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Sample records for bispectral index monitoring

  1. MONITORING DEPTH OF ANAESTHESIA USING PRST SCORE AND BISPECTRAL INDEX

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    Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Intraoperative awareness is a frightening experience for any patient for it has long term psychological consequences. Among the various tools available for monitoring depth of anaesthesia, Bispectral index monitoring (BIS is one of the recent and widely accepted techniques. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : The present study was carried out to evaluate and correlate the efficacy of BIS monitoring along with PRST score in assessment of depth of anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A prospective clinical study was conducted on 160 patients undergoing surgery in various specialties, in the department of Anaesthesiology at Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital which included adult patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years and of ASA I/II posted for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia. Conditions and drugs likely to interfere with BIS values were excluded. Anaesthesia protocol was kept uniform. These patients were divided into two groups of 80 patients each by consecutive selection. In Group 1 - depth of anaesthesia was assessed by PRST score, in Group 2 - by BIS monitoring and PRST score. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistics to calculate the mean and standard deviation, the t - test, χ² test s for calculating the materiality for establishing the results. RESULTS: We saw that the Bispectral index varied with various stages of anaesthesia, almost simultaneous changes in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures occurred in both groups in T1 and T2. On intubation, both blood pressure and heart rate increased but BIS showed a very minimal increase, which was because of adequate depth of anaesthesia and analgesia . There was a statistically significant difference in PRST scores between the two groups. There was no incidence of awareness among our study population. CONCLUSION : Evaluation of intraoperative depth of anaesthesia is one of the major tasks of anaesthesiologist. In patients with higher

  2. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

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    C. Kerssens (Chantal); J. Klein (Jan); A. van der Woerd; B. Bonke (Benno)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level

  3. Bispectral Index Monitoring: validity and utility in pediatric dentistry.

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    Goyal, Ashima; Mittal, Neeti; Mittal, Parteek; Gauba, K

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and safe provision of sedation and general anesthesia is dependent on continuous vigilance of patient's sedation depth. Failure to do so may result in unintended oversedation or undersedation. It is a common practice to observe sedation depth by applying subjective sedation scales and in case of general anesthesia, practitioner is dependent on vital sign assessment. The Bispectral Index System (BIS) is a recently introduced objective, quantitative, easy to use, and free from observer bias, and clinically useful tool to assess sedation depth and it precludes the need to stimulate the patient to assess his sedation level. The present article is an attempt to orient the readers towards utility and validity of BIS for sedation and general anesthesia in pediatric dentistry. In this article, we attempt to make the readers understand the principle of BIS, its variation across sedation continuum, its validity across different age groups and for a variety of sedative drugs.

  4. Effect of different doses of dezocine on degree of emergence agitation under bispectral index monitoring

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    Xing-Bao Liang; Zong-Rong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of different doses of dezocine on degree of emergence agitation under bispectral index monitoring. Methods:A total of 196 cases who received general anesthesia in our hospital from September 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects, bispectral index (BIS) monitoring was continuously conducted during anesthesia induction and extubation anesthesia recovery, and according to different methods of dezocine intervention, they were randomly divided into control group, D1 group, D2 group and D3 group, each group with 49 cases. Differences in levels of recovery time-related indexes, BIS values before dezocine administration (T0), sputum suction before extubation (T1), extubation time (T2) and 10 min after extubation (T3), hemodynamic indexes and stress indexes of all groups were compared. Results:Recovery time and extubation time of D2 group were shorter than those of control group, D1 group and D3 group, restlessness scale after extubation and VAS were lower than those of control group and D1 group, and Ramsay sedation scale was higher than that of control group and D1 group (P0.05);cortisol and blood glucose levels at T1, T2 and T3 points in time of D2 and D3 group were lower than those of other two groups (P0.05). Conclusions:0.1 mg/kg dezocine administration before end of operation can reduce emergence agitation without causing excessive sedation or prolonged extubation time, and it has active significance in stabilizing patients’ hemodynamic and stress levels in extubation period.

  5. Bispectral index monitoring of a narcolepsy-cataplexy episode during regional anesthesia.

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    Dahaba, Ashraf A; Xu, Guo Xun; Liu, Qing Hai; Xue, Ji Xiu; Metzler, Helfried

    2009-02-01

    Narcolepsy or Gélineau syndrome is an extremely incapacitating chronic sleep disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by uncontrollable attacks of deep sleep and is typically associated with cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone. The Bispectral Index (BIS), an electroencephalographic-derived cerebral monitor, used for monitoring the effects of anesthetic/hypnotic drugs was shown to correlate to various conditions that could influence the eletroencephalogram. We assessed the utility of using BIS for monitoring a possible narcolepsy-cataplexy episode and whether a distinctive BIS profile might offer an early warning of an impending narcoleptic/cataplectic spell. We recorded both hemispheres, using two synchronized BIS-XP monitors, during a narcolepsy-cataplexy episode in a 57-yr-old male patient undergoing lower limb surgery under femoral nerve block regional anesthesia. The patient went through three stages: first a prodromal "intermittent low-vigilance" phase interrupted by high electromyographic activity. This was followed by a second "continuous low-vigilance" phase of BIS around 75 with low electromyographic activity, ending with a third "nonresponsive vigilance" phase of a full-blown narcolepsy-cataplexy episode of BIS around 45 with complete loss of muscle power. The purpose of presenting this report is to emphasize the fact that narcoleptic patients can still run the risk of loss of consciousness with atonia under regional anesthesia, and such an undesirable complication cannot be under-estimated. BIS monitoring is a simple method that could offer an early warning of an imminent episode, with its associated hazards, in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy undergoing surgery under regional anesthesia.

  6. Comparison of bispectral index and composite auditory evoked potential index for monitoring depth of hypnosis in children

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    H.J.B. van Oud-Alblas; J.W.B. Peters (Jeroen); T.G. de Leeuw (Tom); D. Tibboel (Dick); J. Klein (Jan); F. Weber (Frank)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In pediatric patients, the Bispectral Index (BIS), derived from the electroencephalogram, and the composite A-Line autoregressive index (cAAI), derived from auditory evoked potentials and the electroencephalogram, have been used as measurements of depth of hypnosis during ane

  7. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

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    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk

    2004-12-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment.

  8. Optimization of Deep Sedation with Spontaneous Respiration for Therapeutic Endoscopy Combining Propofol and Bispectral Index Monitoring

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    Kohei Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. This study aimed to establish optimal propofol anesthesia for therapeutic endoscopy, which has not been established. Methodology. We retrospectively investigated data on 89 patients who underwent upper-GI endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection under anesthesia with propofol. Examined doses of propofol were changed according to efficacy and/or adverse events and classified into 5 periods. A bispectral index (BIS monitor was used at Period 5 to decrease the incidence of adverse events caused by oversedation. The initial dose of propofol was administered after bolus injection of pethidine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg, and 1.0 mL of propofol was added every minute until the patients fell asleep. Continuous and bolus infusion were performed to maintain sedation. When the patient moved or an adverse event occurred, the maintenance dose examined was increased or decreased by 5 mL/h regardless of body weight. Results. Dose combinations (introduction : maintenance and patient numbers for each period were as follows: Period 1 (n=27, 0.5 mg/kg : 5 mg/kg/h; Period 2 (n=11, 0.33 mg/kg : 3.3 mg/kg/h; Period 3 (n=7, 0.5 mg/kg : 3.3 mg/kg/h; Period 4 (n=14, 0.5 mg/kg : 2.5 mg/kg/h; Period 5 (n=30, 0.5 mg/kg : 2.5 mg/kg/h, using BIS monitor. During Period 5, an adverse event occurred in 10.0% of patients, which was lower than that for Periods 1–4. Conclusions. Period 5 propofol anesthesia with BIS protocol could be safe and useful for therapeutic endoscopy under deep sedation with spontaneous respiration.

  9. Bispectral index monitoring in the management of sedation in an intensive care unit patient with locked-in syndrome.

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    Quraishi, Sadeq A; Blosser, Sandralee A; Cherry, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Locked-in syndrome is an extremely rare neurological state caused by injury of the ventral pons. The syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia and anarthria with concomitant preservation of cortical function. When a reversible underlying pathological abnormality is identified and managed aggressively, meaningful recovery is possible. Because patients retain consciousness throughout their illness, a dependable method for titrating sedation may improve their quality of life. The case presented suggests that bispectral index monitoring may be a cost-effective and reliable method for managing sedation in patients with locked-in syndrome.

  10. Bispectral index monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered combined sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

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    Se Young Jang; Hyun Gu Park; Min Kyu Jung; Chang Min Cho; Soo Young Park; Seong Woo Jeon; Won Young Tak

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine whether bispectral index (BIS)monitoring is useful for propofol administration for deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS:Fifty-nine consecutive patients with a variety of reasons for ERCP who underwent the procedure at least twice between 1 July 2010 and 30 November 2010.This was a randomized cross-over study,in which each patient underwent ERCP twice,once with BIS monitoring and once with control monitoring.Whether BIS monitoring was done during the first or second ERCP procedure was random.Patients were intermittently administered a mixed regimen including midazolam,pethidine,and propofol by trained nurses.The nurse used a routine practice to monitor sedation using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale or the BIS monitoring.The total amount of midazolam and propofol used and serious side effects were compared between the BIS and control groups.RESULTS:The mean total propofol dose administered was 53.1 ± 32.2 mg in the BIS group and 54.9± 30.8 mg in the control group (P =0.673).The individual propofol dose received per minute during the ERCP procedure was 2.90 ± 1.83 mg/min in the BIS group and 3.44 ± 2.04 mg in the control group (P =0.103).The median value of the MOAA/S score during the maintenance phase of sedation was comparable for the two groups.The mean BIS values throughout the procedure (from insertion to removal of the endoscope) were 76.5 ± 8.7 for all 59 patients in using the BIS monitor.No significant differences in the frequency of < 80% oxygen saturation,hypotension (< 80 mmHg),or bradycardia (< 50 beats/min) were observed between the two study groups.Four cases of poor cooperation occurred,in which the procedure should be stopped to add the propofol dose.After adding the propofol,the procedure could be conducted successfully (one case in the BIS group,three cases in the control group).The endoscopist rated patient sedation as excellent for

  11. Comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for conscious sedation in dental surgery monitored by bispectral index.

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    Fan, Tai Weng Victor; Ti, Lian Kah; Islam, Intekhab

    2013-07-01

    Although various sedative drugs in different regimens and given by different delivery routes have been used for conscious sedation, the ideal agent and regimen remain to be established. This study was designed to compare the efficacy (sedation, anxiolysis, analgesia, operating conditions, and patients' satisfaction) and safety of midazolam and dexmedetomidine as sedatives for dental procedures in a randomised, double-blind study in third molar and dental implant surgery. Sixty healthy patients who were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) group I or II were enrolled and we recorded their personal details, the amount of drug used, their degree of satisfaction, duration of operation, and haemodynamic and respiratory variables. The two groups were comparable. The amount of local anaesthetic (p=0.11) and the duration of operation did not differ significantly (p=0.32). The patients in the dexmedetomidine group had a slower heart rate, lower systolic and diastolic pressure, and cooperated better. There were no significant differences in their respiratory rates, bispectral index, and total volume of drugs used. We conclude that dexmedetomidine works as well as midazolam for outpatient dental procedures and can be used as an alternative to midazolam.

