 65 patients receiving general anaesthesia with sevoflurane were enrolled. BIS, Entropy and multichannel digital EEG were recorded. Concurrent BIS and State Entropy (SE) values were selected. Whenever BIS and SE values showed ≥10-unit disagreement for ≥60 s, the raw EEG signal was analysed both in time and frequency domain. A ≥10-unit disagreement ≥60 s was detected 428 times in 51 patients. These 428 episodes accounted for 5158 (11%) out of 45 918 analysed index pairs. During EEG burst suppression, SE was higher than BIS in 35 out of 49 episodes. During delta-theta dominance, BIS was higher than SE in 141 out of 157 episodes. During alpha or beta activity, SE was higher than BIS in all 49 episodes. During electrocautery, both BIS and SE changed, sometimes in the opposite direction, but returned to baseline values after electrocautery. Electromyography caused index disagreement four times (BIS > SE). Certain specific EEG patterns, and artifacts, are associated with discrepancies between BIS and SE. Time and frequency domain analyses of the original EEG improve the interpretation of studies involving BIS, Entropy and other EEG-based indices. NCT01077674. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Update on bispectral index monitoring.

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    Johansen, Jay W

    2006-03-01

    Since 1997, bispectral index (BIS; Aspect Medical Systems Inc., Natick, MA) has been in clinical practice and a wealth of experimental research has accumulated on its use. Originally, the device was approved only for monitoring hypnosis and has now received an indication for reducing the incidence of intraoperative awareness during anesthesia. Numerous studies have documented the ability of BIS to reduce intermediate outcomes such as hypnotic drug administration, extubation time, postoperative nausea and shortened recovery room discharge. Two recent large-scale outcome studies using BIS (one randomized controlled trial and one prospective, nonrandomized historical cohort study) identified an approximately 80% reduction in the incidence of recall after anesthesia. BIS provides clinicians with unique information that can be used to tailor hypnotic drug doses to individual patient requirements. BIS does not predict movement or hemodynamic response to stimulation, nor will it predict the exact moment consciousness returns. This review will also discuss other BIS applications including use in pediatrics, intensive care and for procedural sedation. Some limitations exist to the use of BIS and it is not useful for some individual hypnotic agents (ketamine, dexmedetomidine, nitrous oxide, xenon, opioids). BIS technology is moving out of the operating room and into diverse environments where conscious and deep sedation are provided. Anesthesiologists need to be actively involved in promoting patient safety and helping transition this technology into broader use.

  4. The impact of age on bispectral index values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with desflurane and halothane in children.

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    Tirel, O; Wodey, E; Harris, R; Bansard, J Y; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L

    2006-04-01

    The relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, bispectral index (BIS) and the EEG bispectrum in children appears to be age dependent. The aim of this study was to quantify the BIS values at 1 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) for desflurane and halothane, and explore the relationship with age for these anaesthetic agents in children. ECG, EEG and BIS were recorded continuously in 90 children aged 6-170 months requiring anaesthesia for elective surgery. Fifty children were anaesthetized with desflurane, and 40 children with halothane. Recordings were performed through to a steady state of 2 MAC, and thereafter at 1 and 0.5 MAC, respectively. The bispectrum of the EEG was estimated using MATLAB(c) software. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used. At a steady state of 1 MAC, BIS values were significantly higher with halothane 62 (43-80) than desflurane 34 (18-64). BIS values were significantly correlated with age in both groups: DES (r(2)=0.57; PEEG bispectrum) were different for the two volatile anaesthetic agents. In children, BIS values are linked to age irrespective of the volatile anaesthetic agent used. The difference in BIS values for different agents at the same MAC can be explained by the specific effect on the EEG bispectrum induced by each anaesthetic agent, bringing into question the ability of the EEG bispectrum to accurately determine the depth of anaesthesia.

  5. Performance of the bispectral index during electrocautery.

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    Chan, Matthew T V; Ho, Sin Shing; Gin, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The electroencephalogram contains small electrical signals that are vulnerable to contamination from high-frequency noise during electrocautery. The bispectral index (BIS) monitor incorporated hardware and software changes to eliminate artifacts, thus allowing BIS monitoring even in the presence of electrocautery. We evaluated the accuracy of BIS to measure anesthetic effect during electrocautery interference. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with target-controlled infusions of propofol (3 μg/mL) and remifentanil (4 ng/mL). After baseline BIS recordings, "simulated" electrocautery interference was induced continuously for 20 minutes. Five minutes after the start of electrocautery, propofol infusion was increased to achieve an effect site concentration of 6 μg/mL. Patients remained undisturbed during the study. BIS values and signal quality index were recorded continuously. During electrocautery, there was a significant decrease in signal quality index (mean difference: 16.9; 95% confidence intervals: 15.9-17.9; Pelectrocautery, there was a prompt decrease in BIS (Pelectrocautery. Rejecting and filtering artifacts from electrocautery interference reduced the ability of BIS to respond to a change in anesthetic depth. BIS values during electrocautery should be interpreted with caution.

  6. MONITORING DEPTH OF ANAESTHESIA USING PRST SCORE AND BISPECTRAL INDEX

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    Rahul; Sowmya; Rangalakshmi; Roshan Kumar; Karthik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Intraoperative awareness is a frightening experience for any patient for it has long term psychological consequences. Among the various tools available for monitoring depth of anaesthesia, Bispectral index monitoring (BIS) is one of the recent and widely accepted techniques. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : The present study was carried out ...

  7. Bispectral Index Monitoring: validity and utility in pediatric dentistry.

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    Goyal, Ashima; Mittal, Neeti; Mittal, Parteek; Gauba, K

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and safe provision of sedation and general anesthesia is dependent on continuous vigilance of patient's sedation depth. Failure to do so may result in unintended oversedation or undersedation. It is a common practice to observe sedation depth by applying subjective sedation scales and in case of general anesthesia, practitioner is dependent on vital sign assessment. The Bispectral Index System (BIS) is a recently introduced objective, quantitative, easy to use, and free from observer bias, and clinically useful tool to assess sedation depth and it precludes the need to stimulate the patient to assess his sedation level. The present article is an attempt to orient the readers towards utility and validity of BIS for sedation and general anesthesia in pediatric dentistry. In this article, we attempt to make the readers understand the principle of BIS, its variation across sedation continuum, its validity across different age groups and for a variety of sedative drugs.

  8. Response surface modeling of remifentanil-propofol interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

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    Nieuwenhuijs, Diederik J F; Olofsen, Erik; Romberg, Raymonda R; Sarton, Elise; Ward, Denham; Engbers, Frank; Vuyk, Jaap; Mooren, Rene; Teppema, Luc J; Dahan, Albert

    2003-02-01

    Since propofol and remifentanil are frequently combined for monitored anesthesia care, we examined the influence of the separate and combined administration of these agents on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index in humans. The effect of steady-state concentrations of remifentanil and propofol was assessed in 22 healthy male volunteer subjects. For each subject, measurements were obtained from experiments using remifentanil alone, propofol alone, and remifentanil plus propofol (measured arterial blood concentration range: propofol studies, 0-2.6 microg/ml; remifentanil studies, 0-2.0 ng/ml). Respiratory experiments consisted of ventilatory responses to three to eight increases in end-tidal Pco2 (Petco2). Invasive blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index were monitored concurrently. The nature of interaction was assessed by response surface modeling using a population approach with NONMEM. Values are population estimate plus or minus standard error. A total of 94 responses were obtained at various drug combinations. When given separately, remifentanil and propofol depressed cardiorespiratory variables in a dose-dependent fashion (resting V(i) : 12.6 +/- 3.3% and 27.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; V(i) at fixed Petco of 55 mmHg: 44.3 +/- 3.9% and 57.7 +/- 3.5% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively; blood pressure: 9.9 +/- 1.8% and 3.7 +/- 1.1% depression at 1 microg/ml propofol and 1 ng/ml remifentanil, respectively). When given in combination, their effect on respiration was synergistic (greatest synergy observed for resting V(i)). The effects of both drugs on heart rate and blood pressure were modest, with additive interactions when combined. Over the dose range studied, remifentanil had no effect on bispectral index even when combined with propofol (inert interaction). These data show dose-dependent effects on respiration at relatively low concentrations of

  9. [Pneumocephalus as a cause of a decrease in the bispectral index].

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    Herreras Gutiérrez, J L; Gilsanz Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    A sharp decrease in the values of the bispectral index (BIS), along with an increase in suppression rate, was observed in a patient after the removal of an epidermoid tumor in the cerebellopontine angle by right retrosigmoid access under general anesthesia. This was probably related to a frontal pneumocephalus. No accompanying neurological signs were observed. The patient was extubated in the Recovery Room with no further incidents, as the BIS increased again. The neurosurgeons chose conservative treatment, relying on the reabsorption and redistribution of the air. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Closed loop control of sedation for colonoscopy using the Bispectral Index

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    Leslie, K.; Absalom, A.; Kenny, G. N. C.

    Sixteen patients undergoing colonoscopy were sedated with propofol using a closed-loop control system guided by the Bispectral Index (BIS). Propofol administration, via a target-controlled infusion, was controlled by a proportional-integral-differential control algorithm. The median (range) propofol

  11. Electroconvulsive Therapy Under General Anesthesia With Cisatracurium, Laryngeal Mask Airways, and Bispectral Index.

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    Liu, Cai-Cai; Qian, Xiao-Yan; An, Jian-Xiong; Yu, Zeng-Lei; Wu, Jian-Ping; Wen, Hui; Cao, Zong-Xin; Wang, Yong; Fang, Qi-Wu; Williams, John P

    2016-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has dramatically reduced musculoskeletal complications when carried out with muscle relaxants under general anesthesia. However, seizure quality can be affected by the depth of anesthesia and choice of anesthetic agent. The purpose of this study was to describe a general anesthetic technique for ECT by using laryngeal mask, bispectral index (BIS), and muscle relaxant monitoring. Twenty-one patients, between ages 18 and 70 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III), who underwent a total of 89 sessions of ECT were examined in a retrospective study. Anesthesia was induced by use of propofol (1.0 mg/kg) followed by cisatracurium (0.2 mg/kg). The BIS, train-of-four, and end-tidal carbon dioxide were all monitored continuously. A laryngeal mask airway was used to maintain and protect the airway during the procedure. Electroconvulsive therapy stimuli were applied bilaterally when the train-of-four was assessed as being zero and BIS scores were 70. All patients then received 5 μg sufentanil and 2 mg midazolam, while titrated to maintain the BIS value at 40 to 50, before the muscle relaxation exhibited complete recovery. The mean duration of treatment process takes approximately 82.5 minutes. Mean (SD) seizure length was 58.8 (28.3) seconds, with 4.5% incidence of restimulation per treatment. Incidence of awareness was 0%. No patients exhibited delirium, nausea, vomiting, or myalgia in the postseizure phase. Bispectral index monitoring of the depth of anesthesia may have improved seizure quality, and awareness did not occur.

  12. Correlation of bispectral index (BIS monitoring and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in a patient with lobar holoprosencephaly

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    Dario Galante

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: The bispectral index (BIS is a parameter derived by electroencephalography (EEG which provides a direct measurement of the effects of sedatives and anesthetics on the brain and offers guidance on the adequacy of anesthesia. The literature lacks studies on BIS monitoring in pediatric patients with congenital brain disease undergoing general anesthesia.CLINICAL FEATURES: A 13-year-old child weighing 32 kg, suffering from lobar holoprosencephaly, underwent surgery in which the bispectral index (BIS monitoring the depth of anesthesia showed an abnormal response. Detailed analysis of the trends of BIS values in the different observation times demonstrated sudden falls and repetitive values of BIS likely related to repetitive epileptiform electrical activity caused by sevoflurane.CONCLUSION: The BIS is a very useful monitoring tool for assessing the degree of depth of anesthesia and to analyze the electroencephalographic variations of anesthetics. Particular attention should be given to patients with congenital disorders of the central nervous system in which the BIS may give abnormal responses that do not reflect an accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia.

  13. [Monitoring depth of anesthesia: a comparision between electroencephalographic nonlinear index and bispectral index].

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    Yu, Hai; Yang, Xiao-Yun; Zhu, Da; Du, Run-Zi; Yin, Yan; Zhou, Rong-Hua; Liu, Bin

    2010-01-01

    To compare the efficiency and accuracy of electroencephalographic nonlinear index (ENI) and bispectral index (BIS) in monitoring depth of anesthesia during general anesthesia. Thirty patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were recruited. The ability of ENI and BIS to distinguish between the anesthetic states (awake, loss of eyelash reflex, loss of response, steady anesthesia, first reaction and extubation) was analyzed with prediction probability (Pk). Correlation between ENI and BIS was tested by nonparametric Spearman rank correlation analysis, with data paired from awake through to extubation. The clinical performances of ENI and BIS were evaluated with success rate, responsiveness, and recovery time. ENI and BIS were better than mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) for distinguishing between the states of anesthesia. ENI correlated strongly with BIS from the stage of awake through to extubation (r = 0.93). No differences were found between ENI and BIS in success rate and responsiveness; but the recovery time was shorter with ENI than with BIS. ENI and BIS provide similar information reflecting the states of anesthesia, which allows accurate distinguishment between different states of anesthesia. The clinical performance of ENI is better than that of BIS.

  14. Validation of the bispectral index as an indicator of anesthetic depth in Thoroughbred horses anesthetized with sevoflurane.

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    Tokushige, Hirotaka; Kakizaki, Masashi; Ode, Hirotaka; Okano, Atsushi; Okada, Jun; Kuroda, Taisuke; Wakuno, Ai; Ohta, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the bispectral index (BIS) as an indicator of anesthetic depth in Thoroughbred horses, BIS values were measured at multiple stages of sevoflurane anesthesia in five horses anesthetized with guaifenesin and thiopental following premedication with xylazine. There was no significant difference between the BIS values recorded at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations of 2.8% (median 60 ranging from 47 to 68) and 3.5% (median 71 ranging from 49 to 82) in anesthetized horses. These BIS values during anesthesia were significantly lower (Phorses (median 98 ranging from 98 to 98) or sedated horses (median 92 ranging from 80 to 93). During the recovery phase, the BIS values gradually increased over time but did not significantly increase until the horses showed movement. In conclusion, the BIS value could be useful as an indicator of awakening during the recovery period in horses, as previous reported.

  15. Can bispectral index or auditory evoked potential index predict implicit memory during propofol-induced sedation?

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    Wang, Yun; Yue, Yun; Sun, Yong-hai; Wu, An-shi

    2006-06-05

    Some patients still suffer from implicit memory of intraoperative events under adequate depth of anaesthesia. The elimination of implicit memory should be a necessary aim of clinical general anaesthesia. However, implicit memory cannot be tested during anaesthesia yet. We propose bispectral index (BIS) and auditory evoked potential index (AEPI), as predictors of implicit memory during anaesthesia. Thirty-six patients were equally divided into 3 groups according to the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Score: A, level 3; B, level 2; and C, level 1. Every patient was given the first auditory stimulus before sedation. Then every patient received the second auditory stimulus after the target level of sedation had been reached. BIS and AEPI were monitored before and after the second auditory stimulus presentation. Four hours later, the inclusion test and exclusion test were performed on the ward using process dissociation procedure and the scores of implicit memory estimated. In groups A and B but not C, implicit memory estimates were statistically greater than zero (P memory scores in group A did not differ significantly from those in group B (P > 0.05). Implicit memory scores correlated with BIS and AEPI (P AEPI. The 95% cutoff points of BIS and AEPI for predicting implicit memory are 47 and 28, respectively. Implicit memory does not disappear until the depth of sedation increases to level 1 of OAA/S score. Implicit memory scores correlate well with BIS and AEPI during sedation. BIS is a better index for predicting implicit memory than AEPI during propofol induced sedation.

  16. Correlation of bispectral index (BIS monitoring and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in a patient with lobar holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Galante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The bispectral index (BIS is a parameter derived by electroencephalography (EEG which provides a direct measurement of the effects of sedatives and anesthetics on the brain and offers guidance on the adequacy of anesthesia. The literature lacks studies on BIS monitoring in pediatric patients with congenital brain disease undergoing general anesthesia. Clinical features: A 13-year-old child weighing 32 kg, suffering from lobar holoprosencephaly, underwent surgery in which the bispectral index (BIS monitoring the depth of anesthesia showed an abnormal response. Detailed analysis of the trends of BIS values in the different observation times demonstrated sudden falls and repetitive values of BIS likely related to repetitive epileptiform electrical activity caused by sevoflurane. Conclusion: The BIS is a very useful monitoring tool for assessing the degree of depth of anesthesia and to analyze the electroencephalographic variations of anesthetics. Particular attention should be given to patients with congenital disorders of the central nervous system in which the BIS may give abnormal responses that do not reflect an accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia. Resumo: Objetivo: O índice bispectral (BIS é um parâmetro derivado por eletroencefalografia (EEG que fornece uma medida direta dos efeitos de sedativos e anestésicos no cérebro e orientação sobre a adequação da anestesia. A literatura carece de estudos sobre a monitoração do BIS em pacientes pediátricos com doença cerebral congênita submetidos à anestesia geral. Características clínicas: Criança de 13 anos de idade, pesando 32 kg, com holoprosencefalia lobar, foi submetida à cirurgia em que a monitoração da profundidade da anestesia com o uso do BIS mostrou uma resposta anormal. A análise detalhada das tendências dos valores do BIS nos diferentes tempos de observação mostrou quedas súbitas e valores repetitivos do BIS, provavelmente relacionados

  17. Prediction of Bispectral Index during Target-controlled Infusion of Propofol and Remifentanil: A Deep Learning Approach.

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    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Ryu, Ho-Geol; Chung, Eun-Jin; Jung, Chul-Woo

    2018-03-01

    The discrepancy between predicted effect-site concentration and measured bispectral index is problematic during intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil. We hypothesized that bispectral index during total intravenous anesthesia would be more accurately predicted by a deep learning approach. Long short-term memory and the feed-forward neural network were sequenced to simulate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parts of an empirical model, respectively, to predict intraoperative bispectral index during combined use of propofol and remifentanil. Inputs of long short-term memory were infusion histories of propofol and remifentanil, which were retrieved from target-controlled infusion pumps for 1,800 s at 10-s intervals. Inputs of the feed-forward network were the outputs of long short-term memory and demographic data such as age, sex, weight, and height. The final output of the feed-forward network was the bispectral index. The performance of bispectral index prediction was compared between the deep learning model and previously reported response surface model. The model hyperparameters comprised 8 memory cells in the long short-term memory layer and 16 nodes in the hidden layer of the feed-forward network. The model training and testing were performed with separate data sets of 131 and 100 cases. The concordance correlation coefficient (95% CI) were 0.561 (0.560 to 0.562) in the deep learning model, which was significantly larger than that in the response surface model (0.265 [0.263 to 0.266], P deep learning model-predicted bispectral index during target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil more accurately compared to the traditional model. The deep learning approach in anesthetic pharmacology seems promising because of its excellent performance and extensibility.

  18. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

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    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk

    2004-12-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment.

  19. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment

  20. Monitoring sleep depth: analysis of bispectral index (BIS) based on polysomnographic recordings and sleep deprivation.

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    Giménez, Sandra; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miguel Ángel; Pujol, Anna; Baxarias, Pilar; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria

    2017-02-01

    The assessment and management of sleep are increasingly recommended in the clinical practice. Polysomnography (PSG) is considered the gold standard test to monitor sleep objectively, but some practical and technical constraints exist due to environmental and patient considerations. Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring is commonly used in clinical practice for guiding anesthetic administration and provides an index based on relationships between EEG components. Due to similarities in EEG synchronization between anesthesia and sleep, several studies have assessed BIS as a sleep monitor with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to evaluate objectively both the feasibility and reliability of BIS for sleep monitoring through a robust methodology, which included full PSG recordings at a baseline situation and after 40 h of sleep deprivation. Results confirmed that the BIS index was highly correlated with the hypnogram (0.89 ± 0.02), showing a progressive decrease as sleep deepened, and an increase during REM sleep (awake: 91.77 ± 8.42; stage N1: 83.95 ± 11.05; stage N2: 71.71 ± 11.99; stage N3: 42.41 ± 9.14; REM: 80.11 ± 8.73). Mean and median BIS values were lower in the post-deprivation night than in the baseline night, showing statistical differences for the slow wave sleep (baseline: 42.41 ± 9.14 vs. post-deprivation: 39.49 ± 10.27; p = 0.02). BIS scores were able to discriminate properly between deep (N3) and light (N1, N2) sleep. BIS values during REM overlapped those of other sleep stages, although EMG activity provided by the BIS monitor could help to identify REM sleep if needed. In conclusion, BIS monitors could provide a useful measure of sleep depth in especially particular situations such as intensive care units, and they could be used as an alternative for sleep monitoring in order to reduce PSG-derived costs and to increase capacity in ambulatory care.

  1. Should we monitor with bispectral index in all patients at high risk for seizures in the operating room?

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    Elgueta, M F; Vega, P; Lema, G; Clede, L

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with a cerebral aneurysm, located in the left middle cerebral artery. During the clipping of this aneurysm, the bispectral index (BIS) increased for no apparent reason. This was then interpreted as intraoperative non-convulsive status epilepticus. This clinical condition may have negative impact in the prognosis of the patient, so it is very important to be able to detect this conditions as early as possible. Measuring the BIS while the patient is anaesthetised could be useful in this situation, considering that an increase in values greater than 60, associated with acidosis and without any other peri-anaesthetic explanation, may provide evidence of a convulsive equivalent state, allowing appropriate action to be taken. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of rocuronium on the bispectral index under anesthesia and tracheal intubation.

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    Yue, Hui; Han, Jinyu; Liu, Ling; Wang, Kaiyuan; Li, Jincheng

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various doses of rocuronium on bispectral index (BIS) responses to propofol induction and tracheal intubation, as well as the role of the non-depolarization muscle relaxant rocuronium on the depth of sedation. A total of 72 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II) were anaesthetized with propofol using a target-controlled infusion, and randomly divided into two sedation level groups (n=36). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the BIS value: A normal sedation group (group 1), with a stable BIS value at 40-60, and a deep sedation group (group 2), with a BIS value rocuronium (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg). Tracheal intubation was performed after 2 min of rocuronium administration. BIS, electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously and averaged over 1 min during baseline (T1), steady state (T2), 2 min after rocuronium infusion (T3), and 0, 2 and 5 min after tracheal intubation. The results demonstrated that HR and MAP decreased significantly at T2 and T3 compared with T1. Following tracheal intubation (L0), HR and MAP significantly increased compared with T2 and T3, and returned to levels similar to those prior to intubation after 5 min. In group 1C and 1D, BIS was significantly decreased at T3 compared with T2; BIS was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. EMG at earlier stages of anesthesia was significantly higher compared with other points, and was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. These results demonstrated that BIS response may be associated with the dosage of rocuronium in the normal sedation group, although no association was observed with the deep sedation group. Tracheal intubation resulted in marked hemodynamic changes under both normal and deep sedation.

  3. Protocol for the "Michigan Awareness Control Study": A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing electronic alerts based on bispectral index monitoring or minimum alveolar concentration for the prevention of intraoperative awareness

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    Avidan Michael S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of intraoperative awareness with explicit recall is 1-2/1000 cases in the United States. The Bispectral Index monitor is an electroencephalographic method of assessing anesthetic depth that has been shown in one prospective study to reduce the incidence of awareness in the high-risk population. In the B-Aware trial, the number needed to treat in order to prevent one case of awareness in the high-risk population was 138. Since the number needed to treat and the associated cost of treatment would be much higher in the general population, the efficacy of the Bispectral Index monitor in preventing awareness in all anesthetized patients needs to be clearly established. This is especially true given the findings of the B-Unaware trial, which demonstrated no significant difference between protocols based on the Bispectral Index monitor or minimum alveolar concentration for the reduction of awareness in high risk patients. Methods/Design To evaluate efficacy in the general population, we are conducting a prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the Bispectral Index monitor to a non-electroencephalographic gauge of anesthetic depth. The total recruitment for the study is targeted for 30,000 patients at both low and high risk for awareness. We have developed a novel algorithm that is capable of real-time analysis of our electronic perioperative information system. In one arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive an electronic page if the Bispectral Index value is >60. In the other arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive a page if the age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration is Discussion Awareness during general anesthesia is a persistent problem and the role of the Bispectral Index monitor in its prevention is still unclear. The Michigan Awareness Control Study is the largest prospective trial of awareness prevention ever conducted. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00689091

  4. Comparison of bispectral index and entropy monitoring in patients undergoing internalisation of deep brain stimulators

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    Suparna Bharadwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depth of anaesthesia (DOA monitors are shown to reduce the intra-operative dose of anaesthetic agents, provide haemodynamic stability and shorten emergence times. Electroencephalography (EEG based DOA monitors such as bispectral index (BIS and entropy have been calibrated and validated in healthy subjects. Hence the clinical effectiveness of these monitors may be affected when monitoring patients with neurological disorders (e.g., epilepsy, dystonia, dementia and Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether BIS and entropy correlate with each other and with clinical indices of DOA in patients with movement disorders under general anaesthesia (GA. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study in patients with movement disorders undergoing internalization of deep brain stimulators. All patients received standard GA with age-adjusted mean alveolar concentration (aaMAC of an inhalational agent between 0.7 and 1.1. BIS and entropy sensors were applied on the patient's left forehead. Data collected included clinical parameters and EEG-based DOA indices. Correlation analysis was performed between entropy, BIS and the clinical indices of DOA. Bland Altman analysis was performed to determine the agreement between BIS and entropy. Results: Thirty patients were studied (mean age was 58.4 ± 11 years, male: female 18:12 and weight 79.2 ± 17 kg. Indications for deep brain stimulation were Parkinson's disease (n = 25, essential tremors (n = 2 and dystonia (n = 3. There was a very strong positive correlation between BIS and response entropy (RE (r = 0.932 and BIS and state entropy (SE (r = 0.950 and a strong negative correlation among aaMAC and BIS, RE and SE with r values of −0.686, −0.788 and −0.732, respectively. However, there was no correlation between BIS, RE, SE and haemodynamic values. Conclusion: Our study showed that BIS and entropy perform well in patients with movement disorders

  5. Comparative evaluation of the cerebral state index/sup TM/ and bispectral index/sup TM/ monitoring during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia for open heart surgery

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    Shahbazi, S.; Saem, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Cerebral State index (CSI) is a new index based on electroencephalogram to monitor depth of anesthesia. Transferring guidelines for titration of the Bispectral index (BIS) to the CSI depends on their compatibility. We compared the relationship between BIS and CSI values during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Forty one adult patients about to have open heart surgeries were enrolled. The skin was prepped and electrodes of both monitors were applied according to the manufacturers recommendations. The anesthesia was induced by midazolam, propofol, remifentanil and pancuronium and maintained by propofol and remifentanil and 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen. The BIS and CSI values were recorded in 37 pre-determined milestones during the operation and the anesthetic drugs were adjusted according to clinical signs of light anesthesia regardless of the CSI or BIS values. The BIS and CSI values decreased progressively from pre induction values of 93.15 (55-100) and 88.86 (52-100) to post induction values of 38.72 (16-71) and 40.27 (5-69), respectively. These values showed good linear correlation during laryngoscopy, before and after surgical incision and during CPB; R=0.695 with determination coefficient of 0.483. We found a good correlation between BIS and CSI values. Our results might serve as a blue print for a rational translation of BIS into CSI values. (author)

  6. Effect of relaxation on working memory and the Bispectral Index of the EEG.

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    Hudetz, Judith A; Hudetz, Anthony G; Reddy, Diane M

    2004-08-01

    Beneficial effects of relaxation on cardiovascular and immune functions and on memory has been implied but an empirical relationship between task performance and anxiety reduction has not been reported. In this study, we investigated whether guided imagery of relatively short duration would decrease S-Anxiety and electroencephalogram Bispectral Index and improve working memory. 42 participants (age: M=39, SD=11, 14 men, 28 women, university students and VA Medical Center employees, recruited by their professor or by fellow employees) underwent relaxation by 16-min. guided imagery or no treatment (control). Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the WAIS-III Letter-Number Sequencing Test were administered before and after relaxation. S-Anxiety and BIS Index decreased and the Letter-Number test score increased by 30% after relaxation but not in the control group. This score was higher for participants with low anxiety and BIS Index. There was no significant difference between the groups before treatment. The results suggest that guided imagery of short duration produces relaxation as measured by psychological and neurophysiological indices and improves working memory performance.

  7. Clinical vs. bispectral index-guided propofol induction of anesthesia: A comparative study

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    Snehdeep Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinically optimized focusing of drug administration to specific need of patient with bispectral index (BIS monitoring results in reduced dose and faster recovery of consciousness. This study was planned with an aim to study and compare the conventional clinical end point or BIS on the requirement of dosage of propofol, hemodynamic effects, and BIS alterations following propofol induction. Methods: 70 patients, ASA I and II, 20-60 years undergoing elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were selected and divided into two groups. Group A received (inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion till the loss of response to verbal command while group B received inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion. The end point of hypnosis was when the BIS value was sustained for 1 min at 48±2. The patients were intubated. Total induction dose of propofol was noted in each group. The value of BIS and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure were noted at the time of loss of consciousness, at the time of intubation, and 1 min after intubation, thereafter every minute for first 10 min and thereafter every 10 min till end of surgery. Any involuntary muscle activity such as jerky movements, dystonic posturing, and opisthotonos were also recorded. Results: The mean dose of propofol used in groups A and B were 1.85±0.48 mg/kg and 1.79±0.41 mg/kg, respectively. The dosage used in group B were less but not clinically significant (P=0.575. On comparing the dosage of propofol in males among the groups there was a significantly lower dosage of propofol required in group B (2.06±0.45 mg/kg and 1.83±0.32 mg/kg, respectively, P=0.016. This decrease however was not seen in female patients dosage being 1.65±0.44 mg/kg and 1.75±0.49 mg/kg, respectively (P=0.372. The hemodynamic

  8. Comparison of a new composite index based on midlatency auditory evoked potentials and electroencephalographic parameters with bispectral index (BIS) during moderate propofol sedation.

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    Hadzidiakos, D; Petersen, S; Baars, J; Herold, K; Rehberg, B

    2006-11-01

    Derived parameters of the electroencephalogram and auditory evoked potentials can be used to determine depth of anaesthesia and sedation. However, it is not known whether any parameter can identify the occurrence of awareness in individual patients. We have compared the performance of bispectral index and a new composite index derived from auditory evoked potentials and the electroencephalogram (AAI 1.61) in predicting consciousness, explicit and implicit memory during moderate sedation with propofol. Twenty-one patients with spinal anaesthesia received intraoperatively propofol at the age-corrected C(50) for loss of consciousness and were presented test words via headphones. Bispectral index and AAI 1.61 (auditory evoked potentials, AEP-Monitor2) were recorded in parallel as well as the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation-score. Postoperatively, testing for explicit and implicit memory formation was performed. Bispectral index and AAI 1.61 correlated well with loss of consciousness defined by an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation-score of 2 (identical P(K) of 0.87), but did not allow a prediction of postoperative explicit or implicit recall. Both bispectral index and AAI may be indices of depth of sedation rather than indicators of memory formation, which persists during propofol sedation even after loss of consciousness.

  9. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

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    池田, 淳子; イケダ, ジュンコ; Junko, IKEDA

    2006-01-01

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using EEC analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 h...

  10. [Application of bispectral index monitoring in sedation and analgesia for flexible bronchoscopy].

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    Fang, S R; Liu, Y J; Su, N J; Shu, Y; Gu, W

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of using bispectral index monitoring in sedation and analgesia for bronchoscopy. Methods: Totally 285 patients admitted to the Respiratory Medicine Department of Nanjing First Hospital for bronchoscopy between June 2016 and December 2016 were assigned, according to their own wishes, into a conscious sedation group (171 cases receiving local anesthesia and conscious sedation, 89 males, 82 females, mean age 59±10 years) and a control group (114 cases undergoing local anesthesia, 59 males, 55 females, average age 61±12 years). The 2 groups were compared in terms of operation time, blood pressure, heart rate and other indicators during bronchoscopy including incidence of adverse events, memory of the procedure, willingness to be re-examined, safety of sedation and analgesia for bronchoscopy under bispectral index monitoring, and patient satisfaction in the postoperative follow-up. Results: The conscious sedation group and the control group had no difference in age and sex ratio( P >0.05). Compared with the patients in the control group(operation time 16±5 min and systolic blood pressure 153±21 mmHg, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), those in the conscious sedation group had a shorter operation time(14±5 min) and a lower systolic blood pressure(144±22 mmHg), with statistically significant difference ( P sedation group and 92±12 mmHg and 87±14 times/min in the control group, P >0.05). Adverse events, overall intraoperative cough and bleeding were found to be significantly reduced in the conscious sedation group (27%, 4% and 13% and 60%, 13% and 35% in the control group, P sedation group, and 14% in the control group, P =0.72). Patient satisfaction and willingness to be re-examined were markedly higher in the conscious sedation group (97%) than in the controls (4%, P sedation and analgesia for bronchoscopy and has higher patient satisfaction, suggesting that it is a potential tool for use in clinical practice.

  11. Benefit of general anesthesia monitored by bispectral index compared with monitoring guided only by clinical parameters. Systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Carlos Rogério Degrandi Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The bispectral index parameter is used to guide the titration of general anesthesia; however, many studies have shown conflicting results regarding the benefits of bispectral index monitoring. The objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis is to evaluate the clinical impact of monitoring with the bispectral index parameter. Methods: The search for evidence in scientific information sources was conducted during December 2013 to January 2015, the following primary databases: Medline/PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane, CINAHL, Ovid, SCOPUS and TESES. The criteria for inclusion in the study were randomized controlled trials, comparing general anesthesia monitored, with bispectral index parameter with anesthesia guided solely by clinical parameters, and patients aged over 18 years. The criteria for exclusion were studies involving anesthesia or sedation for diagnostic procedures, and intraoperative wake-up test for surgery of the spine. Results: The use of monitoring with the bispectral index has shown benefits reducing time to extubation, orientation in time and place, and discharge from both the operating room and post anesthetic care unit. The risk of nausea and vomiting after surgery was reduced by 12% in patients monitored with bispectral index. Occurred a reduction of 3% in the risk of cognitive impairment postoperatively at 3 months postoperatively and 6% reduction in the risk of postoperative delirium in patients monitored with bispectral index. Furthermore, the risk of intraoperative memory has been reduced by 1%. Conclusion: Clinically, anesthesia monitoring with the BIS can be justified because it allows advantages from reducing the recovery time after waking, mainly by reducing the administration of general anesthetics as well as the risk of adverse events.

  12. Differences between state entropy and bispectral index during analysis of identical electroencephalogram signals: a comparison with two randomised anaesthetic techniques.

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    Pilge, Stefanie; Kreuzer, Matthias; Karatchiviev, Veliko; Kochs, Eberhard F; Malcharek, Michael; Schneider, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    It is claimed that bispectral index (BIS) and state entropy reflect an identical clinical spectrum, the hypnotic component of anaesthesia. So far, it is not known to what extent different devices display similar index values while processing identical electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. To compare BIS and state entropy during analysis of identical EEG data. Inspection of raw EEG input to detect potential causes of erroneous index calculation. Offline re-analysis of EEG data from a randomised, single-centre controlled trial using the Entropy Module and an Aspect A-2000 monitor. Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich. Forty adult patients undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia. Blocked randomisation of 20 patients per anaesthetic group (sevoflurane/remifentanil or propofol/remifentanil). Isolated forearm technique for differentiation between consciousness and unconsciousness. Prediction probability (PK) of state entropy to discriminate consciousness from unconsciousness. Correlation and agreement between state entropy and BIS from deep to light hypnosis. Analysis of raw EEG compared with index values that are in conflict with clinical examination, with frequency measures (frequency bands/Spectral Edge Frequency 95) and visual inspection for physiological EEG patterns (e.g. beta or delta arousal), pathophysiological features such as high-frequency signals (electromyogram/high-frequency EEG or eye fluttering/saccades), different types of electro-oculogram or epileptiform EEG and technical artefacts. PK of state entropy was 0.80 and of BIS 0.84; correlation coefficient of state entropy with BIS 0.78. Nine percent BIS and 14% state entropy values disagreed with clinical examination. Highest incidence of disagreement occurred after state transitions, in particular for state entropy after loss of consciousness during sevoflurane anaesthesia. EEG sequences which led to false 'conscious' index values often showed high

  13. Bispectral Index monitoring in cancer patients undergoing palliative sedation: a preliminary report.

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    Monreal-Carrillo, Edith; Allende-Pérez, Silvia; Hui, David; García-Salamanca, Maria-Fernanda; Bruera, Eduardo; Verástegui, Emma

    2017-10-01

    Continuous palliative sedation (PS) is currently titrated based on clinical observation; however, it is often unclear if patients are still aware of their suffering. The aim of this prospective study is to characterize the level of consciousness in patients undergoing PS using Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring. We enrolled consecutive patients with refractory symptoms requiring PS. We documented the level of sedation using Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) and BIS at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h during the first day of PS and examined their degree of association. Intravenous midazolam or propofol was titrated according to the sedation level. Twenty patients on PS were recruited and had BIS continuous monitoring. Delirium was the most frequent reason for PS (n = 15, 75%). The median time of sedation was 24.5 h (interquartile range 6-46). The average time to achieve the desired sedation level was 6 h, and dose titration was required in 80% of the cases. At baseline, 14 (70%) patients were considered to be awake according to RSS (i.e., 1-3) and 19 (95%) were awake according to BIS (i.e., >60%). This proportion decreased to 31 and 56% at 4 h, 27% and 53 at 6 h, and 22 and 33% at 24 h. RS and BIS had moderate correlation (rho = -0.58 to -0.65); however, a small proportion of patients were found to be awake by BIS (i.e., ≥60%) despite clinical observation (i.e., RSS 4-6) indicating otherwise. The BIS is a noninvasive, bedside, real-time continuous monitoring method that may facilitate the objective assessment of level of consciousness and dose titration in patients undergoing PS.

  14. Comparison of Hemodynamic Variations, Bispectral Index and Myoclonus Score of Propofol Dosage in Anesthesia Induced Patients

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    Gh. Shabanian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Propofol is the most widely used intravenous anesthetic medication. It is necessary to assess the doses of the medication to determine proper anesthetic depth and to prevent its side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare 1 and 2.5mg/Kg doses of propofol in hemodynamic changes, myoclonus degree, and bi-spectral index (BIS monitoring level in patients under anesthetic induction. Materials & Methods: In the two-blind random clinical trial study, 92 patients being candidate for surgery wit general anesthesia induction were studied in Shahr-e Kord Kashani Center in 2013. The subjects, selected via simple sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups. The first and the second groups were received 1 and 2.5mg/kg doses of propofol, respectively. Hemodynamic, myoclonus, and BIS indices were measured at four different times in the groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 using independent T and Chi-square tests, as well as repeated ANOVA and Fisher’s test. Findings: There was no significant difference between the groups in the hemodynamic variables such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, and BIS (p>0.05. In addition, the change rates of the variables were the same. Nevertheless, there was a significant difference between the groups in the pulse change rate (p=0.032. There was no significant difference between the groups in myoclonus (p>0.05. Conclusion: The hemodynamic changes and the changes in myoclonus degree and BIS are the same in 1 and 2.5mg/kg doses of propofol in the patients undergoing anesthetic induction.

  15. Bispectral Index Monitoring Reduces the Dosage of Propofol and Adverse Events in Sedation for Endobronchial Ultrasound.