  12. Relative reliability of the auditory evoked potential and Bispectral Index for monitoring sedation level in surgical intensive care patients.

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    Lu, C-H; Ou-Yang, H-Y; Man, K-M; Hsiao, P-C; Ho, S-T; Wong, C-S; Liaw, W-J

    2008-07-01

    Sedation is an important adjunct therapy for patients in the intensive care unit. The objective of the present study was to observe correlation between an established subjective measure, the Ramsay Sedation Scale, and two objective tools for monitoring critically ill patients: the Bispectral Index (BIS) and auditory evoked potential. Ninety patients undergoing major surgery scheduled for postoperative mechanical ventilation and continuous sedation with propofol and fentanyl were selected. Electrodes for determining BIS and auditory evoked potential were placed on the foreheads of all patients according to manufacturer's specifications at least six hours after patients' arrival at the intensive care unit. Ramsay Sedation Scale, BIS, signal quality index, composite A-line autoregressive index (AAI) and electromyographic activities were recorded every five minutes for 30 minutes. BIS and AAI showed good correlation amongst readings (r(s)=0.697, P Ramsay Sedation Scale (BIS, tau=-0.689; AAI, tau=-0.621; P Ramsay Sedation Scale. However, the BIS and auditory evoked potential monitors do not perform adequately as a substitute in the assessment of sedated intensive care unit patients. These monitors could be used as part of an integrated approach for the evaluation of those patients especially when the subjective scales do not work well in the setting of neuromuscular blockade or may not be sufficiently sensitive to evaluate very deep sedation.

  13. Awareness of bispectral index monitoring system among the critical care nursing personnel in a tertiary care hospital of India

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    Shikha Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bispectral index monitoring system (BIS is one of the several systems used to measure the effects of anaesthetic and sedative drugs on the brain and to track changes in the patient′s level of sedation and hypnosis. BIS monitoring provides information clinically relevant to the adjustment of dosages of sedating medication. It can help the nursing personnel in preventing under- and over sedation among intensive care unit (ICU patients. Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of nursing personnel working in the ICU regarding BIS. Methods: Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of the nursing personnel regarding BIS. Focus group discussions were held among the nursing personnel to know their views regarding BIS. Results: Mean age (years of the subjects was 30.7΁7.19 (21-47 years, with a female preponderance. Although the use of BIS in ICU is not common, majority (94.44% were aware of BIS and its purpose. 79.62% of the subjects knew about its implication in patient care. The mean knowledge score of the subjects was 11.87΁2.43 (maximum score being 15. Conclusion: There exists an awareness among the critical care nursing staff in our institution regarding BIS and its clinical implications. Its use in the critical care setting may benefit the patients in terms of providing optimal sedation.

  14. The Utility of Bispectral Index for Titration of Propofol Dosages and Recovery from Anaesthesia

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    Heena Parikh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of clinical signs may not be reliable to measure the hypnotic component of anaesthesia. Bispectral Index monitoring provides a direct measurement of the hypnotic effect of the anaesthetic agent used and it may have certain clinical advantages over clinical signs. Objective: This study consists of dose requirement of propofol with bispectral Index monitoring and without bispectral Index monitoring. Material and Methods: In the present study, 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group, one group received Standard dose of propofol while the other received propofol infusion with BIS monitoring. Results: Mean amount of propofol for induction used was 1.6 vs 2.24 mg/kg in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the induction dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P<0.001. Similarly mean amount of propofol for maintenance used was 5.70 vs 8.88 mg/kg/hr in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the maintenance dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P<0.001. Conclusion: Dose requirement of propofol was less and early recovery from anesthesia with bispectral Index monitoring. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 484-487

  15. Relationship between type of brain injury with Bispectral Index monitoring in intubated ICU trauma patients

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    Omid Moradi Moghaddam

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Different kinds of acute traumatic cranial lesions with different prognosis may have different values in BIS monitoring. Presence or absence of frontal lobe injury, had no statistically significant correlations with BIS values.

  16. Bispectral index monitoring prevent awareness during total intravenous anesthesia: a prospective, randomized,double-blinded, multi-center controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen; GUO Jian-rong; JIN Yao-jun; WU Gang; YUAN Wei; YUAN Zhi-guo; YUE Yun; XU Liang; MA Ya-qun; SUN Yan-xia; LI Yan-hong; ZHANG Liang; FENG Chun-sheng; LUO Bing; ZHAO Zhen-long

    2011-01-01

    Background Awareness is a serious complication of general anesthesia.In China,the incidence of intraoperative awareness was 1% in patients undergoing total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA).In this study,we compared the incidence of awareness between Bispectral index (BIS)-guided and routine TIVA protocol and evaluated the effect of BIS on preventing awareness.Methods A prospective,randomized,double-blinded,multicenter controlled trial was performed.Patients (≥18 years of age) undergoing TIVA were randomly divided into BIS-guided group (Group A,BIS was monitored and recommended to maintain between 40-60) and control group (Group B,BIS was monitored but the screen was covered).The intraoperative BIS values were downloaded and the BIS trends of confirmed awareness cases were analyzed to determine whether light anesthesia existed.Results Of the total 5228 patients,2919 patients were assigned to Group A and 2309 to Group B.Four cases of confirmed awareness (0.14%) were reported in the BIS-guided group and 15 (0.65%) in the control group (P=0.002,OR=0.21,95% confidence intervals:0.07-0.63).The incidence of possible awareness (0.14% vs.0.26%,P=0.485) and dreaming (3.1% vs.3.1%,P=0.986) was comparable between BIS-guided group and the control group.Among the 19 confirmed awareness cases,intraoperative BIS trends of six cases were downloaded and identified.Five of them showed signs of light anesthesia as BIS >60 and lasted 19-106 minutes,whereas one case had a stable BIS trend and the values were within 60 during the operation.Another five awareness cases were reviewed for anesthesia procedures,of which improper light anesthesia were confirmed.Conclusions BIS-guided TIVA (BIS was recommended to maintain between 40-60) decreased the risk of awareness compared with routine TIVA.The main reason for awareness was light anesthesia.

  17. Evaluation of entropy for monitoring the depth of anesthesia compared with bispectral index: a multicenter clinical trial

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    GAO Jian-dong; DING Qian; TAN Zhi-ming; ZHU Zhi-rong; YUE Yun; ZHAO Yu-jie; XU Chen-shi; ZHAO Jing; HUANG Yu-guang; WANG Tian-long; PEI Ling; WANG Jian; YAO Li-nong

    2012-01-01

    Background As a new electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing technique for monitoring the depth of anesthesia,entropy consists of two indices:reaction entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE).Our study compared entropy with classical bispectral index (BIS) in reduction of myoelectrical interference and noxious stimuli with EEG signals.Methods Two hundred and eighty patients (ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ,18-60 years old) undergoing scheduled surgeries from seven medical centers were enrolled.Anesthesia induction was managed with propofol via the target-controlled infusion (TCI)system.The results of BIS,RE,SE,mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before anesthesia induction,at the moment of unconsciousness,before and 2 minutes after administration of muscle relaxant,and before and one and three minutes after the tracheal intubation.Results The values of half maximum effective concentrations (EC50),5% effective concentrations (EC05) and 95% effective concentrations (EC95) of propofol effect-site concentration at the onset of unconsciousness were 1.2 (1.1-1.3μg/ml),2.5 (2.4-2.5 μg/ml) and 3.7 (3.7-3.8 μg/ml),while those of the predicted plasma propofol concentration were 2.8 (2.7-2.9 μg/ml),3.9 (3.8-3:9 μg/ml) and 4.9 (4.8-5.0 μg/ml),respectively.The values of BIS,SE and RE were 62,59 and 63 when 50% of patients lost consciousness,and 79,80,85 and 42,37,44,respectively,when 5% and 95% of patients were unconscious.The values of BIS,RE and SE dropped two minutes after the injection of muscle relaxant,but there were no significant differences between RE and SE.MAP and HR increased visibly,which indicated a reaction to tracheal intubation; the values of BIS,RE and SE,however,did not display any significant changes.Conclusions This large-sample multicentric study confirmed the values of RE and SE as approximating BIS value,at the onset of unconsciousness during propofol TCI anesthesia.After elimination of myoelectrical activation,all values of RE

  18. Comparison of recovery profiles of propofol AND sevoflurane anesthesia with bispectral index monitoring (BIS in general anesthesia

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    Mukesh Somvanshi

    2015-03-01

    Method: Fifty ASA physical status I-II patients of either sex, aged between 18 and 60 years were randomly divided into two groups to receive either propofol infusion (group P, n=25 or sevoflurane (group S, n=25. Cardiovascular parameters, SpO2 and bispectral index (BIS scores were recorded. Time to eye opening, hand squeezing and achieve modified Aldrete's Score and #8805; 9 and the incidence of complications were noted. Results: Early recovery times [eye opening, hand squeezing and achieve modified Aldrete's Score and #8805; 9] were significantly longer in group P (P 0.05. The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in group S. Conclusions: The present study which adjusted propofol infusion rate and sevoflurane concentration according to BIS scores revealed that maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane is associated with faster recovery than anesthesia with propofol. Propofol resulted in a significantly lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 52-56

  19. BiSpectral Index (BIS monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

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    Matthew M. J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical incidents such as anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia.

  20. Comparison of Intravenous Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam for Bispectral Index-Guided Sedation During Spinal Anesthesia.

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    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Dongchul; Jung, Wol Seon; Cho, Noo Ree; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2016-10-04

    BACKGROUND Despite the high frequency of hypotension during spinal anesthesia with proper sedation, no previous report has compared the hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine and midazolam sedation during spinal anesthesia. We compared the effects of bispectral index (BIS)-guided intravenous sedation using midazolam or dexmedetomidine on hemodynamics and recovery profiles in patients who underwent spinal anesthesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS One hundred and sixteen adult patients were randomly assigned to receive either midazolam (midazolam group; n=58) or dexmedetomidine (dexmedetomidine group; n=58) during spinal anesthesia. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures; heart rates; peripheral oxygen saturations; and bispectral index scores were recorded during surgery, and Ramsay sedation scores and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay were monitored. RESULTS Hypotension occurred more frequently in the midazolam group (Pmidazolam sedation.

  1. Bispectral index detects intraoperative cerebral ischaemia during balloon assisted cerebral aneurysm coiling [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2xs

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    Zoe Harclerode

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bispectral index (BIS is a monitoring modality designed and used for monitoring depth of anaesthesia. We wish to report a case where BIS monitoring may have alerted us to a potential adverse neurological event during angiographic coiling of a cerebral aneurysm.

  2. Patient state index vs bispectral index as measures of the electroencephalographic effects of propofol.

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    Soehle, M.; Kuech, M.; Grube, M.; Wirz, S.; Kreuer, S.; Hoeft, A.; Bruhn, J.; Ellerkmann, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The patient state index (PSI) and the bispectral index (BIS) quantify anaesthetic depth based on the EEG using different algorithms. We compared both indices with regard to the prediction of the depth of propofol anaesthesia. METHODS: In 17 patients, propofol was infused until burst supp

  3. The use of the bispectral index in the detection of pain in mechanically ventilated adults in the intensive care unit: A review of the literature

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    Coleman, Robin Marie; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Ouellet, Paul; Parenteau-Goudreault, Élizabeth; Cogan, Jennifer; Bourgault, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain assessment is an immense challenge for clinicians, especially in the context of the intensive care unit, where the patient is often unable to communicate verbally. Several methods of pain assessment have been proposed to assess pain in this environment. These include both behavioural observation scales and evaluation of physiological measurements such as heart rate and blood pressure. Although numerous validation studies pertaining to behavioural observation scales have been published, several limitations associated with using these measures for pain assessment remain. Over the past few years, researchers have been interested in the use of the bispectral index monitoring system as a proxy for the evaluation of encephalography readings to assess the level of anesthesia and, potentially, analgesia. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize the main studies exploring the use of the bispectral index monitoring system for pain assessment, to guide future research in adults under sedation in the intensive care unit. METHOD: The EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies published between 1996 and 2013 that evaluated the use of the bispectral index in assessing pain. RESULTS: Most studies conclude that nociceptive stimulation causes a significant increase in the bispectral index and revealed the importance of controlling certain confounding variables such as the level of sedation. DISCUSSION: Further studies are needed to clearly demonstrate the relationship between nociceptive stimuli and the bispectral index, as well as the specificity of the bispectral index in detecting pain. PMID:25050877

  4. The effect of aging on bispectral index before and after sedation: a prospective study

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    Mahoori A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Bispectral Index (BIS is an EEG-derived value that measures the sedative and hypnotic component of the anesthetic state. The effects of age on the bispectral index have not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of age on hypnotic requirement and bispectral index in awake and in patients with sedation induced by midazolam. "n"nMethods: Eighty patients were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The patients in study group were aged more than 70 years, and the age in control group ranged 20-40 years. Baseline recording of BIS was taken in awake patients in two groups for few minutes. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg IV midazolam the BIS value also was taken and recorded. "n"nResults: In the study group, patients had a mean base BIS 94±3 compared with 97.3±1 in the control group (p< 0.0001. Five minutes after administration of 0.02 mg/kg midazolam the value were 80.9±6 and 90.4±3 respectively (p< 0.0001. "n"nConclusion: When BIS is used as a monitor of hypnosis in the elderly, we recommend that a baseline recording be taken before induction for a few minutes to alert the anesthesia provider to the possibility of low initial values. Further studies are needed to verify if the recommended range of 50-60 of BIS during clinical anesthesia is also adequate in the elderly with low initial baseline BIS or if this range needs adjusting in view of reduced initial BIS value.

  5. IV ATP potentiates midazolam sedation as assessed by bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Satoru; Fukunaga, Atsuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    In this study, by measuring bispectral index (BIS), we tested the hypothesis that intravenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) infusion would deepen the level of midazolam-induced sedation. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 experiments with at least 2 weeks' interval: immediately after intravenous bolus administration of midazolam (0.04 mg/kg), they received continuous infusion of either ATP infusion (100 μg/kg/min) or placebo (saline) for 40 minutes in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner. Changes in BIS values and responsiveness to verbal command as well as cardiorespiratory variables were observed throughout the study periods. Administration of midazolam alone reduced BIS value from control: 97 ± 1 to 68 ± 18 at 25 minutes, which was accompanied by significant cardiopulmonary depressant effects, while maintaining responsiveness to verbal command (consciousness) throughout the study period. Coadministration of ATP with midazolam further reduced BIS value to 51 ± 13, associated with complete loss of consciousness without adverse effect on the cardiorespiratory systems. We conclude that the addition of ATP infusion to midazolam significantly enhances midazolam sedation without disturbing cardiorespiratory functions.

  6. Can bispectral index or auditory evoked potential index predict implicit memory during propofol-induced sedation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; YUE Yun; SUN Yong-hai; WU An-shi

    2006-01-01

    Background Some patients still suffer from implicit memory of intraoperative events under adequate depth of anaesthesia. The elimination of implicit memory should be a necessary aim of clinical general anaesthesia.However, implicit memory cannot be tested during anaesthesia yet. We propose bispectral index (BIS) and auditory evoked potential index (AEPI), as predictors of implicit memory during anaesthesia.Methods Thirty-six patients were equally divided into 3 groups according to the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Score: A, level 3; B, level 2 ;and C, level 1. Every patient was given the first auditory stimulus before sedation. Then every patient received the second auditory stimulus after the target level of sedation had been reached. BIS and AEPI were monitored before and after the second auditory stimulus presentation. Four hours later, the inclusion test and exclusion test were performed on the ward using process dissociation procedure and the scores of implicit memory estimated.Results In groups A and B but not C, implicit memory estimates were statistically greater than zero (P<0.05).The implicit memory scores in group A did not differ significantly from those in group B (P>0.05). Implicit memory scores correlated with BIS and AEPI (P<0.01). The area under ROC curve is BIS> AEPI. The 95% cutoff points of BIS and AEPI for predicting implicit memory are 47 and 28, respectively.Conclusions Implicit memory does not disappear until the depth of sedation increases to level 1 of OAA/S score. Implicit memory scores correlate well with BIS and AEPI during sedation. BIS is a better index for predicting implicit memory than AEPI during propofol induced sedation.

  7. The Entropy Module and Bispectral Index as guidance for propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia in combination with regional anaesthesia compared with a standard clinical practice group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerkmann, R.K.; Soehle, M.; Riese, G.; Zinserling, J.; Wirz, S.; Hoeft, A.; Bruhn, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of the Entropy Module and Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring on drug consumption and recovery times compared with standard anaesthetic practice in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery using a combination of regional and general anaesthesia as perfo

  8. Reduction in anaesthetic drug consumption is correlated with mean titrated intra-operative Bispectral Index values.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerkmann, R.K.; Kreuer, S.; Wilhelm, W.; Ropcke, H.; Hoeft, A.; Bruhn, J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown a reduction in anaesthetic drug consumption with Bispectral Index (BIS) titration compared with standard clinical practice. However, the amount of reduction varied widely between 1% and 40%. We investigated the correlation between reduction in anaesthetic drug

  9. 脑电双频谱指数和 Narcotrend 监测临床应用新进展%The new advance in clinical application of bispectral index and Narcotrend monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝倩; 周莉; 刘保江; 吕洁萍

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the depth of anesthesia has been a challenge in anesthetic research. For decades, adequacy of general anesthesia was estimated on the basis of unspecific clinical parameters, such as blood pressure, heart rate, sweating, tearing, eye movement, and many more. These traditional methods may vary from patient to patient depending on the type of surgery. And with the extent of time, these indicators may have fatigue phenomenon. In addition, the use of other drugs such as muscle relaxants and vasodilators make the analysis of these signs difficult and unreliable. Today, an increasing number of monitors reflect anesthetic effects on the main target organ of general anesthesia, the brain. These monitors record and process electroencephalogram or auditory evoked potentials, which can accurately reflect the changes in the physiological functions of the brain. At present, bispectral index (BIS) and Narcotrend monitors are commonly used for monitoring the hypnotic component of anesthesia during perioperative period. BIS is first applied to clinical, a large number of data proved the good correlation between the BIS value and sedation degree, which is its uniqueness. Narcotrend monitor is a new type of EEG monitoring system, compared with the BIS, the time delay for calculation is shorter and the electrode is cheaper. This article reviewed the application and progress of the two technologies.%麻醉深度的评估一直是麻醉研究领域的一个重要话题。传统的临床麻醉常根据临床体征调节麻醉深度,如血压、心率、出汗、流泪、眼球运动等。这些体征可能由于手术类型不同因人而异,且可能随麻醉和手术时间延长出现疲劳现象,加之现代麻醉术中骨骼肌松弛药和血管扩张剂的联合使用,使得全麻下的临床体征很难用来准确客观地评估麻醉深度。随着神经电生理技术迅猛发展,近年产生了许多定量脑电图和诱发电位指标,可更加精确

  10. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on propofol pharmacokinetics and bispectral index during coronary surgery

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    Ricardo Antonio G. Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to alter propofol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of these alterations on postoperative pharmacodynamics. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that changes in propofol pharmacokinetics increase hypnotic effects after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (group, n=10 coronary artery bypass grafts were anesthetized with sufentanil and a propofol target controlled infusion (2.0 µg/mL. Depth of hypnosis was monitored using the bispectral index. Blood samples were collected from the induction of anesthesia up to 12 hours after the end of propofol infusion, at predetermined intervals. Plasma propofol concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by a non-compartmental propofol pharmacokinetic analysis. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, considering p<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: After cardiopulmonary bypass, despite similar plasma propofol concentrations in both groups, bispectral index values were lower in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. Time to extubation after the end of propofol infusion was greater in the on-pump coronary artery bypass graft group (334 ± 117 vs. 216 ± 85 min, p = 0.04. Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass had shorter biological (1.82 ± 0.5 vs. 3.67 ± 1.15h, p < 0.01 and terminal elimination (6.27 ± 1.29 vs. 10.5h ± 2.18, p < 0.01 half-life values, as well as higher total plasma clearance (28.36 ± 11.40 vs.18.29 ± 7.67 mL/kg/min, p = 0.03, compared to patients in the off-pump coronary artery bypass graft group. CONCLUSION: Aside from the increased sensitivity of the brain to anesthetics after cardiopulmonary bypass, changes in propofol pharmacokinetics may contribute to its central nervous system effects.

  11. Bispectral index as a predictor of sedation depth during isoflurane or midazolam sedation in ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackey, P V; Radell, P J; Granath, F; Martling, C R

    2007-06-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) is used for monitoring anaesthetic depth with inhaled anaesthetic agents in the operating room but has not been evaluated as a monitor of sedation depth in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting with these agents. If BIS could predict sedation depth in ICU patients, patient disturbances could be reduced and oversedation avoided. Twenty ventilator-dependent ICU patients aged 27 to 80 years were randomised to sedation with isoflurane via the AnaConDa or intravenous midazolam. BIS (A-2000 XP, version 3.12), electromyogram activity (EMG) and Signal Quality Index were measured continuously. Hourly clinical evaluation of sedation depth according to Bloomsbury Sedation Score (Bloomsbury) was performed. The median BIS value during a 10-minute interval prior to the clinical evaluation at the bedside was compared with Bloomsbury. Nurses performing the clinical sedation scoring were blinded to the BIS values. End-tidal isoflurane concentration was measured and compared with Bloomsbury. Correlation was poor between BIS and Bloomsbury in both groups (Spearman's rho 0.012 in the isoflurane group and -0.057 in the midazolam group). Strong correlation was found between BIS and EMG (Spearman's rho 0.74). Significant correlation was found between end-tidal isoflurane concentration and Bloomsbury (Spearman's rho 0.47). In conclusion, BIS XP does not reliably predict sedation depth as measured by clinical evaluation in non-paralysed ICU patients sedated with isoflurane or midazolam. EMG contributes significantly to BIS values in isoflurane or midazolam sedated, non-paralysed ICU patients. End-tidal isoflurane concentration appeared to be a better indicator of clinical sedation depth than BIS.