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    Quesada, Natividad; Júdez, Diego; Martínez Ubieto, Javier; Pascual, Ana; Chacón, Enrique; De Pablo, Francisco; Mincholé, Elisa; Bello, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend monitoring the anesthetic depth of sedation during respiratory endoscopy by using clinical scales despite their subjective nature and the potential change in the level of sedation caused by frequent stimulation. Monitoring by means of the bispectral index (BIS) has shown its utility in reducing the use of drugs and their adverse events in general anesthesia, but evidence in prolonged sedation is insufficient. Our objective was to evaluate BIS in patients undergoing endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). A randomized cohort study of 90 patients with mediastinal lymph node involvement and/or lung or mediastinal lesions for whom EBUS was indicated, comparing the modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation scale clinical evaluation (n = 45) versus the BIS evaluation (n = 45) of sedation with propofol-remifentanil, was conducted in order to evaluate the clinical parameters, doses used, adverse events, and tolerance of the procedure. We found a shorter waking time and a significantly lower dose of total propofol in the BIS group. Significantly fewer overall adverse events were recorded in the BIS group and included desaturation, hypotension, and bradypnea. Tolerance was better in the BIS group. No significant differences were found in terms of cough, memory of the procedure, or the level of difficulty of EBUS on the part of the pulmonologists. BIS monitoring of sedation in EBUS makes it possible to reduce the dosage of propofol, thereby shortening the waking time and reducing adverse events. This form of monitoring should be taken into consideration in the future for systematic use in prolonged sedation, as in the case of EBUS. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Feasibility of bispectral index-guided propofol infusion for flexible bronchoscopy sedation: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Yu-Lun Lo

    Full Text Available There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB. The bispectral index (BIS correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists.After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation.The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively. The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001, less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively, and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively compared to the control group.BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference.ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815.

  17. Comparative study of Poincaré plot analysis using short electroencephalogram signals during anaesthesia with spectral edge frequency 95 and bispectral index.

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    Hayashi, K; Yamada, T; Sawa, T

    2015-03-01

    The return or Poincaré plot is a non-linear analytical approach in a two-dimensional plane, where a timed signal is plotted against itself after a time delay. Its scatter pattern reflects the randomness and variability in the signals. Quantification of a Poincaré plot of the electroencephalogram has potential to determine anaesthesia depth. We quantified the degree of dispersion (i.e. standard deviation, SD) along the diagonal line of the electroencephalogram-Poincaré plot (named as SD1/SD2), and compared SD1/SD2 values with spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95) and bispectral index values. The regression analysis showed a tight linear regression equation with a coefficient of determination (R(2) ) value of 0.904 (p plot tightly correlates with SEF95, reflecting anaesthesia-dependent changes in electroencephalogram oscillation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Quando o índice bispectral (BIS pode fornecer valores espúrios Cuando el índice bispectral (BIS puede suministrar valores falsos When the bispectral index (Bis can give false results

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    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    profundidad de la anestesia, reduce el aparecimiento del despertar y memoria intraoperatoria. Esa revisión tuvo el objetivo de presentar situaciones clínicas en que el BIS denota valores no verdaderos, que están falsamente elevados o reducidos, debido a condiciones del paciente o a acciones de anestésicos no previstos cuando se elaboró su algoritmo. CONTENIDO: Los valores del BIS pueden sufrir la alteración y el influjo en múltiples situaciones clínicas en que existen estándares anormales del EEG; efecto de diferentes anestésicos y otros fármacos no incluidos en la elaboración de su algoritmo; interferencia por equipos eléctricos; o debido a peculiaridades del monitor. CONCLUSIÓN: A pesar de que el algoritmo del BIS haya sufrido diversas alteraciones desde su primera versión, esas situaciones que determinan variaciones falsas de los valores del BIS, deben ser reconocidas por el anestesiólogo para evitar complicaciones, sean a causa de la sobredosis anestésica, o por subdosis que podrán causar el despertar y la memoria intraoperatoria.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The bispectral index (BIS is a multifactorial parameter derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG, which allows monitoring of the hypnotic component of anesthesia. It was obtained from the algorithm based on the analysis of a large number of EEGs from volunteers and patients undergoing sedation and general anesthesia with different anesthetic agents. The use of BIS to monitor the depth of anesthesia reduces the incidence of intraoperative awakening and recall, among other benefits. The objective of this review was to present clinical situations in which the BIS gives false results, either elevated or decreased, due to conditions related to the patient or anesthetic actions unforeseen when the algorithm was elaborated. CONTENTS: The bispectral index can be altered and influenced in different clinical situations in which abnormal EEG patterns are present; the effects of different anesthetics and other

  19. Response surface modeling of alfentanil-sevoflurane interaction on cardiorespiratory control and bispectral index.

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    Dahan, A; Nieuwenhuijs, D; Olofsen, E; Sarton, E; Romberg, R; Teppema, L

    2001-06-01

    Respiratory depression is a serious side effect of anesthetics and opioids. The authors examined the influence of the combined administration of sevoflurane and alfentanil on ventilatory control, heart rate (HR), and Bispectral Index (BIS) in healthy volunteers. Step decreases in end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen from normoxia into hypoxia (approximately 50 mmHg) at constant end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (approximately 48 mmHg) were performed in nine male volunteers at various concentrations of alfentanil and sevoflurane, ranging from 0 to 50 ng/ml for alfentanil and from 0 to 0.4 end-tidal concentration (ET%) for sevoflurane, and with various combinations of alfentanil and sevoflurane. The alfentanil-sevoflurane interactions on normoxic resting (hypercapnic) ventilation (Vi), HR, hypoxic Vi, and HR responses and BIS were assessed by construction of response surfaces that related alfentanil and sevoflurane to effect using a population analysis. Concentration-effect relations were linear for alfentanil and sevoflurane. Synergistic interactions were observed for resting Vi and resting HR. Depression of Vi by 25% occurred at 38 +/- 11 ng/ml alfentanil (population mean +/- SE) and at 0.7 +/- 0.4 ET% sevoflurane. One possibility for 25% reduction when alfentanil and sevoflurane are combined is 13.4 ng/ml alfentanil plus 0.12 ET% sevoflurane. Additive interactions were observed for hypoxic Vi and HR responses and BIS. Depression of the hypoxic Vi response by 25% occurred at 16 +/- 1 ng/ml alfentanil and 0.14 +/- 0.05 ET% sevoflurane. The effect of sevoflurane on the BIS (25% reduction of BIS occurred at 0.45 +/- 0.08 ET%) was independent of the alfentanil concentration. Response surface modeling was used successfully to analyze the effect of interactions between two drugs on respiration. The combination of alfentanil and sevoflurane causes more depression of Vi and HR than does the summed effect of each drug administered separately. The effects of

  20. Effects of Phenytoin Therapy on Bispectral Index and Haemodynamic Changes Following Induction and Tracheal Intubation

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    Parmod P Bithal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI increase blood pressure and heart rate (HR. Intensity of these changes is influenced by the anaesthetic depth assessed by the bispectral index (BIS. We determined the effect of phenytoin on anaesthetic depth and its influence on haemodynamics following LTI. Fifty patients of ASA grades I and II on oral phenytoin 200 to 300mg per day for more than one week were compared with 48 control patients. Standard anaesthesia technique was followed. BIS, non invasive mean blood pressure (MBP and HR were recorded 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI. Phenytoin group needed lesser thiopentone for induction, 5 mg (1.1 vs. 4.3 mg (0.7 [p=0.036]. BIS was significantly lower in the phenytoin group vs. the control 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [43.1 (16.0 vs. 48.9 (14.9, p=0.068, 56.3 (16.7 vs. 64.3 (14.4, p=0.013, 59.8 (15.8 vs. 67.5 (12.1, p=0.008, 62.6 (14 vs. 68.9 (11.2, p=0.017, and 64.2 (11.3 vs. 69 (11.7, p=0.033], respectively. MBP was also lower in the phenytoin group 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [112.8 mmHg (13.8, vs. 117.9 mmHg (18 p=0.013, 108.6 (12.8 vs. 117.5 (16 p=0.003, 106.1 mmHg (14.1 vs. 113.2 mmHg (14.9, p=0.017, 101.8 mmHg (13.8 vs. 109.5 mmHg (14.1, p=0.007], respectively. HR was lower in phenytoin group at 30 sec. (p=0.027, 60 sec (p=0.219, and again at 120 sec (p=0.022. Oral phenytoin therapy for over a week results in greater anaesthetic depth as observed using BIS, which also attenuated haemodynamic response of LTI.

  1. The utility of bispectral index monitoring for prevention of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in children: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Il Ok; Kim, Young Sung; Won, Young Ju; Kim, Heezoo; Kong, Myoung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a deep hypnotic state with a bispectral index (BIS) value less than 40 could alleviate withdrawal movement (WM) upon rocuronium injection during anesthesia induction in children. Finally, 135 healthy children (3-12 years) scheduled for minor elective surgery were studied. Without premedication, anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium 5 mg/kg. Patients were randomized into 2 groups (control vs experimental) and then by virtue of rocuronium injection time, patients in the experimental group were allocated into 2 groups, as follows: in the control group (group C; n = 45), rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered at the loss of eyelash reflex; in the 1st experimental group, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered when BIS fell to less than 40 (group T; n = 45); however, if BIS did not fall below 40 after thiopental sodium administration, manual ventilation was provided with oxygen 6 L/minute using sevoflurane 8% and then rocuronium was administered when BIS fell below 40 (the 2nd experimental group, group S; n = 45). Rocuronium-induced WM was evaluated using a 4-point scale (no movement; movement/withdrawal involving the arm only; generalized response, with movement/withdrawal of more than 1 extremity, but no requirement for restraint of the body; and generalized response which required restraint of the body and caused coughing or breath-holding). No significant differences were found among the groups for patient characteristics including age, sex, height, and location of venous cannula. However, body weight, height, and body mass index in group S were all smaller than those in group T. The incidence of WM caused by rocuronium was 100% in group C, 95.6% in group T, and 80% in group S, and was significantly lower in group S than in group C. The grade of WM was 3.7 ± 0.6 in group C, 3.2 ± 0.9 in group T, and 2.6 ± 1.0 in group S. It was significantly lower in group T than in group C and

  2. The accuracy and clinical feasibility of a new Bayesian-based closed-loop control system for propofol administration using the bispectral index as a controlled variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Tom; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Neckebroek, Martine M.; Van den Hauwe, Kristof; Bonte, Sjoert; Mortier, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control of the hypnotic component of anesthesia has been proposed in an attempt to optimize drug delivery. Here, we introduce a newly developed Bayesian-based, patient-individualized, model-based, adaptive control method for bispectral index (BIS) guided propofol infusion

  3. Cerebral state index during propofol anesthesia : A Comparison with the Bispectral Index and the A-Line ARX Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, EW; Litvan, H; Revuelta, M; Rodriguez, BE; Caminal, P; Martinez, P; Vereecke, H; Struys, Michel MRF

    Background: The objective of this study was to prospectively test the Cerebral State Index designed for measuring the depth of anesthesia. The Cerebral State Index is calculated using a fuzzy logic combination of four subparameters of the electroencephalographic signal. The performance of the

  4. Obesity does not influence the onset and offset of sevoflurane effect as measured by the hysteresis between sevoflurane concentration and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortínez, Luis I; Gambús, Pedro; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Echevarría, Ghislaine; Muñoz, Hernán R

    2011-07-01

    The onset and offset of action of anesthetic gases might be delayed by respiratory changes and gas exchange alterations present in obese patients. In this study, we assessed the influence of obesity on the hysteresis between sevoflurane and its effect as measured by the bispectral index (BIS). Because the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in obese patients has improved gas exchange, we also assessed the influence of PEEP on hysteresis. Fifteen obese and 15 normal-weight patients, ASA physical status I and II, 20 to 50 years old, scheduled to undergo general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic surgery, were prospectively studied. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl. At the end of surgery and after stable BIS values of 60 to 65, the inspired concentration of sevoflurane was increased to 5 vol% for 5 minutes or until BIS was rate constant was not influenced by body mass index or PEEP (P > 0.05). Neither obesity nor PEEP showed any influence on the PK/PD descriptors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that obesity prolongs induction or recovery times when sevoflurane, a poorly soluble anesthetic, is used to maintain anesthesia from 90 to 120 minutes.

  5. Awareness of bispectral index monitoring system among the critical care nursing personnel in a tertiary care hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bispectral index monitoring system (BIS is one of the several systems used to measure the effects of anaesthetic and sedative drugs on the brain and to track changes in the patient′s level of sedation and hypnosis. BIS monitoring provides information clinically relevant to the adjustment of dosages of sedating medication. It can help the nursing personnel in preventing under- and over sedation among intensive care unit (ICU patients. Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of nursing personnel working in the ICU regarding BIS. Methods: Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of the nursing personnel regarding BIS. Focus group discussions were held among the nursing personnel to know their views regarding BIS. Results: Mean age (years of the subjects was 30.7΁7.19 (21-47 years, with a female preponderance. Although the use of BIS in ICU is not common, majority (94.44% were aware of BIS and its purpose. 79.62% of the subjects knew about its implication in patient care. The mean knowledge score of the subjects was 11.87΁2.43 (maximum score being 15. Conclusion: There exists an awareness among the critical care nursing staff in our institution regarding BIS and its clinical implications. Its use in the critical care setting may benefit the patients in terms of providing optimal sedation.

  6. An Adaptive Monitoring Scheme for Automatic Control of Anaesthesia in dynamic surgical environments based on Bispectral Index and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-Ning; Doctor, Faiyaz; Fan, Shou-Zen; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2018-04-13

    During surgical procedures, bispectral index (BIS) is a well-known measure used to determine the patient's depth of anesthesia (DOA). However, BIS readings can be subject to interference from many factors during surgery, and other parameters such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) can provide more stable indicators. However, anesthesiologist still consider BIS as a primary measure to determine if the patient is correctly anaesthetized while relaying on the other physiological parameters to monitor and ensure the patient's status is maintained. The automatic control of administering anesthesia using intelligent control systems has been the subject of recent research in order to alleviate the burden on the anesthetist to manually adjust drug dosage in response physiological changes for sustaining DOA. A system proposed for the automatic control of anesthesia based on type-2 Self Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controllers (T2-SOFLCs) has been shown to be effective in the control of DOA under simulated scenarios while contending with uncertainties due to signal noise and dynamic changes in pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) effects of the drug on the body. This study considers both BIS and BP as part of an adaptive automatic control scheme, which can adjust to the monitoring of either parameter in response to changes in the availability and reliability of BIS signals during surgery. The simulation of different control schemes using BIS data obtained during real surgical procedures to emulate noise and interference factors have been conducted. The use of either or both combined parameters for controlling the delivery Propofol to maintain safe target set points for DOA are evaluated. The results show that combing BIS and BP based on the proposed adaptive control scheme can ensure the target set points and the correct amount of drug in the body is maintained even with the intermittent loss of BIS signal that could otherwise disrupt an automated control system.

  7. Utilizing bi-spectral index (BIS) for the monitoring of sedated adult ICU patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Beliz; Montoya, Juan C; Layon, A J; Berger, Andrea L; Kirchner, H L; Gupta, Leena K; Gloss, David S

    2017-03-01

    The ideal level of sedation in the ICU is an ongoing source of scrutiny. At higher levels of sedation, the current scoring systems are not ideal. BIS may be able to improve both. We evaluated literature on effectiveness of BIS monitoring in sedated mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients compared to clinical sedation scores (CSS). For this systematic review, full text articles were searched in OVID, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from 1986 - 2014. Additional studies were identified searching bibliographies/abstracts from national/international Critical Care Medicine conferences and references from searched articles retrieved. Search terms were: 'Clinical sedation scale, Bi-spectral Index, Mechanical ventilation, Intensive care Unit'. Included were prospective, randomized and non-randomized studies comparing BIS monitoring with any CSS in MV adult (>18 yr old) ICU patients. Studies were graded for quality of evidence based on bias as established by the GRADE guidelines. Additional sources of bias were examined. There were five studies which met inclusion criteria. All five studies were either unclear or high risk for blinding of participants and blinding of outcome assessment. All papers had at least one source of additional high risk, or unclear/unstated. BIS monitoring in the mechanically ventilated ICU patient may decrease sedative drug dose, recall, and time to wake-up. The studies suggesting this are severely limited methodologically. BIS, when compared to subjective CSSs, is not, at this time, clearly indicated. An appropriately powered randomized, controlled study is needed to determine if this monitoring modality is of use on the ICU.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of bispectral index-guided fast-track anesthesia using sevoflurane combined with dexmedetomidine for intracranial aneurysm embolization

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    Chao-liang Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexmedetomidine has sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-sympathetic, and anti-shivering effects. Dexmedetomidine might be effective in combination with sevoflurane for anesthesia, but prospective randomized controlled clinical trials with which to verify this hypothesis are lacking. In total, 120 patients who underwent embolization of an intracranial aneurysm were recruited from Anhui Provincial Hospital and Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University of China and randomly allocated to two groups. After intraoperative administration of 2% to 3% sevoflurane inhalation, one group of patients received pump-controlled intravenous injection of 1.0 μg/kg dexmedetomidine for 15 minutes followed by maintenance with 0.3 μg/kg/h until the end of surgery; the other group of patients only underwent pump-controlled infusion of saline. Bispectral index monitoring revealed that dexmedetomidine-assisted anesthesia can shorten the recovery time of spontaneous breathing, time to eye opening, and time to laryngeal mask removal. Before anesthetic induction and immediately after laryngeal mask airway removal, the glucose and lactate levels were low, the S100β and neuron-specific enolase levels were low, the perioperative blood pressure and heart rate were stable, and postoperative delirium was minimal. These findings indicate that dexmedetomidine can effectively assist sevoflurane for anesthesia during surgical embolization of intracranial aneurysms, shorten the time to consciousness and extubation, reduce the stress response and energy metabolism, stabilize hemodynamic parameters, and reduce adverse reactions, thereby reducing the damage to the central nervous system. This trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/ (registration number: ChiCTR-IPR-16008113.

  9. The effect of different doses of esmolol on hemodynamic, bispectral index and movement response during orotracheal intubation: prospective, randomized, double-blind study

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    Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was planned to identify the optimum dose of esmolol infusion to suppress the increase in bispectral index values and the movement and hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a double-blind fashion. 2.5 mg kg-1 propofol was administered for anesthesia induction. After loss of consciousness, and before administration of 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium, a tourniquet was applied to one arm and inflated to 50 mm Hg greater than systolic pressure. The patients were divided into 3 groups; 1 mg kg-1 h-1 esmolol was given as the loading dose and in Group Es50 50 μg kg-1 min-1, in Group Es150 150 μg kg-1 min-1, and in Group Es250 250 μg kg-1 min-1 esmolol infusion was started. Five minutes after the esmolol has been begun, the trachea was intubated; gross movement within the first minute after orotracheal intubation was recorded. Results: Incidence of movement response and the ΔBIS max values were comparable in Group Es250 and Group Es150, but these values were significantly higher in Group Es50 than in the other two groups. In all three groups in the 1st minute after tracheal intubation heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher compared to values from before intubation (p < 0.05. In the study period there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: In clinical practise we believe that after 1 mg kg-1 loading dose, 150 μg kg-1 min-1 iv esmolol dose is sufficient to suppress responses to tracheal intubation without increasing side effects.

  10. Relationship between type of brain injury with Bispectral Index monitoring in intubated ICU trauma patients

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    Omid Moradi Moghaddam

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Different kinds of acute traumatic cranial lesions with different prognosis may have different values in BIS monitoring. Presence or absence of frontal lobe injury, had no statistically significant correlations with BIS values.

  11. Characterization of Sleep Using Bispectral Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McPherson, Cameron

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between a Bispectral Index (BIS), as measured by Aspect Medical Systems' A-1000 EEG monitor, and clinical sleep staging based on the Rechtschaffen and Kales (RK...

  12. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Junko

    2006-01-01

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 healthy adult volunteers. Intravenous sedation involved a single administration of 0.06 mg/kg midazolam, or 6 mg/kg/h propofol, administered for 5 minutes and then continuously administered for 25 minutes at 3 mg/kg/h. For nitrous oxide inhalation sedation, 10-30% nitrous oxide was used. Clinical sedation and the BIS were measured in a variety of circumstances. To examine the effects of midazolam on the central nervous system, changes in brain oxygen consumption in visual memory tasks were assessed through observing changes in areas of brain activation using 3T fMRI. With intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS decreased immediately after drug administration, and the BIS at which optimal sedation was clinically determined was about 65. In contrast, no decrease in the BIS was noted with nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. In observing areas of brain activation by fMRI, the oxygen consumption mainly of visual cortices in the occipital lobe increased as a result of stimulation by visual memory tasks. Regardless of the amnestic effect midazolam produced in subjects, it did not suppress activation of the visual cortices in the occipital lobe. In intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS is effective in determining optimal sedation, and appropriate perioperative management can be performed using the BIS. However, in nitrous oxide inhalation sedation it appears that the BIS cannot be used to monitor levels of sedation. Amnestic

  13. Comparison of Bispectral Index™ values during the flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique and results for stage I sleep: a prospective pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, C Michael; McClain, Jesse V; Burger, Amanda

    2017-11-29

    To determine whether Bispectral Index™ values obtained during flotation-restricted environment stimulation technique have a similar profile in a single observation compared to literature-derived results found during sleep and other relaxation-induction interventions. Bispectral Index™ values were as follows: awake-state, 96.6; float session-1, 84.3; float session-2, 82.3; relaxation-induction, 82.8; stage I sleep, 86.0; stage II sleep, 66.2; and stages III-IV sleep, 45.1. Awake-state values differed from float session-1 (%difference 12.7%; Cohen's d = 3.6) and float session-2 (%difference 14.8%; Cohen's d = 4.6). Relaxation-induction values were similar to float session-1 (%difference 1.8%; Cohen's d = 0.3) and float session-2 (%difference 0.5%; Cohen's d = 0.1). Stage I sleep values were similar to float session-1 (%difference 1.9%; Cohen's d = 0.4) and float session-2 (%difference 4.3%; Cohen's d = 1.0). Stage II sleep values differed from float session-1 (%difference 21.5%; Cohen's d = 4.3) and float session-2 (%difference 19.6%; Cohen's d = 4.0). Stages III-IV sleep values differed from float session-1 (%difference 46.5%; Cohen's d = 5.6) and float session-2 (%difference 45.2%; Cohen's d = 5.4). Bispectral Index™ values during flotation were comparable to those found in stage I sleep and nadir values described with other relaxation-induction techniques.

  14. Anesthesia recovery comparison between remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-desflurane guided by Bispectral Index® monitoring

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    Raphael Grossi Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: There is a strong demand for fast and predictable anesthesia recovery with few side effects. Choice of the hypnotic agent could impact on that. This study investigated the differences between recoveries after remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-desflurane anesthesias guided by bispectral index (BIS®. Methods: Forty patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups according to the anesthesia technique applied: remifentanil-propofol (REM-PRO and remifentanil-desflurane (REM-DES. After the discontinuation of the anesthetics, the times to extubation, to obey commands and to recover the airway protection reflex were recorted. In the post-anesthetic recovery room (PACU it was recorded the occurrence of nausea and vomiting (PONV, scores of Ramsay sedation scale and of numeric pain scale (NPS, morphine dose and length of stay in the unit. Results: Data from 38 patients were analyzed: 18 from REM-PRO and 20 from REM-DES group. Anesthesia times were similar (REM-PRO = 193 min, SD 79.9 vs. 175.7 min, SD 87.9 REM-DES; p = 0.5. REM-DES had shorter times than REM-PRO group: time to follow command (8.5 min; SD 3.0 vs. 5.6 min; SD 2.5; p = 0.0 and extubation time (6.2 min; 3.1–8.5 vs. 9.5 min; 4.9–14.4; p = 0.0. Times to recover airway protective reflex were similar: 16 patients from REM-PRO (88.9% restored the airway protective reflex 2 min after extubation vs. 17 from REM-DES (89.5%; and 2 patients from REM-PRO (11.1% vs. 2 from REM-DES (10.5% 6 min after extubation, p = 1. Ramsay sedation score, NPS, PONV incidents, morphine dose and PACU stay of length PACU were also similar. Conclusion: Remifentanil-desflurane-based anesthesia has a faster extubation time and to follow command than remifentanil-propofol-based anesthesia when both guided by BIS®. Resumo: Justificativa e objetivos: Há uma forte demanda por recuperação pós-anestésica rápida e previsível com poucos efeitos adversos. A escolha do agente

  15. Nitrous Oxide and Nitrous Oxide-Free Low-Flow Anesthesia Using Bispectral Index Monitoring: Effects on Hemodynamics, Recovery Times, Volatile Anesthetic Consumption and Costs

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    Bengü Gülhan Köksal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of desfluraneN2O and desflurane-fentanyl combinations on hemodynamics, recovery times, volatile anesthetic consumption and costs in low-flow desflurane anesthesia by bispectral index (BIS monitoring of depth of anesthesia. Methods: After approval of ethics committee and obtaining patient consents, 60 patients were divided into two equal groups randomly. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement, ECG, SpO2 and BIS were monitored. All patients received 10 L .min-1 100% oxygen with mask for 5 minute before intubation. 2 mg.kg-1 propofol, 2 μg.kg-1 fentanyl and 0.6 mg.kg-1 rocuronium bromide were administered at induction in both groups. Desfluran 6% was chosen for anesthesia maintenance. Group 1 received 50% O2-N2O mixture in 6 L.min-1 and Group 2 received 50% O2-air mixture in 6 L.min-1 as carrier gas. Low-flow anesthesia (1 L.min-1 was started after a 10-min period of initial high flow (6 L.min-1. In Group 2, infusion of fentanyl was begun in 1 μg.kg.hour-1 rate. Desflurane level was adjusted at a main BIS value of 40-60. Blood pressure, heart rate, FiO2, etO2, FiN22, EtN2O, FiCO2, EtCO2, Fidesfluran and Etdesflurane were recorded. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of heart rate, arterial blood pressure, settings of desfluran and recovery time. BIS values (p<0.001 and anesthetic agent costs (p<0.001 were higher in Group 2. Conclusion: Using fentanyl infusion instead of nitrous oxide in low flow-anesthesia with desflurane did not alter the hemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl infusion with medical air-oxygen as carrier gas is an alternative technique, but increases BIS values and anesthetic agent costs. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48: 132-8

  16. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy Avaliação hemodinâmica e do índice bispectral (BIS de cadelas anestesiadas com midazolam e cetamina associados à medetomidina ou dexmedetomidina e submetidas a ovário-salpingo-histerectomia

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    Fernando do Carmo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.2 mg.kg-1 midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg.kg-1.h-1 midazolam and 20 mg.kg-1.h-1 ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10: 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 dexmedetomidine or MED (n=10: 30 µg.kg-1.h-1 medetomidine over 30 minutes. A pharmacokinetic study provided dexmedetomidine plasma concentration, set to be 3.0 ng.mL-1. RESULTS: BIS decreased in both groups (P0.05, but heart rate decreased in both groups, as compared to control values (POBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento hemodinâmico e o índice bispectral de cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina e midazolam associados à dexmedetomidina ou medetomidina. MÉTODOS: Vinte cadelas receberam pré-tratamento com levomepromazina e buprenorfina e foram anestesiadas com cetamina, 5 mg.kg-1 i.v., e midazolam, 0,2 mg.kg-1 i.v., seguidos da administração contínua de midazolam, 0,4 mg.kg-1.h-1, e cetamina, 20 mg.kg-1.h-1, associados, conforme o grupo, à: DEX (n=10: dexmedetomidina 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 ou MED (n=10: medetomidina 30 µg.kg-1.h-1, mantidos por 30 minutos. A dose de dexmedetomidina foi obtida por meio de estudo farmacocinético planejando-se concentração plasmática de 3,0 ng.mL-1. RESULTADOS: Os valores do BIS diminuíram em ambos os grupos (P0,05, sem a presença de efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A administração contínua de dexmedetomidina em concentração plasmática calculada de 3 ng.mL-1, em combinação com midazolam e cetamina, resulta em plano anestésico adequado para castração de cadelas, estabilidade hemodinâmica e despertar tranquilo, sem efeitos adversos.

  17. Bispectral index-guided general anaesthesia in combination with interscalene block reduces desflurane consumption in arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a clinical comparison of bupivacaine versus levobupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Levent; Kesimci, Elvin; Albayrak, Tuna; Kanbak, Orhan

    2015-07-21

    The goal of this study was to compare the influence of an interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) performed with either bupivacaine or levobupivacaine in conjunction with general anaesthesia (GA) on desflurane consumption, which was titrated to maintain the recovery profiles and postoperative analgesia while also keeping the bispectral index score (BIS) between 40 and 60 in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Sixty patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery were prospectively randomized to receive GA with desflurane alone (group C) or in combination with a preoperative ISB by either bupivacaine 0.25 % (group B) 40 ml or levobupivacaine 0.25 % (group L) 40 ml. BIS scores or respiratory and hemodynamic parameters during the operation, recovery characteristics, consumed doses of desflurane and pain intensities were evaluated. The eye opening time was 4.0 ± 2.5 minutes for group B, 4.6 ± 2.4 minutes for group L, and 6.2 ± 2.1 minutes for group C (p surgery were higher in group C (p shoulder surgery. The trial registration number is ACTRN12613000381785.

  18. Anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position: monitoring of cerebral oxygenation using combined bispectral index and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tomomi

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has shown that cerebrovascular complications following shoulder surgery performed in the beach chair position under general anesthesia arise secondary to cerebral ischemia. Appropriate management of cerebral oxygenation is thus one of the primary goals of anesthetic management during such procedures. The present report describes the case of a 65-year-old male patient, in which both bispectral index (BIS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to monitor cerebral oxygenation. During the positioning, we observed an increased suppression ratio (SR) while BIS and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) were at adequate level. In view of the difference in blood pressure between the heart and the base of the brain, blood pressure was maintained to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion. Although intraoperative rSO2 was at or around the cut-off point (a 12% relative decrease from baseline), no marked decrease in BIS or further increase in the SR was observed. Monitoring of cerebral perfusion using combined BIS and NIRS optimized anesthetic management during the performance of arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

  19. A bispectral index guided comparison of target-controlled versus manually-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil for attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in non cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Yeganeh

    2006-12-01

    difference only at T0 and T1 between two groups. Also, heart rate in MCI group was higher than that in TCI group at T1 and T2. Mean used propofol was 128.10 ± 11.30 mg in MCI group versus 140.90 ± 16.21 mg in TCI group (P<0.05 and the least BIS value recorded was 31.4 ± 10 in MCI group versus 42.5 ± 12.3 in TCI group (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension in MCI group was seen more frequently than that in TCI group after induction and before laryngoscopy (T0. Hypertension and tachycardia were seen in MCI group more commonly than those in TCI group after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Then, we recommend TCI technique in high risk patients for attenuation of the pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Also, we recommend further researches in other educational centers to compare the effect-site TCI with plasmatic TCI in controlling pressor response. KEY WORDS: Anesthetic techniques, intravenous infusion, target-controlled infusion, propofol, remifentanil, bispectral index.

  20. Comparação dos valores do índice bispectral em pacientes com paralisia cerebral em estado de vigília Comparación de los valores del índice bispectral en pacientes con parálisis cerebral en estado de vigilia Comparison of the bispectral index in awake patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2007-08-01

    study was to evaluate the efficacy of the awake EEG-BIS in patients with cerebral palsy (CP by comparing it with patients without neurological disorders (without CP. METHODS: Two groups of patients were evaluated: one composed of patients with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy, and the other with subjects without central nervous system (CNS disorders. The day before the surgery, hospitalized patients were connected to the EEG-BIS monitor and were asked to close their eyes. The values on the monitor were recorded at 10-minute intervals on a standard form, and the mean value for each patient was calculated. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-eight patients of both genders, mean age of 10.07 ± 2.9 (CP and 10.21 ± 3.1 (without CP, were evaluated. The basal EEG-BIS of the PC group was 95.83 ± 5.142 and in the non-CP group was 96.56 ± 1.941, which did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: The signals of the EEG are captured normally and the values of the awake EEG-BIS of CP patients are similar to that of non-CP patients.

  1. New composite index based on midlatency auditory evoked potential and electroencephalographic parameters to optimize correlation with propofol effect site concentration - Comparison with bispectral index and solitary used fast extracting auditory evoked potential index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereecke, HEM; Vasquez, PM; Jensen, EW; Thas, O; Vandenbroecke, R; Mortier, EP; Struys, MMRF

    Background: This study investigates the accuracy of a composite index, the A-Line (R) auditory evoked potentials index version 1.6 (AAI(1.6); Danmeter A/S, Odense, Denmark), as a measure of cerebral anesthetic drug effect in a model for predicting a calculated effect site concentration of propofol

  2. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  3. Protocol for the BAG-RECALL clinical trial: a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a bispectral index-guided protocol is superior to an anesthesia gas-guided protocol in reducing intraoperative awareness with explicit recall in high risk surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villafranca Alex

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness with explicit recall of intra-operative events is a rare and distressing complication that may lead to severe psychological symptoms. Candidate depth of anesthesia monitors have been developed, partly with the aim of preventing this complication. Despite conflicting results from clinical trials and the lack of incisive validation, such monitors have enjoyed widespread clinical adoption, in particular the bispectral index. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has called for adequately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials to determine whether the use of such monitors decreases the incidence of awareness in various settings. The aim of this study is to determine with increased precision whether incorporating the bispectral index into a structured general anesthesia protocol decreases the incidence of awareness with explicit recall among a subset of surgical patients at increased risk for awareness and scheduled to receive an inhalation gas-based general anesthetic. Methods/Design BAG-RECALL is a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial, in which 6,000 patients are being assigned to bispectral index-guided anesthesia (target range, 40 to 60 or end-tidal anesthetic gas-guided anesthesia (target range, 0.7 to 1.3 age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration. Postoperatively, patients are being assessed for explicit recall at two intervals (0 to 72 hours, and 30 days after extubation. The primary outcome of the trial is awareness with explicit recall. Secondary outcomes include postoperative mortality, psychological symptoms, intensive care and hospital length of stay, average anesthetic gas administration, postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting, duration of stay in the recovery area, intra-operative dreaming, and postoperative delirium. Discussion This trial has been designed to complement two other clinical trials: B-Unaware and MACS (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00281489 and NCT00689091

  4. Complexity index indicates refinery capability, value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D.

    1996-01-01

    Refinery size usually is measured in terms of distillation capacity. Relative size, however, can be measured using refinery complexity--a concept developed by W.L. Nelson in the 1960s. Nelson developed the complexity index to quantify the relative cost of components that make up a refinery. It is a pure cost index that provides a relative measure of the construction costs of a particular refinery based on its crude and upgrading capacity. The Nelson index compares the costs of various upgrading units--such as a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit or a catalytic reformer--to the cost of a crude distillation unit. Computation of the index is an attempt to quantify the relative cost of a refinery based on the added cost of various upgrading units and the relative upgrading capacity. A review of complexity calculations, and an explanation of how indices have changed, provide a simple means of determining the complexity of single refineries or refining regions. The impact of complexity on product slate is also examined in this paper

  5. Midazolam por via oral como medicação pré-anestésica em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral: estudo comparativo das variações do índice bispectral Midazolam por vía oral como medicación preanestésica en niños y adolescentes con parálisis cerebral: estudio comparativo de las variaciones del índice bispectral Oral midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication in children and teenagers with cerebral palsy: a comparative study on the variations of the bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2009-02-01

    grupo de pacientes que presentan una serie de particularidades, con alteraciones inclusive en la región de la acción del midazolam. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la acción del midazolam utilizado como medicación preanestésica sobre el índice bispectral (EEG-BIS de los pacientes con parálisis cerebral. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron dos grupos de pacientes: uno con diagnóstico de PC y el otro sin enfermedad del sistema nervioso central (SNC y periférico. Se registraron valores de EEG-BIS en la enfermería en la víspera de la operación y el día de la operación, 40 minutos después de la administración de 0,6 mg.kg-1 de midazolam por vía oral. Quedaron excluidos pacientes con historial de reacción paradoxal al midazolam y pacientes del grupo control que estuviesen usando otra medicación. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 77 pacientes de ambos sexos, entre 4 y 18 años de edad. No hubo diferencia entre los valores de EEG-BIS basal entre los grupos estudiados. Después del uso del midazolam hubo una reducción de los valores del EEG-BIS en los dos grupos estudiados, con diferencia estadística significativa en cada grupo. En la comparación entre los grupos no hubo diferencia estadística. CONCLUSIONES: El midazolam administrado como medicación preanestésica en la dosis de 0,6 mg.kg-1 redujo los valores basales del EEG-BIS sin caracterizar la hipnosis y sin diferencia estadística en los grupos estudiados.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with hypnotic action widely used as pre-anesthetic medication in pediatric anesthesia. Children with cerebral palsy (CP also benefit from the use of midazolam, but its effects on this group of patients, who present several particularities, including changes at the site of action of midazolam, are still unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of midazolam, when used as pre-anesthetic medication, on the bispectral index (EEG-BIS of patients with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Two groups of

  6. Adding Value to Scholarly Journals through a Citation Indexing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, A. N.; Abrizah, A.; Raj, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to relate the problems identified about scholarly journal publishing in Malaysia to establish motivation for the system development; to describe the design of MyCite, a Malaysian citation indexing system and to highlight the added value to journals and articles indexed through the generation of bibliometrics…

  7. The Economic Value of Predicting Stock Index Returns and Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquering, W.; Verbeek, M.J.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the economic value of predicting index returns as well as volatility. On the basis of fairly simple linear models, estimated recursively, we produce genuine out-of-sample forecasts for the return on the S&P 500 index and its volatility. Using monthly data from 1954-1998, we

  8. Discrete-continuous bispectral operators and rational Darboux transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyallian, Carina; Portillo, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we construct examples of discrete-continuous bispectral operators obtained by rational Darboux transformations applied to a regular pseudo-difference operator with constant coefficients. Moreover, we give an explicit procedure to write down the differential operators involved in the bispectral situation corresponding to the pseudo-difference operator obtained by the Darboux process.

  9. Standardizing foot-type classification using arch index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types.

  10. Standardizing Foot-Type Classification Using Arch Index Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Rich; de Boer, Emily

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The lack of a reliable classification standard for foot type makes drawing conclusions from existing research and clinical decisions difficult, since different foot types may move and respond to treatment differently. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater agreement for foot-type classification based on photo-box-derived arch index values. Method: For this correlational study with two raters, a sample of 11 healthy volunteers with normal to obese body mass indices was recruited from both a community weight-loss programme and a programme in physical therapy. Arch index was calculated using AutoCAD software from footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box. Classification as high-arched, normal, or low-arched foot type was based on arch index values. Reliability of the arch index was determined with intra-class correlations; agreement on foot-type classification was determined using quadratic weighted kappa (κw). Results: Average arch index was 0.215 for one tester and 0.219 for the second tester, with an overall range of 0.017 to 0.370. Both testers classified 6 feet as low-arched, 9 feet as normal, and 7 feet as high-arched. Interrater reliability for the arch index was ICC=0.90; interrater agreement for foot-type classification was κw=0.923. Conclusions: Classification of foot type based on arch index values derived from plantar footprint photographs obtained via mirrored photo-box showed excellent reliability in people with varying BMI. Foot-type classification may help clinicians and researchers subdivide sample populations to better differentiate mobility, gait, or treatment effects among foot types. PMID:23729964

  11. Measuring the Multinational Business Value – An indexing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge MONGAY HURTADO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project aims to present a comparative analysis of countries related to the value of their MNCs in the global arena. The study works in secondary data analysis using as a platform the Forbes Global 2000 list, which is maybe the best source explaining the presence of MNCs by country. This research goes beyond the information provided by the original list, offering an index and information about the number of corporations per country as well as their value (number of corpora-tions per country, their position in the ranking and the weight obtained by each company expressed in numerical value. Also the index obtained has been adjusted to the population of each country to determine which one should be the expected value per country from a more realistic perspective. An analysis of cultural clus-ters and trading zones has been applied as well. Finally, a calculation of the dif-ferent sectors where MNCs operate give the index the possibility to estimate the % of penetration or importance of the services and financial sector in each country and in the world.

  12. The impact of processing delay on the exposure index value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. L.; Brennan, P. C.; Last, J.; Rainford, L.