  12. Usefulness of bispectral monitoring of conscious sedation during endoscopic mucosal dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazunori Hata; Akira Andoh; Kiyoyuki Hayafuji; Atsuhiro Ogawa; Tamio Nakahara; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Yoshihide Fujiyama; Yasuharu Saito

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in order to carry out endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) safely and with patients'satisfaction. METHODS: Three hundred sixty-six patients with an early-stage neoplasm of the digestive tract were enrolled. The BIS monitor (A-1050: Aspect medical systems/NIHON KOHDEN, Tokyo, Japan) was used. The appropriate sedative condition was set at 55 to 75 BIS levels (BIS value) during the endoscopic procedures.RESULTS: Among 366 cases, 13 were accompanied by adverse events during and/or after ESD. All episodes occurred in cases with BIS value between 56 and 65. Hypotension was observed in four cases, and bradycardia in six. Respiratory distress was observed in two cases with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. All patients with adverse events were able to leave the hospital without extension of the hospitalization. CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring is useful to safely perform ESD. A BIS value of 70 to 75 is suitable for ESD.

  13. Evaluation of the Adequacy of General Anesthesia in Cesarean Section by Bispectral Index

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    Sayed Mohammad Reza Hadavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness and recall, though not common, are the major hazards of general anesthesia, especially in Cesarean section (C/S because of the absence of benzodiazepine and opioids for a significant time during anesthesia. In this study, the Bispectral Index (BIS, end-tidal isoflurane, and hemodynamic parameters were examined to evaluate the depth of the routine general anesthetic technique in C/S. Methods: This study was carried out on 60 parturient patients undergoing elective C/S. A standardized anesthetic technique was applied: induction with Thiopental (4-5 mg/kg and Succinylcholine (1.5-2 mg/kg as well as maintenance with O2, N2O, and isoflurane. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, blood pressure, Spo2, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, BIS, and any clinical signs of inadequate depth of anesthesia such as movement, sweating, lacrimation, coughing, and jerking were continuously monitored and recorded at 16 fixed time points during anesthesia. Results: A median BIS of less than 70 (range: 42-68 was obtained on all occasions during surgery; however, at each milestone, at least 20% of the patients had BIS values above 60. Hemodynamic parameters increased significantly in some patients, especially during laryngoscopy and intubation. No patient experienced recall or awareness. Conclusion: The currently used general anesthetic technique in our center appears inadequate in some milestones to reliably produce BIS values less than 60, which are associated with lower risk of awareness. Therefore, with respect to such desirable outcomes as good Apgar and clinical status in neonates, we would recommend the application of this method (if confirmed by further studies through larger dosages of anesthetic agents.

  14. Comparison of the ability of wavelet index and bispectral index for reflecting regain of consciousness in patients undergone surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-tong; CHENG Hao; XIONG Wei; WANG Bao-guo

    2010-01-01

    Background Wavelet index (WLI) is a new parameter for monitoring depth of anesthesia based on Wavelet analysis.We observed the change of WLI and bispectral index (BIS) in patients regain of consciousness (ROC) in the absence of frontalis electromyographic (EMG) interference. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of WLI and BIS for reflecting ROC in patients undergone surgery.Methods Twelve patients who were scheduled for maxillofacial surgeries were enrolled in the study. BIS and WLI values were monitored continually. After being given midazolam and remifentanil, patients were asked to squeeze the investigator's hand ever 30 seconds. Patients were continuously given propofol until loss of consciousness (LOC1).Tunstall's isolated forearm technique was used to test the surgical consciousness in patients. After total muscle relaxation,endotracheal intubations were performed, and the patients were connected to a ventilator. Then, propofol was withdrawn until the patients showed regain of consciousness (ROC1) and an awareness reaction. After the command test, patients were readministered with propofol until loss of consciousness (LOC2). After surgery, all of the sedatives were withdrawn,and the patients were let to regain consciousness (ROC2).Results The BIS values of twelve patients at ROC1 after using muscle relaxant were much lower than those at LOC1 and ROC2 without using muscle relaxant, showing statistical significance (P <0.05). Meanwhile, the WLI values of twelve patients at ROC1 after using muscle relaxant were much higher than those at LOC1 and equal to ROC2 without using muscle relaxant, showing statistical significances (P <0.05) between ROC1 and LOC1.Conclusions This study showed that under muscle relaxation or facial paralysis, when there is no EMG signal, BIS can not accurately reflect regain of consciousness in surgical patients, but WLI can reflect it accurately. So WLI may have advantages for reflecting state of consciousness in surgical

  15. Quando o índice bispectral (BIS pode fornecer valores espúrios Cuando el índice bispectral (BIS puede suministrar valores falsos When the bispectral index (Bis can give false results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    profundidad de la anestesia, reduce el aparecimiento del despertar y memoria intraoperatoria. Esa revisión tuvo el objetivo de presentar situaciones clínicas en que el BIS denota valores no verdaderos, que están falsamente elevados o reducidos, debido a condiciones del paciente o a acciones de anestésicos no previstos cuando se elaboró su algoritmo. CONTENIDO: Los valores del BIS pueden sufrir la alteración y el influjo en múltiples situaciones clínicas en que existen estándares anormales del EEG; efecto de diferentes anestésicos y otros fármacos no incluidos en la elaboración de su algoritmo; interferencia por equipos eléctricos; o debido a peculiaridades del monitor. CONCLUSIÓN: A pesar de que el algoritmo del BIS haya sufrido diversas alteraciones desde su primera versión, esas situaciones que determinan variaciones falsas de los valores del BIS, deben ser reconocidas por el anestesiólogo para evitar complicaciones, sean a causa de la sobredosis anestésica, o por subdosis que podrán causar el despertar y la memoria intraoperatoria.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The bispectral index (BIS is a multifactorial parameter derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG, which allows monitoring of the hypnotic component of anesthesia. It was obtained from the algorithm based on the analysis of a large number of EEGs from volunteers and patients undergoing sedation and general anesthesia with different anesthetic agents. The use of BIS to monitor the depth of anesthesia reduces the incidence of intraoperative awakening and recall, among other benefits. The objective of this review was to present clinical situations in which the BIS gives false results, either elevated or decreased, due to conditions related to the patient or anesthetic actions unforeseen when the algorithm was elaborated. CONTENTS: The bispectral index can be altered and influenced in different clinical situations in which abnormal EEG patterns are present; the effects of different anesthetics and other

  16. BIS在氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑小儿麻醉深度中的监测价值评价%Evaluation on monitoring value of bispectral index in pediatric anesthesia depth of ketamine combined with midazolam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军; 武玉清; 周成华; 周策; 陆富钊; 李鑫; 黄鹂; 李伟; 张永; 陈虎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of bispectral index (BIS) monitor in pedo-oblique inguinal hernia operation through anesthesia by ketamine combined with midazolam . Methods Forty 2-to 6-year-old child patients undergoing pedo-oblique inguinal hernia surgery in 2011 were randomly divided into 2 groups; BIS group (B, n=20) and control group (C, n=20). In group B , we controlled the dosage of ketamine and midazolam by BIS monitor (78±5). In group C, we controlled the dosage of ketamine and midazolam by observation of haemodynamic reaction , respiratory rate and boby movement. Results Compared to group C , there is less haemodynamic fluctuation and shorter analepsia time and better sedation in group B. Conclusion BIS monitor could control the depth of anesthesia , shorten analepsia time by continuous and objective monitoring in pedo-oblique inguinal hernia operation , which results in better sedation in surgery and enhancementof pedo-patient comfort and safety.%目的 探讨脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)在氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑进行小儿腹股沟斜疝手术麻醉深度监测中的应用价值.方法 选择择期行腹股沟斜疝手术的患儿40例,年龄2~6岁,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机分成 BIS监测组(B组)和对照组(C组).B组 (20例) 通过术中监测BIS数值,调整氯胺酮和咪达唑仑剂量使其维持在78±5;C组根据术中患儿的血流动力学反应、呼吸频率改变和出现体动反应来调整氯胺酮和咪达唑仑用量大小.结果 同C组相比,B组患儿镇静充分,血流动力学波动较小,术后苏醒时间缩短,有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用BIS能连续、客观地监测并控制氯胺酮联合咪达唑仑进行小儿腹股沟斜疝手术的麻醉深度,缩短术后苏醒时间,有利于术中镇静及增强患儿的舒适感和安全性.

  17. Comparative pharmacodynamic modeling using bispectral and narcotrend-index with and without a pharmacodynamic plateau during sevoflurane anesthesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuer, S.; Bruhn, J.; Walter, E.; Larsen, R.; Apfel, C.C.; Grundmann, U.; Biedler, A.; Wilhelm, W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared two pharmacodynamic models, one with and one without a plateau effect. Bispectral indices (BIS, Aspect Medical Systems, Natick, MA, version XP) and Narcotrend (NCT, MonitorTechnik, Bad Bramstedt, Germany, version 4.0) were used as an electroencephalographic measure of sevoflu

  18. Relationship of bispectral index to hemodynamic variables and alveolar concentration multiples of sevoflurane in puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaz, J; Granados, M M; Domínguez, J M; Navarrete, R; Galán, A; Fernández, J A; Gómez-Villamandos, R J

    2009-06-01

    The relationships between bispectral index (BIS), cardiovascular variables and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of sevoflurane in puppies were determined. Five puppies were anesthetized with sevoflurane on two occasions. First, the individual sevoflurane MAC values were determined for each puppy. Secondly, dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane at each of 5 MAC multiples, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC administered in random order. Hemodynamic parameters and BIS data were collected for 20min. Somatic stimulus was then applied and the same parameters and data were collected for 6min. Correlation between BIS and end tidal sevoflurane and between BIS and hemodynamic parameters were studied. We found positive significant correlation in both cases. BIS is lower in puppies that in adults at the same alveolar anesthetic concentrations and sevoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in puppies.

  19. Clinical vs. bispectral index-guided propofol induction of anesthesia: A comparative study

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    Snehdeep Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinically optimized focusing of drug administration to specific need of patient with bispectral index (BIS monitoring results in reduced dose and faster recovery of consciousness. This study was planned with an aim to study and compare the conventional clinical end point or BIS on the requirement of dosage of propofol, hemodynamic effects, and BIS alterations following propofol induction. Methods: 70 patients, ASA I and II, 20-60 years undergoing elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were selected and divided into two groups. Group A received (inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion till the loss of response to verbal command while group B received inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg, followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion. The end point of hypnosis was when the BIS value was sustained for 1 min at 48±2. The patients were intubated. Total induction dose of propofol was noted in each group. The value of BIS and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure were noted at the time of loss of consciousness, at the time of intubation, and 1 min after intubation, thereafter every minute for first 10 min and thereafter every 10 min till end of surgery. Any involuntary muscle activity such as jerky movements, dystonic posturing, and opisthotonos were also recorded. Results: The mean dose of propofol used in groups A and B were 1.85±0.48 mg/kg and 1.79±0.41 mg/kg, respectively. The dosage used in group B were less but not clinically significant (P=0.575. On comparing the dosage of propofol in males among the groups there was a significantly lower dosage of propofol required in group B (2.06±0.45 mg/kg and 1.83±0.32 mg/kg, respectively, P=0.016. This decrease however was not seen in female patients dosage being 1.65±0.44 mg/kg and 1.75±0.49 mg/kg, respectively (P=0.372. The hemodynamic

  20. A study of bispectral index monitoring in assessing the depth of sedation of patients under mechanical ventilation%脑电双频指数监测对机械通气患者镇静深度评估的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝锦; 康焰; 张川

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between subjective scoring and bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, and to study the feasibility of BIS monitor in assessing the depth of sedation for mechanically ventilated patients. Methods A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. The sedation target was sedation-agitation scale (SAS) 3 - 4. A total of 83 patients in the intensive care unit were assigned to receive the sedation based on BIS monitor (42 eaese) or the sedation based on subjective scale SAS (41 eases). The parameters of respiration, circulation, and the depth of sedation (BIS, SAS, Ramsay) were recorded. The difference between the two groups was compared. The correlation index and significance were calculated. Results A total of 83 patients of two groups reached the sedation target. Statistically significant difference was found between two groups in respiratory rate, fraction of inspiratory oxygen, and pulse saturation of oxygen before and after sedation (all P0.05).所有患者镇静后呼吸频率、吸入氧浓度较镇静前显著下降,脉搏血氧饱和度显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05);BIS值与主观评分间相关性良好,其中BIS与SAS评分呈显著正相关(r=0.626,P<0.05),与Ramsay评分呈显著负相关(r=-0.650,P<0.05),SAS与Ramsay评分呈显著负相关(r=0.908,P<0.05).结论 用BIS监测评估机械通气患者镇静深度简单方便、同步有效,是评价ICU机械通气患者镇静深度的良好客观指标.

  1. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 淳子; イケダ, ジュンコ; Junko, IKEDA

    2006-01-01

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using EEC analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 h...

  2. The Comparative Study of Entropy and Bispectral Indexes on Monitoring the Depth of Anaesthesia for the Elderly Patients%脑电双频指数和熵指数监测老年患者麻醉深度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于帅; 林财珠

    2015-01-01

    anesthesia ,at the depth of anes‐thesia monitoring ,entropy index and bispectral index are both effective .

  3. Relationship of feline bispectral index to multiples of isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Leigh A; Greene, Stephen A; Grimm, Kurt A; Tranquilli, William J

    2005-06-01

    The study reported here was done to determine the relationship between bispectral index (BIS) values and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of isoflurane in cats. Isoflurane MAC was determined using the tail-clamp method in eight domestic cats. Ten days later, the cats were anesthetized a second time with isoflurane at each of five MAC multiples administered in random order. Ventilation was controlled and, after a 20-min equilibration period at each MAC multiple of isoflurane, BIS data were collected for 5 min and the median BIS value calculated. Data from each isoflurane MAC multiple were compared using analysis of variance for repeated measures, and statistical significance was set at P MAC of isoflurane (mean +/- 1 standard deviation) was 1.8% +/- 0.2%. BIS values at 0.5 MAC could not be recorded due to spontaneous movement in all eight cats. BIS values at 2.0 MAC were confounded by burst suppression in seven of the eight cats. Over the range of 0.8 to 1.5 MAC, BIS values decreased significantly with increasing end-tidal isoflurane concentrations. Mean (+/- 1 standard deviation) BIS measurements were 32 +/- 3 at 0.8 MAC, 20 +/- 4 at 1.0 MAC, and 5 +/- 3 at 1.5 MAC. Therefore, BIS values are inversely and linearly related to end-tidal isoflurane concentrations in anesthetized cats. However, the consistently low BIS values recorded in this study suggest that clinical BIS endpoints used to titrate anesthetic agents in humans may not be applicable to cats.

  4. The Use of the Bispectral Index in the Detection of Pain in Mechanically Ventilated Adults in the Intensive Care Unit: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Marie Coleman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain assessment is an immense challenge for clinicians, especially in the context of the intensive care unit, where the patient is often unable to communicate verbally. Several methods of pain assessment have been proposed to assess pain in this environment. These include both behavioural observation scales and evaluation of physiological measurements such as heart rate and blood pressure. Although numerous validation studies pertaining to behavioural observation scales have been published, several limitations associated with using these measures for pain assessment remain. Over the past few years, researchers have been interested in the use of the bispectral index monitoring system as a proxy for the evaluation of encephalography readings to assess the level of anesthesia and, potentially, analgesia.

  5. Effect of rocuronium on the bispectral index under anesthesia and tracheal intubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hui; Han, Jinyu; Liu, Ling; Wang, Kaiyuan; Li, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various doses of rocuronium on bispectral index (BIS) responses to propofol induction and tracheal intubation, as well as the role of the non-depolarization muscle relaxant rocuronium on the depth of sedation. A total of 72 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II) were anaesthetized with propofol using a target-controlled infusion, and randomly divided into two sedation level groups (n=36). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the BIS value: A normal sedation group (group 1), with a stable BIS value at 40–60, and a deep sedation group (group 2), with a BIS value <20 or with burst suppression. Each group was randomly divided into 4 subgroups A-D (n=9) according to the various doses of rocuronium (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg). Tracheal intubation was performed after 2 min of rocuronium administration. BIS, electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously and averaged over 1 min during baseline (T1), steady state (T2), 2 min after rocuronium infusion (T3), and 0, 2 and 5 min after tracheal intubation. The results demonstrated that HR and MAP decreased significantly at T2 and T3 compared with T1. Following tracheal intubation (L0), HR and MAP significantly increased compared with T2 and T3, and returned to levels similar to those prior to intubation after 5 min. In group 1C and 1D, BIS was significantly decreased at T3 compared with T2; BIS was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. EMG at earlier stages of anesthesia was significantly higher compared with other points, and was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. These results demonstrated that BIS response may be associated with the dosage of rocuronium in the normal sedation group, although no association was observed with the deep sedation group. Tracheal intubation resulted in marked hemodynamic

  6. Effects of Phenytoin Therapy on Bispectral Index and Haemodynamic Changes Following Induction and Tracheal Intubation

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    Parmod P Bithal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI increase blood pressure and heart rate (HR. Intensity of these changes is influenced by the anaesthetic depth assessed by the bispectral index (BIS. We determined the effect of phenytoin on anaesthetic depth and its influence on haemodynamics following LTI. Fifty patients of ASA grades I and II on oral phenytoin 200 to 300mg per day for more than one week were compared with 48 control patients. Standard anaesthesia technique was followed. BIS, non invasive mean blood pressure (MBP and HR were recorded 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI. Phenytoin group needed lesser thiopentone for induction, 5 mg (1.1 vs. 4.3 mg (0.7 [p=0.036]. BIS was significantly lower in the phenytoin group vs. the control 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [43.1 (16.0 vs. 48.9 (14.9, p=0.068, 56.3 (16.7 vs. 64.3 (14.4, p=0.013, 59.8 (15.8 vs. 67.5 (12.1, p=0.008, 62.6 (14 vs. 68.9 (11.2, p=0.017, and 64.2 (11.3 vs. 69 (11.7, p=0.033], respectively. MBP was also lower in the phenytoin group 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [112.8 mmHg (13.8, vs. 117.9 mmHg (18 p=0.013, 108.6 (12.8 vs. 117.5 (16 p=0.003, 106.1 mmHg (14.1 vs. 113.2 mmHg (14.9, p=0.017, 101.8 mmHg (13.8 vs. 109.5 mmHg (14.1, p=0.007], respectively. HR was lower in phenytoin group at 30 sec. (p=0.027, 60 sec (p=0.219, and again at 120 sec (p=0.022. Oral phenytoin therapy for over a week results in greater anaesthetic depth as observed using BIS, which also attenuated haemodynamic response of LTI.

  7. 脑电双频指数监测在老年患者麻醉苏醒中的作用%Bispectral index monitoring improves early recovery of elderly patients under sevoflurane anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惠丹; 方军; 付霜; 连燕虹

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究脑电双频指数(BIS)指导七氟醚吸入对老年患者麻醉苏醒的影响.方法 择期行下腹部手术的老年患者44例,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机数字表法分为BIS组(B组)和对照组(D组),每组22例.D组由麻醉医生根据临床经验调节术中七氟醚的吸入浓度;B组术中维持BIS值在45~55,术毕前10min维持在56~70.记录麻醉诱导前、手术期间和拔管时的BIS值、七氟醚设定浓度和呼气末浓度;苏醒时间、拔管时间、OAA /S评分达到5分的时间.结果 与D组相比,B组术中七氟醚用量减少20%,手术期间的BIS升高、呼气末七氟醚浓度降低,手术结束时呼气末七氟醚浓度降低,苏醒时间、拔管时间、OAA /S评分达到5分的时间缩短.结论 BIS指导吸入七氟醚能加快老年患者腹部手术的麻醉苏醒,提高苏醒质量,并可减少术中七氟醚的用量.%Objective To evaluate the application of BIS monitoring during sevoflurane anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing intra- abdominal surgery. Methods Forty- four ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients aged over 60 undergoing intra- abdominal surgery were randomized dMded into two groups with 22 cases each: BIS group and control group. In BIS group sevoflurane was titrated to keep BIS values 45- 55 during operation; and the BIS value was increased to 56- 70 at 10 min before the end of operation. In control group the depth of anesthesia was maintained based on the clinical experience of anesthesiologist. The BIS values and the end- tidal sevoflurane concentration before and during anesthesia and at extubation, recovery time, extubation time and the time OAA/S score to 5 were recorded and compared between the two groups. The mini- mental state examination (MMSE) was used before and at 1,2,12 and 24h affer surgery. Results The total amount of sevoflurane consumed was 20% less, the average BIS value s were higher and end- tidal sevoflurane concentration was lower in BIS group than those in control group. The

  8. Observation of anesthesia depth in severe burn patients with target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil by bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang GUO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of bispectral index (BIS for monitoring the anesthesia depth of severe burn patients with target controlled infusion (TCI of propofol and remifentanil. Methods A total of 80 severe burns patients undergoing eschar excision ( < 1week were randomly divided into BIS group (group A and control group (group B, with 40 cases assigned in each group. These patients were 18 years to 65 years old, ASAⅡ-Ⅲ. Their total burn surface areas (TBSA were from 31% to 50%, or 11% to 20% with three-degree burns. All patients received remifentanil and propofol for TCI intravenous anesthesia. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were determined at following time points, namely, entrance to the operation room, loss of consciousness, 2min after intubation, before surgery, 2, 15, and 30min after the start of surgery, end of surgery, eye opening, and period when Aldrete score reaching 9 points, as well as the target concentrations of remifentanil and propofol. The time frames from stoppage of drug infusion to eye opening and the period when Aldrete score reaching 9 points were also recorded. Results Compared with group B, the target concentrations of remifentanil (2.12±0.35ng/ml vs. 2.50±0.21ng/ml and propofol (2.54±0.22μg/ml vs. 2.86±0.31μg/ml were significantly lower in group A during anesthetic maintenance (P < 0.01. The time interval from stoppage of drug infusion to eye opening (7.90±0.58min vs. 8.35±0.66min and period when Aldrete score reaching 9 points (9.15±0.69min vs. 11.13±0.96min were significantly reduced in group A. The MAP of both groups from loss of consciousness at all time points, except 2min after intubation, was significantly lower than the basic values upon entrance into the operation room (P < 0.05. The HR at all time points were significantly lower compared with the basic data (P < 0.05. Conclusion BIS for monitoring the anesthetic depth of severe burns patients