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography poses the risk of unnoticed increases in patient dose. Manufacturers responded to this by offering an exposure index (EI) value to clinicians. Use of the EI value in clinical practice is encouraged by the American College of Radiology and American Association of Physicists in Medicine. This study assesses the impact of processing delay on the EI value. An anthropormorphic phantom was used to simulate three radiographic examinations; skull, pelvis and chest. For each examination, the phantom was placed in the optimal position and exposures were chosen in accordance with international guidelines. A Carestream (previously Kodak) computed radiography system was used. The imaging plate was exposed, and processing was delayed in various increments from 30 seconds to 24 hours, representing common delays in clinical practice. The EI value was recorded for each exposure. The EI value decreased considerably with increasing processing delay. The EI value decreased by 100 within 25 minutes delay for the chest, and 20 minutes for the skull and pelvis. Within 1 hour, the EI value had fallen by 180, 160 and 100 for the chest, skull and pelvis respectively. After 24 hours, the value had decreased by 370, 350 and 340 for the chest, skull and pelvis respectively, representing to the clinician more then a halving of exposure to the detector in Carestream systems. The assessment of images using EI values should be approached with caution in clinical practice when delays in processing occur. The use of EI values as a feedback mechanism is questioned.

  13. Value at Risk on Composite Price Share Index Stock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviarina, A.

    2018-01-01

    The financial servicest authority was declared Let’s Save Campaign on n commemoration of the World Savings Day that falls on this day, October 31, 2016. The activity was greeted enthusiastically by Indonesia Stock Exchange by taking out the slogan Let’s Save The Stocks. Stock is a form of investment that is expected to benefit in the future despite has risks. Value at Risk (VaR) is a method that can measure how much the risk of a financial investment. Composite Stock Price Indeks is the stock price index used by Indonesia Stock Exchange as stock volatility benchmarks in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate Value at Risk (VaR) on closing price Composite Price Share Index Stock data on the period 20 September 2016 until 20 September 2017. Box-Pierce test results p value=0.9528 which is greater than a, that shows homoskedasticity. Value at Risk (VaR) with Variance Covariance Method is Rp.3.054.916,07 which means with 99% confindence interval someone who invests Rp.100.000.000,00 will get Rp.3.054.916,07 as a maximum loss.

  14. Estimation of the tail index for lattice-valued sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsui, Muneya; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Tafakori, Laleh

    2013-01-01

    If one applies the Hill, Pickands or Dekkers–Einmahl–de Haan estimators of the tail index of a distribution to data which are rounded off one often observes that these estimators oscillate strongly as a function of the number k of order statistics involved.We study this phenomenon in the case of ...... of a Pareto distribution. We provide formulas for the expected value and variance of the Hill estimator and give bounds on k when the central limit theorem is still applicable. We illustrate the theory by using simulated and real-life data....

  15. Extreme value modelling of Ghana stock exchange index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Asare, Kwabena; Mettle, Felix Okoe

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of extreme events has always been of interest in fields such as hydrology and meteorology. However, after the recent global financial crises, appropriate models for modelling of such rare events leading to these crises have become quite essential in the finance and risk management fields. This paper models the extreme values of the Ghana stock exchange all-shares index (2000-2010) by applying the extreme value theory (EVT) to fit a model to the tails of the daily stock returns data. A conditional approach of the EVT was preferred and hence an ARMA-GARCH model was fitted to the data to correct for the effects of autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedastic terms present in the returns series, before the EVT method was applied. The Peak Over Threshold approach of the EVT, which fits a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model to excesses above a certain selected threshold, was employed. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters were obtained and the model's goodness of fit was assessed graphically using Q-Q, P-P and density plots. The findings indicate that the GPD provides an adequate fit to the data of excesses. The size of the extreme daily Ghanaian stock market movements were then computed using the value at risk and expected shortfall risk measures at some high quantiles, based on the fitted GPD model.

  16. Capnography and the Bispectral Index—Their Role in Pediatric Sedation: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sammartino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedation in children is increasingly emerging as a minimally invasive technique that may be associated with local anaesthesia or diagnostic and therapeutic procedures which do not necessarily require general anaesthesia. Standard monitoring requirements are not sufficient to ensure an effective control of pulmonary ventilation and deep sedation. Capnography in pediatric sedation assesses the effect of different drugs on the occurrence of respiratory failure and records early indicators of respiratory impairment. The Bispectral index (BIS allows the reduction of dose requirements of anaesthetic drugs, the reduction in the time to extubation and eye opening, and the reduction in the time to discharge. In the field of pediatric sedation, capnography should be recommended to prevent respiratory complications, particularly in spontaneous ventilation. The use of the BIS index, however, needs further investigation due to a lack of evidence, especially in infants. In this paper, we will investigate the role of capnography and the BIS index in improving monitoring standards in pediatric sedation.

  17. Repeat Assessed Values Model for Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Manuela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an innovative methodology, named Repeat Appraised Price Model (RAV, useful for determining the price index numbers for real estate markets and the corresponding index numbers of hedonic prices of main real estate characteristics in the case of a lack of data. The methodological approach proposed in this paper aims to appraise the time series of price index numbers. It integrates the principles of the method of repeat sales with the peculiarities of the Hedonic Price Method, overcoming the problem of an almost total absence of repeat sales for the same property in a given time range; on the other hand, the technique aims to overcome the limitation of the repeat sales technique concerning the inability to take into account the characteristics of individual properties.

  18. Nonlinear damage detection in composite structures using bispectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Pickering, Simon; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Literature offers a quantitative number of diagnostic methods that can continuously provide detailed information of the material defects and damages in aerospace and civil engineering applications. Indeed, low velocity impact damages can considerably degrade the integrity of structural components and, if not detected, they can result in catastrophic failure conditions. This paper presents a nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method, based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for the detection of the nonlinear signature in a damaged composite structure. The proposed technique, based on a bispectral analysis of ultrasonic input waveforms, allows for the evaluation of the nonlinear response due to the presence of cracks and delaminations. Indeed, such a methodology was used to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the structure, by exploiting the frequency mixing of the original waveform acquired from a sparse array of sensors. The robustness of bispectral analysis was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged carbon fibre reinforce plastic (CFRP) composite panel, and the nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy. Unlike other linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods for damage detection, this methodology does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the nonlinear source, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Moreover, bispectral analysis can be considered as a nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) technique for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  19. Macroeconomic Variables Affecting Bist30 Index Value in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özge KORKMAZ; Eşref Savas BASCI; Süleyman Serdar KARACA

    2016-01-01

    In finance literature, main financial stock indices are important to determine country’s financial development and it’s behavior against the effect of macro-economic conditions. These conditions can listed as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate, industrial production index, and etc.  In changing world economy, macro economic conditions can affect to the financial stability and capital markets. Some economies have a financial vulnerability, and it is important to measure...

  20. Efeitos de diferentes frações inspiradas de oxigênio no índice biespectral em cães submetidos à infusão contínua de propofol Effects of several inspired oxygen fractions on the bispectral index in dogs submitted to continuous infusion of propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.F. Lopes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento de diferentes frações inspiradas de oxigênio (FiO2 sobre o índice biespectral (BIS em cães submetidos a infusão contínua de propofol e mantidos em ventilação espontânea. Oito cães foram submetidos a cinco anestesias, diferenciando-se uma da outra pela FiO2 fornecida. Formaram-se cinco grupos denominados G100 (FiO2 = 1; G80 (FiO2 = 0,8; G60 (FiO2 = 0,6; G40 (FiO2 = 0,4 e G20 (FiO2 = 0,21. Os animais foram induzidos à anestesia com propofol na dose necessária para intubação, e, ato contínuo, iniciaram-se a infusão do fármaco e o fornecimento de oxigênio, conforme a FiO2 determinada para cada grupo. As primeiras mensurações (M0 foram efetuadas 30 minutos após o início da infusão do anestésico e, depois, em intervalos de 15 minutos (M15, M30, M45 e M60. A pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial (PaO2 variou conforme a FiO2, ou seja, quanto maior a FiO2, maior foi a PaO2. Para a pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono no sangue arterial (PaCO2, foram registradas diferenças em M30, no qual G100 foi maior que G20. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis estudadas do BIS. Os intervalos de médias registrados para o BIS foram, para G100, de 68 a 62; G80, de 71 a 58; G60, de 72 a 62; G40, de 76 a 68; e G20, de 77 a 68. Conclui-se que as variáveis relacionadas ao BIS não são afetadas pelo emprego de diferentes FiO2, e sugere-se que o monitoramento pelo BIS foi capaz de detectar alterações no equilíbrio do fluxo sangüíneo cerebral, oriundas das alterações ocasionadas na dinâmica respiratória pelo emprego de diferentes frações inspiradas de oxigênio.The effects of several inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 on the bispectral index in spontaneously breathing dogs submitted to continuous infusion of propofol were evaluated. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used. Each animal was submitted to five anesthesias. In each procedure, the patient was allowed to

  1. A discussion on disease severity index values: using the disease severity index for null hypothesis testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A disease severity index (DSI) is a single number for summarizing a large amount of information on disease severity. It has been used to indicate the performance of a cultivar in regard to disease resistance at a particular location, to relate disease severity to yield loss, to determine the effecti...

  2. Ação do anticonvulsivante isolado e associado ao midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica sobre o índice bispectral (BIS em pacientes com paralisa cerebral Acción del antiepiléptico aislado y asociado al midazolam como medicación preanestésica sobre el índice bispectral (BIS en pacientes con parálisis cerebral Effect of isolated anticonvulsant drug use and associated to midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication on the bispectral index (BIS in patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2010-06-01

    -anesthetic drug on the BIS of patients with CP undergoing chronic treatment with anticonvulsant agents. METHOD: Three groups of patients were assessed: CP without anticonvulsant treatment, CP undergoing treatment with anticonvulsant and a group with no disease and no medication use (control group. On the day before the surgery, with the patients conscious and in dorsal decubitus, the BIS monitor was placed and the basal BIS values were recorded. On the following day, 40 minutes before the surgery, the patients received 0.6 mg.kg-1 of midazolam orally. Before the start of the anesthetic procedure, the same procedure for BIS recording was carried out after midazolam administration. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients were studied - 39 patients from the Control Group (CG and 68 with a diagnosis of CP. Among these, 17 used anticonvulsant drugs. Regarding the mean BIS value after the midazolam administration, there was no difference between patients from the CG and those in the CP group that did not take anticonvulsant drugs, whereas the ones who took anticonvulsants exhibited a difference (p = 0.003. The possibility of decrease in the BIS after midazolam use increases according to the number of anticonvulsant drugs used by the patient. CONCLUSIONS: The chronic use of anticonvulsants associated to oral midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication can lead to the decrease in the BIS values, which configures deep level of hypnosis.

  3. Decay hazard (Scheffer) index values calculated from 1971-2000 climate normal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Carll

    2009-01-01

    Climate index values for estimating decay hazard to wood exposed outdoors above ground (commonly known as Scheffer index values) were calculated for 280 locations in the United States (270 locations in the conterminous United States) using the most current climate normal data available from the National Climatic Data Center. These were data for the period 1971–2000. In...

  4. Tradeoffs between Price and Quality: How a Value Index Affects Preference Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Ross, William T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Some of a group of 143 consumers were given a choice between higher-priced, higher-quality items and items with lower price and quality but higher value index (benefit/cost tradeoff); others were given price and quality information only. Consumers were more likely to choose lower-priced, higher-value options when the index information was…

  5. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  6. Estimated ventricle size using Evans index: reference values from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraj, D; Rabiei, K; Marlow, T; Jensen, C; Skoog, I; Wikkelsø, C

    2017-03-01

    Evans index is an estimate of ventricular size used in the diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Values >0.3 are considered pathological and are required by guidelines for the diagnosis of iNPH. However, there are no previous epidemiological studies on Evans index, and normal values in adults are thus not precisely known. We examined a representative sample to obtain reference values and descriptive data on Evans index. A population-based sample (n = 1235) of men and women aged ≥70 years was examined. The sample comprised people living in private households and residential care, systematically selected from the Swedish population register. Neuropsychiatric examinations, including head computed tomography, were performed between 1986 and 2000. Evans index ranged from 0.11 to 0.46. The mean value in the total sample was 0.28 (SD, 0.04) and 20.6% (n = 255) had values >0.3. Among men aged ≥80 years, the mean value of Evans index was 0.3 (SD, 0.03). Individuals with dementia had a mean value of Evans index of 0.31 (SD, 0.05) and those with radiological signs of iNPH had a mean value of 0.36 (SD, 0.04). A substantial number of subjects had ventricular enlargement according to current criteria. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the range of values among older individuals. © 2017 EAN.

  7. [Association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and cardiovascular risk in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Morais; da Silva, Fabiana Almeida; Souza Oliveira, Renata Maria; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Netto, Michele Pereira; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To describe the association between fat mass index and fat-free mass index values and factors associated with cardiovascular risk in adolescents in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Cross-sectional study with 403 adolescents aged 10-14 years, from public and private schools. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical measurements were obtained, as well as self-reported time spent performing physical exercises, sedentary activities and sexual maturation stage. Regarding the nutritional status; 66.5% of the adolescents had normal weight; 19.9% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. For both genders, the fat mass index was higher in adolescents that had high serum triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Adolescents that had anthropometric, clinical and biochemical characteristics considered to be of risk for the development of cardiovascular disease had higher values of fat mass index. Different methodologies for the assessment of body composition make health promotion and disease prevention more effective. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Equality of Shapley value and fair proportion index in phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Jin, Emma Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Shapley value and the fair proportion index of phylogenetic trees have been introduced recently for the purpose of making conservation decisions in genetics. Moreover, also very recently, Hartmann (J Math Biol 67:1163-1170, 2013) has presented data which shows that there is a strong correlation between a slightly modified version of the Shapley value (which we call the modified Shapley value) and the fair proportion index. He gave an explanation of this correlation by showing that the contribution of both indices to an edge of the tree becomes identical as the number of taxa tends to infinity. In this note, we show that the Shapley value and the fair proportion index are in fact the same. Moreover, we also consider the modified Shapley value and show that its covariance with the fair proportion index in random phylogenetic trees under the Yule-Harding model and uniform model is indeed close to one.

  9. Spin Calogero Particles and Bispectral Solutions of the Matrix KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergvelt, Maarten; Gekhtman, Michael; Kasman, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Pairs of nxn matrices whose commutator differ from the identity by a matrix of rank r are used to construct bispectral differential operators with rxr matrix coefficients satisfying the Lax equations of the Matrix KP hierarchy. Moreover, the bispectral involution on these operators has dynamical significance for the spin Calogero particles system whose phase space such pairs represent. In the case r = 1, this reproduces well-known results of Wilson and others from the 1990's relating (spinless) Calogero-Moser systems to the bispectrality of (scalar) differential operators

  10. Adjusting Quality index Log Values to Represent Local and Regional Commercial Sawlog Product Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1969-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is not only to report the results of a comparative analysis as to how well the Q.I. method predicts log product values when compared to commercial sawmill log output values, but also to develop a methodology which will facilitate the comparison and provide the adjustments needed by the sawmill operator.

  11. 30 CFR 206.172 - How do I value gas produced from leases in an index zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas production that is not sold under an arm's-length dedicated contract is the index-based value... safety net prices calculated at § 206.172(e)(4)(i) exceeds the index-based value that applies to the gas... contract is the higher of the index-based value under paragraph (d) of this section or the value of that...

  12. [Evaluation of thermal comfort in a student population: predictive value of an integrated index (Fanger's predicted mean value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, G; Terzi, R; Marcaletti, G; Tringali, S

    1989-01-01

    Practical applications and predictive values of a thermal comfort index (Fanger's PRV) were verified on a sample school population (1236 subjects) by studying the relationships between thermal sensations (subjective analysis), determined by means of an individual questionnaire, and the values of thermal comfort index (objective analysis) obtained by calculating the PMV index individually in the subjects under study. In homogeneous conditions of metabolic expenditure rate and thermal impedence from clothing, significant differences were found between the two kinds of analyses. At 22 degrees C mean radiant and operative temperature, the PMV values averaged 0 and the percentage of subjects who experienced thermal comfort did not exceed 60%. The high level of subjects who were dissatisfied with their environmental thermal conditions confirms the doubts regarding the use of the PMV index as a predictive indicator of thermal comfort, especially considering that the negative answers were not homogeneous nor attributable to the small thermal fluctuations (less than 0.5 degree C) measured in the classrooms.

  13. Effect of Entry into Socially Responsible Investment Index on Cost of Equity and Firm Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijung Eom

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a company’s incorporation into the Socially Responsible Investment (SRI index on its cost of equity (COE and corporate value. The study collected and analyzed data about the four-year long changes of the component stocks of the Korea Exchange (KRX SRI index from September 2010 to September 2013 to verify the correlation between the incorporation of the SRI index and the cost of equity or corporate value by using the Price-Earnings Growth (PEG, Modified PEG (MPEG and Gode and Mohanram (GM models for estimation of the implied costs of equity capital, as well as Tobin’s Q ratio. The analysis results failed to show any significant relation between the incorporation of the SRI index and the cost of equity capital. Also, no statistically significant correlation between the incorporation of the SRI index and corporate value was observed. However, at an early phase of introduction of the SRI index, the included companies revealed a negative correlation with the cost of equity. However, after changing the listed stocks, they showed a positive correlation with the cost of equity capital. All in all, this can be ascribed to a mixed presence of optimistic and pessimistic investors about CSR activities, or there is a possibility that the KRX SRI index might not correctly reflect the CSR activities of companies.

  14. Determination of temperature dependant viscosity values of lubricants via simultaneous measurements of refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaltkaya, S.

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity is one of the most important parameter in rheological and tribological properties of fluids. The objective of this study is to obtain the viscosity values from the simultaneous refractive-index measurements of lubricants, simply by dipping the fiber-optic probe into the oil to be measured. Due to the fact that these parameters are temperature dependent, within the interval under consideration, oil heated up steadily while measuring the viscosity and refractive index at the same time. The refractive index sensor, the digital viscometer and the thermometer were connected to a PC via an analog to digital converter and the values were acquired at the same time. The fiber optic refractive index sensor has been designed in our laboratory. By utilising Fresnel's fundamental reflection law, the intensity of reflected light from boundary surface (optic fiber core-motor oil) was measured at 660 nm wavelength and then refractive index of the oil was calculated. The derived refractive index values were converted viscosity values that acquired by using the calibration equation. The viscometer, used during the study, was the rotational Brookfield type

  15. Determination of Slake Durability Index (Sdi) Values on Different Shape of Laminated Marl Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hüseyin; Çiçek, Fatma; Talha Deniz, İsmail; Uçak, Emre; Yerel Kandemir, Süheyla

    2016-10-01

    The slake durability index (SDI) test is widely used to determine the disintegration characteristic of the weak and clay-bearing rocks in geo-engineering problems. However, due to the different shapes of sample pieces, such as, irregular shapes displayed mechanical breakages in the slaking process, the SDI test has some limitations that affect the index values. In addition, shape and surface roughness of laminated marl samples have a severe influence on the SDI. In this study, a new sample preparation method called Pasha Method was used to prepare spherical specimens from the laminated marl collected from Seyitomer collar (SLI). Moreover the SDI tests were performed on equal size and weight specimens: three sets with different shapes were used. The three different sets were prepared as the test samples which had sphere shape, parallel to the layers in irregular shape, and vertical to the layers in irregular shape. Index values were determined for the three different sets subjected to the SDI test for 4 cycles. The index values at the end of fourth cycle were found to be 98.43, 98.39 and 97.20 %, respectively. As seen, the index values of the sphere sample set were found to be higher than irregular sample sets.

  16. Bispectral analysis of harmonic oscillations measured using beam emission spectroscopy and magnetic probes in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Ida, Katsumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Minami, Takashi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Shimizu, Akihiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Kado, Shinichiro

    2008-01-01

    The coherent MHD oscillation, which consists of the fundamental frequency of several kilohertz and its higher harmonics, (harmonic oscillation: HO) has been observed in Compact Helical System. HO consists of two pairs of harmonic series. One is located in the core region near the ι=0.5 rational surface (denoted as 'HO (core)'), the other is located in the edge region near the ι=1.0 rational surface (denoted as 'HO (edge)'). In the present study, bispectral analysis is applied to the fluctuation data, for which HO is measured by beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and using magnetic probes. The analysis has revealed that fundamental mode of HO in both the magnetic and core density fluctuations have phase correlation with the harmonics including fundamental oscillation, while HO in edge density fluctuation does not have such phase correlation. Mode numbers of HOs are identical for harmonic components having different frequencies, i.e., m/n=-2/1 for HO (core) and m/n=-1/1 for HO (edge). It suggests that the generation of harmonics cannot be interpreted simply as mode coupling because the summation rule for the wavenumber is not satisfied, even though the bicoherence value is significant. The bicoherence value and relative amplitude of higher harmonics correlate with each other, which suggests that bicoherence indicates the degree of distortion of the signals. (author)

  17. Clinical value of Tei index in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Qi, Quan; Liu, Ruisheng; Xing, Wang; Tang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanmin

    2015-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease characterized by underdevelopment of the right ventricular infundibulum. Present study aimed to explore the clinic value of Tei index in assessing right ventricular function of pediatric patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. A total of 45 pediatric patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot were recruited and classified into: group A (Tei index 0.7; n=13, aging 4-14 years). The right ventricular Tei index value was related to the clinical characteristics of Tetralogy of Fallot repair patients. Right ventricular Tei index was positively correlated with ventilation time, drainage volumes, and negatively with drug assistance and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, although time for drug assistance and ICU stay were not statically different between group B and group C. There was no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction. Tei index is a sensitive indicator of right ventricular dysfunction, and has important clinical value to better our understanding of right ventricular function after tetralogy of Fallot repair.

  18. A proposed selection index for feedlot profitability based on estimated breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J

    2009-04-22

    It is generally accepted that feed intake and growth (gain) are the most important economic components when calculating profitability in a growth test or feedlot. We developed a single post-weaning growth (feedlot) index based on the economic values of different components. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations for and between initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), feed intake (FI), and shoulder height (SHD) were estimated by multitrait restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The estimated breeding values (EBVs) and the economic values for IW, FW and FI were used in a selection index to estimate a post-weaning or feedlot profitability value. Heritabilities for IW, FW, FI, and SHD were 0.41, 0.40, 0.33, and 0.51, respectively. The highest genetic correlations were 0.78 (between IW and FW) and 0.70 (between FI and FW). EBVs were used in a selection index to calculate a single economical value for each animal. This economic value is an indication of the gross profitability value or the gross test value (GTV) of the animal in a post-weaning growth test. GTVs varied between -R192.17 and R231.38 with an average of R9.31 and a standard deviation of R39.96. The Pearson correlations between EBVs (for production and efficiency traits) and GTV ranged from -0.51 to 0.68. The lowest correlation (closest to zero) was 0.26 between the Kleiber ratio and GTV. Correlations of 0.68 and -0.51 were estimated between average daily gain and GTV and feed conversion ratio and GTV, respectively. These results showed that it is possible to select for GTV. The selection index can benefit feedlotting in selecting offspring of bulls with high GTVs to maximize profitability.

  19. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  20. Predictive value of body mass index to metabolic syndrome risk factors in Syrian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Bakir, Mohamad Adel

    2017-06-25

    components has been demonstrated. Although body mass index values were lower than the international cut-offs, these values were good predictors of some metabolic abnormalities in Syrian adolescents; body mass index is a good predictor of these abnormalities in this population.

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256......, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among...... 9-year olds. However, the limitations of the few earlier studies make reliable comparisons difficult....

  2. SU-E-I-27: Establishing Target Exposure Index Values for Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, N; Tchou, P; Belcher, K; Scott, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a standard set of target exposure index (TEI) values to be applied to Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) readers in accordance with International Electrotechnical Committee 62494-1 (ed. 1.0). Methods: A large data cohort was collected from six USAF Medical Treatment Facilities that exclusively use Agfa CR Readers. Dose monitoring statistics were collected from each reader. The data was analyzed based on anatomic region, view, and processing speed class. The Agfa specific exposure metric, logarithmic mean (LGM), was converted to exposure index (EI) for each data set. The optimum TEI value was determined by minimizing the number of studies that fell outside the acceptable deviation index (DI) range of +/− 2 for phototimed techniques or a range of +/−3 for fixed techniques. An anthropomorphic radiographic phantom was used to corroborate the TEI recommendations. Images were acquired of several anatomic regions and views using standard techniques. The images were then evaluated by two radiologists as either acceptable or unacceptable. The acceptable image with the lowest exposure and EI value was compared to the recommended TEI values using a passing DI range. Results: Target EI values were determined for a comprehensive list of anatomic regions and views. Conclusion: Target EI values must be established on each CR unit in order to provide a positive feedback system for the technologist. This system will serve as a mechanism to prevent under or overexposures of patients. The TEI recommendations are a first attempt at a large scale process improvement with the goal of setting reasonable and standardized TEI values. The implementation and effectiveness of the recommended TEI values should be monitored and adjustments made as necessary

  3. The equivalence of two phylogenetic biodiversity measures: the Shapley value and Fair Proportion index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Klaas

    2013-11-01

    Most biodiversity conservation programs are forced to prioritise species in order to allocate their funding. This paper contains a mathematical proof that provides biological support for one common approach based on phylogenetic indices. Phylogenetic trees describe the evolutionary relationships between a group of taxa. Two indices for computing the distinctiveness of each taxon in a phylogenetic tree are considered here-the Shapley value and the Fair Proportion index. These indices provide a measure of the importance of each taxon for overall biodiversity and have been used to prioritise taxa for conservation. The Shapley value is the biodiversity contribution a taxon is expected to make if all taxa are equally likely to become extinct. This interpretation makes it appealing to use the Shapley value in biodiversity conservation applications. The Fair Proportion index lacks a convenient interpretation, however it is significantly easier to calculate and understand. It has been empirically observed that there is a high correlation between the two indices. This paper shows the mathematical basis for this correlation and proves that as the number of taxa increases, the indices become equivalent. Consequently in biodiversity prioritisation the simpler Fair Proportion index can be used whilst retaining the appealing interpretation of the Shapley value.

  4. Bispectral analysis applied to coherent floating potential fluctuations obtained in the edge plasmas on JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Y; Itoh, K; Itoh, S-I; Fujisawa, A; Hoshino, K; Takase, Y; Yagi, M; Ejiri, A; Ida, K; Shinohara, K; Uehara, K; Kusama, Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results of bispectral analysis applied to floating potential fluctuations in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JAERI Fusion Torus-2 Modified (JFT-2M) tokamak. Inside the outermost surface of plasmas, coherent mode fluctuations (CMs) in floating potential were observed around the frequency of the geodesic acoustic mode. The squared bicoherence shows significant nonlinear couplings between the CMs and background fluctuations. The biphase at the frequency of the CMs is localized around π, while that at frequencies of background fluctuations distributes in a wide range. The total bicoherence at the frequency of the CMs is proportional to the squared amplitude of the CMs. These observations are consistent with the theoretical prediction on the drift wave-zonal flow systems. Interpretation of the absolute value of the total bicoherence is also discussed

  5. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Hayley; Williams, Sheila; Brown, Rachel; Venn, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI of meals, obtained by using the formula and by using both measured food GI and published values, with directly measured meal GIs. The GIs of 7 foods were tested in 30 healthy people. The foods were combined into 3 meals, each of which provided 50 g available carbohydrate, including a staple (potato, rice, or spaghetti), vegetables, sauce, and pan-fried chicken. The mean (95% CI) meal GIs determined from individual food GI values and by direct measurement were as follows: potato meal [predicted, 63 (56, 70); measured, 53 (46, 62)], rice meal [predicted, 51 (45, 56); measured, 38 (33, 45)], and spaghetti meal [predicted, 54 (49, 60); measured, 38 (33, 44)]. The predicted meal GIs were all higher than the measured GIs (P < 0.001). The extent of the overestimation depended on the particular food, ie, 12, 15, and 19 GI units (or 22%, 40%, and 50%) for the potato, rice, and spaghetti meals, respectively. The formula overestimated the GI of the meals by between 22% and 50%. The use of published food values also overestimated the measured meal GIs. Investigators using the formula to calculate a meal or diet GI should be aware of limitations in the method. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000210976.

  6. Comparing the rankings obtained from two biodiversity indices: the Fair Proportion Index and the Shapley Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Kristina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-10-07

    The Shapley Value and the Fair Proportion Index of phylogenetic trees have been frequently discussed as prioritization tools in conservation biology. Both indices rank species according to their contribution to total phylogenetic diversity, allowing for a simple conservation criterion. While both indices have their specific advantages and drawbacks, it has recently been shown that both values are closely related. However, as different authors use different definitions of the Shapley Value, the specific degree of relatedness depends on the specific version of the Shapley Value - it ranges from a high correlation index to equality of the indices. In this note, we first give an overview of the different indices. Then we turn our attention to the mere ranking order provided by either of the indices. We compare the rankings obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value for a phylogenetic tree of European amphibians and illustrate their differences. We then undertake further analyses on simulated data and show that even though the chance of two rankings being exactly identical (when obtained from different versions of the Shapley Value) decreases with an increasing number of taxa, the distance between the two rankings converges to zero, i.e., the rankings are becoming more and more alike. Moreover, we introduce our freely available software package FairShapley, which was implemented in Perl and with which all calculations have been performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Normal Values of Tissue-Muscle Perfusion Indexes of Lower Limbs Obtained with a Scintigraphic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Pop Gjorceva, Daniela; Todorovska, Lidija; Miladinova, Daniela; Zafirova, Beti

    2017-09-01

    Introduction Muscle perfusion is a physiologic process that can undergo quantitative assessment and thus define the range of normal values of perfusion indexes and perfusion reserve. The investigation of the microcirculation has a crucial role in determining the muscle perfusion. Materials and method The study included 30 examinees, 24-74 years of age, without a history of confirmed peripheral artery disease and all had normal findings on Doppler ultrasonography and pedo-brachial index of lower extremity (PBI). 99mTc-MIBI tissue muscle perfusion scintigraphy of lower limbs evaluates tissue perfusion in resting condition "rest study" and after workload "stress study", through quantitative parameters: Inter-extremity index (for both studies), left thigh/right thigh (LT/RT) left calf/right calf (LC/RC) and perfusion reserve (PR) for both thighs and calves. Results In our investigated group we assessed the normal values of quantitative parameters of perfusion indexes. Indexes ranged for LT/RT in rest study 0.91-1.05, in stress study 0.92-1.04. LC/RC in rest 0.93-1.07 and in stress study 0.93-1.09. The examinees older than 50 years had insignificantly lower perfusion reserve of these parameters compared with those younger than 50, LC (p=0.98), and RC (p=0.6). Conclusion This non-invasive scintigraphic method allows in individuals without peripheral artery disease to determine the range of normal values of muscle perfusion at rest and stress condition and to clinically implement them in evaluation of patients with peripheral artery disease for differentiating patients with normal from those with impaired lower limbs circulation.

  8. Modulation of extreme temperatures in Europe under extreme values of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin

    2018-03-10

    This paper reports on the influence that extreme values in the tails of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index probability density function (PDF) can exert on temperatures in Europe. When the NAO Index enters into its lowest (10% quantile or less) and highest (90% quantile or higher) modes, European temperatures often exhibit large negative or positive departures from their mean values, respectively. Analyses of the joint quantiles of the Index and temperatures (i.e., the simultaneous exceedance of particular quantile thresholds by the two variables) show that temperatures enter into the upper or lower tails of their PDF when the NAO Index also enters into its extreme tails, more often that could be expected from random statistics. Studies of this nature help further our understanding of the manner by which mechanisms of decadal-scale climate variability can influence extremes of temperature-and thus perhaps improve the forecasting of extreme temperatures in weather and climate models. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Effect of imaging time on the values of the sacroiliac index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Domljan, Z.; Popovic, S.; Simonovic, I.; Zagreb Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative scintigraphy of the sacroiliac joints was performed in a group of normal subjects and a group of subjects with unilateral and bilateral sacroiliitis. The aim of the study was to determine whether the time intervals of imaging had any effect on the values of the sacroiliac index. Imaging was performed every 30 min up to 300 min and the indices were calculated at the time intervals mentioned. We found that the values of the sacroiliac index increased in the group of normal subjects until 150 min after the application of the radiopharmaceutical, and that in the group of subjects who had sacroiliitis they increased until 210 min. The results show that the time interval optimal to quantitative sacroiliac joint imaging is at least 3 1/2 h after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  10. Average value of the shape and direction factor in the equation of refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation of the refractive indices is of great significance for the developments of new optical materials. The calculation method of refractive index, which was deduced from the electron-cloud-conductor model, contains the shape and direction factor 〈g〉. 〈g〉 affects the electromagnetic-induction energy absorbed by the electron clouds, thereby influencing the refractive indices. It is not yet known how to calculate 〈g〉 value of non-spherical electron clouds. In this paper, 〈g〉 value is derived by imaginatively dividing the electron cloud into numerous little volume elements and then regrouping them. This paper proves that 〈g〉 = 2/3 when molecules’ spatial orientations distribute randomly. The calculations of the refractive indices of several substances validate this equation. This result will help to promote the application of the calculation method of refractive index.

  11. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF THE BASELINE VALUES OF SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND FREE ANDROGEN INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Grigoryev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of prostate cancer (PC and its variable nature are an important problem today. PC is distinguished by its latent ability in many cases, which makes its screening difficult.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is one of the most common tumor markers of PC, which are used for mass male screening. However, the detection rate of PC in men with normal PSA values is also very high. This promotes an active search for new markers and predictors of PC.The effect of androgens on hormonal carcinogenesis in the prostate suggests that the analysis of serum testosterone concentrations and free androgen index may be made in patients with low PSA levels in the early diagnosis and prognosis of PC.

  12. An approach to value-based simulator selection: The creation and evaluation of the simulator value index tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Deborah M; Hananel, David M; Covington, Benjamin J; Dionise, Patrick L; Nykamp, Michael T; Pederson, Melvin; Sahloul, Jamal M; Vasquez, Rachael; Seagull, F Jacob; Pinsky, Harold M; Sweier, Domenica G; Cooke, James M

    2018-04-01

    Currently there is no reliable, standardized mechanism to support health care professionals during the evaluation of and procurement processes for simulators. A tool founded on best practices could facilitate simulator purchase processes. In a 3-phase process, we identified top factors considered during the simulator purchase process through expert consensus (n = 127), created the Simulator Value Index (SVI) tool, evaluated targeted validity evidence, and evaluated the practical value of this SVI. A web-based survey was sent to simulation professionals. Participants (n = 79) used the SVI and provided feedback. We evaluated the practical value of 4 tool variations by calculating their sensitivity to predict a preferred simulator. Seventeen top factors were identified and ranked. The top 2 were technical stability/reliability of the simulator and customer service, with no practical differences in rank across institution or stakeholder role. Full SVI variations predicted successfully the preferred simulator with good (87%) sensitivity, whereas the sensitivity of variations in cost and customer service and cost and technical stability decreased (≤54%). The majority (73%) of participants agreed that the SVI was helpful at guiding simulator purchase decisions, and 88% agreed the SVI tool would help facilitate discussion with peers and leadership. Our findings indicate the SVI supports the process of simulator purchase using a standardized framework. Sensitivity of the tool improved when factors extend beyond traditionally targeted factors. We propose the tool will facilitate discussion amongst simulation professionals dealing with simulation, provide essential information for finance and procurement professionals, and improve the long-term value of simulation solutions. Limitations and application of the tool are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load values of a selection of popular foods consumed in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Kris Y; Chan, Ruth; Chan, Dicken; Li, Liz; Leung, Grace; Woo, Jean; Lightowler, Helen J; Henry, C Jeya K

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values for a variety of foods that are commonly consumed in Hong Kong and expand on the international GI table of Chinese foods. Fasted healthy subjects were given 50 g of available carbohydrate servings of a glucose reference, which was tested twice, and test foods of various brands of noodles (n 5), instant cereals (n 3) and breads (n 2), which were tested once, on separate occasions. For each test food, tests were repeated in ten healthy subjects. Capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick samples in fasting subjects ( - 5, 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. The GI of each test food was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) of each test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC for the reference food. GL was calculated as the product of the test food's GI and the amount of available carbohydrate in a reference serving size. The majority of GI values of foods tested were medium (a GI value of 56-69) to high (a GI value of 70 or more) and compared well with previously published values. More importantly, our dataset provides GI values of ten foods previously untested and presents values for foods commonly consumed in Hong Kong.

  14. A Methodology to Estimate Ores Work Index Values, Using Miduk Copper Mine Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noaparast

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is always attempted to reduce the costs of comminution in mineral processing plants. One of thedifficulties in size reduction section is not to be designed properly. The key factor to design size reductionunits such as crushers and grinding mills, is ore’s work index. The work index, wi, presents the oregrindability, and is used in Bond formula to calculate the required energy. Bond has defined a specificrelationship between some parameters which is applied to calculate wi, which are control screen, fineparticles produced, feed and product d80.In this research work, a high grade copper sample from Miduk copper concentrator was prepared, and itswork index values were experimentally estimated, using different control screens, 600, 425, 212, 150, 106and 75 microns. The obtained results from the tests showed two different behaviors in fine production.According to these two trends the required models were then defined to present the fine mass calculationusing control screen. In next step, an equation was presented in order to calculate Miduk copper ore workindex for any size. In addition to verify the model creditability, a test using 300 microns control screenwas performed and its result was compared with calculated ones using defined model, which showed agood fit. Finally the experimental and calculated values were compared and their relative error was equalto 4.11% which is an indication of good fit for the results.

  15. A Soil Service Index: a method for quantifying the value, vulnerability, and status of soil resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J. W.; Loisel, J.; Hugelius, G.; Sulman, B. N.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Malhotra, A.; Gill, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soils support ecological and human systems by providing a physical and biogeochemical basis for plant growth, ecological functions, water quality, and water storage, and by providing services and functions needed for economic development, human well-being, and conservation of natural resources. Quantitative evaluation of soil services, however, is inconsistent and poorly communicated, in part because we lack a scientific, unified basis for evaluating soils and their potential for serving our needs. We introduce an index of soil service (SSI) in which multiple services are numerically or quantitatively assessed, normalized to a unit-less scale for purposes of intercomparability, and evaluated for a given site or region. Services include organic matter and/or organic carbon storage; plant productivity; CO2 or GHG exchange with the atmosphere; water storage capacity; and nutrient storage and/or availability. The status of SSI can be evaluated by individual services or by a composite index that combines multiple services. The status can be monitored over time; and key services that are more highly valued for a given soil can be weighted accordingly in comparison to other services. As a first step, existing data for each service are captured from a literature and data review in order to establish the full range of values. A site value establishes the ranking relative to the full range. Key services are weighted according to local values. A final index is the sum of the normalized, weighted products. Metrics can be updated and adapted as new data or services are discovered or recognized. Metrics can be used to compare among sites, regions, or time periods.

  16. Economic values and expected effect of selection index for pathogen-specific mastitis under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus...... dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro...

  17. Comparison of regional index flood estimation procedures based on the extreme value type I distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    the prediction uncertainty and that the presence of intersite correlation tends to increase the uncertainty. A simulation study revealed that in regional index-flood estimation the method of probability weighted moments is preferable to method of moment estimation with regard to bias and RMSE.......A comparison of different methods for estimating T-year events is presented, all based on the Extreme Value Type I distribution. Series of annual maximum flood from ten gauging stations at the New Zealand South island have been used. Different methods of predicting the 100-year event...... and the connected uncertainty have been applied: At-site estimation and regional index-flood estimation with and without accounting for intersite correlation using either the method of moments or the method of probability weighted moments for parameter estimation. Furthermore, estimation at ungauged sites were...