  9. Effect of the nursing intervention and guiding significance of bispectral index monitoring in coma patients after hematoma clearance%护理干预对颅脑血肿清除术后昏迷患者的作用及脑电双频指数监测对其指导意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林凡菊; 陈莉芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of the nursing intervention and guiding significance of bispectral index BIS monitoring in coma patients after hematoma clearance. Methods:Eighty coma patients after craniotomy operation in ICU were randomly divided into the control group and observation group(40 cases each group). Two groups were treated with symptomatic therapy and 24 h reaction level scale( BIS) monitoring. The control group were nursed with the route method, and the observation group were nursed with strengthening the respiratory tract and catheter management. The prognosis condition, BIS value and respirator use time in different prognosis patients between two groups were compared. The correlation of BIS value with GCS score and RLS classification were analyzed. Results:All patients were followed up for half a year, the number of cases with good prognosis in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group(P <0. 01). Among the observation group,the BIS value and respirator use time in patients with good prognosis were significantly higher and less than those in patient with poor prognosis,respectively(P<0. 01). The correlation analysis showed that the BIS value was positive correlation with GCS score,and negative correlation with RLS classification (P<0. 05). Conclusions:The effective nursing intervention can significantly improve the prognosis,and reduce the mortality. The BIS monitoring can effectively reflect the degree of cerebral dysfunction and prognosis of patients.%目的::探讨护理干预措施对ICU血肿清除术后昏迷患者作用及脑电双频指数( BIS)监测对其指导意义。方法:行开颅手术后仍昏迷而送ICU监护患者80例,随机分为对照组和观察组,各40例。2组患者术后均给予对症治疗并进行24 h BIS监测,对照组患者给予常规护理,观察组患者进行加强呼吸道、导管管理等护理干预措施。比较2组患者预后情况,不同预后患者BIS值和呼吸

  10. Evaluation of entropy and bispectral index values for monitoring depth of sevoflurane anesthesia in children with cerebral palsy%熵指数和脑电双频指数用于脑瘫患儿七氟醚麻醉时镇静深度监测的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽萍; 贾乃光; 张亚军

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过熵指数和脑电双频指数(BIS)在脑瘫患儿七氟醚麻醉时与镇静深度的相关性和预测作用,评价熵指数和BIS用于脑瘫患儿镇静程度监测的准确性.方法:选择ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级、5~15岁择期在全身麻醉下行选择性周围神经缩窄术的脑瘫患儿25例.经面罩吸入5%七氟醚和N2O/O2:70%/30%.记录清醒时改良警觉/镇静评分(mOAAS)各阶段的反应熵(RE)、状态熵(SE) 、BIS、无创血压(NIBP)、平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、脉搏血氧饱和度(SPO2).RE、SE、BIS与mOAAS评分的关系采用Spearman's等级相关进行分析.计算RE、SE、BIS、MAP、HR、SPO2对镇静深度的预测概率.结果:脑瘫患儿RE、SE 、BIS与mOAAS评分密切相关,明显优于MAP、HR、SPO2.RE、SE、BIS对镇静深度的预测概率(Pk)值明显高于MAP、HR、SPO2(P<0.01).结论:RE、SE、BIS均可以在脑瘫患儿七氟醚-笑气麻醉中反应镇静深度.%Objective:To evaluate the accuracy of entropy and bispectral index (BIS)for monitoring depth of sevoflurane anesthesia in children with cerebral palsy .Methods:Twenty-five ASA I or II children aged 5-15 years undergoing elective surgery of peripheral neurotomy were enrolled in this study.Anesthesia were induced with 5% sevoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen,Rresponse entropy(RE),state entropy(SE),BIS,non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) t mean artery pressure (MAP), heart rate(HR)and pulse oxygen saturation (SPO2) values in awake and each stage of mOAAS (modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score)were recorded during the induction of anesthesia.The correlation between the different electroencephalographic indices (SE,RE and BIS) and mOAA/S were calculated by nonparainetric Spearman's rank-correlation analysis and analyzed with prediction probability (Pk).Results:RE,SE and BIS were significantly better correlated with mOAA/S score than MAP,HR and SPO2 in children with cerebral palsy,The Pk values of RE,SE and

  11. Comparative evaluation of bispectral index system after sedation with midazolam and propofol combined with remifentanil versus ketamine in uncooperative during dental procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Eshghi; Mehrnaz Mohammadpour; Nasser Kaviani; Dana Tahririan; Najmeh Akhlaghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proper analgesic agents should be used in combination with sedative agents. Remifentanil is a synthetic narcotic/analgesic agent with a short duration effect and decreases the risk of apnea during recovery. Bispectral index system (BIS) is a new noninvasive technique for the evaluation of the depth of sedation. The aim of present clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of intravenous sedation with propofol/midazolam/remifentanil (PMR) in comparison to propofol/mida...

  12. The effect of preventing awareness during total intravenous anesthesia by bispectral index monitoring:a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre controlled trial%BIS监测预防全凭静脉麻醉下术中知晓的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴奇伟; 张忱; 胥亮; 吴安石; 岳云; 柳娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring on preventing awareness in pa-tients undergoing total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), and determine the reasons for awareness by analyzing the intra-oper-ative BIS values of awareness cases. Methods This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre controlled trial. Patients (≥16 years old) undergoing TIVA were randomly assigned to BIS-guided group (Group A, monitored and maintained BIS between 40~60 intra-operatively) and the control group (Group B, monitored BIS but the screen was covered). Blinded observer interviewed the patients for awareness at the 1st and 4th day after surgery. An inde-pendent evaluating committee assessed the results and identified the confirmed or possible awareness cases. The intraoper-ative BIS values were downloaded and the BIS trends of confirmed awareness cases were analyzed to determine whether in-adequate anesthesia existed. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of confirmed awareness. Results Of the total 5 228 cases, 2 919 patients in the BIS group and 2 309 in the control group were included in the statistical analysis. Four confirmed awareness (0.14%) were reported in the BIS group and 15 confirmed awareness (0.65%) in the control group (P=0.002, OR=0.21, 95%CI:0.07~0.63), BIS-guided TIVA reduced the incidence of awareness by 78%. The inci-dences of possible awareness (0.14% vs. 0.26%, P= 0.485) and dreaming (3.1% vs. 3.1%, P= 0.986) were comparable between the BIS-guided group and the control group. Among the total 19 confirmed awareness patients, BIS trend of 8 cases (3 cases in Group A and 5 cases in Group B) was unavailable. Apart from these cases, 6 cases were identified to have intra-operative BIS trends, 5 of whom (4 cases in Group B, 1 case in Group A) showed BIS>60 and lasted for 19~106 min, whereas BIS trend in the other 1 case (Group B) was stable and BIS values were within 60 during the operation. Another 5

  13. [EEG bispectral index as an indicator of the electrical activity of the central nervous system in children during anesthetic maintenance and intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, V V; Subbotin, V V

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents different investigators' data on the use of the bispectral (BIS) index in children during anesthetic maintenance and intensive care. The most of publications deal with the use of the BIS index during anesthesia with sevoflurane, which shows its high efficiency in estimating the depth of sleep. There are positive aspects in the use of the BIS index in the evaluation of sedative tolerance and central nervous system function, when brain death is diagnosed, cerebral oxygenation adequateness, etc. Data are given on the ambiguity of BIS index values in infants less than a year of age.

  14. Perioperative use of bispectral (BIS) monitor for a pressure ulcer patient with locked-in syndrome (LIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Christine; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Robins, Bryan; Salamanca, Victor R; Bloom, Marc J; Linton, Patrick; Brem, Harold; O'Neill, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    The bispectral (BIS) monitor uses brain electroencephalographic data to measure the depth of sedation and pharmacological response during anaesthetic procedures. In this case, the BIS monitor was used for another purpose, to demonstrate postoperatively to the nursing staff that a patient with history of locked-in syndrome (LIS), who underwent pressure ulcer debridement, had periods of wakefulness and apparent sensation, even with his eyes closed. Furthermore, as patients with LIS can feel pain, despite being unable to move, local block or general anaesthesia should be provided for sharp surgical debridement and other painful procedures. This use of the BIS has shown that as a general rule, the staff should treat the patient as though he might be awake and sensate even if he does not open his eyes or move his limbs. The goal of this study was to continuously monitor pain level and communicate these findings to the entire wound team, i.e. anaesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses.

  15. [The influence of intermittent hemodialysis (HD) on bispectral index (scale) (BIS) and serum propofol concentration under postoperative intravenous sedation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebayashi, Shigeru; Imai, Yuichiro; Ohgi, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Shigehiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kurehara, Koukichi; Furuya, Hitoshi; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2004-05-01

    We experienced a case of postoperative intravenous sedation with propofol during intermittent hemodialysis (HD), and investigated the correlation between the clinical sedation level based on bispectral index scale (BIS) together with Ramsay score, and the serum concentration of propofol. One adult oral cancer patient (carcinoma of the lower gingiva) with end-stage renal dysfunction needing HD was selected for this study. The day after operation, HD was commenced under intravenous sedation with propofol. Clinical sedation level was assessed using BIS and Ramsay score, and serum propofol concentrations were determined in arterial blood samples. Serum concentrations were measured every 15 times until 51 hours after operation. The initial dose of propofol was set at 3.5 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) on the basis of clinical symptoms. According to BIS and Ramsay score, sedation level decreased lineally for 1 hour after commencement of HD. In contrast, serum propofol concentration incresed from 1.71 microg x ml(-1) to 2.21 microg x ml(-1). Total serum concentration of propofol was enhanced during HD because of dialytic dehydration, but, according to BIS and Ramsay scores, the possibility was suggested that the fraction of albmin-unbound propofol with pharmacological activities was eliminated or absorbed by membrane during HD.

  16. Effect of sevoflurane titration anesthesia on recovery time in bispectral index monitoring laparoscopic cholecystectomy%七氟烷减量法对行腹腔镜下胆囊切除术患者苏醒时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 孙波; 佘高明; 谢红; 王琛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of sevoflurane titration anesthesia on recovery time in bispectral index (BIS) monitoring laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Forty-five patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] Ⅰ - Ⅱ level) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 15). The patients in group I stopped inhaling sevoflurane after skin closure and oxygen flow increased to 10 L/min. The patients in group Ⅱ stop inhaling sevoflurane after peritoneal suture, oxygen flow increased to 10 L/min, and propofol (0.5 mg/kg) was intravenously injected. For group 1, sevoflurane decreased to 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) at the end of peritoneal closure and was stopped after skin closure, and oxygen flow increased to 10 L/min. The recovery time (from finishing skin closure to opening eyes under orders), the time of BIS being 90, and vital signs (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], pulse, saturation of blood oxygen [SpO2], and carbon dioxide of end expiration [pstCO2]) were recorded. Results The recovery time and the time of BIS being 90 in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ were significantly shorter than those in group Ⅰ (all P0. 05). Conclusion Sevoflurane titration anesthesia can reduce the impact of combined drug use, shorten the recovery time after surgery and keep the recovery quality in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.%目的 观察七氟烷减量法对行腹腔镜下胆囊切除术患者苏醒时间的影响.方法 45例美国麻醉医师学会(ASA)分级Ⅰ~Ⅱ级、行择期腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者,随机分为3组,每组15例:Ⅰ组,皮肤缝合结束时停止吸入七氟烷,增加氧流量至10 L/min;Ⅱ组,腹膜缝合结束时停止吸入七氟烷,增加氧流量至10 L/min,静脉注射丙泊酚0.5 mg/kg;Ⅲ组,关闭腹膜即刻,降低七氟烷浓度至0.5最低肺泡有效浓度(MAC),缝合皮肤结束时停止吸人七氟烷,增加氧流量至10 L/min.观察苏醒时间(自皮肤缝合结束

  17. Bispectral index score and observer′s assessment of awareness/sedation score may manifest divergence during onset of sedation: Study with midazolam and propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Bagchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correlation between the clinical and electroencephalogram-based monitoring has been documented sporadically during the onset of sedation. Propofol and midazolam have been studied individually using the observer′s assessment of awareness/sedation (OAA/S score and Bispectral index score (BIS. The present study was designed to compare the time to onset of sedation for propofol and midazolam using both BIS and OAA/S scores, and to find out any correlation. Methods: A total of 46 patients (18-60 years, either sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I/II posted for infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 3 mg/kg/h (Group P, n=23 or injection midazolam 0.05 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 0.06 mg/kg/h (Group M, n=23. Spinal anaesthesia was given with 2.5 ml to 3.0 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy. When sensory block reached T6 level, sedation was initiated. The time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 from the start of study drug were noted. OAA/S score at BIS score 70 was noted. Data from 43 patients were analyzed using SPSS 12 for Windows. Results: Time to reach BIS score 70 using propofol was significantly lower than using the midazolam (P<0.05. Time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using propofol was comparable with midazolam (P=0.358. Conclusion: A divergence exists between the time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using midazolam, compared with propofol, during the onset of sedation.