  18. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  19. [A study on the diagnostic value of tear film objective scatter index in dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y D; Liang, Q F; Wang, N L; Antoine, Labbè

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of tear film objective scatter index to the diagnosis dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Fifty-three patients with DED and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included from July to October 2016. All subjects underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: evaluation of ocular surface disease symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, optical quality detection, lipid layer thickness, tear film breakup time and SchirmerⅠtest. With Optical Quality Analysis SystemⅡ, the values of modulation transfer function cut off, basic objective scatter index (OSI) and total OSI were measured. To eliminate the influence of other refractive media, the tear film OSI (TF-OSI) was calculated, and the difference in TF-OSI between two groups was analyzed with the independent-samples t test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of each parameter in the DED group. With the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the specificity and sensitivity of TF-OSI and other parameters were described to differentiate DED from normal eyes. Results: In the dry eye group, the value of modulation transfer function cut off (32.07±11.95) was significantly lower than the normal group (39.38±9.44, t=- 3.096, P= 0.003) , and the mean value and dispersion of TF-OSI (0.50±0.43, 0.52±0.81) were higher than the normal group (0.21±0.16, 0.12±0.01) ( t= 4.300, P= 0.000, t= 3.546, P= 0.001) . The mean value of TF-OSI had a positive correlation with lipid layer thickness ( r= 0.365, P= 0.007) and dispersion of TF-OSI ( r= 0.581, P= 0.000), and a negative correlation with MTF cut off ( r=- 0.368, P= 0.007). To the diagnostic value of DED, the mean value of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.736, a specificity of 0.762, and the AUC was 0.764. The dispersion of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.811 and a specificity of 0.810, and the AUC was 0

  20. Investigation of shift in decay hazard (Scheffer) index values over the period 1969-2008 in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Charles G. Carll

    2010-01-01

    A statistical analysis was performed that identified time trends in the Scheffer Index value for 167 locations in the conterminous United States over the period 1969-2008. Year-to-year variation in Index values was found to be larger than year-to-year variation in most other weather parameters. Despite the substantial yearly variation, regression equations, with time (...

  1. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Sardo, Allegra; Rossi, Lorenza; Benetti, Stefania; Savino, Andrea; Silvestro, Leandra

    2016-06-21

    This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI), their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers' breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 2.75) in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62) in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32) in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m² (IQR: 4.41) and 64 kg (IQR: 15). Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm² (IQR: 4.02), while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627). Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants' BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213) and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285). Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449) and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322). Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  2. The value of intrarenal resistive index in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rae; Lee, Kyu Beck; Park, Hae Won

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of the intrarenal resistive index(RI), measured by Doppler sonography, in order to assess intrarenal vascular resistance in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. In 26 patients with ADPKD, RI was measured by Doppler sonography and correlated with the presence of hypertension, renal function (creatinine clearance) and anatomical renal severity index (RSI), thus indicating renal morphologic abnormalities during Bmode sonography. RI was significantly higher in 18 hypertensive ADPKD patients (0.64±0.65) (Mean±1SD;range:0.52-0.74) than in eight normotensive patients (0.59± 0.50) (0.48-0.64) (p<0.05). Statistically significant inverse correlation was found between RI values and creatinine clearance (r=3D-0.45, p<0.05), and statistically significant correlation was found between RI values and RSI, indicating the degree of renal parenchymal involvement. RI correlates with the development of hypertension, renal function and renal morphologic abnormality scoring by RSI during B-mode Doppler sonography, and measured in this way may thus be used to assess renal vascular resistance in ADPKD patients.=20

  3. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  4. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR

  5. Retrospective evaluation of exposure index (EI) values from plain radiographs reveals important considerations for quality improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Robinson, John; Lewis, Sarah J [Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Moran, Bernadette [Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Medical Imaging Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Following X-ray exposure, radiographers receive immediate feedback on detector exposure in the form of the exposure index (EI). To identify whether radiographers are meeting manufacturer-recommended EI (MREI) ranges for routine chest, abdomen and pelvis X-ray examinations under a variety of conditions and to examine factors affecting the EI. Data on 5000 adult X-ray examinations including the following variables were collected: examination parameters, EI values, patient gender, date of birth, date and time of examination, grid usage and the presence of implant or prosthesis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize each data set and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine significant differences, with P < 0.05 indicating significance for all tests. Most examinations demonstrated EI values that were outside the MREI ranges, with significantly higher median EI values recorded for female patient radiographs than those for male patients for all manufacturers, indicating higher detector exposures for all units except for Philips digital radiography (DR), where increased EI values indicate lower exposure (P = 0.01). Median EI values for out of hours radiography were also significantly higher compared with normal working hours for all technologies (P ≤ 0.02). Significantly higher median EI values were demonstrated for Philips DR chest X-rays without as compared to those with the employment of a grid (P = 0.03), while significantly lower median EI values were recorded for Carestream Health computed radiography (CR) chest X-rays when an implant or prosthesis was present (P = 0.02). Non-adherence to MREIs has been demonstrated with EI value discrepancies being dependent on patient gender, time/day of exposure, grid usage and the presence of an implant or prosthesis. Retrospective evaluation of EI databases is a valuable tool to assess the need of quality improvement in routine DR.

  6. Methodology for adding and amending glycaemic index values to a nutrition analysis package.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Levis, Sharon P

    2011-04-01

    Since its introduction in 1981, the glycaemic index (GI) has been a useful tool for classifying the glycaemic effects of carbohydrate foods. Consumption of a low-GI diet has been associated with a reduced risk of developing CVD, diabetes mellitus and certain cancers. WISP (Tinuviel Software, Llanfechell, Anglesey, UK) is a nutrition software package used for the analysis of food intake records and 24 h recalls. Within its database, WISP contains the GI values of foods based on the International Tables 2002. The aim of the present study is to describe in detail a methodology for adding and amending GI values to the WISP database in a clinical or research setting, using data from the updated International Tables 2008.

  7. The development of a value based pricing index for new drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse; Lubbe, Martie S

    2011-06-01

    Worldwide, prices for cancer drugs have been under downward pressure where several governments have mandated price cuts of branded products. A better alternative to government mandated price cuts would be to estimate a final price based on drug performance, cost effectiveness and a country's ability to pay. We developed a global pricing index for new cancer drugs in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that encompasses all of these attributes. A pharmacoeconomic model was developed to simulate mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus a 'new drug' that improves survival by 1.4, 3 and 6months, respectively. Cost and utility data were obtained from cancer centres and oncology nurses (n=112) in Canada, Spain, India, South Africa and Malaysia. Multivariable analysis was then used to develop the pricing index, which considers survival benefit, per capita GDP and income dispersion (as measured by the Gini coefficient) as predictor variables. Higher survival benefits were associated with elevated drug prices, especially in higher income countries such as Canada. For Argentina with a per capita GDP of $15,000 and a Gini coefficient of 51, the index estimated that for a drug which provides a 4month survival benefit in mCRC, the value based price would be $US 630 per dose. In contrast, the same drug in a wealthier country like Norway (per capita GDP=$50,000) could command a price of $US 2,775 per dose. The application of this index to estimate a price based on cost effectiveness and the wealth of a nation would be important for opening dialogue between the key stakeholders and a better alternative to government mandated price cuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The normative score and the cut-off value of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Matsudaira, Ko; Kato, So; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Chikuda, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.

  9. The glycaemic index values of foods containing fructose are affected by metabolic differences between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, T M S; Jenkins, A L; Vuksan, V; Campbell, J

    2009-09-01

    Glycaemic responses are influenced by carbohydrate absorption rate, type of monosaccharide absorbed and the presence of fat; the effect of some of these factors may be modulated by metabolic differences between subjects. We hypothesized that glycaemic index (GI) values are affected by the metabolic differences between subjects for foods containing fructose or fat, but not for starchy foods. The GI values of white bread (WB), fruit leather (FL) and chocolate-chip cookies (CCC) (representing starch, fructose and fat, respectively) were determined in subjects (n=77) recruited to represent all 16 possible combinations of age (40 years), sex (male, female), ethnicity (Caucasian, non-Caucasian) and body mass index (BMI) (25 kg/m2) using glucose as the reference. At screening, fasting insulin, lipids, c-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and waist circumference (WC) were measured. There were no significant main effects of age, sex, BMI or ethnicity on GI, but there were several food x subject-factor interactions. Different factors affected each food's area under the curve (AUC) and GI. The AUC after oral glucose was related to ethnicity, age and triglycerides (r 2=0.27); after WB to ethnicity, age, triglycerides, sex and CRP (r 2=0.43); after CCC to age and weight (r 2=0.18); and after FL to age and CRP (r 2=0.12). GI of WB was related to ethnicity (r 2=0.12) and of FL to AST, insulin and WC (r 2=0.23); but there were no significant correlations for CCC. The GI values of foods containing fructose might be influenced by metabolic differences between -subjects, whereas the GI of starchy foods might be affected by ethnicity. However, the proportion of variation explained by subject factors is small.

  10. Economic values and selection index in different Angus-Nellore cross-bred production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G M; Savegnago, R P; El Faro, L; Mosaquatro Roso, V; de Paz, C C P

    2018-06-01

    Bioeconomic models were developed to calculate economic values (EV) for economically important traits in beef cattle, to evaluate the impact of these traits on production profitability, to assess possible market changes with a payment system and to develop economic selection indexes for Angus cattle for two production systems. Two beef cattle production systems were simulated as follows: a cow-calf cycle (CC) and a complete cycle (CoC). Following selection, positive changes in the EV were observed. In the CC, each 1.0% increment in weaning weight (WW), weaning rate (WR) and pregnancy rate (PR) resulted in increases in US$ 1.30, US$ 3.68 and US$ 3.55 per cow/year in profit, respectively. In the CoC, EV of US$ 1.01, US$ 1.79, US$ 1.19, US$ 1.34, US$ 6.84 and US$ 7.86 per cow/year were obtained for WW, year weight, yearling weight, final weight, WR and PR, respectively. The payment system for carcass quality showed that the scenario considering that 100% of the animals displayed uniform carcasses exhibited the highest EV and was considered optimal. Considering the sensitivity analysis, the price paid per animal was the factor that most affected the EV in both systems. The selection indexes obtained may be used in similar production systems, and the use of EV and selection indexes are important tools for any production system with positive change in profit after selection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The value of intrarenal resistive index in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To determine whether the value of the intrarenal resistive index(RI) can be used to identify early kidney vasoconstriciton in patients with nonazotemic liver cirrhosis The intrarneal resistive index (RI), kidney and liver function and plasma renin activity were measured in 12 healthy control subjects, 13 cirrhotic patients without ascites and 29 cirrhotic patients with ascites. To evaluate the development of hepatorenal syndrome, patients were followed up for six months. RI was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis (0.68{+-}0.06) than in healthy subjects (0.59{+-}0.04). In 42 cirrhotic patients, it was significantly higher in those with ascites (0.69{+-}0.05) than in those without ascites (0.64{+-}0.05) and correlated with creatinine clearance. Plasma renin activity was significantly highter in cirrhotic patients with ascites than in those without ascites and healthy subjects (p<0.05). During the six-month follow-up period, kidney dysfunction developed in 16%(7/42) of cirrhotic patiens, and in 37%(6/16) of those with an elevated RI. In contrast, only 4%(1/26) of patients with a normal RI has kidney dysfunction. The measurement of intrarenal resitive index(RI) using duplex Doppler ultrasound is a simple, noninvasive method of detecting even subtle derangements of renal hemodynamics in liver cirrhosis patients;the procedure can be used to identify those who are at higher risk of overt renal failure and to help decide whether a therapeutic approach involving paracentesis, diuretics, or nephrotoxic agents is most appropriate.

  12. Are exposure index values consistent in clinical practice? A multi-manufacturer investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, M. L.; Rainford, L.; Last, J.; Brennan, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of digital radiography poses the risk of unnoticed increases in patient dose. Manufacturers have responded to this by offering an exposure index (EI) value to the clinician. Whilst the EI value is a measure of the air kerma at the detector surface, it has been recommended by international agencies as a method of monitoring radiation dose to the patient. Recent studies by the group have shown that EI values are being used in clinical practice to monitor radiation dose and assess image quality. This study aims to compare the clinical consistency of the EI value in computed radiography (CR) and direct digital radiography (DR) systems. An anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate four common radiographic examinations: skull, pelvis, chest and hand. These examinations were chosen as they provide contrasting exposure parameters, image detail and radiation dose measurements. Four manufacturers were used for comparison: Agfa Gaevert CR, Carestream CR, Philips Digital Diagnost DR and Siemens DR. For each examination, the phantom was placed in the optimal position and exposure parameters were chosen in accordance with European guidelines and clinical practice. Multiple exposures were taken and the EI recorded. All exposure parameters and clinical conditions remained constant throughout. For both DR systems, the EI values remained consistent throughout. No significant change was noted in any examination. In both CR systems, there were noteworthy fluctuations in the EI values for all examinations. The largest for the Agfa system was a variation of 1.88-2.21 for the skull examination. This represents to the clinician a doubling of detector dose, despite all exposure parameters remaining constant. In the Kodak system, the largest fluctuation was seen for the chest examination where the EI ranged from 2560 to 2660, representing approximately an increase of 30% in radiation dose, despite consistent parameters. The fluctuations seen with the CR systems are most likely

  13. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  14. Postprandial lipid responses to standard carbohydrates used to determine glycaemic index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Ausman, Lynne M; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-11-01

    Prior studies assessing the metabolic effects of different types of carbohydrates have focused on their glycaemic response. However, the response of postprandial cardiometabolic risk indicators has not been considered in these studies. The present study assessed postprandial lipid responses to two forms of carbohydrates used as reference foods for glycaemic index determinations, white bread (50 g available carbohydrate) and glucose (50 g), under controlled conditions and with intra-individual replicate determinations. A total of twenty adults (20–70 years) underwent two cycles of challenges with each pair of reference foods (four challenges/person), administered in a random order on separate days under standard conditions. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and NEFA), glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h post-ingestion. Oral glucose resulted in greater glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than white bread for the first 90 min and a greater subsequent decline after 120 min (P =0·0001). The initial decline in serum NEFA concentrations was greater after the oral glucose than after the white bread challenge, as was the rebound after 150 min (P = 0·001). Nevertheless, the type of carbohydrate had no significant effect on postprandial total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Following an initial modest rise in TAG concentrations in response to both challenges, the values dropped below the fasting values for oral glucose but not for the white bread challenge. These data suggest that the type of carbohydrate used to determine the glycaemic index, bread or glucose, has little or modest effects on postprandial plasma cholesterol concentrations. Differences in TAG and NEFA concentrations over the 5 h time period were modest, and their clinical relevance is unclear.

  15. Part II: Should the h-index be modified? An analysis of the m-quotient, contemporary h-index, authorship value, and impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nickalus R; Thompson, Clinton J; Taylor, Douglas R; Gabrick, Kyle S; Choudhri, Asim F; Boop, Frederick R; Klimo, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The widely accepted h-index depends on the citation analysis source and does not consider the authorship position, the journal's impact factor (IF), or the age of the paper or author. We investigated these factors in citation statistics of academic neurosurgeons. An uncorrected h-index and the m-quotient, which corrects for career length, were calculated by the use of Scopus and Google Scholar. In a subset of neurosurgeons, we computed the contemporary h-index (hc), which accounts for the age of the publications; the authorship value (AV), weighted by author position; and the journal IF. An "overall' average for AV and IF including most of an author's publications and an average for publications comprising the h-index ("h-index core") were calculated. When we used Google Scholar, the mean h-index was significantly greater than that calculated when we used Scopus (P = 0.0030). m-quotient and hc-index increased with academic rank, with an m-quotient >1 achieved by 69% of chairmen and 48% of professors. The effect of AV was greatest on the greater h-indices. The average IF for the h-index core was greater than the overall IF, which did not correlate with academic rank. Few neurosurgeons consistently publish in high-impact journals. Google Scholar tends to inflate the h-index. The m-quotient and hc-index allow comparisons of researchers across time. Although average journal IF did not differ significantly among neurosurgeons academic ranks, it should be noted for individuals who consistently publish in high-impact journals. We recommend the creation of individual bibliometric profiles to better compare the academic productivity of neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  17. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin G Reeuwijk

    Full Text Available The work ability index (WAI is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce.To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups.At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49 was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0index (ORC. Test characteristics were determined for dichotomised outcomes. Additional analyses were performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups.A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33. The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68. Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77 or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69. At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27 the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups.The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  18. Bispectral experimental estimation of the nonlinear energy transfer in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental density and potential fluctuation data from a 2D probe array have been analysed to study the turbulent cascade in a toroidally confined magnetized plasma. The bispectral analysis technique used is from Ritz et al ( 1989 Phys. Fluids B 1 153) and Kim et al ( 1996 Phys. Plasmas 3 3998...... scales. This is the first experimental evidence for the dual turbulent cascade in a magnetized plasma....

  19. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; Robroek, Suzan J W; Niessen, Maurice A J; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The work ability index (WAI) is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce. To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups. At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49) was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups. A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33). The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68). Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77) or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69). At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27) the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups. The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  20. Reference values of bone stiffness index and C-terminal telopeptide in healthy European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D; Intemann, T; Lauria, F; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Sioen, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound measurements and bone metabolic markers can help to monitor bone health and to detect impaired skeletal development. Population-based reference values for children may serve as a basis for preventive measures to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in later life. This is the first paper providing age-, sex- and height-specific reference values for bone stiffness index (SI) and serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in healthy, apparently prepubertal children. In the population-based IDEFICS baseline survey (2007-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010), 18,745 children from eight European countries were newly recruited. A total of 10,791 2-10.9-year-old and 1646 3-8.9-year-old healthy children provided data on SI of the right and left calcaneus and serum CTX, respectively. Furthermore, height and weight were measured. Percentile curves were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the distribution of SI and CTX depending on multiple covariates while accounting for dispersion, skewness, and the kurtosis of this distribution. SI was negatively associated with age and height in children aged 2-5 years, whereas a positive association was observed in children aged 6-10 years. The dip in SI occurred at older age for higher SI percentiles and was observed earlier in taller children than in smaller children. The CTX reference curves showed a linear-positive association with age and height. No major sex differences were observed for the SI and CTX reference values. These reference data lay the ground to evaluate bone growth and metabolism in prepubertal children in epidemiological and clinical settings. They may also inform clinical practice to monitor skeletal development and to assess adverse drug reactions during medical treatments.

  1. Assessment value of quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Xia Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the assessment value of the quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A total of 58 patients with space-occupying pancreatic lesions were divided into 20 patients with pancreatic cancer and 38 patients with benign pancreatic lesions after pancreatic CT perfusion. Patients with pancreatic cancer received palliative surgery, and the cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected during operation. The differences in pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and serum tumor marker levels were compared between patients with pancreatic cancer and patients with benign pancreatic lesions, mRNA expression levels of malignant molecules in pancreatic cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were further determined, and the correlation between pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and malignant degree of pancreatic cancer was analyzed. Results: CT perfusion scanning BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were lower than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions; serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels were higher than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions (P<0.05; mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue samples were higher than those in paracarcinoma tissue samples, and mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax were lower than those in para-carcinoma tissue samples (P<0.05; CT perfusion scanning parameters BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were negatively correlated with CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels in serum as well as mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue, and positively correlated with mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax in pancreatic cancer tissue (P<0.05. Conclusions: Pancreatic CT perfusion scanning is a reliable way to judge the malignant degree of pancreatic cancer and plays a

  2. Prognostic value of brachioradialis muscle oxygen saturation index and vascular occlusion test in septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Corral, J; Claverias, L; Bodí, M; Pascual, S; Dubin, A; Gea, J; Rodriguez, A

    2016-05-01

    To compare rSO2 (muscle oxygen saturation index) static and dynamic variables obtained by NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy) in brachioradialis muscle of septic shock patients and its prognostic implications. Prospective and observational study. Intensive care unit. Septic shock patients and healthy volunteers. The probe of a NIRS device (INVOS 5100) was placed on the brachioradialis muscle during a vascular occlusion test (VOT). Baseline, minimum and maximum rSO2 values, deoxygenation rate (DeOx), reoxygenation slope (ReOx) and delta value. Septic shock patients (n=35) had lower baseline rSO2 (63.8±12.2 vs. 69.3±3.3%, p<0.05), slower DeOx (-0.54±0.31 vs. -0.91±0.35%/s, p=0.001), slower ReOx (2.67±2.17 vs. 9.46±3.5%/s, p<0.001) and lower delta (3.25±5.71 vs. 15.1±3.9%, p<0.001) when compared to healthy subjects (n=20). Among septic shock patients, non-survivors showed lower baseline rSO2 (57.0±9.6 vs. 69.8±11.3%, p=0.001), lower minimum rSO2 (36.0±12.8 vs. 51.3±14.8%, p<0.01) and lower maximum rSO2 values (60.6±10.6 vs. 73.3±11.2%, p<0.01). Baseline rSO2 was a good mortality predictor (AUC 0.79; 95%CI: 0.63-0.94, p<0.01). Dynamic parameters obtained with VOT did not improve the results. Septic shock patients present an important alteration of microcirculation that can be evaluated by NIRS with prognostic implications. Monitoring microvascular reactivity in the brachioradialis muscle using VOT with our device does not seem to improve the prognostic value of baseline rSO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic value of body mass index in transcatheter aortic valve implantation: A "J"-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferreiro, Rocío; Muñoz-García, Antonio J; López-Otero, Diego; Avanzas, Pablo; Pascual, Isaac; Alonso-Briales, Juan H; Trillo-Nouche, Ramiro; Pun, Federico; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel F; Hernández-García, José M; Morís, César; González Juanatey, José R

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to determine whether body mass index (BMI) is a prognostic indicator for long-term, all-cause mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Obesity in patients with established cardiovascular disease has previously been identified as an indicator of good prognosis, a phenomenon known as the "obesity paradox". The prognostic significance of BMI in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AoS) undergoing TAVI is a matter of current debate, as published studies are scarce and their results conflicting. This is an observational, retrospective study involving 770 patients who underwent TAVI for AoS. The cohort was divided into three groups based on their BMI: normal weight (≥18.5 to value=0.036]). After adjustment by logistic EuroSCORE, being overweight was found to be an independent protective factor against mortality (HR: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.42 to 0.94], p=0.024). This was not the case for obesity (HR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.63 to 1.35], p=0.664). We therefore describe for the first time, a "J-shaped" regression curve describing the relationship between BMI and mortality. BMI is a predictive factor of all-cause mortality in AoS patients undergoing TAVI. This relationship takes the form of a "J-shaped" curve in which overweight patients are associated with the lowest mortality rate at follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The predictive value of the baseline Oswestry Disability Index in lumbar disc arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Harel

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was to determine patient factors predictive of good outcome after lumbar disc arthroplasty. Specifically, the paper examines the relationship of the preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to patient outcome at 1 year. The study is a retrospective review of 20 patients undergoing a 1-level lumbar disc arthroplasty at the author's institution between 2004 and 2008. All data were collected prospectively. Data included the ODI, visual analog scale scores, and patient demographics. All patients underwent a 1-level disc arthroplasty at L4-5 or L5-S1. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on their baseline ODI. Patients with an ODI between 38 and 59 demonstrated better outcomes with lumbar disc arthroplasty. Only 1 (20%) of 5 patients with a baseline ODI higher than 60 reported a good outcome. In contrast, 13 (87%) of 15 patients with an ODI between 38 and 59 showed a good outcome (p = 0.03). The negative predictive value of using ODI > 60 is 60% in patients who are determined to be candidates for lumbar arthroplasty. Lumbar arthroplasty is very effective in some patients. Other patients do not improve after surgery. The baseline ODI results are predictive of outcome in patients selected for lumbar disc arthroplasty. A baseline ODI > 60 is predictive of poor outcome. A high ODI may be indicative of psychosocial overlay.

  5. Value of the prognostic nutritional index in advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyi; Wang, Donghai; Mei, Ying; Jin, Hailong; Zhu, Kankai; Liu, Xiaosun; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Jiren

    2017-03-01

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is a useful parameter indicating the immune and nutritional status of cancer patients; this study investigated the prognostic value of the PNI in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 117 advanced gastric cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria for preoperative chemotherapy and underwent surgical resection from July 2004 to December 2011. The patients were divided into PNI-high (PNI ≥ 45) and PNI-low (PNI  0.05). Cox regression analysis indicated that yield pathologic T (ypT), yield pathologic N (ypN) stage, and prechemotherapy PNI were independent prognostic factors (ypT: HR = 2.914, 95% CI = 1.312-6.470, P = 0.009; ypN: HR = 4.909, 95% CI = 1.764-13.660, P = 0.003; prechemotherapy PNI: HR = 1.963, 95% CI = 1.101-3.499, P = 0.022). The prechemotherapy PNI is a useful predictor of the long-term outcome of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  7. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  8. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  9. Explanatory Value of the Ability Index as Assessed by Cardiologists and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss; Lisby, Karen H; King, Catriona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  The Ability Index was developed to classify patients with congenital heart disease into four functional classes. Functional class is typically determined by the cardiologist, based on data from a clinical interview. The validity of the Ability Index as assessed by the patient has...

  10. Value of the Doppler index of myocardial performance in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Tei, C

    2000-01-01

    Prospective assessment of a nongeometric Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance was performed in 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) within 1 hour after their arrival to the hospital and in 39 age-matched healthy subjects. The index is defined...

  11. The bilateral bispectral and the composite variability indexes during anesthesia for unilateral surgical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lopes-Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that the large interindividual variability of BIS and CVI limits their usefulness. We found differences between the left and right measurements in a right-handed series of patients during surgical stimuli though they were not clinically relevant.

  12. Gender Effect on Recovery Time Following Isoflurane Administration While Using a Bispectral Index Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fevurly, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    ...; in addition, most of the studies referring to this potential were retrospective in nature. Recovery time differences have been reported between genders during propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide anesthesia (Gan et al., 1999...

  13. Gender Differences in Recovery Times from General Anesthesia Using Sevoflurane and the Bispectral Index Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alguire, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of patient care is one goal of anesthesia providers. With individualized care nurse anesthetists can achieve high degrees of patient satisfaction, reduce overall costs and improve patient outcomes...

  14. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG index; (2) obesity status (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and cutoff value of TyG index; (3) obesity status and metabolic health, defined as having fewer than two of the five components of high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The development of diabetes was assessed annually using self-questionnaire, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. We compared the risk of incident diabetes using multivariate Cox analysis. During 11623 person-years there were 101 case of incident diabetes. Subjects with high TyG index had a high risk of diabetes. For TyG index quartiles, hazard ratios (HRs) of quartiles 3 and 4 were 4.06 (p = 0.033) and 5.65 (p = 0.006) respectively. When the subjects were divided by obesity status and cutoff value of TyG index of 8.8, the subgroups with TyG index ≥ 8.8 regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HR 2.40 [p = 0.024] and 2.25 [p = 0.048]). For obesity status and metabolic health, the two metabolically unhealthy subgroups regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HRs 2.54 [p = 0.024] and 2.73 [p = 0.021]). In conclusion, the TyG index measured at a single time point may be an indicator of the risk for incident diabetes. The predictive value of the TyG index was comparable to that of metabolic health.

  15. Transition from manual to automatic rutting measurements : effect on pavement serviceability index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Pavement Serviceability Index (pSn is used by New Mexico Department of Transportation : (NMDOT) to express the serviceability level of a pavement section at the network level. The PSI : is calculated with distress ratings (including rutting) and ...

  16. Hirsch Index Value and Variability Related to General Surgery in a UK Deanery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Tarig; Brown, Josephine; Wheat, Jenny; Thomas, Charlotte; Lewis, Wyn

    2016-01-01

    The Hirsch Index (h-index) is often used to assess research impact, and on average a social science senior lecturer will have an h-index of 2.29, yet its validity within the context of UK General Surgery (GS) is unknown. The aim of this study was to calculate the h-indices of a cohort of GS consultants in a UK Deanery to assess its relative validity. Individual h-indices and total publication (TP) counts were obtained for GS consultants via the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) Internet search engines. Assessment of construct validity and reliability of these 2 measures of the h-index was undertaken. All hospitals in a single UK National Health Service Deanery were included (14 general hospitals). All 136 GS consultants from the Deanery were included. Median h-index (Scopus) was 5 (0-52) and TP 15 (0-369), and strong correlation was found between h-index and TP (ρ = 0.932, p Scopus and WoS h-index also significant (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.973 [95% CI: 0.962-0.981], p Scopus 12 vs 7 vs 4 [p 2.29 in 57.4% of consultants. No subspecialty differences were apparent in median h-indices (p = 0.792) and TP (p = 0.903). h-Index is a valid GS research productivity metric with over half of consultants performing at levels equivalent to social science Senior Lecturers. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  18. Prognostic value of Ki-67 index in adult medulloblastoma after accounting for molecular subgroup: a retrospective clinical and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fu; Zhang, Jing; Li, Peng; Zhou, Qiangyi; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Chi; Wang, Bo; Yang, Zhijun; Li, Chunde; Liu, Pinan

    2018-04-23

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is a rare primary brain tumor in adults. We previously evaluated that combining both clinical and molecular classification could improve current risk stratification for adult MB. In this study, we aimed to identify the prognostic value of Ki-67 index in adult MB. Ki-67 index of 51 primary adult MBs was reassessed using a computer-based image analysis (Image-Pro Plus). All patients were followed up ranging from 12 months up to 15 years. Gene expression profiling and immunochemistry were used to establish the molecular subgroups in adult MB. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical characteristics, molecular classification and Ki-67 index, and identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. In our cohort, the mean Ki-67 value was 30.0 ± 11.3% (range 6.56-63.55%). The average Ki-67 value was significantly higher in LC/AMB than in CMB and DNMB (P = .001). Among three molecular subgroups, Group 4-tumors had the highest average Ki-67 value compared with WNT- and SHH-tumors (P = .004). Patients with Ki-67 index large than 30% displayed poorer overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) than those with Ki-67 less than 30% (OS: P = .001; PFS: P = .006). Ki-67 index (i.e. > 30%, < 30%) was identified as an independent significant prognostic factor (OS: P = .017; PFS: P = .024) by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. In conclusion, Ki-67 index can be considered as a valuable independent prognostic biomarker for adult patients with MB.

  19. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    omid hosseinzadeh; Marzieh Hajjarian; Samira Porbar

    2016-01-01

    Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in ...

  20. 76 FR 30550 - Federal Management Regulation; Change in Consumer Price Index Minimal Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Minimal Value AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, GSA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 7342, at three-year intervals following January 1, 1981, the minimal value for foreign gifts must... required consultation has been completed and the minimal value has been increased to $350 or less as of...

  1. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  2. How long the singular value decomposed entropy predicts the stock market? - Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rongbao; Shao, Yanmin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new concept of multi-scales singular value decomposition entropy based on DCCA cross correlation analysis is proposed and its predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index is studied. Using Granger causality analysis with different time scales, it is found that, the singular value decomposition entropy has predictive power for the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index for period less than one month, but not for more than one month. This shows how long the singular value decomposition entropy predicts the stock market that extends Caraiani's result obtained in Caraiani (2014). On the other hand, the result also shows an essential characteristic of stock market as a chaotic dynamic system.

  3. The predictive value of the foot posture index on dynamic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Kersting, U G

    2008-01-01

    Keenan et. al. identified the six-item version of the Foot Posture Index (FPI) as a valid, simple and clinically useful tool. The model combines measures of the standing foot posture in multiple planes and anatomical segments. It provides an alternative to existing static clinical measures when d...

  4. The Predictive Value of the Foot Posture Index on Dynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    Keenan et. al. identified the six-item version of the Foot Posture Index (FPI) as a valid, simple and clinically useful tool. The model combines measures of the standing foot posture in multiple planes and anatomical segments. It provides an alternative to existing static clinical measures when...

  5. Analysis of clinically relevant values of Ki-67 labeling index in Japanese breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kanou; Miyashita, Minoru; Amari, Masakazu; Tadano-Sato, Akiko; Takahashi, Yayoi; Watanabe, Mika; McNamara, Keely; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-05-01

    It has become important to standardize the methods of Ki-67 evaluation in breast cancer patients, especially those used in the interpretation and scoring of immunoreactivity. Therefore, in this study, we examined the Ki-67 immunoreactivity of breast cancer surgical specimens processed and stained in the same manner in one single Japanese institution by counting nuclear immunoreactivity in the same fashion. We examined 408 Japanese breast cancers with invasive ductal carcinoma and studied the correlation between Ki-67 labeling index and ER/HER2 status and histological grade of breast cancer. We also analyzed overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of these patients according to individual Ki-67 labeling index. There were statistically significant differences of Ki-67 labeling index between ER positive/HER2 negative and ER positive/HER2 positive, ER negative/HER2 positive or ER negative/HER2 negative, and ER positive/HER2 positive and ER negative/HER2 negative groups (all P < 0.001). There were also statistically significant differences of Ki-67 labeling index among each histological grade (P < 0.001, respectively). As for multivariate analyses, Ki-67 labeling index was strongly associated with OS (HR 39.12, P = 0.031) and DFS (HR 10.85, P = 0.011) in ER positive and HER2 negative breast cancer patients. In addition, a statistically significant difference was noted between classical luminal A group and "20 % luminal A" in DFS (P = 0.039) but not between classical luminal A group and "25 % luminal A" (P = 0.105). A significant positive correlation was detected between Ki-67 labeling index and ER/HER2 status and histological grades of the cases examined in our study. The suggested optimal cutoff point of Ki-67 labeling index is between 20 and 25 % in ER positive and HER2 negative breast cancer patients.

  6. Independent Prognostic Value of Stroke Volume Index in Patients With Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Heart involvement is the most important prognostic determinant in AL amyloidosis patients. Echocardiography is a cornerstone for the diagnosis and provides important prognostic information. We studied 754 patients with AL amyloidosis who underwent echocardiographic assessment at the Mayo Clinic, including a Doppler-derived measurement of stroke volume (SV) within 30 days of their diagnosis to explore the prognostic role of echocardiographic variables in the context of a well-established soluble cardiac biomarker staging system. Reproducibility of SV, myocardial contraction fraction, and left ventricular strain was assessed in a separate, yet comparable, study cohort of 150 patients from the Pavia Amyloidosis Center. The echocardiographic measures most predictive for overall survival were SV index <33 mL/min, myocardial contraction fraction <34%, and cardiac index <2.4 L/min/m 2 with respective hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.95 (2.37-3.66), 2.36 (1.96-2.85), and 2.32 (1.91-2.80). For the subset that had left ventricular strain performed, the prognostic cut point was -14% (hazard ratios, 2.70; 95% confidence intervals, 1.84-3.96). Each parameter was independent of systolic blood pressure, Mayo staging system (NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide] and troponin), and ejection fraction on multivariable analysis. Simple predictive models for survival, including biomarker staging along with SV index or left ventricular strain, were generated. SV index prognostic performance was similar to left ventricular strain in predicting survival in AL amyloidosis, independently of biomarker staging. Because SV index is routinely calculated and widely available, it could serve as the preferred echocardiographic measure to predict outcomes in AL amyloidosis patients. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. An empirical analysis of corporate governance and firm value: Evidence from KSE-100 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Khan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of corporate governance on firm value measured by Tobin’s Q. Different corporate governance proxies i.e. board size, board independence, audit committee and CEO duality are interacted with firm value. A sample of 91 nonfinancial firms listed on KSE was selected over the period 2010-2014. The findings of the study show that board size and CEO duality had negative impacts on firm value. Moreover, board size, non-executive directors and audit committee had positive and significant impacts on firm value.

  8. The experimental set-valued index of refraction of dielectric and anelastic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caputo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric parameter, in the generalised Debye form, of all studied substances (Cole and Cole, 1941 contains a rational power of the imaginary frequency which implies that the index of refraction is a multivalued function of the frequency; the same property, concerning the stress strain relation, also applies to anelastic media (Bagley and Torvik, 1983a,b. The multivalued index of refraction implies then that the free modes of dielectric and anelastic media are split into a number of modes which depend on the exponent of the imaginary frequency. In order to estimate if it is possible to observe this splitting, this note computes the parameters appearing in the generalised Debye form of the dielectric parameters of many substances and also the complex anelastic parameter of an anelastic medium. The analysis of the data indicates that, depending on the accuracy of the experimental data, with few exceptions, the splitting is observable.

  9. A bispectral q-hypergeometric basis for a class of quantum integrable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseilhac, Pascal; Martin, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    For the class of quantum integrable models generated from the q-Onsager algebra, a basis of bispectral multivariable q-orthogonal polynomials is exhibited. In the first part, it is shown that the multivariable Askey-Wilson polynomials with N variables and N + 3 parameters introduced by Gasper and Rahman [Dev. Math. 13, 209 (2005)] generate a family of infinite dimensional modules for the q-Onsager algebra, whose fundamental generators are realized in terms of the multivariable q-difference and difference operators proposed by Iliev [Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 363, 1577 (2011)]. Raising and lowering operators extending those of Sahi [SIGMA 3, 002 (2007)] are also constructed. In the second part, finite dimensional modules are constructed and studied for a certain class of parameters and if the N variables belong to a discrete support. In this case, the bispectral property finds a natural interpretation within the framework of tridiagonal pairs. In the third part, eigenfunctions of the q-Dolan-Grady hierarchy are considered in the polynomial basis. In particular, invariant subspaces are identified for certain conditions generalizing Nepomechie's relations. In the fourth part, the analysis is extended to the special case q = 1. This framework provides a q-hypergeometric formulation of quantum integrable models such as the open XXZ spin chain with generic integrable boundary conditions (q ≠ 1).

  10. The development of a value based pricing index for new drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, Martha Susanna; Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, prices for cancer drugs have been under downward pressure where several governments have mandated price cuts of branded products. A better alternative to government mandated price cuts would be to estimate a final price based on drug performance, cost effectiveness and a country’s ability to pay. We developed a global pricing index for new cancer drugs in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that encompasses all of these attributes. Methods ...

  11. Exploring spatial change and gravity center movement for ecosystem services value using a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and gravity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingbin; Chen, Youqi; Tang, Huajun; Yao, Yanmin; Yang, Peng; Chen, Zhongxin

    2011-04-01

    Spatially explicit ecosystem services valuation and change is a newly developing area of research in the field of ecology. Using the Beijing region as a study area, the authors have developed a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and implemented this to quantify and spatially differentiate ecosystem services value at 1-km grid resolution. A gravity model was developed to trace spatial change in the total ecosystem services value of the Beijing study area from a holistic point of view. Study results show that the total value of ecosystem services for the study area decreased by 19.75% during the period 1996-2006 (3,226.2739 US$×10(6) in 1996, 2,589.0321 US$×10(6) in 2006). However, 27.63% of the total area of the Beijing study area increased in ecosystem services value. Spatial differences in ecosystem services values for both 1996 and 2006 are very clear. The center of gravity of total ecosystem services value for the study area moved 32.28 km northwestward over the 10 years due to intensive human intervention taking place in southeast Beijing. The authors suggest that policy-makers should pay greater attention to ecological protection under conditions of rapid socio-economic development and increase the area of green belt in the southeastern part of Beijing.

  12. The Predictive Value of the Foot Posture Index on Dynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Keenan et. al. identified the six-item version of the Foot Posture Index (FPI) as a valid, simple and clinically useful tool. The model combines measures of the standing foot posture in multiple planes and anatomical segments. It provides an alternative to existing static clinical measures when...... dynamic measures are not feasible. Redmond et. al. found the model able to predict 41% of the variation in the complex rotation of the ankle joint, representing inversion/eversion, during midstance of walking. To our knowledge no studies have been published on the relationship between FPI and the movement...

  13. The Predictive Value of Integrated Pulmonary Index after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia V. Fot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe early warning scores may increase the safety of perioperative period. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic and predictive role of Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB.Materials and MethodsForty adult patients undergoing elective OPCAB were enrolled into a single-center prospective observational study. We assessed respiratory function using IPI that includes oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2, respiratory rate, and pulse rate. In addition, we evaluated blood gas analyses and hemodynamics, including ECG, invasive arterial pressure, and cardiac index. The measurements were performed after transfer to the intensive care unit, after spontaneous breathing trial and at 2, 6, 12, and 18 h after extubation.Results and DiscussionThe value of IPI registered during respiratory support correlated weakly with cardiac index (rho = 0.4; p = 0.04 and ScvO2 (rho = 0.4, p = 0.02. After extubation, IPI values decreased significantly, achieving a minimum by 18 h. The IPI value ≤9 at 6 h after extubation was a predictor of complicated early postoperative period (AUC = 0.71; p = 0.04 observed in 13 patients.ConclusionIn off-pump coronary surgery, the IPI decreases significantly after tracheal extubation and may predict postoperative complications.