  18. Clinical evaluation of midazolam intravenous sedation under bispectral index monitoring on romoval of anterior supernumerary teeth in children%咪达唑仑静脉注射对儿童埋伏多生牙拔除术中镇静效果的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关明; 王恩博; 刘宇; 崔念晖; 丁蓓; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of midazolam intravenous sedation plus local anaesthesia on removal of children' s anterior supernumerary teeth in dental clinic. Methods: A total of 41 ASA I children with anterior supernumerary teeth aged 6 to 14 were selected for removal surgery, anaesthesia was done by moderate sedation by midazolam intravenous titration plus local anaesthesia. Heart rate (HR) , blood pressure (BP) , pulse oxygen saturation rate (SpO2) , bispectral index (BIS) and Ramsay sedation score ( RSS) at different time points were recorded (5 min after patient is in operation room, at local anaesthesia injection, at incision, 10 min after incision and at the end of operation). After operation, the overall efficacy of sedation by Houpt rating scale was evaluated by surgeon, anaes-thesiologist and anaesthetic nurse. Results; Among the 41 children, 29 were male, 12 were female, mean age (9.76 ±2.46) years old; The average operation time was (23.83 ±9.98) min, total dose of midazolam was (2. 96 ±0. 92) mg with a dosage rate being (0. 084 ±0. 016) mg/kg. There was a positive correlation between age and total dose (r=0.69, P < 0.01) ; and a negative correlation between age and total dosage (r= -0. 37, P <0. 05). With the decreasing of age, probability for children to move or cry during local anaesthesia can increase, while with the increasing of age, probability for children to memorize the clicking of drill or hammer could increase. The correlation coefficient between RSS and BIS value was r = -0. 854 (P <0.01) , the median BIS value corresponded to RSS of 3 was 75. Pulse oxygen saturation rate was above 95% in all the cases. Conclusion: Sedation by midazolam intravenous titration is a safe and efficient method of anesthesia for removal of children' s anterior supernumerary teeth when BIS value is above 75.%目的:旨在评估咪达唑仑静脉镇静联合局部麻醉拔除儿童上颌理伏多生牙的镇静效果及共安全性.方法:选

  19. The use of Bispectral Index (BIS values as an indicator for sleep staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Nena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. The aim of this study was to examine whether BIS values during sleep correspond to the different sleep stages, in order to assess BIS as an alternative means of sleep staging. Patients-Methods: The study was conducted on 23 patients who were examined concurrently with polysomnography (PSG for diagnosing sleep-disordered breathing and with BIS. Exclusion criteria were sleep duration <4 hours, sleep efficiency <80% on PSG and signal quality index (SQI <50% on BIS. Comparisons in recordings were performed. Results: The patients provided 806 different sleep periods. The mean BIS value was 93.6±4.8 in the wakeful state, and in sleep, according to each stage: 84±11.5 in stage 1, 75.4±13.2 in stage 2, 53.4±15.8 in slow wave sleep (SWS, and 81.5±13.3 during REM sleep. A significant difference was observed between BIS values in the wakeful state and stage 1 (p<0.005 and between stages 1 and 2 and SWS (p<0.001, but not between stage 1 and REM (p=0.102. Conclusion: BIS values decrease with sleep and remain low, with the exception of REM sleep, the BIS values in which overlap with those in stage 1, reducing the sensitivity of BIS in sleep staging. Pneumon 2009, 22(3:230-239.

  20. The Dynamic Relationship Between End-Tidal Sevoflurane Concentrations, Bispectral Index, and Cerebral State Index in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuentes, Ricardo; Cortinez, Luis I.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Delfino, Alejandro; Munoz, Hernan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To guide anesthetic administration with electroencephalogram monitors in children, an adequate characterization of the anesthetic effect measured by these monitors in this population is needed. We sought to quantify and compare the dynamic profile of sevoflurane's effect measured with th

  1. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Textile Index Monitor is a new column that delivers a textile-specific price index profile in weeks that are bygone when this monthly magazine comes to your hand. China Textile City is the name of the world-largest yarn&fabric marketplace in the famous town of Keqiao in Zhejiang,China.Several years ago,Ministry of Commerce(MOC)set up a national price index centre for textiles-specific category,China Textile City takes the leading role in publishing its analytical report of textile price index on weekly,monthly,quarterly and yearly basis,making it possible for Keqiao or its textile city to be the weathercock for textiles market trend in China and in the world as well.From this issue,a new column is given to cover the gist&feeds of the latest developments&gradients in this market barometer.

  2. Comparative study of Poincaré plot analysis using short electroencephalogram signals during anaesthesia with spectral edge frequency 95 and bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Yamada, T; Sawa, T

    2015-03-01

    The return or Poincaré plot is a non-linear analytical approach in a two-dimensional plane, where a timed signal is plotted against itself after a time delay. Its scatter pattern reflects the randomness and variability in the signals. Quantification of a Poincaré plot of the electroencephalogram has potential to determine anaesthesia depth. We quantified the degree of dispersion (i.e. standard deviation, SD) along the diagonal line of the electroencephalogram-Poincaré plot (named as SD1/SD2), and compared SD1/SD2 values with spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95) and bispectral index values. The regression analysis showed a tight linear regression equation with a coefficient of determination (R(2) ) value of 0.904 (p plot tightly correlates with SEF95, reflecting anaesthesia-dependent changes in electroencephalogram oscillation.

  3. Comparative study among acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine in different doses, through bispectral index, term and pressure algimetry, in dogs / Estudo comparativo entre a acepromazina, clorpromazina e levomepromazina em diferentes doses, através do exame bispectral, termo e pressoalgimetria, em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mitsuko Matsubara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study’s objective was to realize comparisons among different acepromazine, chlorpromazine and methotrimeprazine doses, evaluate parametric changes, test analgesia using press and term algimetry, and evaluate bispectral condition. 90 mongrel dogs were used, male and female, adult, weighting 10 to 15 Kg as a rule, distributed in 9 groups with 10 animals each. At first, second and third groups acepromazine was used at 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/Kg, respectively. At forth, fifth and sixth groups, chlorpromazine was used at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg, respectively. At seventh, eighth and ninth groups, methotrimeprazine at 1,0; 0,5 and 0,25 mg/Kg was used, respectively. All drugs were administered intravenously. Objects of study: heart rate (HR, non invasive blood pressure (SAP, MAP, DAP, respiratory rate (f, capnography (ETCO2, pulse oxymetry (SatO2, mouth and rectal temperature, bispectral index (BIS, electromyography (EMG%, press and term algimetry. Somatic analgesia was evaluated by animal’s response to nociceptives stimulus. We concluded that chlorpromazine had more hypotension. Dogs showed higher hypnosis level at chlorpromazine group, with evident myorelaxation. All groups showed analgesia to thermic and mechanic stimulus. Acepromazine group showed high duration to both pain stimuli. Bispectral index was shorten at chlorpromazine group at 1,0 mg/kg doses, showing higher hypnosis index, and acepromazine was the less depressing considering the bispectral index.Objetivou-se comparar, em diferentes doses, a acepromazina, a clorpromazina e a levomepromazina com relação às alterações paramétricas, à analgesia avaliada através da presso e termoalgimetria e a condição bispectral em 90 cães sem raça definida alocados em nove grupos. No primeiro, segundo e terceiro grupo foi empregada a acepromazina nas doses de 0,1; 0,05 e 0,025 mg/kg, respectivamente. No quarto, quinto e sexto grupo foi empregada a clorpromazina nas doses de 1,0; 0,5 e 0

  4. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) with Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) and Bispectral Analysis in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxdorf, Maximilian; Tschaikowsky, Klaus; Scherl, Claudia; Bauer, Judith; Iro, Heinrich; Angerer, Florian

    2016-12-06

    The aim of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) to differentiate obstruction patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Target-controlled infusion (TCI) of the sedative propofol was combined with real-time monitoring of the depth of sedation using bispectral analysis. In an observational study 57 patients (mean age 44.8 years, ± SD 10.5; mean apnea hypopnea Index (AHI) 30.8/hr, ± SD 21.6, mean BMI 28.2 kg/m(2), ± SD 5.3) underwent cardiorespiratory polysomnography followed by DISE with TCI and bispectral analysis. Sleep was induced solely by the intravenous infusion of propofol with a TCI-pump, with an initial target plasma level of 2.0 µg/ml. Under continuous monitoring of the patient's respiration, state of consciousness and value of the bispectral analysis, the target plasma propofol level was raised in steps of 0.2 µg/ml/2 min until the desired depth of sedation was reached. The mean value of the bispectral analysis at the target depth of sedation was determined and the obstruction patterns during DISE-TCI-bispectral analysis then classified according to the VOTE-system. Subsequently the results were analyzed according to polysomnographic and anthropometric data. The occurrence of multilevel obstruction sites across all degrees of severity of OSA clarifies the need for sleep endoscopy prior to upper airway surgery. The advantage of this technique is the reproducibility of the protocol even for heterogeneous groups of patients. In addition, the gradual controlled and standardized increase of the plasma level of propofol with real-time control of the bispectral index leads to a precisely controllable depth of sedation. The DISE-TCI-bispectral analysis procedure is a step towards a required reproducible protocol of sleep endoscopy - capable of standardization. However it is not yet known whether these observed obstruction patterns also correspond to findings in natural sleep.

  5. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Part I–Price Index National Index for China Textile City (located in Keqiao, Shaoxing county in Zhejiang Province, east of China) concludes its price index (periodic code:20101101) at 100.31 points rise of 0.68% as against its previous week.

  6. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Part I—Price IndexNational Index for China Textile City (located in Keqiao,Shaoxing county in Zhejiang Province,east of China) concludes its price index (periodic code:20110606) at 110.56 points.