  14. Evaluation value of coronary CTA for coronary plaque features and its correlation with platelet function and serum biochemical indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xia Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the evaluation value of coronary CT angiography for coronary plaque features and its correlation with platelet function and serum biochemical indexes. Methods: A total of 450 patients with coronary heart disease were divided into calcified plaque group (CT value≥130HU (n=117, soft plaque group (CT value≤60HU (n=150 and mixed plaque group (CT value 60-130HU (n=183 by coronary CT angiography (CTA, and 100 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Differences in platelet function and serum biochemical indexes were compared among four groups of patients, and the judgment value of atheromatous plaque CT value from CTA for the severity of coronary heart disease was analyzed. Results: Platelet function parameters MPV, TEG-MA, P-selectin, PDGF-BB and vWF levels in peripheral blood of soft plaque group were higher than those of the other three groups; inflammatory factors CRP, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18 and IL-23 content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups; chemokines MCP-1, CXCL16, Fractalkine and RANTES content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups; adipocytokines Leptin and RBP4 content in serum were higher than those of the other three groups while SFRP5 content was lower than those of the other three groups. Atheromatous plaque CT value in patients with coronary heart disease was directly correlated with platelet function and the content of serum biochemical indexes. Conclusions: Coronary CTA can accurately assess coronary atheromatous plaque features, and can also be a reliable noninvasive method to judge coronary heart disease severity, treatment prognosis and so on.

  15. Prognostic value of body mass index before treatment for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao-Qu; Zou, Lan; Liu, Tian-Run; Yang, An-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer often suffer from malnutrition. This study aims to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). A total of 473 patients with LSCC initially treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2005 and July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Low BMI before treatment was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with LSCC (P<0.001). BMI was an independent prognostic factor for patients with LSCC. Leanness before treatment was associated with poor prognosis in patients with LSCC. Good nutritional status is favorable to improve survival in patients with LSCC

  16. Discussion on calculation of disease severity index values from scales with unequal intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    When estimating severity of disease, a disease interval (or category) scale comprises a number of categories of known numeric values – with plant disease this is generally the percent area with symptoms (e.g., the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale). Studies in plant pathology and plant breeding often use...

  17. [The reference of normal values of the sacroiliac joint index in bone scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastjanowicz, Przemysław; Iwanowski, Jacek; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Elbl, Bogumiła; Birkenfeld, Bożena

    Scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints as functional imaging provides unique information on the existing disease process. By using radiopharmaceuticals that allow imaging of the metabolic activity within the joint, it is possible to assess the stage of the disease, even when there are no lesions in radiological images. Quantitative analysis of scintigrams of sacroiliac joints is performed by comparing the uptake in both of them in relation to the uptake in the sacral bone area. The values of sacroiliac (SI/S) indices are influenced by the age of the patient, sex, state of health, and a range of individual biological features. Therefore, reference values of SI/S ratios are very important for medical specialists who describe and diagnose locomotor system diseases. The aim of this paper is to develop a reference range of sacroiliac ratios. The innovativeness of this paper involves examining sacroiliac ratios for various age groups, in children and adult patients, taking their sex into consideration. The study comprised a group of 335 people with proper bone scintigraphy. These people were divided into children and patients aged ≥21. Children were divided into 4 age groups (1–5; 6–10; 11–15; 16–20) and adults into 6 age groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; 61–70; ≥71). Sacroiliac ratios were calculated using the method of three rectangular region of interests located on the left and right sacroiliac joint and on the sacral bone. The sacroiliac ratio was calculated for both joints by dividing the average number of counts within a selected sacroiliac joint by the average number of counts within the sacral bone. SI/S borderline reference values covered the range of 1.18÷2.28 that was obtained for children aged ≤5 and for the group of 11–15-year-olds. Considerable discrepancies in the values of the coefficient for women and men were seen among 31–50-year-olds. Borderline reference results for the entire control group cover the range of 1.18 ±2

  18. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria. Keywords : annual equivalent value, benefit cost ratio, composite performance index, valuation appraisal

  19. A critical note on the IAGA-endorsed Polar Cap (PC) indices: excessive excursions in the real-time index values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices were approved by the International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) in 2013 and made available at the web portal http://pcindex.org" target="_blank">http://pcindex.org holding prompt (real-time) as well as archival index values. The present note provides the first reported examination of the validity of the IAGA-endorsed method to generate real-time PC index values. It is demonstrated that features of the derivation procedure defined by Janzhura and Troshichev (2011) may cause considerable excursions in the real-time PC index values compared to the final index values. In examples based on occasional downloads of index values, the differences between real-time and final values of PC indices were found to exceed 3 mV m-1, which is a magnitude level that may indicate (or hide) strong magnetic storm activity.

  20. Predictive value of European Scleroderma Group Activity Index in an early scleroderma cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskaya, Tatiana; Baron, Murray; Pope, Janet E

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the effect of disease activity, as measured by the European Scleroderma Research Group Activity Index (EScSG-AI), on the risk of subsequent organ damage in a large systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort. Of 421 SSc patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group database with disease duration of ⩽ 3 years, 197 who had no evidence of end-stage organ damage initially and available 3 year follow-up were included. Disease activity was assessed by the EScSG-AI with two variability measures: the adjusted mean EScSG-AI (the area under the curve of the EScSG-AI over the observation period) and persistently active disease/flare. Outcomes were based on the Medsger severity scale and included accrual of a new severity score (Δ ⩾ 1) overall and within organ systems or reaching a significant level of deterioration in health status. After adjustment for covariates, the adjusted mean EScSG-AI was the most consistent predictor of risk across the study outcomes over 3 years in dcSSc: disease progression defined as Δ ⩾ 1 in any major internal organ, significant decline in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, severity of visceral disease and HAQ Disability Index worsening. In multivariate analysis, progression of lung disease was predicted solely by adjusted mean EScSG-AI, while the severity of lung disease was predicted the adjusted mean EScSG-AI, older age, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) and initial severity. The EScSG-AI was associated with patient- and physician-assessed measures of health status and overpowered the mRSS in predicting disease outcomes. Disease activity burden quantified with the adjusted mean EScSG-AI predicted the risk of deterioration in health status and severe organ involvement in dcSSc. The EScSG-AI is more responsive when done repeatedly and averaged. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  1. The Value of Information from a GRACE-Enhanced Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Bernknopf, R.; Macauley, M.; Brookshire, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Rodell, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage anomalies derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Data Assimilation System (GRACE-DAS) have been used to enhance the information contained in drought indicators. The potential value of this information is to inform local and regional decisions to improve economic welfare in the face of drought. Based on a characterization of current drought evaluations, a modeling framework has been structured to analyze the contributed value of the Earth observations in the assessment of the onset and duration of droughts and their regional impacts. The analysis focuses on (1) characterizing how GRACE-DAS provides Earth observation information for a drought warning, (2) assessing how a GRACE-DAS-enhanced U.S. Drought Monitor would improve economic outcomes in a region, and (3) applying this enhancement process in a decision framework to illustrate the potential role of GRACE data products in a recent drought and response scenario for a value-of-information (VOI) analysis. The VOI analysis quantifies the relative contribution of enhanced understanding and communication of the societal benefits associated with GRACE Earth observation science. Our emphasis is to illustrate the role of an enhanced National Integrated Drought Information System outlook on three key societal outcomes: effects on particular economic sectors, changes in land management decisions, and reductions in damages to ecosystem services.

  2. Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamini; Srivastava, Sarita

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop finger millet incorporated noodles for diabetic patients. Finger millet variety VL-149 was taken. The finger millet flour and refined wheat flour (RWF) were evaluated for nutrient composition. The finger millet flour (FMF) was blended in various proportions (30 to 50%) in refined wheat flour and used for the preparation of noodles. Control consisted of RWF noodles. Sensory quality and nutrient composition of finger millet noodles was evaluated. The 30% finger millet incorporated noodles were selected best on the basis of sensory evaluation. Noodles in that proportion along with control were evaluated for glycemic response. Nutrient composition of noodles showed that 50% finger millet incorporated noodles contained highest amount of crude fat (1.15%), total ash (1.40%), crude fiber (1.28%), carbohydrate (78.54%), physiological energy (351.36 kcal), insoluble dietary fiber (5.45%), soluble dietary fiber (3.71%), iron (5.58%) and calcium (88.39%), respectively. However, control RWF noodles contained highest amount of starch (63.02%), amylose (8.72%) and amylopectin (54.29%). The glycemic index (GI) of 30% finger millet incorporated noodles (best selected by sensory evaluation) was observed significantly lower (45.13) than control noodles (62.59). It was found that finger millet flour incorporated noodles were found nutritious and showed hypoglycemic effect.

  3. Prognostic Value of the Nutritional Risk Index in Heart Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge-Caballero, Eduardo; García-López, Fernando; Marzoa-Rivas, Raquel; Barge-Caballero, Gonzalo; Couto-Mallón, David; Paniagua-Martín, María J; Solla-Buceta, Miguel; Velasco-Sierra, Carlos; Pita-Gutiérrez, Francisco; Herrera-Noreña, José M; Cuenca-Castillo, José J; Vázquez-Rodríguez, José Manuel; Crespo-Leiro, María G

    2017-08-01

    To study the prognostic impact of preoperative nutritional status, as assessed through the nutritional risk index (NRI), on postoperative outcomes after heart transplantation (HT). We conducted a retrospective, single-center study of 574 patients who underwent HT from 1991 to 2014. Preoperative NRI was calculated as 1.519 × serum albumin (g/L) + 41.7 × (body weight [kg] / ideal body weight [kg]). The association between preoperative NRI and postoperative outcomes was analyzed by means of multivariable logistic regression and multivariable Cox regression. Mean NRI before HT was 100.9 ± 9.9. According to this parameter, the prevalence of severe nutritional risk (NRI risk (83.5 ≤ NRI risk (97.5 ≤ NRI risk of postoperative infection (adjusted OR, 0.97; 95%CI, 0.95-1.00; P = .027) and prolonged postoperative ventilator support (adjusted OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.94-0.98; P = .001). Patients at moderate or severe nutritional risk had significantly higher 1-year post-HT mortality (adjusted HR, 1.55; 95%CI, 1.22-1.97; P risk of postoperative complications and mortality after HT. Preoperative NRI determination may help to identify HT candidates who might benefit from nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of age, sex, and indexation method on MR left ventricular reference values in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Susan B; Salton, Carol J; Gona, Philimon; Chuang, Michael L; Blease, Susan J; Han, Yuchi; Tsao, Connie W; Danias, Peter G; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J

    2015-04-01

    To determine normative values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, concentricity, and ejection fraction (EF) and investigate associations between sex, age, and body size with LV parameters in community-dwelling adults. In all, 1794 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort members underwent LV short-axis oriented, contiguous multislice cine steady-state free precession MR of the left ventricle; from these a healthy referent group (n = 852, 61 ± 9 years, 40% men) free of clinical cardiac disease and hypertension (SBP 65 years); LV parameters were indexed to measures of body size. Men have greater LV volumes and mass than women both before and after indexation to height, powers of height, and body surface area (P J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1038-1045. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prognostic value of low and high ankle-brachial index in hospitalized medical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Leonella; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Pirro, Matteo; Vaudo, Gaetano; Leli, Christian; Colella, Renato; Innocente, Salvatore; Ciuffetti, Giovanni; Mannarino, Elmo

    2012-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is frequently underdiagnosed in the clinical practice, leading to a lack of opportunity to detect subjects at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) death. The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) represents a noninvasive, objective tool to diagnose PAD and to predict adverse outcome. ABI was determined by means of Doppler velocimetry, in 707 patients, aged 50 years or older, consecutively hospitalized in an internal medicine ward, who were followed-up for at least 12 months in order to assess all-cause and CV mortality. Symptomatic PAD affected 8% of the population while the prevalence of PAD, defined as ABI 1.40) was found in 8% of the patients. After a mean follow-up period of 1.6 years, both low and high ABI were independently associated with CV mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.99 (p=0.016) for low and 2.13 (p=0.04) for high ABI, compared with normal ABI (0.90-1.40). High ABI also independently predicted all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.77 (p=0.04). ABI measurement reveals a large number of individuals with asymptomatic PAD among those hospitalized in an internal medicine department. An increased mortality was observed in patients with both low and high ABI. Hospital admission for any reason may serve as an opportunity to detect PAD and start appropriate preventive actions. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The prognostic value of tip-to-apex distance (TAD index in intertrochanteric fractures fixed by dynamic hip screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadighi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertrochanteric fractures (ITFs are the most common type of fractures requiring surgical intervention. They also have the highest surgical mortality among orthopedic operations. Among the many different techniques used for fixation of this type of fracture, use of the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS has gained wide acceptance. This current study was designed to assess positive predictive value of tip-to-apex distance (TAD index in the prognosis of patients treated with DHS. The study was designed according to a descriptive-analytic protocol, made up of 100 cases of ITFs caused by falling, treated in the Shohada Orthopedic Center, Tabriz, Iran. All patients underwent lateral and antero-posterior hip X-ray to measure TAD index. The cohort was followed for three months after DHS placement. Of a total of 100 cases (53 male, 47 female with a mean age of 76.7 years (range 29-100 years, 43% had grade 4, 29% grade 3, 21% grade 5, 5% grade 2 and 2% grade 6 osteoporosis. The screw position was postero-inferior in 57%, central in 40% and superior in 3% of patients. Minimum and maximum TAD index were 20 and 28 mm, respectively. Mean TAD was 23.5 mm. There were no post-operative complications in 84% of cases. Screw failure was the most common complication in the remaining 16% of patients. The study shows a statistically significant correlation between TAD index and cut-off rate in patients with intertrochanteric fractures of femoral bone treated by DHS. This validates the use of TAD index in determining the prognosis of patients treated by DHS.

  7. Prognostic value of myocardial infarct size index, obtained with technetium-99m pyrophosphate and thallium-201 chloride scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Masami [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-02-01

    In order to determine the usefulness of nuclear cardiology methods in evaluating infarction size and in predicting subsequent mortality, the infarction size index was calculated and their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured for 136 patients with acute myocardial infarction, by means of sup(99m)Tc- and /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy. Sensitivity of sup(99m)Tc-scintigraphy was 84% (of 44 cases). The hot sup(99m)Tc-areas were measured by planimetry only in anterior transmural infarctions. For 15 patients followed for 25 months on the average, hot areas were 13.8 +- 10.8 cm/sup 2/ in survivors and 31.7 +- 18.2 cm/sup 2/ in non-survivors. Both a doughnut pattern and persistent hot area in scintigraphs were signs of poor prognosis. Sensitivity of /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy was 86% (of 95 cases). The extent of /sup 201/Tl perfusion defects was determined in three views by the average ratio of the length of perfusion defects to that of the left ventricle (LV). Interobserver correlation was high (r = 0.89). As the percent /sup 201/Tl defect index increased, the peak value of creatine phosphokinase, the grade of Peel index, incidence of congestion on initial chest X-ray, and LV aneurysma all gradually increased. In 48 patients followed for 23 months on the average after discharge, the incidence of congestive heart failure and mortality also increased with the larger degree of percent /sup 201/Tl defect index. In particular, the prognosis was poor in patients who had the percent /sup 201/Tl defect index larger than 40%. The LVEF, measured with a computerized multi-crystal gamma camera, was well correlated with that of contrast ventriculography (r = 0.92). The patients who had severe LV dysfunction and the LVEF less than 31% also showed poor prognosis.

  8. The prognostic value of tip-to-apex distance (TAD index) in intertrochanteric fractures fixed by dynamic hip screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Ali; Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Alavi, Sahar

    2012-11-02

    Intertrochanteric fractures (ITFs) are the most common type of fractures requiring surgical intervention. They also have the highest surgical mortality among orthopedic operations. Among the many different techniques used for fixation of this type of fracture, use of the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) has gained wide acceptance. This current study was designed to assess positive predictive value of tip-to-apex distance (TAD) index in the prognosis of patients treated with DHS. The study was designed according to a descriptive-analytic protocol, made up of 100 cases of ITFs caused by falling, treated in the Shohada Orthopedic Center, Tabriz, Iran. All patients underwent lateral and antero-posterior hip X-ray to measure TAD index. The cohort was followed for three months after DHS placement. Of a total of 100 cases (53 male, 47 female) with a mean age of 76.7 years (range 29-100 years), 43% had grade 4, 29% grade 3, 21% grade 5, 5% grade 2 and 2% grade 6 osteoporosis. The screw position was postero-inferior in 57%, central in 40% and superior in 3% of patients. Minimum and maximum TAD index were 20 and 28 mm, respectively. Mean TAD was 23.5 mm. There were no post-operative complications in 84% of cases. Screw failure was the most common complication in the remaining 16% of patients. The study shows a statistically significant correlation between TAD index and cut-off rate in patients with intertrochanteric fractures of femoral bone treated by DHS. This validates the use of TAD index in determining the prognosis of patients treated by DHS.

  9. Bispectral analysis of nonlinear compressional waves in a two-dimensional dusty plasma crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosenko, V.; Goree, J.; Skiff, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bispectral analysis was used to study the nonlinear interaction of compressional waves in a two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma. A monolayer of highly charged polymer microspheres was suspended in a plasma sheath. The microspheres interacted with a Yukawa potential and formed a triangular lattice. Two sinusoidal pump waves with different frequencies were excited in the lattice by pushing the particles with modulated Ar + laser beams. Coherent nonlinear interaction of the pump waves was shown to be the mechanism of generating waves at the sum, difference, and other combination frequencies. However, coherent nonlinear interaction was ruled out for certain combination frequencies, in particular, for the difference frequency below an excitation-power threshold, as predicted by theory

  10. Elsevier’s CiteScore index values for Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: a 2016 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šterbenc, Anja; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2017-09-01

    Elsevier’s recently launched citation metric CiteScore enables comprehensive, transparent, and current evaluation of a journal’s performance. For an editorial office, insight into a journal’s impact over time is of great value when making important decisions regarding the journal’s future. A 2016 update of CiteScore index values for Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adri- atica (Acta Dermatovenerol APA) showed a slight decrease in the CiteScore index value from 1.18 in 2015 to 0.96 in 2016. Acta Dermatovenerol APA can still be considered the principal journal in the field of dermatology and sexually transmitted infections in our region, with almost half of the articles published between 2013 and 2015 cited at least once in 2016. Acta Dermatovenerol APA performed well in both categories listed because it ranked 67th out of 121 journals in the category Dermatology (44th percentile) and 175th out of 250 journals in the category Infectious Diseases (30th percentile).

  11. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiao-Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI and simple PESI (sPESI are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15, PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17 and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41, with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14, 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26 and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51, respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16, 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21, and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38, respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916, 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415, and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978, 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388, and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0

  12. Value of the lumbar lordotic angle taken from CT scanogram as an index of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hea Sang; Kim, Guk Hee; Kim, Dae Young

    1986-01-01

    'Normal' spinal posture is generally accepted as moderate lordosis of the cervical and the lumbar sections of spine and moderate kyphosis of the thoracic and sacrococcygeal sections. Among these normal range of the lumbar lordosis is less well defined. CT is very useful method to identified the bony structure and adjacent soft tissue of the spine, so it is very available method to detect accurate lumbar lordotic angle by using lateral Scanogram. Analysis and comparison of lumbar lordotic angles, crossing angle are drawn each parallel line to the superior end plate of body of 1st. lumbar vertebra and to the inferior end plate of the 5th. lumbar vertebra, in 174 cases with backache and 50 cases normal groups at Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, from Aug. 1985 to Jul 1986. Male and female were almostly same affected in backache group (1.1:1). And most lumbar lordotic angles were 10 to 40 between all backache age group. On backache group, over all mean lumbar lordotic angles were 24.7±8.9 but no significant difference at mean value of the each diseases, such as HIVD, Degenerative Spondylosis or No Remarkable Findings group. On control group, over all mean ones were 29.2±8.0. So, significant difference of lumbar lordotic angle between backache and control group, and most difference is at 5th. decade group (p 0.01).

  13. Value of the lumbar lordotic angle taken from CT scanogram as an index of back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hea Sang; Kim, Guk Hee; Kim, Dae Young [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    'Normal' spinal posture is generally accepted as moderate lordosis of the cervical and the lumbar sections of spine and moderate kyphosis of the thoracic and sacrococcygeal sections. Among these normal range of the lumbar lordosis is less well defined. CT is very useful method to identified the bony structure and adjacent soft tissue of the spine, so it is very available method to detect accurate lumbar lordotic angle by using lateral Scanogram. Analysis and comparison of lumbar lordotic angles, crossing angle are drawn each parallel line to the superior end plate of body of 1st. lumbar vertebra and to the inferior end plate of the 5th. lumbar vertebra, in 174 cases with backache and 50 cases normal groups at Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, from Aug. 1985 to Jul 1986. Male and female were almostly same affected in backache group (1.1:1). And most lumbar lordotic angles were 10 to 40 between all backache age group. On backache group, over all mean lumbar lordotic angles were 24.7+-8.9 but no significant difference at mean value of the each diseases, such as HIVD, Degenerative Spondylosis or No Remarkable Findings group. On control group, over all mean ones were 29.2+-8.0. So, significant difference of lumbar lordotic angle between backache and control group, and most difference is at 5th. decade group (p 0.01).

  14. Value of the lumbar lordotic angle taken from CT scanogram as an index of back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hea Sang; Kim, Guk Hee; Kim, Dae Young [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    'Normal' spinal posture is generally accepted as moderate lordosis of the cervical and the lumbar sections of spine and moderate kyphosis of the thoracic and sacrococcygeal sections. Among these normal range of the lumbar lordosis is less well defined. CT is very useful method to identified the bony structure and adjacent soft tissue of the spine, so it is very available method to detect accurate lumbar lordotic angle by using lateral Scanogram. Analysis and comparison of lumbar lordotic angles, crossing angle are drawn each parallel line to the superior end plate of body of 1st. lumbar vertebra and to the inferior end plate of the 5th. lumbar vertebra, in 174 cases with backache and 50 cases normal groups at Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, from Aug. 1985 to Jul 1986. Male and female were almostly same affected in backache group (1.1:1). And most lumbar lordotic angles were 10 to 40 between all backache age group. On backache group, over all mean lumbar lordotic angles were 24.7+-8.9 but no significant difference at mean value of the each diseases, such as HIVD, Degenerative Spondylosis or No Remarkable Findings group. On control group, over all mean ones were 29.2+-8.0. So, significant difference of lumbar lordotic angle between backache and control group, and most difference is at 5th. decade group (p 0.01).

  15. Determinants of the inclusion in the BM&FBOVESPA Corporate Sustainability Index and its relationship with firm value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lélis Pedro Andrade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the variables that influence the firms inclusion in the BM&FBOVESPA Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI, and if such membership is correlated with the firm market value in the Brazilian market. We collected annual data of firms for the period 2006 to 2011. The methodology included the use of methods such as regression analysis type logit and panel data models. The results showed that companies that have joined the ISE have characteristics distinct from those who did not opt for membership. Firms with larger size, higher profitability and sectors considered high environmental impact are more likely to be classified in the ISE. When examined whether inclusion in the CSI has relation with the metric firm value, the results did not reject the hypothesis of positive relationship, even during the financial crisis of 2008, however, found evidence of a negative relationship in the post-crisis period.

  16. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20–22; women: 50%; age: 50–80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  17. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-04-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [ n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUC i ) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUC i ( P < 0.0001), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0066), and mean GL ( P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUC i ( P = 0.0026), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0139), and meal GL ( P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUC i or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  18. An Evaluation of the Usefulness of Stroke Index Values in the Swimming Training of People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidel Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. When evaluating the swimming technique of people with disabilities, a particularly important factor, besides physiological aspects, is the efficiency of the effort expended. This suggests that assessing and monitoring the effectiveness of swimming should be a regular part of training for swimmers with disabilities. Therefore, it seems important to distinguish how changes occur in the parameters that determine the effectiveness of swimming. This is especially true of anaerobic lactic exercise as the lactic acid concentration in the blood increases significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of calculating velocity and the stroke index in the swimming training of people with disabilities, along with the progressive fatigue of a high-intensity interval training workout. Material and methods. The sample comprised 12 elite competitors with a disability. The experiment consisted in swimming sequential distances of 48 m, 50 m, 52 m, and 54 m at maximum intensity. Competitors performed four sets of four repetitions with a 75-second interval between repetitions and 15 minutes of active resting between sets. All sets were recorded using five digital cameras with a frequency of 50 frames per second. The recorded material was analysed with the use of motion analysis software, and the stroke index was calculated. Results. There was found to be no significant change in the average swimming velocity during each set and corresponding repetition, which means that the participants were able to tolerate the training intensity. Also, the stroke index did not change to a statistically significant degree in either of the subsequent sets or the subsequent repetitions (p < 0.05. Conclusions. We conclude that analysing the value of the swimming stroke index for people with disabilities can be a diagnostic method for assessing the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training.

  19. Prognostic value and molecular correlates of a CT image-based quantitative pleural contact index in early stage NSCLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juheon; Cui, Yi; Li, Bailiang; Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States); Sun, Xiaoli [First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Radiotherapy Department, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Li, Dengwang [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States); Shandong Normal University, Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Image Processing Technology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, School of Physics and Electronics, Jinan Shi (China); Loo, Billy W.; Li, Ruijiang [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University School of Medicine, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value and molecular basis of a CT-derived pleural contact index (PCI) in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively analysed seven NSCLC cohorts. A quantitative PCI was defined on CT as the length of tumour-pleura interface normalised by tumour diameter. We evaluated the prognostic value of PCI in a discovery cohort (n = 117) and tested in an external cohort (n = 88) of stage I NSCLC. Additionally, we identified the molecular correlates and built a gene expression-based surrogate of PCI using another cohort of 89 patients. To further evaluate the prognostic relevance, we used four datasets totalling 775 stage I patients with publically available gene expression data and linked survival information. At a cutoff of 0.8, PCI stratified patients for overall survival in both imaging cohorts (log-rank p = 0.0076, 0.0304). Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling was enriched among genes associated with PCI (p = 0.0003). The genomic surrogate of PCI remained an independent predictor of overall survival in the gene expression cohorts (hazard ratio: 1.46, p = 0.0007) adjusting for age, gender, and tumour stage. CT-derived pleural contact index is associated with ECM remodelling and may serve as a noninvasive prognostic marker in early stage NSCLC. (orig.)

  20. E-CAI: a novel server to estimate an expected value of Codon Adaptation Index (eCAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI is a measure of the synonymous codon usage bias for a DNA or RNA sequence. It quantifies the similarity between the synonymous codon usage of a gene and the synonymous codon frequency of a reference set. Extreme values in the nucleotide or in the amino acid composition have a large impact on differential preference for synonymous codons. It is thence essential to define the limits for the expected value of CAI on the basis of sequence composition in order to properly interpret the CAI and provide statistical support to CAI analyses. Though several freely available programs calculate the CAI for a given DNA sequence, none of them corrects for compositional biases or provides confidence intervals for CAI values. Results The E-CAI server, available at http://genomes.urv.es/CAIcal/E-CAI, is a web-application that calculates an expected value of CAI for a set of query sequences by generating random sequences with G+C and amino acid content similar to those of the input. An executable file, a tutorial, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ section and several examples are also available. To exemplify the use of the E-CAI server, we have analysed the codon adaptation of human mitochondrial genes that codify a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (excluding those genes that lack a prokaryotic orthologue and are encoded in the nuclear genome. It is assumed that these genes were transferred from the proto-mitochondrial to the nuclear genome and that its codon usage was then ameliorated. Conclusion The E-CAI server provides a direct threshold value for discerning whether the differences in CAI are statistically significant or whether they are merely artifacts that arise from internal biases in the G+C composition and/or amino acid composition of the query sequences.

  1. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria.

  2. A quest for normal values of serum aminotransferase and its association with age and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.A.; Farooq, Y.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reference range for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for young healthy individuals in our population and to find out effects of age and body mass index on alanine aminotransferase. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi; from Dec 2009 to April 2010. Material and Methods: Five hundred and fifty three young healthy adults were included in the study. Detailed history was taken. Parameters like Age, height and weight were measured. Relevant investigations were carried out for each subject which included blood complete picture, Chest X-Ray, ECG, Urine routine examination, liver function tests, serum urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, plasma glucose (F), Anti HCV antibodies, HBsAg, HIV antibodies and VDRL. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Age of subjects ranged from 19 to 50 years (29 +- 6) years, BMI 15.59 to 29.8, (21.58 +- 2). Serum alanine aminotransferase ranged from 17 to 81 IU/l, (29.9 +- 8) IU/l. Serum alanine aminotransferase for subjects with body mass index more than 25 Kg/m2 was 29.6 +- 7 IU/L. There is no significant difference in value of mean ALT overall and in those with BMI of more than 25 (p=0.149) Conclusion: Mean serum alanine aminotransferase value in young healthy adults included in this study was 29.9 +- 8 IU/L which is lower than normal reference provided at present which is 40 IU/l. Statistical analysis revealed that serum ALT is not significantly influenced by age and BMI. (author)

  3. The Value of Attenuation Correction in Hybrid Cardiac SPECT/CT on Inferior Wall According to Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamam, Muge; Mulazimoglu, Mehmet; Edis, Nurcan; Ozpacaci, Tevfik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of attenuation-corrected single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on the inferior wall compared to uncorrected (NC) SPECT MPI between obese and nonobese patients. A total of 157 consecutive patients (122 males and 35 females, with median age: 57.4 ± 11 years) who underwent AC technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (AC Tc99m-sestamibi) SPECT MPI were included to the study. A hybrid SPECT and transmission computed tomography (CT) system was used for the diagnosis with 1-day protocol, and stress imaging was performed first. During attenuation correction (AC) processing on a Xeleris Workstation using Myovation cardiac software with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), iterative reconstruction with attenuation correction (IRAC) and NC images filtered back projection (FBP) were used. For statistical purposes, P < 0.05 was considered significant. This study included 73 patients with body mass index (BMI) <30 and 84 patients with BMI ≥ 30. In patients with higher BMI, increased amount of both visual and semiquantitative attenuation of the inferior wall was detected. IRAC reconstruction corrects the diaphragm attenuation of the inferior wall better than FBP. AC with OSEM iterative reconstruction significantly improves the diagnostic value of stress-only SPECT MPI in patients with normal weight and those who are obese, but the improvements are significantly greater in obese patients. Stress-only SPECT imaging with AC provides shorter and lower radiation exposure

  4. Value of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index in determining failure to control bleed in patients with variceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Khalid, Abdullah B; Awan, Safia; Shah, Hasnain A; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. Among the criteria that were proposed in Baveno conferences, the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index (ABRI) has not been validated prospectively in clinical practice. We therefore aim to evaluate the measurement of ABRI as a marker of failure to control bleeding and to evaluate the consistency of ABRI in relation to other criteria of failure to control variceal bleeding. All patients with variceal bleeding who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 who were administered transfusion of packed red blood cells were included after obtaining informed consent. All patients were managed as per the standard protocol with intravenous terlipressin along with band ligation and injection of cyanoacrylate in cases of esophageal and fundal varices, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured every 6 h for 48 h and then every 12 h until 5 days of index bleed in each patient. Packed cells were transfused if hemoglobin decreased below 8 g/dl. The number of blood units transfused, change in hemoglobin values, and ABRI were calculated after each unit of blood transfusion till 120 h. In patients in whom bleed could not be controlled, an ABRI value of 0.75 or more was compared with other Baveno IV-based parameters that define failure to control variceal bleeding. During the study period, 137 eligible patients with variceal bleed were admitted. The mean age of the patients was 52±12 years. The majority of patients (50.4%) were in Child-Pugh class B, followed by 38% in Child-Pugh class C. According to the Baveno IV criteria, overall failure to control acute variceal bleeding occurred in 52 (37.9%) patients. Excluding ABRI, failure to control bleeding was found in 22/137 (16%) patients, whereas ABRI-based criteria showed that in 34/137 (24.8%) patients, bleeding could not be controlled. There were only four (2.9%) patients with variceal bleeding in whom ABRI and

  5. [Risk factors of venous thromboembolism recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index in medical inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C L; Zhou, H X; Tang, Y J; Wang, L; Yi, Q; Liang, Z A

    2016-04-12

    To explore the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and the predictive value of simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) in medical inpatients. A total of 149 consecutive patients with first diagnosed VTE from the medical departments of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2011 and December 2012 were enrolled and followed-up for 24 months. The VTE recurrence rate was calculated and univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with VTE recurrence. All the patients were evaluated by sPESI, and survival analysis was used to explore its value in predicting VTE recurrence in these medical patients. Out of the included 149 patients, 23(15.4%) patients had VTE recurrence during the 2 years' follow-up and median recurrence time was 167 days. The univariate analysis showed bed rest, severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, smoking, diabetes, and malignant neoplasm might be associated with VTE recurrence (P=0.043, 0.006, 0.009, 0.032, 0.098, 0.048, 0.021). Among these risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed severe lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and malignant neoplasm were the independent risk factors (HR=3.45, 5.67, 3.60; P=0.020, 0.020, 0.047); while for inappropriate anticoagulant therapy, the P value was marginal (HR=3.94, 95% CI: 0.99-15.63, P=0.051). The median sPESI scores of the patients with VTE recurrence was higher than that of the patients without VTE recurrence[1(1, 2) vs 0(0, 1), P=0.001], and patients with sPESI≥1 were associated with 5.57-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared with patients with sPESI=0 (95%CI: 1.79-17.30, P=0.001). Survival analysis also showed that the 2-year cumulative VTE recurrence rate of patients with sPESI≥1 was significant higher than that of patients with sPESI=0 (38.4% vs 5.7%, P=0.001). The medical VTE patients have high VTE recurrence risk

  6. Spectral Doppler Waveforms for Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Potential Utility of Point Peak Systolic Velocity and Resistive Index Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Lewis K; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Berry, Gerald J; Olcott, Eric W

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that appendiceal spectral Doppler waveforms can distinguish patients with and patients without appendicitis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, Doppler waveforms were obtained from intramural appendiceal arteries identified with color Doppler imaging in 60% (93 of 155) of consecutive patients whose appendices were visualized at graded compression ultrasonography (US) performed for suspected appendicitis (53 male and 40 female; age, 1-56 years; mean, 14.5 years) over the 5-month period from November 2015 through March 2016. Point, non-angle-corrected peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) values were compared between patients with and patients without appendicitis by utilizing histopathologically proven appendicitis and 6-week clinical follow-up as diagnostic reference standards. Data were assessed by using the Student t test, exact binomial distribution, two-sample test of proportions, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Among the 93 patients, 36 (38.7%) had proven appendicitis (mean PSV, 19.7 cm/sec; mean RI, 0.69) and 57 patients (61.2%) did not (mean PSV, 7.1 cm/sec, P appendicitis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.00) for PSV and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95; P = .011) for RI. Chosen discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 94.7% and 96.5% with sensitivity of 88.9% and 63.9% (P = .013) and negative predictive value of 93.1% and 80.9% (P = .045), respectively. Original clinical graded compression US interpretations based on established US findings demonstrated specificity of 96.2% and sensitivity of 100.0%. Considering the subset of 20 patients whose maximum outer diameter measured 6-8 mm, the discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 88.9% each, with sensitivity of 100.0% and 63.6% and negative predictive value of 100

  7. An empirical evaluation of Value-at-Risk: The case of the Belgrade Stock Exchange index - BELEX15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is to test and analyze VaR (Value-at-Risk methods of market risk management on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia. Thus, concrete research is conducted in the period 2005 - 2011, with the goal of VaR methods performance assessment on the Serbian financial market. The tested VaR methods are Historical simulation (HS and Delta normal VaR with 95% and 99% confidence level for 50, 100, 200 and 250 days. BELEX15 stock index of the Belgrade Stock Exchange, which comprises of 15 most liquid securities of the Serbian financial market, is used as a benchmark indicator of the conditions on the Serbian financial market. The goals which are intended for achieving in the research are focused to Historical simulation (HS and Delta normal VaR performance assessment on, according to many criteria, 'specific'-transitory financial market of the Republic of Serbia. The basic goal of the research is to come to concrete, practically tested, knowledge about the possibility and performance of VaR methods application on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia in function of investment decisions optimizing. Research results point to the necessity of VaR methods application in market risk management on the financial market of the Republic of Serbia.

  8. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  9. A Soil Service Index: Peatland soils as a case study for quantifying the value, vulnerability, and status of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Harden, J. W.; Hugelius, G.

    2017-12-01

    What are the most important soil services valued by land stewards and planners? Which soil-data metrics can be used to quantify each soil service? What are the steps required to quantitatively index the baseline value of soil services and their vulnerability under different land-use and climate change scenarios? How do we simulate future soil service pathways (or trajectories) under changing management regimes using process-based ecosystem models? What is the potential cost (economic, social, and other) of soil degradation under these scenarios? How sensitive or resilient are soil services to prescribed management practices, and how does sensitivity vary over space and time? We are bringing together a group of scientists and conservation organizations to answer these questions by launching Soil Banker, an open and flexible tool to quantify soil services that can be used at any scale, and by any stakeholder. Our overarching goals are to develop metrics and indices to quantify peatland soil ecosystem services, monitor change of these services, and guide management. This paper describes our methodology applied to peatlands and presents two case studies (Indonesia and Patagonia) demonstrating how Peatland Soil Banker can be deployed as an accounting tool of peatland stocks, a quantitative measure of peatland health, and as a projection of peatland degradation or enhancement under different land-use cases. Why peatlands? They store about 600 billion tons of carbon that account for ⅓ of the world's soil carbon. Peatlands have dynamic GHG exchanges of CO2, CH4, and NOx with the atmosphere, which plays a role in regulating global climate; studies indicate that peatland degradation releases about 2-3 billion tons of CO2 to the atmosphere annually. These ecosystems also provide local and regional ecosystem services: they constitute important components of the N and P cycles, store about 10% of the world's freshwater and buffer large fluxes of freshwater on an annual basis

  10. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-01-01

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG ind...

  11. A brief history of space and time: the scope-year index as a patent value indicator based on families and renewals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Nicolas van Zeebroeck

    2007-01-01

    The renewal of patents and their geographical scope for protection constitute two essential dimensions in a patent’s life, and probably the most frequently used patent value indicators. The intertwining of these dimensions (the geographical scope of protection may vary over time) makes their analysis complex, as any measure along one dimension requires an arbitrary choice on the second. This paper proposes a new indicator of patent value, the Scope-Year index, combining the two dimensions. Th...

  12. Ankle brachial index values, leg symptoms, and functional performance among community-dwelling older men and women in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low-normal ABI and no PAD...

  13. Prognostic value of exercise echocardiography: validation of a new risk index combining echocardiographic, treadmill, and exercise electrocardiographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Wojciech; Rivera, Jose M; Khoury, Alexander F; Basu, Abhijeet G; Perez-Verdia, Alejandro; Marks, Gary F; Chang, Su Min; Olmos, Leopoldo; Quiñones, Miguel A; Zoghbi, William A

    2003-04-01

    Exercise (Ex) echocardiography has been shown to have significant prognostic power, independent of other known predictors of risk from an Ex stress test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a risk index, incorporating echocardiographic and conventional Ex variables, for a more comprehensive risk stratification and identification of a very low-risk group. Two consecutive, mutually exclusive populations referred for treadmill Ex echocardiography with the Bruce protocol were investigated: hypothesis-generating (388 patients; 268 males; age 55 +/- 13 years) and hypothesis-testing (105 patients; 61 males age: 54 +/- 14 years).Cardiac events included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, late revascularization (>90 days), hospital admission for unstable angina, and admission for heart failure. Mean follow-up in the hypothesis-generating population was 3.1 years. There were 38 cardiac events. Independent predictors of events by multivariate analysis were: Ex wall motion score index (odds ratio [OR] = 2.77/Unit; P or = 1 mm (OR = 2.84; P =.002); and treadmill time (OR = 0.87/min; P =.037). A risk index was generated on the basis of the multivariate Cox regression model as: risk index = 1.02 (Ex wall motion score index) + 1.04 (S-T change) - 0.14 (treadmill time). The validity of this index was tested in the hypothesis-testing population. Event rates at 3 years were lowest (0%) in the lower quartile of risk index (-1.22 to -0.47), highest (29.6%) in the upper quartile (+0.66 to +2.02), and intermediate (19.2% to 15.3%) in the intermediate quartiles. The OR of the risk index for predicting cardiac events was 2.94/Unit ([95% confidence interval: 1.4 to 6.2]; P =.0043). Echocardiographic and Ex parameters are independent powerful predictors of cardiac events after treadmill stress testing. A risk index can be derived with these parameters for a more comprehensive risk stratification with Ex echocardiography.

  14. Values of functional indexes in assessment of efficacy of osteoarthritis treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Y Maiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study change of knee joints functional disability in pts with predominantly I-II stage of knee osteoarthritis (OA with clinical tests and WOMAC index for assessment of efficacy of treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic. Material and methods. 70 pts with I and II stage of OA according to Kellgren-Lawrence aged from 40 to 67 years were included. They were divided in 2 groups (30 pts in group I and40 pts in group II. Group I pts were treated with Chondrolon and group II pts – with Zel T. Treatment efficacy was assessed with WOMAC index, functional Lequesne index, pain on VAS at rest and at movement, knee mobility, time of walking for 30 m and walking stairs. Results. Positive changes of all parameters were revealed in both groups: significant improvement of pain on VAS, functional tests, Lequesne index, WOMAC scales was achieved. During treatment with Zel T improvement of the efficacy measures increased slower, mainly after 12 weeks of treatment (during treatment with Chondrolon – after8 weeks. Both drugs provided functional improvement assessed by WOMAC index butChondrolon was more effective. Conclusion. Chondrolon and Zel T can be used for treatment of OA at I or II stage with moderate knee joints functional disability. Course of treatment with Zel T should be continued not less than 3 months and with Chondrolon – 2 months.

  15. An exploration of boards of directors’ quality: The development of an index for directors attributes and the relation with firm value and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias Feres de Almeida

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In an environment with poor quality of Corporate Governance Mechanisms, the quality of directors’ attributes might exert an important role to improve firm’s value and performance. I developed an index to explore the quality of Board of Directors based on Brazilian and international corporate governance codes to measure directors qualitative attributes. The sample consist in 24 Brazilian firms that traded at NYSE in the period over 1999-2006. The results show us that board of directors with high types of attributes can improve value measured individually and by the quality index. The main results indicate that firm value improved with high types of professionals, accountants seated in boards, directors with high level of education and that participated in executive training

  16. Metacarpal index by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: normative reference values and comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Nielsen, S P

    2001-01-01

    Metacarpal index (MCI), the combined cortical midmetacarpal thickness divided by the outer mid-metacarpal diameter, fell into oblivion when dual photon absorptiometry was introduced a quarter of a century ago. Modern PC-based digital X-ray diameter measurements offers a unique opportunity...

  17. Perfusion index in preterm infants during the first 3 days of life : Reference values and relation with clinical variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; Lemmers, Petra M A; Baerts, Willem; Groenendaal, Floris; Van Bel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background: The perfusion index (PI) derived from pulse oximetry readings represents the ratio of pulsatile (arterial blood) and nonpulsatile contributors to infrared light absorption. PI has been shown to correlate with cardiac performance. In theory, PI is readily available on every pulse

  18. Two-year changes in anthropometric and motor ability values as talent identification indexes in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Norikazu; Seki, Taigo

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined 2-year changes in anthropometric variables and motor abilities in elite male youth soccer players to identify potential talent identification indexes. This was a cross-sequential study examining two different age groups at two time points. Height, weight, 40-m sprint speed, muscular power (5-step bounding), and change of direction (COD) ability (10 m×5 COD) were measured in 12- and 14-year-old soccer players and repeated after 2 years (at 14 and 16 years of age). Correlations and changes in ranking between the two measurements were determined. Both groups had small ranking changes in height (12-14-year-olds: r=0.80, 14-16-year-olds: r=0.89; ptalent identification index for youth soccer players. On the other hand, muscular power and COD ability is changeable during growth period suggests that these parameters is not useful for talent identification index. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Detection of quadratic phase coupling between EEG signal components by nonparamatric and parametric methods of bispectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Witte, H

    1999-11-01

    Recently the assumption of the independence of individual frequency components in a signal has been rejected, for example, for the EEG during defined physiological states such as sleep or sedation [9, 10]. Thus, the use of higher-order spectral analysis capable of detecting interrelations between individual signal components has proved useful. The aim of the present study was to investigate the quality of various non-parametric and parametric estimation algorithms using simulated as well as true physiological data. We employed standard algorithms available for the MATLAB. The results clearly show that parametric bispectral estimation is superior to non-parametric estimation in terms of the quality of peak localisation and the discrimination from other peaks.

  20. A Comparison of EQ-5D-3L Index Scores Using Malaysian, Singaporean, Thai, and UK Value Sets in Indonesian Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endarti, Dwi; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kristina, Susi Ari

    2018-05-01

    To gain insight into the most suitable foreign value set among Malaysian, Singaporean, Thai, and UK value sets for calculating the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire index score (utility) among patients with cervical cancer in Indonesia. Data from 87 patients with cervical cancer recruited from a referral hospital in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, from an earlier study of health-related quality of life were used in this study. The differences among the utility scores derived from the four value sets were determined using the Friedman test. Performance of the psychometric properties of the four value sets versus visual analogue scale (VAS) was assessed. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to test the agreement among the utility scores. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were used to assess convergent validity between utility scores and patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. With respect to known-group validity, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the differences in utility according to the stages of cancer. There was significant difference among utility scores derived from the four value sets, among which the Malaysian value set yielded higher utility than the other three value sets. Utility obtained from the Malaysian value set had more agreements with VAS than the other value sets versus VAS (intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plot tests results). As for the validity, the four value sets showed equivalent psychometric properties as those that resulted from convergent and known-group validity tests. In the absence of an Indonesian value set, the Malaysian value set was more preferable to be used compared with the other value sets. Further studies on the development of an Indonesian value set need to be conducted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Production Efficiency of Cocoon Shell of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae: Lepidoptera, as an Index for Evaluating the Nutritive Value of Mulberry, Morus sp. (Moraceae, Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaja Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional efficiency of mulberry leaves consumed by silkworms, Bombyx mori L., is usually evaluated in terms of the proportion of cocoon shell weight to the amount of food ingested. The production efficiency of cocoon shell is generally used to identify the superiority of a mulberry variety for silkworm rearing. In this study the production efficiency of cocoon shell was used as an index for evaluating the nutritive value of different mulberry varieties of India. Among the varieties, V-1, having highest production efficiency of cocoon shell with less amount of food ingested and highest digestibility, is regarded as the best suitable variety with nutritive values ideal for silkworm rearing.

  3. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  4. 30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to consider include prices received in spot sales of gas, residue gas or gas plant products, other... part, or timely, for a quantity of gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. (j) Non-binding MMS reviews..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 206.174 How do I value...

  5. Reinterpreting the Authority of Heads: Making Space for Values-Led School Improvement with the "Index for Inclusion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Rupert; Booth, Tony

    2018-01-01

    To what extent can heads use an inclusive values-led approach to school development in the face of pressures from Ofsted and their Local Authority to focus almost exclusively on attainment outcomes? We explore leadership of school improvement in a qualitative study of 10 head teachers in the English county of "Preshire," who worked with…

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on the degree of ripening of mango by comparing the parameter of colour index, texture firmness and pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hafiz Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the ripening degree of cv Chokanan mangoes through the comparison of colour index changes, texture firmness and pH value. Harvested mature mango was studied through the storage period for 14 days. Dose level used were 0.00 kGy (control), 0.25 kGy, 0.50 kGy, 0.75 kGy and 1.00 kGy of gamma cell 220. All fruits were wrapped using plastic after irradiated. There was no change in 0 day. However, there are changes in colour index, firmness and pH value of fruits in after 3 days. Dose of 0.75 kGy and 1.00 kGy gave positive effect to storage extension period and rate deceleration compared to 0.00 kGy (control), 0.25 kGy and 0.50 kGy. After 10 days storage, 0.00, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of fruits became rot which affects quality of organoleptic. Whereas 0.75 and 1.00 kGy still retained organoleptic quality . When the ripening rate of fruit was fast, this would lead to faster of the colour change. The firmness value of fruit became decrease and the value of pH was increase. (author)

  7. Correlation between Expression of MVP, Index of p53 and AgNOR Value with Chemoradiotherapy Clinical Response of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kurnia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer found in Indonesia. The primary treatment of cervical cancer at the locally advanced stage is usually performed by using radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The combination of the two techniques is often called chemoradioherapy. The response to chemoradiotherapy is influenced by biological and physical factors. Major vault protein (MVP is a ribonucleoprotein which contributes to drug resistance in some cancers. The purposes of this research were: (1 to determine the correlation between the expression of MVP and the index of p53, including AgNOR values and index of MIB-1; and (2 between MVP and chemoradiotherapy clinical response of cervical cancer. Twenty-one microscopic slides taken from biopsy tissues of cervical cancer patients before undergoing treatment were stained to identify MVP, p53, and MIB-1 by means of immunohistochemistry techniques and AgNORs staining. After undergoing chemoradiotherapy treatment, the patients’ clinical responses were observed by pelvic control method. Experimental results showed that there was a correlation between MVP and AgNOR value (P=0.05, but no correlation between MVP and index of p53 (P=0.729, including MIB-1 LI (P=0.63, in untreated cervical cancer. In addition, there was no association between MVP and chemoradioterapy response. In conclusion, MVP expression correlates with the process of cell proliferation before the G2 phase of cell cycle in untreated cancer cells. Those have no association with clinical responses after the completion of treatment.

  8. [Confusing the confused: thoughts on impact factor, h(irsch) index, Q value, and other cofactors that influence the researcher's happiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindós, Guillermo

    2009-06-30

    The need to evaluate curricula for sponsorship for research projects or professional promotion, has led to the search for tools that allow an objective valuation. However, the total number papers published, or citations of articles of a particular author, or the impact factor of the Journal where they are published are inadequate indicators for the evaluation of the quality and productivity of researchers. The h index, proposed by Hirsch, categorises the papers according to the number of citations per article. This tool appears to lack the limitations of other bibliometric tools but is less useful for non English-speaking authors. To propose and debate the usefulness of the existing bibliometric indicators and tools for the evaluation and categorization of researchers and scientific journals. Search for papers on bibliometric tools. There are some hot spots in the debate on the national and international evaluation of researchers' productivity and quality of scientific journals. Opinions on impact factors and h index have been discussed. The positive discrimination, using the Q value, is proposed as an alternative for the evaluation of Spanish and Iberoamerican researchers. It is very important de-mystify the importance of bibliometric indicators. The impact factor is useful for evaluating journals from the same scientific area but not for the evaluation of researchers' curricula. For the comparison of curricula from two or more researchers, we must use the h index or the proposed Q value. the latter allows positive discrimination of the task for Spanish and Iberoamerican researchers.

  9. Correlation between expression of MVP, index of p53 and AgNOR value with chemoradiotherapy clinical response of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, I.; Tetriana, D.; Siregar, B.; Ramli, I.; Andrijono, A.; Soetopo, S.; Kurjana, T.; Hernowo, B.S.; Tobing, M.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer found in Indonesia. The primary treatment of cervical cancer at the locally advanced stage is usually performed by using radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The combination of the two techniques is often called chemoradiotherapy. The response to chemoradiotherapy is influenced by biological and physical factors. Major vault protein (MVP) is a ribonucleoprotein which contributes to drug resistance in some cancers. The purposes of this research were: (1) to determine the correlation between the expression of MVP and the index of p53, including AgNOR values and index of MIB-1; and (2) between MVP and chemoradiotherapy clinical response of cervical cancer. Twenty-one microscopic slides taken from biopsy tissues of cervical cancer patients before undergoing treatment were stained to identify MVP, p53, and MIB-1 by means of immunohistochemistry techniques and AgNORs staining. After undergoing chemoradiotherapy treatment, the patients’ clinical responses were observed by pelvic control method. Experimental results showed that there was a correlation between MVP and AgNOR value (P=0.05), but no correlation between MVP and index of p53 (P=0.729), including MIB-1 LI (P=0.63), in untreated cervical cancer. In addition, there was no association between MVP and chemoradiotherapy response. In conclusion, MVP expression correlates with the process of cell proliferation before the G2 phase of cell cycle in untreated cancer cells. Those have no association with clinical responses after the completion of treatment. (author)

  10. Low omega-3 index values and monounsaturated fatty acid levels in early pregnancy: an analysis of maternal erythrocytes fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Axelle; Bernardy, Florence; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Dardenne, Nadia; Degée, Sylvie; Timmermans, Marie; Nisolle, Michelle; Guillaume, Michèle; Castronovo, Vincenzo

    2018-04-02

    It is unanimously recognized that the maternal nutritional status at the pregnancy onset influence both short-term and long-term health of the mother and offspring. Among several nutrients, LCPUFA, particularly from the omega-3 family, are of utmost importance. This study was carried out to determine fatty acids profile of maternal erythrocyte membranes in early pregnancy and to identify potential determinants impacting on this status. A cohort of 122 healthy women with a singleton pregnancy was included. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. Because of the lack of cutoff values, reference ranges were used to determine fatty acids categories. Of concern, our data revealed low monounsaturated and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status in most participants. More than 75% of Belgian pregnant women exhibited Pal, AO and EPA levels as well as IOM3 values below the laboratory reference ranges. Higher DHA concentrations and IOM3 values were found among foreign-nationality participants, non-smokers and physically active women. With regard to dietary factors, omega-3 supplements and diet seem to be complementary since DHA from supplements (but not from diet) and EPA from diet (but not from supplements) were found to be associated with higher concentrations of DHA and EPA, respectively. Our study presents evidence demonstrating that the fatty acid status of most early pregnant women is far from being optimal based on the admitted general reference values. Clinicians should be advice to carefully evaluate and improve this status to guarantee the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

  11. The prognostic value of body-mass index on mortality in older adults with dementia living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Cadroy, Yves; Kelaiditi, Eirini; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2017-04-01

    A protective effect of obesity on death has been reported in the context of various co-morbidities. We studied if the obesity paradox applied to nursing home (NH) older residents according to dementia status. Prospective data from 3741 NH residents from France. All-cause mortality was the dependent measure. Subjects were categorized according with body mass index (BMI) as underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese. Dementia status was obtained from medical charts. Cox regressions were performed. There were 344 (9.2%) residents who were underweight, 1367 (43.8%) normal weight, 1069 (28.6%) overweight and 691 (18.5%) obese. 1083 (28.9%) people died during follow-up. In residents with dementia, mortality risk was reduced by almost half in overweight and obese people (HRs of 0.60 [0.48-0.76] and 0.53 [0.38-0.75], respectively; p paradox in very old and functionally limited NH residents. Therefore, weight loss in NH residents, particularly in people with dementia, should be considered with extreme caution even for obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative analysis of Serbia and the EU member states in the context of networked readiness index values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldić-Aleksić Jasna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is generally accepted that information and communication technologies (ICT are important drivers and ‘enabling’ technologies that have a broad impact on many sectors of the economy and social life. Therefore, measuring the level of ICT development, their economic and social impact, and the country’s readiness to use them are of great importance. In this paper we present the conceptual framework of the Networked Readiness Index (NRI proposed by the World Economic Forum, and analyse the relative position of Serbia and its ‘distance’ from the EU member states in the domain of NRI indicator variables. For this purpose we have applied the Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (the SOM algorithm, which provides the visual image, as a virtual map, of observed countries and their groupings. The resulting SOM map indicates that in the complex NRI space, Serbia is located in a group of EU states that includes Romania, Croatia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Poland, the Czech Republic, and the Slovak Republic. In comparison to other countries, this group shows the poorest performance in the NRI landscape. In addition, our empirical analysis points to the areas in which policy intervention can boost the impact of ICT on Serbian economic development and growth. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179005

  13. Value of body mass index in the diagnosis of obesity according to DEXA in well-controlled RA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Winniczuk, Nina; Vega-Morales, David; García-Hernandez, Pedro A; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Arana-Guajardo, Ana C

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has an indirect effect on body composition. Body mass index (BMI) is not a valid predictor of body fat in RA patients. To evaluate the accuracy of BMI in identifying obesity diagnosed according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in well-controlled RA patients. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. We used 3 different cutoffs for obesity as determined by DXA: >35% total fat, >40% total fat, and >35% central fat mass (central obesity). One hundred one patients were included. We found that 35% total fat corresponded to a BMI of 24kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 75% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.917); 40% total fat to a BMI of 25kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 39% (AUC 0.822); and 35% central fat mass to a BMI of 22kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 84% (AUC 0.951). Obesity according to DXA was underdiagnosed when the classic BMI cutoffs were used in well-controlled RA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  14. Volatility forecasting and value-at-risk estimation in emerging markets: the case of the stock market index portfolio in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumengo Bonga-Bonga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modelling of volatility is important as it relates to the forecasting of Value-at-Risk (VaR. The RiskMetrics model to forecast volatility is the benchmark in the financial sector. In an important regulatory innovation, the Basel Committee has proposed the use of an internal method for modelling VaR instead of the strict use of the benchmark model. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of RiskMetrics in comparison to other models of volatility forecasting, such as some family classes of the Generalised Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models, in forecasting the VaR in emerging markets. This paper makes use of the stock market index portfolio, the All-Share Index, as a case study to evaluate the market risk in emerging markets. The paper underlines the importance of asymmetric behaviour for VaR forecasting in emerging markets’ economies.

  15. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  16. Predictive value of cardiac autonomic indexes and MIBG washout in ICD recipients with mild to moderate heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutelou, M.; Katsikis, A.; Livanis, E.; Georgiadis, M.; Voudris, V.; Flevari, P.; Kremastinos, D.; Theodorakis, G.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the combined use of heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging in the risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) of patients with mild to moderate heart failure. Twenty-five patients (17 male and 8 female, mean age 63±5 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 36±3%) with a recently implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and mild (NYHA I-II) heart failure due to either ischemic (n=15) or dilated (n=10) cardiomyopathy were studied. One week after ICD implantation they underwent baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) evaluation to bolus phenylephrine by the Oxford method, 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) assessment, and MIBG imaging. The mean patient follow-up was 32±10 months. Simple correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate if the number of sustained ventricular tachycardia (cycle length <330 ms) or fibrillation episodes per month is related to one or more of MIBG, BRS, and HRV indexes and if MIBG % washout is related to HRV and/or BRS. The frequency of fast ventricular arrhythmic episodes (FVAE) demonstrated an inverse relation to BRS (p<0.0001), rMSSD (p=0.001), and pNN50 (p=0.0034), while it was positively related to low frequency (LF) (p<0.0001) and MIBG % washout (p=0.001). BRS, LF, rMSSD, and MIBG washout were also independent predictors of FVAE. MIBG washout was related to only one HRV marker (SDNN-I, p<0.0001), while no correlation was observed with BRS. In ICD recipients with well-compensated heart failure, autonomic markers derived from BRS, HRV, and MIBG studies are related to FVAE. These markers have limited inter-dependency and constitute useful means for SCD risk stratification in this subgroup of patients. (author)

  17. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  18. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  19. Estimating EQ-5D values from the Oswestry Disability Index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Bratcher, Kelly R; Das, Nandita; Nienhuis, Jacob B; Glassman, Steven D

    2014-04-15

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D) can be derived from commonly available low back disease-specific health-related quality of life measures. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back pain (BP) and leg pain (LP) are widely used disease-specific measures in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. Increasingly, the EQ-5D is being used as a measure of utility due to ease of administration and scoring. The EQ-5D, ODI, BP, and LP were prospectively collected in 14,544 patients seen in clinic for lumbar degenerative disorders. Pearson correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BP, LP, and EQ-5D were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the EQ-5D score from the ODI, BP, and LP. The mean age was 53.3 ± 16.4 years and 41% were male. Correlations between the EQ-5D and the ODI, BP, and LP were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of -0.77, -0.50, and -0.57, respectively. The regression equation: [0.97711 + (-0.00687 × ODI) + (-0.01488 × LP) + (-0.01008 × BP)] to predict EQ-5D, had an R2 of 0.61 and a root mean square error of 0.149. The model using ODI alone had an R2 of 0.57 and a root mean square error of 0.156. The model using the individual ODI items had an R2 of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 0.143. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated EQ-5D score was 0.78. There was no statistically significant difference between the actual EQ-5D (0.553 ± 0.238) and the estimated EQ-5D score (0.553 ± 0.186) using the ODI, BP, and LP regression model. However, rounding off the coefficients to less than 5 decimal places produced less accurate results. Unlike previous studies showing a robust relationship between low back-specific measures and the Short Form-6D, a similar relationship was not seen between the ODI, BP, LP, and the EQ-5D. Thus, the EQ-5D cannot be

  20. Predictive Values of the New Sarcopenia Index by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project for Mortality among Older Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project’s recommended criteria for sarcopenia’s association with mortality among older Korean adults. Methods We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study which included 560 (285 men and 275 women) older Korean adults aged ≥65 years. Muscle mass (appendicular skeletal muscle mass-to-body mass index ratio (ASM/BMI)), handgrip strength, and walking velocity were evaluated in association with all-cause mortality during 6-year follow-up. Both the lowest quintile for each parameter (ethnic-specific cutoff) and FNIH-recommended values were used as cutoffs. Results Forty men (14.0%) and 21 women (7.6%) died during 6-year follow-up. The deceased subjects were older and had lower ASM, handgrip strength, and walking velocity. Sarcopenia defined by both low lean mass and weakness had a 4.13 (95% CI, 1.69–10.11) times higher risk of death, and sarcopenia defined by a combination of low lean mass, weakness, and slowness had a 9.56 (3.16–28.90) times higher risk of death after adjusting for covariates in men. However, these significant associations were not observed in women. In terms of cutoffs of each parameter, using the lowest quintile showed better predictive values in mortality than using the FNIH-recommended values. Moreover, new muscle mass index, ASM/BMI, provided better prognostic values than ASM/height2 in all associations. Conclusions New sarcopenia definition by FNIH was better able to predict 6-year mortality among Korean men. Moreover, ethnic-specific cutoffs, the lowest quintile for each parameter, predicted the higher risk of mortality than the FNIH-recommended values. PMID:27832145

  1. Whole lesion histogram analysis of meningiomas derived from ADC values. Correlation with several cellularity parameters, proliferation index KI 67, nucleic content, and membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Hamerla, Gordian; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Schob, Stefan; Fiedler, Eckhard

    2018-09-01

    To analyze several histopathological features and their possible correlations with whole lesion histogram analysis derived from ADC maps in meningioma. The retrospective study involved 36 patients with primary meningiomas. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated: ADC mean , ADC max , ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , ADC percentiles: P10, P25, P75, P90, as well kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. All measures were performed by two radiologists. Proliferation index KI 67, minimal, maximal and mean cell count, total nucleic area, and expression of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. A perfect interobserver agreement for all ADC values (0.84-0.97) was identified. All ADC values correlated inversely with tumor cellularity with the strongest correlation between P10, P25 and mean cell count (-0.558). KI 67 correlated inversely with all ADC values except ADC min . ADC parameters did not correlate with total nucleic area. All ADC values correlated statistically significant with expression of AQP4. ADC histogram analysis is a valid method with an excellent interobserver agreement. Cellularity parameters and proliferation potential are associated with different ADC values. Membrane permeability may play a greater role for water diffusion than cell count and proliferation activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extreme value theory applied to the standardized precipitation index - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.17475

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is a mathematical algorithm developed for detecting and characterizing precipitation departures with regard to an expected regional climate condition. Thus, this study aimed to verify the possibility of using the time-independent general extreme value distribution (GEV for modeling the probability of occurrence of both SPI annual maxima (the maximum monthly SPI value; SPImax and SPI annual minima (the minimum monthly SPI value; SPImim obtained from the weather station of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil (1891-2011 and to evaluate the presence of trends, temporal persistence and periodical components in these two datasets. The goodness-of-fit tests used in this study quantify the agreement between the empirical cumulative distribution and the GEV cumulative function. Our results have indicated that such parametric function can be used to assess the probability of occurrence of SPImin and SPImax values. No significant serial correlation and no trend were detected in both series. For the SPImim, the wavelet analysis has detected a dominant mode in the 4-8 year band. Future studies should focus on the development of a GEV model capable of accounting for such feature. No dominant mode was found for the annual monthly SPI maximums.

  3. Evaluation of the most suitable threshold value for modelling snow glacier melt through T- index approach: the case study of Forni Glacier (Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Antonella; Maugeri, Maurizio; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Glacier melt occurs whenever the surface temperature is null (273.15 K) and the net energy budget is positive. These conditions can be assessed by analyzing meteorological and energy data acquired by a supraglacial Automatic Weather Station (AWS). In the case this latter is not present at the glacier surface the assessment of actual melting conditions and the evaluation of melt amount is difficult and degree-day (also named T-index) models are applied. These approaches require the choice of a correct temperature threshold. In fact, melt does not necessarily occur at daily air temperatures higher than 273.15 K, since it is determined by the energy budget which in turn is only indirectly affected by air temperature. This is the case of the late spring period when ablation processes start at the glacier surface thus progressively reducing snow thickness. In this study, to detect the most indicative air temperature threshold witnessing melt conditions in the April-June period, we analyzed air temperature data recorded from 2006 to 2012 by a supraglacial AWS (at 2631 m a.s.l.) on the ablation tongue of the Forni Glacier (Italy), and by a weather station located nearby the studied glacier (at Bormio, 1225 m a.s.l.). Moreover we evaluated the glacier energy budget (which gives the actual melt, Senese et al., 2012) and the snow water equivalent values during this time-frame. Then the ablation amount was estimated both from the surface energy balance (MEB from supraglacial AWS data) and from degree-day method (MT-INDEX, in this latter case applying the mean tropospheric lapse rate to temperature data acquired at Bormio changing the air temperature threshold) and the results were compared. We found that the mean tropospheric lapse rate permits a good and reliable reconstruction of daily glacier air temperature conditions and the major uncertainty in the computation of snow melt from degree-day models is driven by the choice of an appropriate air temperature threshold. Then

  4. [Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count as an activity index in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Rodríguez, J Jesús; Santiago-Luna, Ernesto; Velázquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by relapsing and remitting non-infectious inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Its heterogeneity makes assessment of the disease's activity a prerequisite for a rational choice of therapy. We aimed to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets to develop a simplified activity index of UC. Sixty patients with UC were included and submitted to measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets, as well as sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were correlated with the reported degree of activity in the biopsy. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine differences between groups, and Pearson and Spearman rank tests were used to correlate each parameter with the degree of activity. A p value hemoglobin level was 51% and 100% for hematocrit, respectively, 51% and 100% for hematocrit, and 84% and 100% for platelet counts. Spearman's correlation for hemoglobin was r = -0.866 (p hematocrit r = -0.864 (p Hemoglobin and hematocrit are useful to catalog the degree of activity of UC when it is severe. Platelet count may be a marker of severity at any time, due to its high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test.

  5. Prognostic Value of the Pretreatment Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with R-CHOP Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Hoon; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Lim, Joo Han

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI, body mass index × albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of survival in some solid cancers. We retrospectively investigated the usefulness of the ALI to predict chemotherapy response and survival in 212 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy. Patients were allocated to a low ALI group (n = 82, 38.7%) or a high ALI group (n = 130, 61.3%) according to an optimal pretreatment ALI cut-off value of 15.5 as determined by receiver operating curve analysis. The low ALI group displayed more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (54.9 vs. 75.4%, p = 0.008), and poorer 5-year progression-free (PFS, 58.1 vs. 77.3%, p = 0.006) and overall (OS, 64.2 vs. 80.2%, p = 0.008) survival. Multivariate analysis showed that low ALI was found to independently predict shorter PFS and OS. Interestingly, a low ALI reverted to a high ALI during treatment in 58 patients (27.4%), and the 5-year OS of these patients was better than that of patients whose ALI remained low (n = 24, 72.5 vs. 24%, p ALI might be an easily available marker for predicting clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Dual-energy index value of luminal air in fecal-tagging computed tomography colonography: findings and impact on electronic cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Zhang, Da; Lee, June-Goo; Shirai, Yu; Kim, Se Hyung; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to measure the dual-energy index (DEI) value of colonic luminal air in both phantom and clinical fecal-tagging dual-energy computed tomography (CT) colonography (DE-CTC) images and to demonstrate its impact on dual-energy electronic cleansing. For the phantom study, a custom-ordered colon phantom was scanned by a dual-energy CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) at two photon energies: 80 and 140 kVp. Before imaging, the phantom was filled with a 300-mL mixture of simulated fecal materials tagged by a nonionic iodinated contrast agent at three contrast concentrations: 20, 40, and 60 mg/mL. Ten regions-of-interest (ROIs) were randomly placed in each of the colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, bony structure, and tagged material in each scan. For the clinical study, 22 DE-CTC (80 and 140 kVp) patient cases were collected, who underwent a low-fiber, low-residue diet bowel preparation and orally administered iodine-based fecal tagging. Twenty ROIs were randomly placed in each of the colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, abdominal soft tissue, and tagged fecal material in each scan. For each ROI, the mean CT values in both 80- and 140-kVp images were measured, and then its DEI was calculated. In the phantom study, the mean DEI values of luminal air were 0.270, 0.298, 0.386, and 0.402 for the four groups of tagging conditions: no tagged material and tagged with three groups of contrast concentrations at 20, 40, and 60 mg/mL. In the clinical study, the mean DEI values were 0.341, -0.012, -0.002, and 0.188 for colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, abdominal soft tissue, and tagged fecal material, respectively. In our study, we observed that the DEI values of colonic luminal air in DE-CTC images (>0.10) were substantially higher than the theoretical value of 0.0063. In addition, the observed DEI values of colonic luminal air were significantly higher than those of soft tissue. These findings have an important

  7. Reconstructing Atmospheric CO2 Through The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Using Stomatal Index and Stomatal Density Values From Ginkgo adiantoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R. S.; Wing, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a geologically brief interval of intense global warming 56 million years ago. It is arguably the best geological analog for a worst-case scenario of anthropogenic carbon emissions. The PETM is marked by a ~4-6‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and extensive marine carbonate dissolution, which together are powerful evidence for a massive addition of carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. In spite of broad agreement that the PETM reflects a large carbon cycle perturbation, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (pCO2) during the event are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to produce a high resolution reconstruction of pCO2 using stomatal frequency proxies (both stomatal index and stomatal density) before, during, and after the PETM. These proxies rely upon a genetically controlled mechanism whereby plants decrease the proportion of gas-exchange pores (stomata) in response to increased pCO2. Terrestrial sections in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, contain macrofossil plants with cuticle immediately bracketing the PETM, as well as dispersed plant cuticle from within the body of the CIE. These fossils allow for the first stomatal-based reconstruction of pCO2 near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary; we also use them to determine the relative timing of pCO2 change in relation to the CIE that defines the PETM. Preliminary results come from macrofossil specimens of Ginkgo adiantoides, collected from an ~200ka interval prior to the onset of the CIE (~230-30ka before), and just after the 'recovery interval' of the CIE. Stomatal index values decreased by 37% within an ~70ka time interval at least 100ka prior to the onset of the CIE. The decrease in stomatal index is interpreted as a significant increase in pCO2, and has a magnitude equivalent to the entire range of stomatal index adjustment observed in modern Ginkgo biloba during the anthropogenic CO2 rise during the last 150 years. The inferred CO2 increase prior to the

  8. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  9. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  10. Determination of the Optimal Cutoff Values for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire Scores and the Oswestry Disability Index for Favorable Surgical Outcomes in Subjects With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Park, Jong-Woong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kang, Sung-Shik; Yeom, Jin S

    2015-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (NCT02134821). The aim of this study was to elucidate the cutoff values for significant predictors for favorable outcomes after lumbar spine surgery in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Various factors are associated with the surgical outcomes for patients with LSS. However, we did not know the odds ratio and/or cutoff values of a predictive factor for a favorable surgical outcome for LSS. A total of 157 patients who underwent spine surgery due to LSS between June 2012 and April 2013 were included in this study. The patients were dichotomized into 2 groups on the basis of an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score of 22 or less (favorable outcome group) or more than 22 (unfavorable outcome group) at 12 months after surgery. Regarding favorable outcomes, the odds ratio for each preoperative variable including demographic data, preoperative symptom severity, and pain sensitivity questionnaire (PSQ) score was calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. For the significant variables for surgical outcome, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted with calculation of the area under the ROC curve. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ODI and total PSQ scores were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of an unfavorable surgical outcome [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of ODI, 1.289 (1.028-1.616); odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of total PSQ, 1.060 (1.009-1.113)]. ROC analysis revealed area under the ROC curves for the total PSQ and ODI scores of 0.638 (P = 0.005) and 0.692 (P disability and pain sensitivity can be predictors of the functional level achieved after spine surgery in patients with LSS, and the ideal cutoff values for the total PSQ and ODI scores were 6.6 and 45.0, respectively.

  11. Ultrasound analysis of gray-scale median value of carotid plaques is a useful reference index for cerebro-cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kyoko; Okuya, Shigeru; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Kimie; Nagao, Yuko; Nomiyama, Ryuta; Takeda, Komei; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of plaque echogenicity, the gray-scale median (GSM), were shown to correlate inversely with risk factors for cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD). The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a potential predictor of CVD risk. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of carotid plaque GSM values and EPA/AA ratios in atherosclerotic diabetics. A total of 84 type 2 diabetics with carotid artery plaques were enrolled. On admission, platelet aggregation and lipid profiles, including EPA and AA, were examined. Using ultrasound, mean intima media thickness and plaque score were measured in carotid arteries. Plaque echogenicity was evaluated using computer-assisted quantification of GSM. The patients were then further observed for approximately 3 years. Gray-scale median was found to be a good marker of CVD events. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, GSM <32 and plaque score ≥5 were significantly associated with past history and onset of CVD during the follow-up period, the odds ratios being 7.730 (P = 0.014) and 4.601 (P = 0.046), respectively. EPA/AA showed a significant correlation with GSM (P = 0.012) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.039), and an inverse correlation with platelet aggregation (P = 0.046) and triglyceride (P = 0.020). Although most patients with CVD had both low GSM and low EPA/AA values, an association of EPA/AA with CVD events could not be statistically confirmed. The present results suggest the GSM value to be useful as a reference index for CVD events in high-risk atherosclerotic diabetics. Associations of the EPA/AA ratio with known CVD risk factors warrant a larger and more extensive study to show the usefulness of this parameter.

  12. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  13. Varicella zoster virus myelitis in two elderly patients: diagnostic value of nested polymerase chain reaction assay and antibody index for cerebrospinal fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Tamura, Masato; Miki, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Mai; Kanno, Akira; Nunomura, Satoshi; Ra, Chisei; Tamiya, Takashi; Kamei, Satoshi; Takasu, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Myelitis is one of the rarest neurological complications of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Focal muscle weakness with or without sensory disturbance occurs in approximately 5% of the cases after acute VZV infection, with complete recovery in 50-70%. This report describes two rare cases of elderly patients with VZV myelitis secondary to dermatomal zoster rash. Patient 1 was a 79-year-old woman who developed paraplegia, numbness and decreased sensation in the left arm and below thoracic (Th)-10 after sacral zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at the cervical spinal nerve 2 on a T2-weighted image. Patient 2 was a 73-year-old man who developed right flaccid leg weakness and urinary retention after right dorsal Th 5-8 zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at Th 3-4 on a T2-weighted image. In both cases, although the conventional single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays all showed negative results, the original nested PCR assay detected VZV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen collected on admission. In addition, the anti-VZV IgG antibody by enzyme immunoassay and antibody index were elevated in the CSF specimens during the clinical courses of both patients. On the basis of these findings, both patients were diagnosed with VZV myelitis and were treated with high-dose acyclovir and corticosteroid. This combined treatment was appropriate and effective for the improvement of their functional outcomes. The detection of VZV DNA in CSF by nested PCR assay and the evaluation of the antibody index to VZV had significant diagnostic value.

  14. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  15. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  16. The value of the renal resistive index in the measurement of renal perfusion before and after extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy in correlation to the scintigraphy, to the magnetic resonance perfusion imaging and to big-endothelin values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palwein-Prettner, L.

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: the goal of this study was to evaluate effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the renal perfusion using the resistive index (RI), perfusion scintigraphy, magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging and plasma big-endothelin (big-ET-1) values. Method/materials: In 21 patients divided in 3 age-groups the RI was measured before and 1,3,6 and 24 hours after ESWL. Big-ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptid was correlated with the RI values. The RI and Big-ET-1 results was compared to the results of the MR perfusion imaging and the scintigraphy, the gold-standard method. Results: The RI of the treated kidneys increased significantly from 0,64±0,05 to 0,72±0,08 after the ESWL (p<0,001) and in the untreated kidneys from 0,63±0,05 to 0,68±0,09 (p=0,003). The hightest age group shows the most significant increase. The Big-ET-values also increased only in this age group significantly from 0,78±0,24 fmol/l to 1,58±0,52 fmol/l. In the scintigraphy the decrease of the renal plasma flow (RPF) in this age group was most significant. The MR perfusion Imaging shows in all age groups significant decrease (p<0,001). Conclusion: we conclude that the ESWL causes considerable renal parenchymal damage only in the elderly patients. The following changes in renal perfusion were measured very sensitively with the RI which had a good correlation to the results of the perfusion scintigraphy and the MR perfusion imaging. Further studies with larger series have to evaluate these results. (author)

  17. An enhanced approach for the use of satellite-derived leaf area index values in dry deposition modeling in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mervyn; Cho, Sunny; Spink, David; Pauls, Ron; Desilets, Michael; Shen, Yan; Bajwa, Kanwardeep; Person, Reid

    2016-12-15

    In the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) of Northern Alberta, the dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds represents a major fraction of total (wet plus dry) deposition due to oil sands emissions. The leaf area index (LAI) is a critical parameter that affects the dry deposition of these gaseous and particulate compounds to the surrounding boreal forest canopy. For this study, LAI values based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite imagery were obtained and compared to ground-based measurements, and two limitations with the satellite data were identified. The satellite LAI data firstly represents one-sided LAI values that do not account for the enhanced LAI associated with needle leaf geometry, and secondly, underestimates LAI in winter-time northern latitude regions. An approach for adjusting satellite LAI values for different boreal forest cover types, as a function of time of year, was developed to produce more representative LAI values that can be used by air quality sulphur and nitrogen deposition models. The application of the approach increases the AOSR average LAI for January from 0.19 to 1.40, which represents an increase of 637%. Based on the application of the CALMET/CALPUFF model system, this increases the predicted regional average dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds for January by factors of 1.40 to 1.30, respectively. The corresponding AOSR average LAI for July increased from 2.8 to 4.0, which represents an increase of 43%. This increases the predicted regional average dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds for July by factors of 1.28 to 1.22, respectively. These findings reinforce the importance of the LAI metric for predicting the dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds. While satellite data can provide enhanced spatial and temporal resolution, adjustments are identified to overcome associated limitations. This work is considered to have application for other deposition model studies where

  18. The Strain Index (SI) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL): risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Kapellusch, J; Hegmann, K; Wertsch, J; Merryweather, A; Deckow-Schaefer, G; Malloy, E J

    2012-01-01

    A cohort of 536 workers was enrolled from 10 diverse manufacturing facilities and was followed monthly for six years. Job physical exposures were individually measured. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, current musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were obtained. Point and lifetime prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) at baseline (symptoms + abnormal NCS) were 10.3% and 19.8%. During follow-up, there were 35 new CTS cases (left, right or both hands). Factors predicting development of CTS included: job physical exposure (American conference of governmental industrial hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL) and the Strain Index (SI)), age, BMI, other MSDs, inflammatory arthritis, gardening outside of work and feelings of depression. In the adjusted models, the TLV for HAL and the SI were both significant per unit increase in exposure with hazard ratios (HR) increasing up to a maximum of 5.4 (p = 0.05) and 5.3 (p = 0.03), respectively; however, similar to other reports, both suggested lower risk at higher exposures. Data suggest that the TLV for HAL and the SI are useful metrics for estimating exposure to biomechanical stressors. This study was conducted to determine how well the TLV for HAL and the SI predict risk of CTS using a prospective cohort design with survival analysis. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI were found to predict risk of CTS when adjusted for relevant covariates.

  19. Value of three-dimensional volume rendering images in the assessment of the centrality index for preoperative planning in patients with renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, C; Magno, C; Silipigni, S; Cantisani, V; Mucciardi, G; Sottile, F; Inferrera, A; Mazziotti, S; Ascenti, G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precision of the centrality index (CI) measurement on three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering technique (VRT) images in patients with renal masses, compared to its standard measurement on axial images. Sixty-five patients with renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT) for preoperative imaging. Two readers calculated the CI on two-dimensional axial images and on VRT images, measuring it in the plane that the tumour and centre of the kidney were lying in. Correlation and agreement of interobserver measurements and inter-method results were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients and the Bland-Altman method. Time saving was also calculated. The correlation coefficients were r=0.99 (ppresent study showed that VRT and axial images produce almost identical values of CI, with the advantages of greater ease of execution and a time saving of almost 50% for 3D VRT images. In addition, VRT provides an integrated perspective that can better assist surgeons in clinical decision making and in operative planning, suggesting this technique as a possible standard method for CI measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Risk factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism and the predictive value of Charlson comorbidity index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haixia; Tang, Yangjiang; Wang, Lan; Shi, Chaoli; Feng, Yulin; Yi, Qun

    2016-01-26

    To explore the risk factors associated with long-term mortality and the predictive value of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) for long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). A total of 234 patients with confirmed PE from the medical departments of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2010 and December 2012 were enrolled, and these meeting the inclusion criteria were followed-up for 2 years after discharge. The long-term mortality was calculated and univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with long-term mortality of PE. All the patients were assessed the comorbidity burden with the CCI, and survival analysis was used to study its value in predicting long-term mortality in patients with PE. A total of 176 PE patients were finally included in this study, and 53 patients died during the follow-up period, with 2 years' mortality 30.1%. The univariate analysis showed diabetes (P=0.034), malignant neoplasm (P=0.001), chronic lung disease (P=0.035), liver disease (P=0.048), in bed for a long time (P=0.049), inappropriate anticoagulant therapy (P=0.016) were associated with the long-term mortality of PE patients. Among these risk factors, the multivariate analysis revealed malignant neoplasm (OR=9.28, 95%CI: 2.85-31.00, P=0.003), chronic lung disease (OR=2.96, 95%CI: 1.15-7.62, P=0.024), inappropriate anticoagulant therapy (OR=4.08, 95%CI: 1.64-10.20, P=0.003) were the independent risk factors. The median CCI scores for died PE patients during follow-up was higher than that for the survived PE patients ((2(1, 3) vs 1(0, 2), Prisk of long-term mortality compared with patients with no comorbidity (CCI=0) (95%CI: 1.14-6.00, P=0.024). The per 1-score increase of CCI was associated with 1.76-fold increased risk of long-term mortality in PE patients (95%CI: 1.04-2.97, P=0.035). Survival analysis showed that the 2-year cumulative survival of PE patients with CCI score≥1 was significant lower

  1. Cloud cover over the equatorial eastern Pacific derived from July 1983 International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data using a hybrid bispectral threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A set of visible and IR data obtained with GOES from July 17-31, 1983 is analyzed using a modified version of the hybrid bispectral threshold method developed by Minnis and Harrison (1984). This methodology can be divided into a set of procedures or optional techniques to determine the proper contaminate clear-sky temperature or IR threshold. The various optional techniques are described; the options are: standard, low-temperature limit, high-reflectance limit, low-reflectance limit, coldest pixel and thermal adjustment limit, IR-only low-cloud temperature limit, IR clear-sky limit, and IR overcast limit. Variations in the cloud parameters and the characteristics and diurnal cycles of trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds over the eastern equatorial Pacific are examined. It is noted that the new method produces substantial changes in about one third of the cloud amount retrieval; and low cloud retrievals are affected most by the new constraints.

  2. Predictive value of mutant p53 expression index obtained from nonenhanced computed tomography measurements for assessing invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jian Li,2 Ransheng Liu,1 Aixu Zhang,1 Zhiyong Yuan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To predict p53 expression index (p53-EI based on measurements from computed tomography (CT for preoperatively assessing pathologies of nodular ground-glass opacities (nGGOs. Methods: Information of 176 cases with nGGOs on high-resolution CT that were pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma was collected. Diameters, total volumes (TVs, maximum (MAX, average (AVG, and standard deviation (STD of CT attenuations within nGGOs were measured. p53-EI was evaluated through immunohistochemistry with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. A multiple linear stepwise regression model was established to calculate p53-EI prediction from CT measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of variables in differentiating preinvasive adenocarcinoma (PIA, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC. Results: Diameters, TVs, MAX, AVG, and STD showed significant differences among PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (all P-values <0.001, with only MAX being incapable to differentiate MIAs from IACs (P=0.106. The mean p53-EIs of PIAs, MIAs, and IACs were 3.4±2.0, 7.2±1.9, and 9.8±2.7, with significant intergroup differences (all P-values <0.001. An equation was established by multiple linear regression as: p53-EI prediction =0.001* TVs +0.012* AVG +0.022* STD +9.345, through which p53-EI predictions were calculated to be 4.4%±1.0%, 6.8%±1.3%, and 8.5%±1.4% for PIAs, MIAs, and IACs (Kruskal–Wallis test P<0.001; Tamhane’s T2 test: PIA vs MIA P<0.001, MIA vs IAC P<0.001, respectively. Although not significant, p53-EI prediction

  3. [Value of the palliative prognostic index, controlling nutritional status, and prognostic nutritional index for objective evaluation during transition from chemotherapy to palliative care in cases of advanced or recurrent gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Annen, Kazuya; Kawamukai, Yuji; Onuma, Noritomo; Kawashima, Mayu

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether objective evaluation by using the palliative prognostic index(PPI), controlling nutritional status(COUNT), and prognostic nutritional index(PNI)can provide prognostic information during the transition from chemotherapy to palliative care in patients with advanced or recurrent gastrointestinal cancer. The subjects were 28 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who died of their disease between January 2009 and June 2012. We compared the PPI, COUNT, and PNI scores between patients who died within 90 days of completing chemotherapy(Group A, n=14)and patients who survived for 90 or more days(Group B, n=14). The PPI score for Group A(4.0)was significantly higher than that for Group B(0.8)(pevaluation during the transition from chemotherapy to palliative care.

  4. Perbandingan Kebutuhan Propofol dan Lama Bangun antara Kombinasi Propofol-Ketamin dan Propofol-Fentanil pada Pasien yang Dilakukan Kuretase yang Diukur dengan Bispectral Index (BIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirawan Anggorotomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate administration of safe, easy-to-obtain, and constantly available sedatives and analgesia, is needed for pain reduction throughout curettage procedures. The goal of this study was to examine differences in propofol requirements and emergence time between propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations in patients undergoing curettage. A single-blind randomized controlled trial study was performed on 60 patients who underwent curettage procedures. The patients were divided into two groups: propofol-ketamine (PK and propofol-fentanyl (PF. Blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, and oxygen saturation and BIS data were analysed using a t-test and Mann-Whitney test. This study showed that propofol requirements differ significantly (p<0.001 between the two groups where in PK group where 4/30 subjects received additional propofol, compared to PF group 14/30 subjects received additional propofol. The wake up time for PK group was 25.75±2.47 minutes compared to 21.08±2.52 minutes for the PF group. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. The conclusions of this study are propofol requirements for PK group is less compared to PF group and the emergence time for PK group is longer compared to PF group.

  5. Predictive value of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for the amount of physical activity after total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenmakers, Robert; Stevens, Martin; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Background and Purpose Despite the recognized health benefits of physical activity, little is known about the amount of physical activity that patients perform after total hip arthroplasty (THA). To this end, the ability of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)

  6. Combined therapy of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with high cardiovascular risk and changes in the lipid target values and atherogenic index of plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosolová, H.; Dobiášová, Milada; Soška, V.; Bláha, V.; Češka, R.; Nussbaumerová, B.; Pelikánová, T.; Souček, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2014), e133-e139 ISSN 1803-7712 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mixed dyslipidemia * atherogenic index of plasma (AIP=log[triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol]) * combined lipid modifying therapy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  7. Diagnostic value of the APRI index for liver fibrosis in a Chinese patients population with chronic hepatitis C acquired from blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Chengduo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various newly developed non-invasive fibrotic predictive models based on measurements of common biochemical indices in a group of ethnic Chinese patients with long-standing chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection acquired by transfusion. MethodsBetween July 2010 and June 2011, 120 of the monitored residents of Dingxi District of Gansu Province who had acquired hepatitis C infection via the regional practice of untested whole blood or plasma transfusion during the years of 1992-1995 were recruited for the current study. Each participant underwent liver biopsy for histological evaluation of liver fibrosis (S1-S4 progressive stages, from mild fibrosis to early cirrhosis. Each participant also provided serum samples for biochemical measurement of fibrotic indicators, including hyaluronic acid (HA, type Ⅲ procollagen protein (PCⅢ, laminin (LN, and type IV collagen (CⅣ. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, platelet count (PLT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, prothrombin time (PT, and international normalized ratio (INR were measured to calculate the various non-invasive fibrotic predictive models: AST-to-PLT ratio index (APRI, the Sheth index (AST/ALT, the FibroQ index (10×[(age×AST×PT INR/(ALT×PLT], and the FIB-4 index ([age×AST/(PLT×ALT1/2]. Using the pathologic results as the reference standards, the diagnostic efficacies of these four non-invasive fibrotic predictive models were evaluated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Accuracies of the four were compared by constructing receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and analyzing their sensitivities, specificities and area under the curves (AUCs. ResultsThe APRI, FibroQ and FIB-4 indexes, and the levels of PCⅢ, CⅣ, and HA increased in conjunction with progressive stages of liver fibrosis. However, only the APRI showed significant correlation to liver fibrosis stage (r=0.446, P<0.001. The APRI index also had

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of the Association of Clinically Relevant Values of Ki-67 Labeling Index with Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Criteria in Female Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba El-Gendi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer aggressiveness is related to tumor cell proliferation. Despite this, the Ki-67 index is not recommended for routine use in newly diagnosed breast carcinomas. Material and Methods: A total of 164 invasive breast carcinomas were stratified into the intrinsic molecular subtypes based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2, and Ki-67 immunostaining. We studied the distribution of Ki-67 among the molecular subtypes and correlated it with clinicopathologic parameters. Furthermore, the change in the Ki-67 index with tumor size, grade and lymph node (LN status among the molecular subtypes was examined. Results: As a continuous variable, the median Ki-67 did not show significant differences with the clinicopathological variables. At a cutoff ≥14%, it correlated significantly with the mitotic index. At a cutoff ≥20%, it additionally correlated with the PR status. The median Ki-67 level varied significantly between luminal A and all other molecular subtypes. The median Ki-67 level in T1/T2 tumors compared to T3/T4 tumors was slightly higher in luminal B HER2+, slightly lower in HER2 enriched, and nearly similar among luminal A, triple negative and luminal B HER2-subtypes, yet without statistical significance. The median Ki-67 was lower in G1/G2 compared to G3 tumors in all-except luminal B HER2-positive subtype but without statistical significance. The Ki-67 distribution change between N0/N1 and N2/N3 cases among the molecular subtypes was significant. Conclusions: The impact of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker on the biological behavior of breast carcinomas is context dependent, and its clinical utility increases when interpreted in combination with other prognostic markers in the context of the molecular subtypes. Further studies, on larger sample sizes are recommended to unravel how the molecular types can affect the relation between Ki-67 and clinicopathological characteristics, particularly the LN status. [J

  9. The prognostic value of pre-operative serum tetranectin, CA-125 and a combined index in women with primary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus K; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Mogensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    cancer. Evaluation was by univariate life-tables analyses and the multivariate Cox analysis. In the Cox analyses, the variables were tested respectively in actual values and as dichotomy variables with different cut-off levels: 6.7, 7.3 and 8.2 mg/l for TN, 35, 65, 100 and 165 U/ml for CA125. RESULTS....... The variables may be useful in the selection of patients with a poor outcome for new treatment strategies....

  10. Improving the prediction of pathologic outcomes in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: the value of prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate health index (phi) and sarcosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ada; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Giorgio, Emilia; Tagliamonte, Virginia; Bottero, Danilo; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Several efforts have been made to find biomarkers that could help clinicians to preoperatively determine prostate cancer (PCa) pathological characteristics and choose the best therapeutic approach, avoiding over-treatment. On this effort, prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate health index (phi) and sarcosine have been presented as promising tools. We evaluated the ability of these biomarkers to predict the pathologic PCa characteristics within a prospectively collected contemporary cohort of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized PCa at a single high-volume Institution. The prognostic performance of PCA3, phi and sarcosine were evaluated in 78 patients undergoing RP for biopsy-proven PCa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses tested the accuracy (area under the curve (AUC)) in predicting PCa pathological characteristics. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to assess the clinical benefit of the three biomarkers. We found that PCA3, phi and sarcosine levels were significantly higher in patients with tumor volume (TV)≥0.5 ml, pathologic Gleason sum (GS)≥7 and pT3 disease (all p-values≤0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that phi is an accurate predictor of high-stage (AUC 0.85 [0.77-0.93]), high-grade (AUC 0.83 [0.73-0.93]) and high-volume disease (AUC 0.94 [0.88-0.99]). Sarcosine showed a comparable AUC (0.85 [0.76-0.94]) only for T3 stage prediction, whereas PCA3 score showed lower AUCs, ranging from 0.74 (for GS) to 0.86 (for TV). PCA3, phi and sarcosine are predictors of PCa characteristics at final pathology. Successful clinical translation of these findings would reduce the frequency of surveillance biopsies and may enhance acceptance of active surveillance (AS). Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. [Estimation of the population attributable fraction due to obesity in hospital admissions for flu valued according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and CUN-BAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Batista, V; Carriedo, D; Díez, F; Pueyo Bastida, A; Martínez Durán, B; Martin, V

    2018-03-01

    The obesity pandemic together with the influenza pandemic could lead to a significant burden of disease. The body mass index (BMI) does not discriminate obesity appropriately. The CUN-BAE has recently been used as an estimate of body fatness for Caucasians, including BMI, gender, and age. The aim of this study is to assess the population attributable fraction of hospital admissions due to influenza, due to the body fatness measured with the BMI, and the CUN-BAE. A multicentre study was conducted using matched case-controls. Cases were hospital admissions with the influenza confirmed by the RT-PCR method between 2009 and 2011. The risk of hospital admission and the population attribuible fraction were calculated using the BMI or the CUN-BAE for each adiposity category in a conditional logical regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables. The analyzes were estimated in the total sample, in unvaccinated people, and those less than 65 years-old. A total of 472 hospitalised cases and 493 controls were included in the study. Compared to normal weight, the aOR of influenza hospital admissions increases with each level of BMI (aOR=1.26; 2.06 and 11.64) and CUN-BAE (aOR=2.78; 4.29; 5.43 and 15.18). The population attributable fraction of influenza admissions using CUN-BAE is 3 times higher than that estimated with BMI (0,72 vs. 0,27), with the differences found being similar the non-vaccinated and under 65 year-olds. The BMI could be underestimating the burden of disease attributable to obesity in individuals hospitalised with influenza. There needs to be an appropriate assessment of the impact of obesity and vaccine recommendation criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of

  13. Positive predictive value between medical-chart body-mass-index category and obesity versus codes in a claims-data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Eleanor O; Kamble, Pravin S; Harvey, Raymond A; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Renda, Andrew; Bouchard, Jonathan R; Huang, Joanna C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the positive predictive value of claims-based V85 codes for identifying individuals with varying degrees of BMI relative to their measured BMI obtained from medical record abstraction. This was a retrospective validation study utilizing administrative claims and medical chart data from 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2015. Randomly selected samples of patients enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) or commercial health plan and with a V85 claim were identified. The claims-based BMI category (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese class I-III) was determined via corresponding V85 codes and compared to the BMI category derived from chart abstracted height, weight and/or BMI. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of the claims-based BMI categories were calculated with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall PPVs (95% CIs) in the MAPD and commercial samples were 90.3% (86.3%-94.4%) and 91.1% (87.3%-94.9%), respectively. In each BMI category, the PPVs (95% CIs) for the MAPD and commercial samples, respectively, were: underweight, 71.0% (55.0%-87.0%) and 75.9% (60.3%-91.4%); normal, 93.8% (85.4%-100%) and 87.8% (77.8%-97.8%); overweight, 97.4% (92.5%-100%) and 93.5% (84.9%-100%); obese class I, 96.9 (90.9%-100%) and 97.2% (91.9%-100%); obese class II, 97.0% (91.1%-100%) and 93.0% (85.4%-100%); and obese class III, 85.0% (73.3%-96.1%) and 97.1% (91.4%-100%). BMI categories derived from administrative claims, when available, can be used successfully particularly in the context of obesity research.

  14. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Digital collaborative learning: identifying what students value [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/55h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hemingway

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies are changing the learning landscape and connecting classrooms to learning environments beyond the school walls.  Online collaborations among students, teachers, and scientists are new opportunities for authentic science experiences.  Here we present findings generated on PlantingScience (www.plantingscience.org, an online community where scientists from more than 14 scientific societies have mentored over 14,000 secondary school students as they design and think through their own team investigations on plant biology.  The core intervention is online discourse between student teams and scientist mentors to enhance classroom-based plant investigations.  We asked: (1 what attitudes about engaging in authentic science do students reveal, and (2 how do student attitudes relate to design principles of the program? Lexical analysis of open-ended survey questions revealed that students most highly value working with plants and scientists.  By examining student responses to this cognitive apprenticeship model, we provide new perspectives on the importance of the personal relationships students form with scientists and plants when working as members of a research community. These perspectives have implications for plant science instruction and e-mentoring programs.

  16. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  17. The effect of cerebral monitoring on recovery after sevoflurane anesthesia in ambulatory setting in children: A comparison among bispectral index, A-line autoregressive index, and standard practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wei Liao

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: BIS- and AAI- guided titration sevoflurane anesthesia could result in shortened recovery and reduced sevoflurane concentration and consumption without affecting the quality of recovery in children receiving ambulatory urologic surgery. The beneficial effects of AAI- and BIS-guided anesthesia in pediatric ambulatory surgeries are similar.

  18. A Framework for Quantifying the Impacts of Sub-Pixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bi-Spectral Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Werner, F.; Cho, H. -M.; Wind, Galina; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    The so-called bi-spectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave-infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring sub-pixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In this study, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of sub-pixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bi-spectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the sub-pixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval.

  19. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  20. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  1. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  2. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  3. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  4. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  6. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  7. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  8. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  9. Postnatal follow-up of the oxygenation index, arterial to alveolar oxygen tension ratio and alveolar arterial oxygen tension difference values in neonates with the respiratory distress syndrome treated with conventional ventilatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, A; Despotova-Toleva, L

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of sophisticated intensive care technique for use in newborn infants with the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has resulted in changes in the therapeutic strategies and moved the problem of neonatal survival into the realm of new therapeutic realities. At present, the mechanical ventilation methods form an integral part of the intensive care strategy of infants with RDS. They have come to the forefront of infant care because of their successful use in ventilatory support and children survival where other therapeutic modalities have failed. The present prospective observational longitudinal study was designed to assess the real-time convenience, reliability and accuracy of the changes in the oxygenation index (OI), arterial-to-alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A PO2) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a)DO2 in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS, to analyze their feasibility and potential information yield in oxygen inhalation therapy as well as their prognostic implications and predictive value. Twenty neonates with RDS, heralded by respiratory failure which necessitated the initiation of oxygen inhalation therapy and ventilatory support within 24 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study. Ten of the infants survived and the remaining ten died. OI, (a/A PO2) and (A-a)DO2 were followed up sequentially and thoroughly analyzed as the primary outcome measures of the study. The indices were calculated on the basis of the complete monitoring of the ventilatory equipment parameters and acid-base status carried out on an hourly basis. Our results show that: 1. The combination of three indexes (OI, (a/A)PO2 and (A-a)DO2 we propose is a useful discriminating predictor of neonatal lung maturity reflecting arterial blood gas status in ventilator-dependent neonates with RDS. 2. The indices detect the efficacy of the modern conventional ventilatory support with real-time convenience and reliable accuracy forming the cornerstone of clinical decision

  10. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Sub-Pixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bi-Spectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H. -M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The bi-spectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness and cloud droplet effective radius simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VISNIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring sub-pixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved and re. In the literature, the retrievals of and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations on the bi-spectral method. As a result, the impact on is contributed only by the sub-pixel variation of VISNIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the sub-pixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of sub-pixel variances of VISNIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VISNIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations impact the and re retrievals based on the bi-spectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the sub-pixel variation in VISNIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our framework can be used

  11. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  12. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  13. An atmospheric dispersion index for prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas G. Lavdas

    1986-01-01

    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are given in detail. A preliminary interpretation of dispersion index values is offered. A FORTRAN subroutine package for computing the index is included.

  14. Clinical value of spleen acoustic radiation force impulse, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in predicting esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dakun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the spleen stiffness of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis by spleen acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR, as well as the clinical value of these three noninvasive techniques in predicting esophageal varices (EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 247 patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were enrolled, and ARFI was used to measure real-time spleen stiffness. APRI and AAR were calculated. Gastroscopy was performed within one week before and after measurement to clarify the degree of EV. With the results of gastroscopy as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to compare the clinical value of spleen ARFI value, APRI, and AAR in the diagnosis of EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThere were significant differences between the EV group (n=169 and the non-EV group (n=78 in spleen ARFI stiffness (3.64±0.53 m/s vs 2.97±0.65 m/s, t=-7.93, P<0.001, APRI (0.87±091 vs 0.52±0.80, t=-2.90, P=0.004, and AAR (1.54±0.67 vs 1.29±0.55, t=-2.93, P=0.004. Spleen ARFI, APRI, and AAR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, 0.72, and 0.63, respectively, in predicting EV in patients with liver cirrhosis, there was a significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and AAR (P=0.005, while there was no significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and APRI (P=0.10. ConclusionARFI is a real-time ultrasound elastography technique, and compared with APRI and AAR, spleen stiffness measured by ARFI can predict EV in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis more accurately and noninvasively and thus holds promise for clinical application.

  15. Predictive Value of Beat-to-Beat QT Variability Index across the Continuum of Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Competing Risks of Non-cardiac or Cardiovascular Death, and Sudden or Non-Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; McNitt, Scott; Vazquez, Rafael; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Han, Lichy; Sur, Sanjoli; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Berger, Ronald D.; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Zareba, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to determine the predictive value of beat-to-beat QT variability in heart failure (HF) patients across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Methods and Results Beat-to-beat QT variability index (QTVI), heart rate variance (LogHRV), normalized QT variance (QTVN), and coherence between heart rate variability and QT variability have been measured at rest during sinus rhythm in 533 participants of the Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca (MUSIC) HF study (mean age 63.1±11.7; males 70.6%; LVEF >35% in 254 [48%]) and in 181 healthy participants from the Intercity Digital Electrocardiogram Alliance (IDEAL) database. During a median of 3.7 years of follow-up, 116 patients died, 52 from sudden cardiac death (SCD). In multivariate competing risk analyses, the highest QTVI quartile was associated with cardiovascular death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.67(95%CI 1.14-2.47), P=0.009] and in particular with non-sudden cardiac death [HR 2.91(1.69-5.01), P<0.001]. Elevated QTVI separated 97.5% of healthy individuals from subjects at risk for cardiovascular [HR 1.57(1.04-2.35), P=0.031], and non-sudden cardiac death in multivariate competing risk model [HR 2.58(1.13-3.78), P=0.001]. No interaction between QTVI and LVEF was found. QTVI predicted neither non-cardiac death (P=0.546) nor SCD (P=0.945). Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) rather than increased QT variability was the reason for increased QTVI in this study. Conclusions Increased QTVI due to depressed HRV predicts cardiovascular mortality and non-sudden cardiac death, but neither SCD nor excracardiac mortality in HF across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Abnormally augmented QTVI separates 97.5% of healthy individuals from HF patients at risk. PMID:22730411

  16. Standardized uptake value for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose is correlated with a high International Prognostic Index and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, B E; Vural, G U

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) correlates with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). 77 patients (age: 57.2±18.5, 40F, 37M) with DLBCL who underwent FDG PET/CT for initial staging were included. SUVmax of the predominant lesions were compared to Ann Arbor stage, IPI scores, the presence of extranodal involvement and the number extranodal sites. PET/CT detected nodal (n:25) and extranodal involvement (n:52) in all the patients. In 27 patients, extranodal disease could only be detected by PET. SUVmax of the predominant lesion in patients with extranodal disease was significantly higher than that of the patients who had only nodal disease (25±12 vs. 15.3±10 respectively, p=0.001). SUVmax significantly correlated with IPI scores; the average SUVmax was significantly correlated with the IPI: Mean SUVmax of the predominant lesion was 13.9±9.5 in patients with low risk (IPI=0-1), 14.2±8.8 in low-intermediate risk group (IPI=2) whereas 26.6±9.5 in high-intermediate risk group (IPI=3) and 25±13.6 in high risk group patients (IPI=4-5) (p=0.002). SUVmax was not correlated with clinical stage, the number of extranodal sites and serum LDH levels. FDG uptake correlates with IPI and the presence of extranodal involvement in DLBCL. PET is a powerful method to detect extranodal disease in DLBCL. The correlation of SUVmax with these prognostic factors may highlight the importance of pretreatment FDG uptake as a metabolic marker of poor prognosis for patients with DLBCL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  18. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  19. Value of tissue Doppler-derived Tei index and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging derived longitudinal strain on predicting outcome of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank; Störk, Stefan; Nordbeck, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89 ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and E to global early diastolic strain rate ratio (E/GLSR dias ) were higher while global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS sys ) was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). Tei index, NYHA functional class, GLS sys and E/GLSR dias were independent predictors of all-cause mortality risk, and Tei index ≥0.9 (HR 7.01, 95% CI 2.43-20.21, p < 0.001) was the best predictor of poor outcome. Combining Tei index and GLS sys yielded the best results on predicting death within 1 year (100% with Tei index ≥0.9 and GLS sys ≤13%) or survival (95% with Tei index ≤0.9 and GLS sys ≥13%). We conclude that 1-year mortality risk in AL-CA patients can be reliably predicted using Tei index or deformation parameters, with combined analysis offering best performance.

  20. Predicting fiber refractive index from a measured preform index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiveri, P.; Koponen, J.; Harra, J.; Novotny, S.; Husu, H.; Ihalainen, H.; Kokki, T.; Aallos, V.; Kimmelma, O.; Paul, J.

    2018-02-01

    When producing fiber lasers and amplifiers, silica glass compositions consisting of three to six different materials are needed. Due to the varying needs of different applications, substantial number of different glass compositions are used in the active fiber structures. Often it is not possible to find material parameters for theoretical models to estimate thermal and mechanical properties of those glass compositions. This makes it challenging to predict accurately fiber core refractive index values, even if the preform index profile is measured. Usually the desired fiber refractive index value is achieved experimentally, which is expensive. To overcome this problem, we analyzed statistically the changes between the measured preform and fiber index values. We searched for correlations that would help to predict the Δn-value change from preform to fiber in a situation where we don't know the values of the glass material parameters that define the change. Our index change models were built using the data collected from preforms and fibers made by the Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND) technology.

  1. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  2. The Prognostic Value of International Prognostic Index and MIB-l Immunostaining of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues and Bone Marrow in Patients with High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assem, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cell kinetic data are important indicator of the aggressiveness of tumour and clinical response. The Ki-67 antigen plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation and the expression of this antigen was found to be a valuable indicator for aggressive disease in a variety of neoplastic disorders. Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance of the expression of Ki-67 antigen in peripheral lymphoid tissues and bone marrow, using the monoclonal antibody MIB-l that is applicable in formaline-fixed paraffin embedded samples in cases with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Material and methods: The MIB-I immunostaining was performed on 96 samples from 48 patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The study was performed on tissue sections, nodal or extra nodal, as well as on BM smears or BM paraffin embedded sections of same patients. Ki-67 index was determined using image analyzer. Results: Forty-five out of the studied 48 cases (93.8%) were positive with a median labelling index of 20.425% (Range, 0-58%). We were able to detect bone marrow involvement by detecting MIB-l positive cells in BM samples of 29 patients who were not morphologically diagnosed to have BM infiltration. There was a strong correlation between BM positivity for Ki-67 and Ki-67 labelling index (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight (58.3%) out of the studied 48 cases achieved complete remission (CR). The median duration of CR was 35 months (range, 8-42 months) and the overall survival at 48 months was 35.4% (median 22 months, 95% CI, 13-31 months). The median Ki-67 index (20.425%) was chosen as a cut-off level for statistical analysis of the variables that influence clinical outcome. The probability of inducing CR was associated with low and low intermediate International Prognostic Index (IPI) whereas a low growth fraction was associated, although not significant, with a trend toward a higher probability of inducing a CR. In univariate analysis, high MIB1 labelling

  3. The "Antidirector Rights Index" Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Spamann

    2010-01-01

    The "antidirector rights index" has been used as a measure of shareholder protection in over a hundred articles since it was introduced by La Porta et al. ("Law and Finance." 1998, Journal of Political Economy 106:1113--55). A thorough reexamination of the legal data, however, leads to corrections for thirty-three of the forty-six countries analyzed. The correlation between corrected and original values is only 0.53. Consequently, many empirical results established using the original index ma...

  4. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1976 Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Kent D.

    The 1976 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1976. The basic study, "Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes" (ED 123 996) presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. Indexes are presented for research and development,…

  5. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Retrievals from eMAS During SEAC4RS Using Bi-Spectral Reflectance Measurements Within the 1.88 micron Water Vapor Absorption Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Holz, R. E.; Veglio, P.; Yorks, J.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or midwave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASAs SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 micron water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 micron channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy TOA reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption, as well as reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  6. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  7. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  8. Fermion fractionization and index theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Minoru; Torii, Tatsuo

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the fermion fractionization and the Callias-Bott-Seeley index theorem for the Dirac operator in the open space of odd dimension is clarified. Only the case of one spatial dimension is discussed in detail. Sum rules for the expectation values of various quantities in fermion-fractionized configurations are derived. (author)

  9. Risk management of stock index futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Hong Kong Hang Seng index futures is taken as a study object and a method of empirical analysis is adopted in order to verify the validity of the application of the value-at-risk (VaR) method in the risk measurement of the stock index futures market. The results suggest that under normal market conditions it is feasible to apply the VaR method in the measurement of the market risks of stock index futures. The daily VaR value of the stock index futures provides a foreseeable profit and loss of the stock ...

  10. The Process of Creation of Value Shareholder compared in each Level Segmented on the Bovespa Corporate Governance: A Study with the Companies comprising the Index Stock Portfolio Brazil (Ibrx 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Moura Lamounier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was of to measure and to analyze the creation of value for the shareholder through comparisons among each level of corporate governance segmented in BOVESPA, accomplishing an empiric study with interest of proving the existence of different averages regarding the one of creation of value in the different segments. The research was guided through a descriptive analysis which makes possible to establish relationships among the analyzed variables and to lift hypotheses or possibilities to explain those relationships. The found results didn't demonstrate statistical evidences that the level of corporate governance, in that certain company is inserted at the market, brings differentiation in the process of creation of value for the shareholders. The found conclusions thwarted the null hypothesis of this study, which mentioned that in agreement with the level of classification of the companies there would be a differentiation in the creation of value for the shareholder. It is pointed out that that conclusion not to be generalized by the fact that the sample used to obtain her, in spite of being representative, it was obtained in a limited temporary space, existing the possibility that increasing the space of time here the conclusions presented they can suffer alterations. For future researches it is suggested that this study is accomplished with a larger sample of companies, and with given quarterly with the intention of explaining the studied variables better.

  11. Correlating data from different sensors to increase the positive predictive value of alarms: an empiric assessment [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/RKkXdB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Bitan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Alarm fatigue from high false alarm rate is a well described phenomenon in the intensive care unit (ICU. Progress to further reduce false alarms must employ a new strategy. Highly sensitive alarms invariably have a very high false alarm rate. Clinically useful alarms have a high Positive-Predictive Value. Our goal is to demonstrate one approach to suppressing false alarms using an algorithm that correlates information across sensors and replicates the ways that human evaluators discriminate artifact from real signal. Methods: After obtaining IRB approval and waiver of informed consent, a set of definitions, (hypovolemia, left ventricular shock, tamponade, hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia, and hemodynamically significant supraventricular tachycardia, were installed in the monitors in a 10 bed cardiothoracic ICU and evaluated over an 85 day study period. The logic of the algorithms was intended to replicate the logic of practitioners, and correlated information across sensors in a way similar to that used by practitioners. The performance of the alarms was evaluated via a daily interview with the ICU attending and review of the tracings recorded over the previous 24 hours in the monitor. True alarms and false alarms were identified by an expert clinician, and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using the standard definitions of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Results: Between 1 and 221 instances of defined events occurred over the duration of the study, and the positive predictive value of the definitions varied between 4.1% and 84%. Conclusions: Correlation of information across alarms can suppress artifact, increase the positive predictive value of alarms, and can employ more sophisticated definitions of alarm events than present single-sensor based systems.

  12. The Value of Information in Library Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Considers the value of information contained within a library's online public access catalog. Assesses the value of MARC records; authority records; indexes; location and status information; and value for an individual. (LRW)

  13. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  14. The impact of cloud vertical profile on liquid water path retrieval based on the bispectral method: A theoretical study based on large-eddy simulations of shallow marine boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J.; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.

    2018-01-01

    Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness (τ) and effective radius (re) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5–10 g/m2. In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic re profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques. PMID:29637042

  15. The impact of cloud vertical profile on liquid water path retrieval based on the bispectral method: A theoretical study based on large-eddy simulations of shallow marine boundary layer clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A

    2016-04-27

    Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness ( τ ) and effective radius ( r e ) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5-10 g/m 2 . In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic r e profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques.

  16. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  17. Is It Better to Enter a Volume CT Dose Index Value before or after Scan Range Adjustment for Radiation Dose Optimization of Pediatric Cardiothoracic CT with Tube Current Modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the body size-adapted volume computed tomography (CT) dose index (CTDvol) in pediatric cardiothoracic CT with tube current modulation is better to be entered before or after scan range adjustment for radiation dose optimization. Materials and Methods In 83 patients, cardiothoracic CT with tube current modulation was performed with the body size-adapted CTDIvol entered after (group 1, n = 42) or before (group 2, n = 41) scan range adjustment. Patient-related, radiation dose, and image quality parameters were compared and correlated between the two groups. Results The CTDIvol after the CT scan in group 1 was significantly higher than that in group 2 (1.7 ± 0.1 mGy vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 mGy; p Hounsfield units [HU] vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 HU) and image quality (1.5 ± 0.6 vs. 1.5 ± 0.6) showed no significant differences between the two (p > 0.05). In both groups, all patient-related parameters, except body density, showed positive correlations (r = 0.49–0.94; p 0.05) in group 2. Conclusion In pediatric cardiothoracic CT with tube current modulation, the CTDIvol entered before scan range adjustment provides a significant dose reduction (18%) with comparable image quality compared with that entered after scan range adjustment.

  18. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  19. Quality index on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travassos, P.C.B.; Magalhães, L.A.G.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2017-01-01

    Quality analysis was carried out from Indicators divided into 3 sectors: Regulation and Management; Equipment; Image Quality and Dosimetry. Values were assigned for each indicator according to the degree of compliance with the specifications, and were used to calculate the Index. The model was applied in 110 institutions of the State of Rio de Janeiro, and the results were distributed into 5 ranges of values. About 40% of the institutions received grades belonging to the two highest ranges of values. There was no significant difference between the results of old scanners compared to the younger ones. (author)

  20. Congestive index of portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, H. K.; Lee, S. C.; Han, S. H.; Han, K. H.; Chung, J. B.; Choi, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with portal hypertension, the blood flow volume is maintained despite decreased blood flow velocity due to enlargement of the vascular cross sectional area. Thus, the 'congestion index' of the portal vein, which is the ratio between the cross sectional area (cm2) and the blood flow velocity (cm/sec) determined by a Doppler ultrasonography, may be a sensitive index by which to assess portal hypertension. We performed Doppler ultrasonography on 24 normal subjects, 14 patients with biopsy proved chronic active hepatitis and 55 patients with liver cirrhosis in order to assess the diagnostic value of the congestion index. The cross sectional area of the portal vein was significantly enlarged and the mean blood flow velocity was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with controls. However, the blood flow volume was no difference. The congestion index of the portal vein was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis (0.113+0.035) compared with patients with chronic active hepatitis(0.078+0.029) (p<0.001) and controls (0.053+0.016) (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the congestion index for detection of patients with the cirrhosis of the liver were 76.4%, 100% and 100% respectively, when the normal range was set at mean+2SD. The results suggest that the congestion index of the portal vein may pla a significant role in diagnosis of portal hypertensive patients

  1. The ZJU index is a powerful index for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linman; You, Wenyi; Ren, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The ZJU index is a novel model for detecting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that it is calculated based on combination of the body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and the serum alanine aminotransferase-to-aspartate transaminase ratio. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the ZJU index in detecting NAFLD in the Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory data, and ultrasonography features were collected through a standard protocol. The ZJU index, fatty liver index, hepatic steatosis index, lipid accumulation product, and visceral adiposity index were calculated. Then the predictive values of the five indices were compared according to the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values. A total of 19,804 participants were recruited, of whom 7324 participants were diagnosed with NFALD and 12,480 subjects were regarded as controls. The AUROC value for NAFLD identification by the ZJU index was 0.925 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.919-0.931), which was significantly higher than the values for the other four models (P 60 years, the AUROC for the ZJU increased from 87.1 to 95.4%, values which were also greater than those for the other four indices. Analysis by sex also showed that the performance of the ZJU index in males and females was better than that of the other four indices. The ZJU index is an accurate and easy to employ tool for identifying NAFLD in the general Chinese population.

  2. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  3. Policies to increase the social value of science and the scientist satisfaction. An exploratory survey among Harvard bioscientists. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2iq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballabeni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research in the biomedical field generates both knowledge that has a value per se regardless of its possible practical outcome and that has the potential to produce more practical benefits. Policies can increase the benefit potential to society of basic biomedical research by offering various kinds of incentives to basic researchers. In this paper we argue that soft incentives or “nudges” are particularly promising. However, to be well designed, these incentives must take into account the motivations, goals and views of the basic scientists. In the paper we present the results of an investigation that involved more than 300 scientists at Harvard Medical School and affiliated institutes. The study shows that basic researchers’ support for soft incentives is such that the transformative value of fundamental investigations can be increased without affecting the spirit of the basic research and scientists’ work satisfaction. After discussing the findings, we suggest a few examples of nudges and discuss one in more detail.

  4. Policies to increase the social value of science and the scientist satisfaction. An exploratory survey among Harvard bioscientists. [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3jw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballabeni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic research in the biomedical field generates both knowledge that has a value per se regardless of its possible practical outcome and knowledge that has the potential to produce more practical benefits. Policies can increase the benefit potential to society of basic biomedical research by offering various kinds of incentives to basic researchers. In this paper we argue that soft incentives or “nudges” are particularly promising. However, to be well designed, these incentives must take into account the motivations, goals and views of the basic scientists. In the paper we present the results of an investigation that involved more than 300 scientists at Harvard Medical School and affiliated institutes. The results of this study suggest that some soft incentives could be valuable tools to increase the transformative value of fundamental investigations without affecting the spirit of the basic research and scientists’ work satisfaction. After discussing the findings, we discuss a few examples of nudges for basic researchers in the biomedical fields.

  5. Prediction of massive bleeding. Shock index and modified shock index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terceros-Almanza, L J; García-Fuentes, C; Bermejo-Aznárez, S; Prieto-Del Portillo, I J; Mudarra-Reche, C; Sáez-de la Fuente, I; Chico-Fernández, M

    2017-12-01

    To determine the predictive value of the Shock Index and Modified Shock Index in patients with massive bleeding due to severe trauma. Retrospective cohort. Severe trauma patient's initial attention at the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Patients older than 14 years that were admitted to the hospital with severe trauma (Injury Severity Score >15) form January 2014 to December 2015. We studied the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PV+ and PV-), positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-), ROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristics) and the area under the same (AUROC) for prediction of massive hemorrhage. 287 patients were included, 76.31% (219) were male, mean age was 43,36 (±17.71) years and ISS was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-34). The overall frequency of massive bleeding was 8.71% (25). For Shock Index: AUROC was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.84 to 0.94), with an optimal cutoff at 1.11, Se was 91.3% (95% CI: 73.2 to 97.58) and Sp was 79.69% (95% CI: 74.34 to 84.16). For the Modified Shock Index: AUROC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86 to 0.95), with an optimal cutoff at 1.46, Se was 95.65% (95% CI: 79.01 to 99.23) and Sp was 75.78% (95% CI: 70.18 to 80.62). Shock Index and Modified Shock Index are good predictors of massive bleeding and could be easily incorporated to the initial workup of patients with severe trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  7. On index-2 linear implicit difference equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Huu Du, [No Value; Le Cong Loi, [No Value; Trinh Khanh Duy, [No Value; Vu Tien Viet, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with an index-2 notion for linear implicit difference equations (LIDEs) and with the solvability of initial value problems (IVPs) for index-2 LIDEs. Besides, the cocycle property as well as the multiplicative ergodic theorem of Oseledets type are also proved. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  9. EJSCREEN Version 1, Primary EJ Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The primary EJ index measures how much a particular place contributes to overall nationwide differences in environmental indicator values between demographic groups....

  10. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Insuasty Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999. The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968. In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicates, that neither of the colonies presents an extreme aggressive behavior and it is possible that they have not Africans genotypes. These results are an indirect proof of the index. Nevertheless, it could be improved by the introduction of other factors such as, climate and colony management.

  11. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  12. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  13. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  14. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  15. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  16. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  17. Indexing Motion Detection Data for Surveillance Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Søren Juhl; Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We show how to compactly index video data to support fast motion detection queries. A query specifies a time interval T, a area A in the video and two thresholds v and p. The answer to a query is a list of timestamps in T where ≥ p% of A has changed by ≥ v values. Our results show that by building...... a small index, we can support queries with a speedup of two to three orders of magnitude compared to motion detection without an index. For high resolution video, the index size is about 20% of the compressed video size....

  18. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  19. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  20. On the index of G-spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovikov, A Yu

    2000-01-01

    With a G-space, where G is a compact Lie group, one can associate an ideal in the cohomology ring of the classifying space for G. It is called the ideal-valued index of the G-space. A filtration of the ideal-valued index that arises in a natural way from the Leray spectral sequence is considered. Properties of the index with filtration are studied and numerical indices are introduced. These indices are convenient for estimates of the G-category and the study of the set of critical points of a G-invariant functional defined on a manifold. A generalization of the Bourgin-Yang theorem for the index with filtration is proved. This result is used for estimates of the index of the space of partial coincidences for a map of a space with p-torus action in a Euclidean space

  1. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  2. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  3. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts....

  4. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  5. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  6. Unravelling Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Matthew

    Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....

  7. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  8. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  9. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  10. The Relationship between Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Values and Asthma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — No data generated. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: There was no new data generated. It can be accessed through the following means: None available....

  11. A novel structural risk index for primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Ankara Numune Risk Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, Yucel; Peri, Neslihan Gulay; Kocer, Bulent; Kaplan, Tevfik; Alhan, Aslihan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to reveal a novel risk index as a structural risk marker for primary spontanoeus pneumothorax using body mass index and chest height, structural risk factors for pneumothorax development. Records of 86 cases admitted between February 2014 and January 2015 with or without primary spontaneous pneumothorax were analysed retrospectively. The patients were allocated to two groups as Group I and Group II. The patients were evaluated with regard to age, gender, pneumothorax side, duration of hospital stay, treatment type, recurrence, chest height and transverse diameter on posteroanterior chest graphy and body mass index. Body mass index ratio per cm of chest height was calculated by dividing body mass index with chest height. We named this risk index ratio which is defined first as 'Ankara Numune Risk Index'. Diagnostic value of Ankara Numune Risk Index value for prediction of primary spontaneous pneumothorax development was analysed with Receiver Operating Characteristics curver. Of 86 patients, 69 (80.2%) were male and 17 (19.8%) were female. Each group was composed of 43 (50%) patients. When Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis was done for optimal limit value 0.74 of Ankara Numune Risk Index determined for prediction of pneumothorax development risk, area under the curve was 0.925 (95% Cl, 0.872-0.977, p pneumothorax development however it is insufficient for determining recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Public Value: rethinking value creation

    OpenAIRE

    Meynhardt, Timo; Gomez, Peter; Strathoff, Pepe; Hermann, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Managers might refute public criticism of their business as an attitude of taking everything for granted in a saturated society, but ignoring Public Value aspects can threaten the success of new products and even the survival of entire firms.

  13. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  14. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  15. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  16. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  17. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  18. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  19. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  20. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  1. A North American regional reanalysis climatology of the Haines Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Lu; Joseph J. (Jay) Charney; Sharon Zhong; Xindi Bian; Shuhua. Liu

    2011-01-01

    A warm-season (May through October) Haines Index climatology is derived using 32-km regional reanalysis temperature and humidity data from 1980 to 2007. We compute lapse rates, dewpoint depressions, Haines Index factors A and B, and values for each of the low-, mid- and high-elevation variants of the Haines Index. Statistical techniques are used to investigate the...

  2. Research note: Grazing-index method procedures of vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, veld condition in the Karoo was assessed using the ecological index methods. This recently changed to the graxing-index method on account of the of the differently estimated grazing-index values being used. The principles governing the method of survey remain the same. The method employs ...

  3. The grazing index method of range condition assessment | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the difficulty of examining succession theory in the Karoo, it is suggested the ecological index method (EIM), be replaced by the grazing index method (GIM), through the introduction of grazing index values (GIV) for Karoo plant species. The GIM may provide more acceptable range condition scores and more ...

  4. Method of identifying features in indexed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Daly, Don Simone [Richland, WA; Anderson, Kevin K [Richland, WA; Wahl, Karen L [Richland, WA

    2001-06-26

    The present invention is a method of identifying features in indexed data, especially useful for distinguishing signal from noise in data provided as a plurality of ordered pairs. Each of the plurality of ordered pairs has an index and a response. The method has the steps of: (a) providing an index window having a first window end located on a first index and extending across a plurality of indices to a second window end; (b) selecting responses corresponding to the plurality of indices within the index window and computing a measure of dispersion of the responses; and (c) comparing the measure of dispersion to a dispersion critical value. Advantages of the present invention include minimizing signal to noise ratio, signal drift, varying baseline signal and combinations thereof.

  5. An index of financial safety of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Jia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper combines a synthetic index system by the variables and evaluates China’s financial safety through the change of indexes in a comprehensive way. First of all, it builds the financial industry evaluation index system composed of 25indicators in terms of the operation of the financial industry and external economic environment and particularly takes into consideration factors which might trigger liquidity risks such as off-balance-sheet business, interbank business and shadow banking; then it selects 10 indicators to conduct empirical analysis and identifies the indicator weight through principal component analysis; finally it combines the financial safety indexes through the linear weighted comprehensive evaluation model.Design/methodology/approach: Synthesis of indexes is made by constructing a proper comprehensive evaluation mathematical model, integrating a number of evaluation indexes into one comprehensive evaluation index and then obtaining corresponding comprehensive evaluation results. In this paper, it selects 10 indexes to conduct empirical analysis and identifies the index weight through principal component analysis; finally it combines the financial safety indexes through the linear weighted comprehensive evaluation model. Principal component analysis (PCA is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components. PCA was invented in 1901 and was later independently developed (and named by Harold Hotelling in the 1930s.Findings: From 2003 to 2013 China’s financial safety indexes fluctuated. From 2003 to 2007 indexes rose, which indicates China’s financial safety status gradually improved; from 2007 to 2009 indexes declined, which indicates due to the impact of subprime crisis, China’s financial safety status took a turn for the worse; from 2009 to 2012

  6. Relação entre a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina e a fração expirada de sevoflurano monitorizada pelo índice bispectral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Edno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A associação de agentes venosos à anestesia geral inalatória proporciona melhor qualidade de analgesia e hipnose. A dexmedetomidina é um agonista específico alfa2-adrenérgico com estas características e reconhecida por proporcionar estabilidade hemodinâmica. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina na fração expirada de sevoflurano (FEsevo em anestesia geral, monitorizada pela análise bispectral do EEG (BIS. MÉTODO: Estudou-se, de modo prospectivo, 24 pacientes adultos, de ambos os sexos, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos à cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, monitorizados com ECG, PANI, SpO2, P ET CO2, FEsevo e BIS. Procedeu-se a indução venosa com alfentanil (30 µg.kg-1, tiopental (5 mg.kg-1 e vecurônio (0,1 mg.kg-1 e intubação traqueal. Iniciaram-se a administração de sevoflurano (manutenção do BIS entre 40 e 60, a ventilação controlada com volume corrente de 10 ml.kg-1 e a manutenção da P ET CO2 entre 35 e 45 mmHg. Na fase de manutenção da anestesia, após 60 minutos da indução anestésica (M60, foi iniciada a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina em 2 fases: infusão inicial (1 µg.kg-1 em 20 minutos; e, infusão de manutenção (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1. A concentração de sevoflurano foi ajustada para manter o valor de BIS entre 40 e 60. As variáveis de PA, FC, FEsevo, SpO2, P ET CO2 e BIS foram avaliadas nos momentos pré-indução (M-15, M15, M45, M75, M105 e M120. RESULTADOS: A associação da dexmedetomidina à anestesia geral com sevoflurano proporcionou redução significativa (p < 0,05 da FEsevo de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M105 (1,073 ± 0,457 e de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M120 (1,159 ± 0,475. As variáveis hemodinâmicas analisadas apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes com p < 0,05, mas sem repercussões clínicas. CONCLUSÕES: A associação de dexmedetomidina em infusão contínua (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1 à anestesia

  7. Revised Site Index Curves for Balsam Fir and White Spruce in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn

    1981-01-01

    The original site index curves for balsam fir and white spruce are revised from a breast height age to a total age basis. Site index values from these revised curves are thus comparable to index values for other species that are based upon total tree age. This note also includes formulations for estimating site index by using computers or programmable, hand-...

  8. Add Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    "Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...

  9. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  10. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  11. Heart Transplantation - Spectral and Bispectral Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toledo, E

    2001-01-01

    .... 25 recordings were obtained from 13 male HT patients at time after transplant (TAT) ranging 0.5-65 months. We observed an interesting evolution with TAT in heart rate response to active standing...

  12. Bispectral analysis: comparison of two windowing functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvagni, D.; Djerroud, C.; Réveillé, T.; Gravier, E.

    2018-02-01

    Amongst all the normalized forms of bispectrum, the bicoherence is shown to be a very useful diagnostic tool in experimental studies of nonlinear wave interactions in plasma, as it measures the fraction of wave power due to the quadratic wave coupling in a self-excited fluctuation spectrum [1, 2]. In order to avoid spectral leakage, the application of a windowing function is needed during the bicoherence computation. Spectral leakage from statistically dependent components are of crucial importance in the discrimination between coupled and uncoupled modes, as they will introduce in the bicoherence spectrum phase-coupled modes which in reality do not exist. Therefore, the windowing function plays a key role in the bicoherence estimation. In this paper, two windowing methods are compared: the multiplication of the initial signal by the Hanning function and the subtraction of the straight line which links the two extremities of the signal. The influence of these two windowing methods on both the power spectrum and the bicoherence spectrum is showed. Although both methods give precise results, the Hanning function appears to be the more suitable window.

  13. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Mervyn D.; Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly; Apgar, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  14. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  15. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  16. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  2. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  8. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1260 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Consumption of ammonia-nitrogen by aob in immobilized batch culture, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Design an automatic temperature ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 294 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or .... S Edwards, M Hlongwane, J Thwala, N Robinson ... Vol 16, No 1 (2017), Infancy of internet cafe: The substitute of ubuntu-padare pedagogy, Abstract.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 130 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... using the technological pedagogical content knowledge(TPACK) framework, Abstract PDF ... Tamara N. Hrin, Dušica D. Milenković, Mirjana D. Segedinac.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 278 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... drie paradigmas beskou: 'n eenheid, of 'n veelheid van perspektiewe? ... Vol 45, No 1 (2011), Genre pedagogy in the mediation of socially-situated literacies ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... A James, E Ralfe, L van Laren, N Ngcobo ... 1 (2011), Recognition of prior learning in promoting lifelong learning: A pedagogy of hope or a shattering of dreams?

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 533 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... for past tense forms in Northern Sotho: verb stems with final 'm' and 'n', Abstract ... in an academic writing class: Implications for a dialogic pedagogy, Abstract.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 183 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 61 (2017), New interventions and sustainable solutions: .... Vol 35 (2011), Resurgence of tribal levies: Double taxation for the rural poor, Abstract PDF.

  16. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 736 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 5 (2008), A Contagious Malady: The Human Quest for Truth through Religion, Abstract ... A Study of Politeness Strategies Used by the National University of ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 414 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... of an algebraic function for the permutation of truth table columns, Abstract ... appraisal and productivity levels in selected Nigerian universities, Abstract.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 4 (2006), Assessing academic potential for university admission: ... Vol 16, No 2 (2002), Book Review: Rethinking truth by Higgs, P & Smith, J, Details.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 165 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 43 (2011), Assessment of the Learning Commons takeoff at the University of ... the archive of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Abstract.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 644 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Ethics review n international health research: quality assurance or bureaucratic nightmare? Details ... Audit of Management of Open Fractures, Details PDF.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 449 ... Vol 1, No 3 (2012), Adult Functional Literacy Curriculum: Effective Strategy for Human ... and Exchange Rate Influence on the Nigerian Stock Market Index ... for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 98 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 2 (2014), Book Review: How College Affects Students, A Third decade ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 76 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 4, No 1 (2011), Automation of AutoCAD for Detailing of Reinforced .... Vol 10, No 1 (2017), Housing data base for sustainable housing provision, Abstract PDF.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 147 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Library (TEEAL) Database among faculty members in Federal University, ... Vol 5, No 2 (2014), Effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 16, No 4 (2010), Origin and generation mechanisms of ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Osmotic fragility index of HBAA red blood cells in the presence of ... (2004), Photovoltaic cells, efficiency and optimization, Abstract PDF.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 985 ... Vol 17 (2010), Flood Frequency Analysis of Ikpoba River ... and the corresponding Refractive Index in Uniaxial Crystals, Abstract ... Vol 8 (2004), Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves, Abstract.

  8. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 531 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... thermal conductivity and viscosity in a flat plate solar collector, Abstract PDF .... similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body ...

  10. Empirical temperature dependence of the refractive index of semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herve, P.J.L.; Vandamme, L.K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Values of the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were obtained from the derivation of a simple relation between energy band-gap and refractive index in semiconductors. These values, (dn/dT)/n, were compared to the experimental data found in literature. Our model, with only one fitting

  11. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  12. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  13. Quantifying the Value of Markers in Screening Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Existing methods used to rank the value of individual screening markers in screening programmes are inadequate. We have developed a simple Screening Marker Index: (Screening Marker Index = Positive Predictive Value x Sensitivity). The Screening Marker Index proved to be superior to existing indices...

  14. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  15. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  16. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  17. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  18. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  19. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  20. The Cognitive Mobilization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how the cognitive mobilization index, designed for use in observing potential political participation, can be used as an indicator of the political climate that a particular society is going through. Following a discussion of the theoretical elaborations (and their working definitions of the concept of cognitive mobilization, a longitudinal study of various European countries is used to consider the question of how political crises influence cognitive mobilization indexes and what effects they have on the political socialization process among the youngest cohorts.

  1. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  2. Gender Inequality Index Appropriateness for Measuring Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Elham; Sabermahani, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequality means unequal distribution of wealth, power, and benefits among women and men. The gender inequality index (GII) measures the lost human development in three important dimensions: reproductive health, political empowerment, and economic status. The first purpose of this study was to calculate the index for provinces of Iran, and the second purpose was to survey the appropriateness of that, for comparing different regions, through regression estimations. In this study, GII has been calculated for Iran between the years 2006-2011 and provinces have been ranked based on it. Then, a panel composed of 30 sections was estimated for five years to determine the most important factor affecting level of index. Some changes have been made to analyze values of the index and the ranking of provinces. Based on panel model, share of parliamentary seats was the most effective factor for determination of the index. After applying adjustments, some differences were seen in the ranking of provinces and general level of index. Weighing of dimensions of the index and considering an overall variable, such as life expectancy in the field of health, will give a more accurate comparison of the GII among different regions though concurrent attention to non-discriminatory cultural dimensions of political participation of women; therefore, making more analyses possible for a more correct comparison of the extensive geographical regions, such as countries.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 19, No 2 (1989), Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for ... Vol 30 (2000): Supplement 1, Nutritive value and dry matter yield of Annual ... transfection condition of bovine primary spermatogonial stem cells, Abstract PDF.

  4. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  5. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  6. The Witten index for the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The perturbative spectrum of the supermembrane in eleven-dimensional spacetime contains massless states as a consequence of the spacetime supersymmetry of the theory. We show, by defining a Witten index that has strictly positive value that supersymmetry remains unbroken non-perturbatively. 14 refs

  7. Conformity index for brain cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovska, Sonja; Tolevska, Cveta; Kraleva, Slavica; Petreska, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the level of conformity achieved by using 3D conformal radiotherapy for brain cancer patients. Conformity index is a helpful quantitative tool for assessing (evaluating) the quality of a treatment plan. Treatment plans made for ninety patients with brain tumor are worked on this paper. The patients are in supine position and immobilized with thermoplastic masks for the head. Computed tomography data sets with 5 mm scan thickness are used to create a 3D image. All structures of interest are contoured. In order to obtain an optimal dose distribution, treatment fields are fit around target volume with set-up margins of 7mm in each direction. The conformity index values are between 1.21 and 2.04. Value of 1.8 is exceeded in eighteen cases; nine of them are bigger than 1.9 and only three of them are above 2. The target volume for each of these extreme CI values is ideal covered (between 95% and 105% of the prescribed dose). The most acceptable conformity index value in this paper belongs to the plan with the lowest minimal dose (84.7%). It can be concluded that conformity index is necessary but not sufficient factor for assessing radiation treatment plan conformity. To be able to estimate the acceptability of some treatment plan in daily practice, additional information as minimal, maximal and mean dose into target volume, as well as health tissues coverage must be taken into account.(Author)

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 391 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Efficacy of four Rodenticides on the Ghanaian Market, Abstract ... Vol 2, No 1 (2000):, Determination of some wear elements in used car engine oil and oil filter ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 46 of 46 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2015), Fiscal Federalism and Development In Nigeria, Abstract. Dorcas Akhere Odigwe, Stanley Aibieyi. Vol 1, No 1 (2011), Good Governance Analysing Performance of Economic Community of West African States and Southern African Development Community Members on Mo Ibrahim Index ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 73 of 73 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13 (2006), The ageing eye” functional changes from cradle to gray: A ... Vol 12 (2005), The evaluation of vision in children using monocular vision acuity and ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 224 of 224 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2010), Spatial Analysis of Particle Size Distribution of Soils Formed on ... swelling index and moisture content of white and yellow garri in ... and Composition of Milk of West African Dwarf (Wad) Sheep Fed ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 229 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title. Vol 14, No 2 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2017), Qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2013), Simple Algorithm in the Management of Fetal ...

  13. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  14. Data Citation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Pavlech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduced by Thomson Reuters in 2012 as a, ‘‘Single point of access to quality research data from repositories across disciplines and around the world’’ [1], the Data Citation Index (DCI is a searchable collection of data sets and data studies from a select list of repositories.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1215 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Vol 12, No 1 (2018), Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance of students in universities in Nigeria: Edo State as a focal point, Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 1 (2012), Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighted Index of Biotic Integrity (SIBI) for use in the assessment of biotic integrity in the Klip River, Gauteng, South Africa, Abstract. P J Kotze, G J Steyn, H H du Preez, C J Kleynhans. Vol 40, No 4 (2015), Diatoms as water ...

  17. Indexes to Volume 77

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  18. A Tourism Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 652 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 18, No 7 (2015), Introduction to virtual property: Lex virtualis ipsa ... Vol 17, No 1 (2014), Legal challenges relating to the commercial use of outer space, with ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 100 ... Vol 5, No 1 (2010), A simple note on some empirical stochastic process ... poverty index with when the parameter is strictly between 0 and 1, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 2 (2015), Bilinear regression model with Kronecker and ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 913 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2018), Modeling and comparison of IP and fuzzy-pi ... Modeling the potential impacts of global climate change in Bangladesh: An optimal ... Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue, New flood risk index in tropical ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 846 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, The effect of torrefaction on oil palm ... core competency skills of IRBM tax auditors towards their performance, Abstract PDF ... of exchange rates behavior in Malaysia by using NATREX model, Abstract PDF.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 286 of 286 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced ... the Hire Purchase and credit sale Act - An unnecessary duplication ? ... Vol 21 (2015), The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour, Abstract PDF ... quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1463 ... Vol 14, No 4 (2014), Association between mean platelet volume levels and inflammation in SLE patients presented with arthritis, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 3 (2010), Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1117 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007):, an edu-ethical perspecitve on the nature of truth: case studies in elite ... 2009: September: Supplement, An empirical study of university ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 788 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 14, No 1 (2006), Social science research: a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods ... Vol 18, No 1 (2010), Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1732 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 10, No 3 (2007), An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At ... Vol 11, No 4 (2008), An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...

  8. The Index House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Radon Research and Demonstration Project. The project involved the monitoring of the Index House for indoor radon, and was one of the earliest programs involving indoor radon contamination. The history of the house, the investigation, and testing and remediation procedures are discussed

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 823 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2016), Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ... and Practices About Tsetse Fly in Muri District, Taraba State, Nigeria ... Vol 10, No 1 (2017): Special Conference Edition, Evaluation of heavy metals' health risk index in ... of phytoplankton as bioindicators of water quality in Jakara dam, ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 2005 ... Issue, Title. Vol 92, No 4 (2015), Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban Slum in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract. GI Ahaneku, CU Osuji, OC Oguejiofor, BC Anisiuba, VO Ikeh, JE Ahaneku. Vol 80, No 10 (2003):, Blood pressure control in a population where antihypertensives are ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 661 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. .... A El-Mahdy, B Bolduc, J Upadhyay, R Shoukr, A Khoury. Vol 19, No 1 (2013), Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, Abstract PDF.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 985 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 17 (2010), Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic Wave Algorithm, Abstract. E Ikata .... Vol 17 (2010), Analytic derivation of the wave profile and phase speed of sixth order Stokes waves in deep water, Abstract.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 217 ... Browse Title Index. Journal Home > Advanced ... Vol 13, No 1 (2016), Access to specialized surgical care, Abstract PDF. H Saidi ... Vol 9, No 2 (2012), Clinical Assessment of the Palmaris Longus – Accuracy of common tests, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2014), Clinical trials in Surgery, Abstract PDF.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 97 of 97 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 2 (2008), Research Note: Anthropometric data of the foot of ... Vol 26, No 1 (2014), Validation of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire for Airline Pilots ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 400 ... Vol 2, No 1 (2007), The effects of Aloe vera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats, Abstract. D V Dapper, P N Achinike, M D Gwotmut. Vol 8, No 3 (2014), The effects of body mass index on some electrocardiographic parameters in young adults: ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 719 ... African Journal of Aquatic Science. ... Vol 32, No 2 (2007), Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes ... index to Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) in the Vaal River system, South Africa, Abstract ... Vol 40, No 2 (2015), Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

  17. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 148 ... Vol 12, No 1S (2018), Addition of anti-Toxoplasma gondii membrane immunoglobulin Y to reduce necrotic index in mice's liver, Abstract PDF. Heni Puspitasari, Lucia T. Suwanti, Mufasirin Mufasirin. Vol 6, No 2 (2012), Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Control of HIV Associated Tuberculosis ...

  19. Drug Impact Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  20. Yearly refinery construction indexes listed for 68 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.

    1996-01-01

    Yearly values are presented for the Nelson-Farrar refinery inflation cost index since 1926. They are based on 1946 as 100, since that was the date of index inception. Values from 1926 to 1945 were back calculated. Data are presented on indexed cost of materials, labor, and miscellaneous equipment for 1926 through 1994. A second table of itemized refining cost indexes for the years 1954, 1972, 1992--1994, and the first eight months of 1995 is also presented. This table subdivides materials, labor, and equipment into component costs

  1. [Evaluation of circulatory state using pulse oximeter: 2. PI (perfusion index) x PVI (pleth variability index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toru; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2009-07-01

    Pulse oximeter expressed by SpO2 is used for monitoring respiratory state during operation and in ICU. Perfusion index (PI) and pleth variability index (PVI) as new indexes are calculated from pulse oximeter (Masimo SET Radical-7, Masimo Corp., USA, 1998) waveforms. And these indices were used as parameters to evaluate the circulatory state. For PI calculation, the pulsatile infrared signal is indexed against the nonpulsatile infrared signal and expressed as a percentage. It might thus be of future value in assessment of perioperative changes in peripheral perfusion. PVI is a measure of a dynamic change in PI that occurs during complete respiratory cycle. It might be thought that PVI, an index automatically derived from the pulse oximeter waveform analysis, had potentially clinical applications for noninvasive hypovolemia detection and fluid responsiveness monitoring.

  2. Forecasting Analysis of Shanghai Stock Index Based on ARIMA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenggang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction and analysis of the Shanghai Composite Index is conducive for investors to investing in the stock market, and providing investors with reference. This paper selects Shanghai Composite Index monthly closing price from Jan, 2005 to Oct, 2016 to construct ARIMA model. This paper carries on the forecast of the last three monthly closing price of Shanghai Stock Index that have occurred, and compared it with the actual value, which tests the accuracy and feasibility of the model in the short term Shanghai Stock Index forecast. At last, this paper uses the ARIMA model to forecast the Shanghai Composite Index closing price of the last two months in 2016.

  3. Bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index and generalized impact factor: an improvement over existing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ash Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some bounds and inequalities relating h-index, g-index, e-index, and generalized impact factor. We derive the bounds and inequalities relating these indexing parameters from their basic definitions and without assuming any continuous model to be followed by any of them. We verify the theorems using citation data for five Price Medalists. We observe that the lower bound for h-index given by Theorem 2, [formula: see text], g ≥ 1, comes out to be more accurate as compared to Schubert-Glanzel relation h is proportional to C(2/3)P(-1/3) for a proportionality constant of 1, where C is the number of citations and P is the number of papers referenced. Also, the values of h-index obtained using Theorem 2 outperform those obtained using Egghe-Liang-Rousseau power law model for the given citation data of Price Medalists. Further, we computed the values of upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3, g ≤ (h + e), where e denotes the value of e-index. We observe that the upper bound on g-index given by Theorem 3 is reasonably tight for the given citation record of Price Medalists.

  4. Rejection index for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.; Meneley, D.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a set of criteria (or Rejection Index) which could be used to decide whether a zirconium-2 1/2 w/o niobium pressure tube in a CANDU reactor should be removed from service due to in-service degradation. A critique of key issues associated with establishing a realistic rejection index was prepared. Areas of uncertainty in available information were identified and recommendations for further analysis and laboratory testing made. A Rejection Index based on the following limits has been recommended: 1) Limits related to design intent and normal operation: any garter spring must remain within the tolerance band specified for its design location; the annulus gas system must normally be operated in a circulating mode with a procedure in place for purging to prevent accumulation of deuterium. It must remain sensitive to leaks into any part of the systems; and pressure tube dimensions and distortions must be limited to maintain the fuel channels within the original design intent; 2) Limits related to defect tolerance: adequate time margins between occurrence of a leaking crack and unstable failure must be demonstrated for all fuel channels; long lap-type flaws are unacceptable; crack-like defects of any size are unacceptable; and score marks, frat marks and other defects with contoured profiles must fall below certain depth, length and stress intensity limits; and 3) Limits related to property degradation: at operating temperature each pressure tube must be demonstrated to have a critical length in excess of a stipulated value; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any pressure tube should not exceed a limit which should be defined taking into account the known history of that tube; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any rolled joint should not exceed a limit which is presently recommended as 200 ppm equivalent hydrogen; and the maximum diametral creep strain should be limited to less than 5%

  5. Estimation of Physiological Cost Index as an Energy Expenditure Index using MacGregor’s Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binaya SJB Rana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and energy expenditure can be quantified by measuring heart rate, oxygen uptake and respiratory quotient. The Physiological Cost Index (PCI proposed by MacGregor is a simple and straightforward method to estimate the energy expenditure index. Here, we aim to estimate the energy expenditure among young Asian population using MacGregor’s equation. Methods: A total of 50 young randomly selected healthy females performed 50m, 100m and 150m walking test at their self-selected preferred speed. The physiological cost index values for 100 m walk at speeds slower and faster than the preferred speed were also obtained. The physiological cost index during exercise was calculated using MacGregor’s equation considering heart rate and speed of walking over the varying distances. Results: The PCI values on three different distances are consistent during self selected preferred speed. The PCI estimation on second and third tests for all three distances walked consistently reproducible. However for each distance walked, the first test the PCI was significantly higher than the second and third test values. The PCI values increased significantly when subjects walked either slower (p = 0.02 or faster (p = 0.001 than their normal preferred speed. Conclusion: The physiological cost index values were similar for varying distances walks. The PCI was the least at the preferred speed of walking and increased when the subjects either walked slower or faster than the preferred speed. The first estimation was higher than subsequent estimations. Keywords: energy expenditure index; exercise; physiological cost index. | PubMed

  6. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  7. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  8. Indexing for summary queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Ke; Wang, Lu; Wei, Zhewei

    2014-01-01

    ), of a particular attribute of these records. Aggregation queries are especially useful in business intelligence and data analysis applications where users are interested not in the actual records, but some statistics of them. They can also be executed much more efficiently than reporting queries, by embedding...... returned by reporting queries. In this article, we design indexing techniques that allow for extracting a statistical summary of all the records in the query. The summaries we support include frequent items, quantiles, and various sketches, all of which are of central importance in massive data analysis....... Our indexes require linear space and extract a summary with the optimal or near-optimal query cost. We illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of our designs through extensive experiments and a system demonstration....

  9. Conformity index: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear

  10. Measuring environmental quality. An index of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops an index of pollution based on the epidemiological dose-response function associated with each pollutant, and the welfare losses due to exposure to pollution. The probability of damage is translated into welfare losses, which provides the common metric required for aggregation. Isopollution surfaces may then be used to compare environmental quality over time and space. An Air Pollution Index (API) is computed using 1997 data for the criteria pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The results are compared with the EPA's Pollutant Standards Index (PSI). Two significant differences emerge: unlike the PSI, the API facilitates a detailed ranking of regions by air quality and API values may contradict PSI results. Some regions with PSI values of 100-200 are considered less polluted under the proposed methodology than those with PSI values between 50 and 100. The key reason for the difference is that PSI values are determined entirely by the gas with the highest relative concentration whereas the API value is based on the ambient concentrations of all pollutants. 14 refs

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang, Abstract PDF. N Yaakub, M.N.A. Raoff, M.N. Haris, A.A.A. Halim, M.K.A. Kamarudin. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang, Abstract ...

  12. Gradient-Index Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 12-04-2011 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Imaging Optics, Nonimaging Optics, Gradient Index Optics, Camera, Concentrator...imaging and nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate manufacturable GRIN lenses can provide imaging lens systems that are compact and

  13. A critique of the Active Ageing Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel de; Timonen, Virpi; Amado, Carla Alexandra Filipe; Santos, Sérgio Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Active ageing and successful ageing are ubiquitous concepts in contemporary societies. In the European Union, active ageing is monitored and promoted chiefly by the Active Ageing Index, a policy tool in use since 2012. We acknowledge that the AAI may contribute to sensitizing people, including policymakers, to the multidimensionality and complexity of the process of "ageing well". However, we note that despite being widely used and promoted, the Active Ageing Index remains under-scrutinized. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive critical analysis of the Active Ageing Index. This critical analysis is supported by the Theory of Model Ageing, the Capability Approach and, to a lesser extent, by relevant literature on composite indices. We conclude that the Active Ageing Index was developed with the paradoxical aim of deriving "the solution" from "the problem". It is an under-theorized and narrowly conceptualized index that contributes to the process of Model Ageing, as its conceptual foundation, and its domains and indicators, convey a certain model of active ageing. This model is expert-based and ingrained with a priori assumptions about the potential of older people, the domains of life and activities they value and how strongly they value them. Finally, the Active Ageing Index measures current achievements, not capabilities (i.e. the opportunity set of achievable "doings" and "beings"), resulting in a valuable but incomplete tool for policymaking purposes. We hope that this critical analysis will initiate a debate on the Active Ageing Index that, in our view, is overdue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 444 of 444 ... Vol 31, No 1 (1998), The nutritive value of quality protein maize in the diets of broiler chickens, Abstract. SA Osei, CC Atuahene, DB Okai, A Donkoh, AK Tuah. Vol 31, No 1 (1998), The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis) for broiler finishers, Abstract. SA Osei, HK Dei. Vol 47, No 1 (2014) ...

  16. Clinical impact of ki-67 labeling index in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2013-01-01

    The ki-67 index is a marker of proliferation in malignant tumors. Studies from the period 2000 to 2012 on the prognostic and predictive value of ki-67 labeling index (LI) in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) are reviewed. Twenty-eight studies reported on the prognostic value of ki-67 index with various...

  17. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  18. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  19. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  20. Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as the duration of menopause increased. Conclusion: Menopause, no doubt alters lipid profile. A triglyceride based index (AIP) can significantly add value when assessing the risk of developing atherosclerosis in Nigeria. Key Words: Lipid profile, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), postmenopausal women, dyslipidaemia, ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 292 ... ... positive and negative diamond miners in South Africa, Abstract PDF ... AIDS workplace policies: An analysis of industry/ sector variations, Abstract PDF ... practices for HIV prevention through values-based action research ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 438 ... ... of noise induced hearing loss in gold miners: research, Abstract ... Vol 22, No 1 (2017), Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from antiretrovirals in the South African private health sector, Abstract PDF.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 497 ... Vol 46, No 4 (2004), Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy, Abstract ... of male breast cancer at Lagos University Teaching Hospital. .... Vol 51, No 4 (2007), Knowledge and Practice of Medical Nutrition Therapy by ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 99 ... ... school biology teachers' external motivation and job satisfaction, Abstract .... Vol 5 (2015), Effects Of Sexuality Counselling Education On ... Vol 7 (2017), Exploring civic education for value clarification and re-orientation in ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 101 ... Vol 14, No 1 (2007), Cervical Cancer in HIV Seropositive Patients, Abstract ... Value of Two Dimensional Cardiac Ultrasonography In Diagnosis of Heart ... of advanced and metastatic breast cancer in Nigerians: a pilot study ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 784 ... Vol 34, No 3 (2014), Functions of Turkish complementary schools in ... to the voiceless through deliberative democratic school governance, Abstract PDF ... Pursuing values to maintain positive discipline in multicultural ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 985 ... ... in Delta State using resistivity and seismic refraction measurements, Abstract ... Vol 20, No 1 (2012), Comparative Study of Uranium and Thorium ... for solving initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016), Tracing Uganda's global primary organic pineapple value chain, Abstract PDF ... to enhance rooting and survival of apple rootstocks, Abstract PDF ... Vol 1, No 2 (1993), Uganda Coffee Supply Response and ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 187 ... ... 4a/b polymorphism in ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, Abstract .... Effects of Carnosine on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ... value of urinary CK-20 RNA and VEGF in bladder cancer, Abstract.

  10. Bonds with index-linked stochastic coupons in quantum finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal Ehsan

    2018-06-01

    An index-linked coupon bond is defined that pays coupons whose values are stochastic, depending on a market defined index. This is an asset class distinct from the existing coupon bonds. The index-linked coupon bond is an example of a sukuk, which is an instrument that implements one of the cornerstones of Islamic finance (Askari et al., 2012): that an investor must share in the risk of the issuer in order to earn profits from the investment. The index-linked coupon bond is defined using the mathematical framework of quantum finance (Baaquie, 2004, 2010). The coupons are stochastic, with the quantum of coupon payments depending on a publicly traded index that is chosen to reflect the primary drivers of the revenues of the issuer of the bond. The index ensures there is information symmetry - regarding the quantum of coupon being paid - between issuer and investor. The dependence of the coupon on the index is designed so that the variation of the index mirrors the changing fortunes of the issuer, with the coupon's quantum increasing for increasing values of the index and conversely, decreasing with a fall of the index.

  11. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.

  12. The value of diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Although the adoption of a range of fuels employing different technologies incurs extra cost, diversity can provide a measure of security against supply disruption, fuel price escalation and environmental regulatory changes. Attempts to set a value to diversity in the United Kingdom are reviewed. Most of these have explored the economic impact of different mixes of fuels and/or technologies against a series of postulated fuel price and energy demand scenarios. They depend on the reliability of the cost and technical performance inputs, and subjective judgements about future price and demand developments; these factors undermine confidence in quantitative outputs of such methods. The novel approach of Stirling is presented. This seeks to derive an optimum plant/fuel mix using generation costs for a wide range of options and a marginal value for incremental changes in diversity, based on a specified diversity index. Stirling's approach could be argued to support the maintenance or expansion of the existing nuclear component of United Kingdom power supplies and an increase in the contribution from renewables. However, problems within the method which is still under development limits the weight that can be attached to its findings at present. Given the closely comparable financial costs, a reasonable balance at this time would seem to consist of the available level of low cost renewables and roughly equal tranches of gas, nuclear and coal. A smaller coal-fired component would be appropriate if environmental costs are taken into account. (19 references). (UK)

  13. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-24

    Aug 24, 2006 ... The mathematical equations to transform the actual concentration values ... The application of the new index was demonstrated at a sampling station on ..... Descriptive statistics of reservoir water quality data set. Variable. Unit.

  14. H-index, mentoring-index, highly-cited and highly-accessed: how to evaluate scientists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract How best to evaluate scientists within a peer group is a difficult task. This editorial discusses the use of the H-index and total citations. It also raises the consideration of a mentoring-index and the value of understanding the frequency that a published paper is accessed by readers.

  15. 20-Year Subject and Author Index, Volume 1, 1997-Volume 20, 1996; Subject and Author Index, Volume 21, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Robert M.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    1997-01-01

    This index provides readers interested in health behavior, health education, and health promotion ordered access to materials published in Health Values and the American Journal of Health Behavior, 1977-1997. The index includes 115 subject headings and 5 department headings, classifying 918 entries by 1,319 authors and coauthors. (SM)

  16. PR-Index: Using the h-Index and PageRank for Determining True Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Zili; Zeng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Several technical indicators have been proposed to assess the impact of authors and institutions. Here, we combine the h-index and the PageRank algorithm to do away with some of the individual limitations of these two indices. Most importantly, we aim to take into account value differences between citations-evaluating the citation sources by defining the h-index using the PageRank score rather than with citations. The resulting PR-index is then constructed by evaluating source popularity as well as the source publication authority. Extensive tests on available collections data (i.e., Microsoft Academic Search and benchmarks on the SIGKDD innovation award) show that the PR-index provides a more balanced impact measure than many existing indices. Due to its simplicity and similarity to the popular h-index, the PR-index may thus become a welcome addition to the technical indices already in use. Moreover, growth dynamics prior to the SIGKDD innovation award indicate that the PR-index might have notable predictive power.

  17. PR-Index: Using the h-Index and PageRank for Determining True Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    Full Text Available Several technical indicators have been proposed to assess the impact of authors and institutions. Here, we combine the h-index and the PageRank algorithm to do away with some of the individual limitations of these two indices. Most importantly, we aim to take into account value differences between citations-evaluating the citation sources by defining the h-index using the PageRank score rather than with citations. The resulting PR-index is then constructed by evaluating source popularity as well as the source publication authority. Extensive tests on available collections data (i.e., Microsoft Academic Search and benchmarks on the SIGKDD innovation award show that the PR-index provides a more balanced impact measure than many existing indices. Due to its simplicity and similarity to the popular h-index, the PR-index may thus become a welcome addition to the technical indices already in use. Moreover, growth dynamics prior to the SIGKDD innovation award indicate that the PR-index might have notable predictive power.

  18. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  19. 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) utilizes a refined methodology based on the 2000 Pilot ESI effort, to construct an index covering 122 countries...

  20. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Pierre; Noé, Laurent; Lavenier, Dominique; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Kucherov, Gregory; Giraud, Mathieu

    2008-12-16

    Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.