  7. Protocol for the BAG-RECALL clinical trial: a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a bispectral index-guided protocol is superior to an anesthesia gas-guided protocol in reducing intraoperative awareness with explicit recall in high risk surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villafranca Alex

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness with explicit recall of intra-operative events is a rare and distressing complication that may lead to severe psychological symptoms. Candidate depth of anesthesia monitors have been developed, partly with the aim of preventing this complication. Despite conflicting results from clinical trials and the lack of incisive validation, such monitors have enjoyed widespread clinical adoption, in particular the bispectral index. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has called for adequately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials to determine whether the use of such monitors decreases the incidence of awareness in various settings. The aim of this study is to determine with increased precision whether incorporating the bispectral index into a structured general anesthesia protocol decreases the incidence of awareness with explicit recall among a subset of surgical patients at increased risk for awareness and scheduled to receive an inhalation gas-based general anesthetic. Methods/Design BAG-RECALL is a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial, in which 6,000 patients are being assigned to bispectral index-guided anesthesia (target range, 40 to 60 or end-tidal anesthetic gas-guided anesthesia (target range, 0.7 to 1.3 age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration. Postoperatively, patients are being assessed for explicit recall at two intervals (0 to 72 hours, and 30 days after extubation. The primary outcome of the trial is awareness with explicit recall. Secondary outcomes include postoperative mortality, psychological symptoms, intensive care and hospital length of stay, average anesthetic gas administration, postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting, duration of stay in the recovery area, intra-operative dreaming, and postoperative delirium. Discussion This trial has been designed to complement two other clinical trials: B-Unaware and MACS (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00281489 and NCT00689091

  8. Comparison of 1.5% lidocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine epidural anesthesia combined with propofol general anesthesia guided by bispectral index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yan; LI Yu-hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of epidural anesthesia with 1.5% lidocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine on propofol requirements,the time to loss of consciousness (LOC),effect-site propofol concentrations,and the hemodynamic variables during induction of general anesthesia guided by bispectral index (BIS) were studied.Methods:Forty-five patients were divided into three groups to receive epidurally administered saline (Group S),1.5% (w/w) lidocaine (Group L),or 0.5% (w/w) ropivacaine (Group R).Propofol infusion was started to produce blood concentration of 4 μg/ml.Once the BIS value reached 40~50,endotracheal intubation was facilitated by 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium.Measurements included the time to LOC,effect-site propofol concentrations,total propofol dose,mean arterial blood pressure (MABP),and heart rate (HR) at different study time points.Results:During induction of anesthesia,both Groups L and R were similar for the time to LOC,effect-site propofol concentrations,total propofol dose,MABP,HR,and BIS.The total doses of propofol administered until 1 min post-intubation were significantly less in patients of Groups R and L compared with Group S.MABP and HR were significantly lower following propofol induction compared with baseline values in the three groups,or MABP was significantly increased following intubation as compared with that prior to intubation in Group S but not in Groups R and L while HR was significantly increased following intubation in the three groups.Conclusion:Epidural anesthesia with 1.5% lidocaine and 0.5% ropivacaine has similar effects on the time to LOC,effect-site propofol concentrations,total propofol dose,and the hemodynamic variables during induction of general anesthesia.

  9. The effect of different doses of esmolol on hemodynamic, bispectral index and movement response during orotracheal intubation: prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was planned to identify the optimum dose of esmolol infusion to suppress the increase in bispectral index values and the movement and hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a double-blind fashion. 2.5 mg kg-1 propofol was administered for anesthesia induction. After loss of consciousness, and before administration of 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium, a tourniquet was applied to one arm and inflated to 50 mm Hg greater than systolic pressure. The patients were divided into 3 groups; 1 mg kg-1 h-1 esmolol was given as the loading dose and in Group Es50 50 μg kg-1 min-1, in Group Es150 150 μg kg-1 min-1, and in Group Es250 250 μg kg-1 min-1 esmolol infusion was started. Five minutes after the esmolol has been begun, the trachea was intubated; gross movement within the first minute after orotracheal intubation was recorded. Results: Incidence of movement response and the ΔBIS max values were comparable in Group Es250 and Group Es150, but these values were significantly higher in Group Es50 than in the other two groups. In all three groups in the 1st minute after tracheal intubation heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher compared to values from before intubation (p < 0.05. In the study period there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: In clinical practise we believe that after 1 mg kg-1 loading dose, 150 μg kg-1 min-1 iv esmolol dose is sufficient to suppress responses to tracheal intubation without increasing side effects.

  10. Changes in the Bispectral Index in Response to Loss of Consciousness and No Somatic Movement to Nociceptive Stimuli in Elderly Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Yang; Yun Yue; Jonathan Z Pan; Ming-Zhang Zuo; Yu Shi; Shu-Zhen Zhou; Wen-Ping Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bispectral index (BIS) is considered very useful to guide anesthesia care in elderly patients, but its use is controversial for the evaluation of the adequacy of analgesia.This study compared the BIS changes in response to loss of consciousness (LOC) and loss of somatic response (LOS) to nociceptive stimuli between elderly and young patients receiving intravenous target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanil.Methods: This study was performed on 52 elderly patients (aged 65-78 years) and 52 young patients (aged 25-58 years), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ.Anesthesia was induced with propofol administered by TCI.A standardized noxious electrical stimulus (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, [TENS]) was applied (50 Hz, 80 mA, 0.25 ms pulses for 4 s) to the ulnar nerve at increasing remifentanil predicted effective-site concentration (Ce) until patients lost somatic response to TENS.Changes in awake, prestimulus, poststimulus BIS, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulse oxygen saturation, predicted plasma concentration, Ce of propofol, and remifentanil at both LOC and LOS clinical points were investigated.Results: BISLOC in elderly group was higher than that in young patient group (65.4 ± 9.7 vs.57.6 ± 12.3) (t =21.58, P < 0.0001) after TCI propofol, and the propofol Ce at LOC was 1.6 ± 0.3 μg/ml in elderly patients, which was significantly lower than that in young patients (2.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml) (t =7.474, P < 0.0001).As nociceptive stimulation induced BIS to increase, the mean of BIS maximum values after TENS was significantly higher than that before TENS in both age groups (t =8.902 and t =8.019, P < 0.0001).With increasing Ce of remifentanil until patients lost somatic response to TENS, BISLOS was the same as the BISLOC in elderly patients (65.6 ± 10.7 vs.65.4 ± 9.7), and there were no marked differences between elderly and young patient groups in BISawake, BISLOS, and Ce of

  11. 脑电双频指数在儿科ICU镇静监测的临床应用价值%Sedation assessment by using bispectral index in the pediatric intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕国良; 姚军; 龚小慧; 张宇鸣

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨脑电双频指数(BIS)在儿科ICU危重患儿镇静深度监测中的应用价值.方法 前瞻性收集我院PICU的42例6个月~13岁的危重患儿,以咪唑安定持续静脉滴注镇静治疗,在应用镇静剂后的10个时间段以Ramsay评分评价镇静深度的同时进行BIS监测,分析BIS与Ramsay评分在儿童危重症镇静评估的相关性及影响因素.结果 42例危重症患儿中共采集420对BIS与Ramsay对照数据,并做Spearman等级相关分析,BIS与Ramsay评分呈明显负相关(r=-0.8879,P0.05);BIS范围在55~80之间为危重症患儿合适的镇静分值.结论 BIS与Ramsay评分在危重症镇静深度评估中具有较好相关性.BIS监测具有操作简单、省时、连续性好等优点,可作为PICU患儿镇静深度判断的客观指标.%Objective To evaluate the applicability of bispectral index (BIS) in assessing sedation in pediatric intensive care unit. Methods Patients in pediatric ICU,aged six months to thirteen years and requi-ring sedation were given midazolam as sedative drug. The Ramsay score was assessed by physicians after mi-dazolam was given at ten time interval and these data were compared with the blinded BIS score. Results A total of 42 children were included in the study,420 valid paired observation of BIS values and Ramsay score were performed. According to Spearman's scale analysis, the correlation coefficient between BIS value and Ramsay score was -0.887 9 (P0.05). Conclusion BIS values cor-relate fairly well with the Ramsay scores in PICU patient. With the advantages such as simpleness, time-sav-ing,continuity and etc,BIS monitoring is a good objective tool for judging sedation depth of PICU patients.

  12. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy Avaliação hemodinâmica e do índice bispectral (BIS de cadelas anestesiadas com midazolam e cetamina associados à medetomidina ou dexmedetomidina e submetidas a ovário-salpingo-histerectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando do Carmo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.2 mg.kg-1 midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg.kg-1.h-1 midazolam and 20 mg.kg-1.h-1 ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10: 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 dexmedetomidine or MED (n=10: 30 µg.kg-1.h-1 medetomidine over 30 minutes. A pharmacokinetic study provided dexmedetomidine plasma concentration, set to be 3.0 ng.mL-1. RESULTS: BIS decreased in both groups (P0.05, but heart rate decreased in both groups, as compared to control values (POBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento hemodinâmico e o índice bispectral de cadelas anestesiadas com cetamina e midazolam associados à dexmedetomidina ou medetomidina. MÉTODOS: Vinte cadelas receberam pré-tratamento com levomepromazina e buprenorfina e foram anestesiadas com cetamina, 5 mg.kg-1 i.v., e midazolam, 0,2 mg.kg-1 i.v., seguidos da administração contínua de midazolam, 0,4 mg.kg-1.h-1, e cetamina, 20 mg.kg-1.h-1, associados, conforme o grupo, à: DEX (n=10: dexmedetomidina 20 µg.kg-1.h-1 ou MED (n=10: medetomidina 30 µg.kg-1.h-1, mantidos por 30 minutos. A dose de dexmedetomidina foi obtida por meio de estudo farmacocinético planejando-se concentração plasmática de 3,0 ng.mL-1. RESULTADOS: Os valores do BIS diminuíram em ambos os grupos (P0,05, sem a presença de efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A administração contínua de dexmedetomidina em concentração plasmática calculada de 3 ng.mL-1, em combinação com midazolam e cetamina, resulta em plano anestésico adequado para castração de cadelas, estabilidade hemodinâmica e despertar tranquilo, sem efeitos adversos.

  13. Capnography and the Bispectral Index—Their Role in Pediatric Sedation: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sammartino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedation in children is increasingly emerging as a minimally invasive technique that may be associated with local anaesthesia or diagnostic and therapeutic procedures which do not necessarily require general anaesthesia. Standard monitoring requirements are not sufficient to ensure an effective control of pulmonary ventilation and deep sedation. Capnography in pediatric sedation assesses the effect of different drugs on the occurrence of respiratory failure and records early indicators of respiratory impairment. The Bispectral index (BIS allows the reduction of dose requirements of anaesthetic drugs, the reduction in the time to extubation and eye opening, and the reduction in the time to discharge. In the field of pediatric sedation, capnography should be recommended to prevent respiratory complications, particularly in spontaneous ventilation. The use of the BIS index, however, needs further investigation due to a lack of evidence, especially in infants. In this paper, we will investigate the role of capnography and the BIS index in improving monitoring standards in pediatric sedation.

  14. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    Variation in electron density can have significant effect on GNSS signals in terms of propagation delay. Ionospheric scintillation can be caused by rapid change of such delay, specifically, when they last for a longer period of time. Ionospheric irregularities that account for scintillation may vary significantly in spatial range and drift with the background plasma at speeds of 45 to 130 m/sec. These patchy irregularities may occur several times during night, e.g. in equatorial region, with the patches move through the ray paths of the GNSS satellite signals. These irregularities are often characterized as either ‘large scale’ (which can be as large as several hundred km in East-West direction and many times that in the North-South direction) or ‘small scale’ (which can be as small as 1m). These small scale irregularities are regarded as the main cause of scintillation [1,2]. In normal solar activity conditions, the mid-latitude ionosphere is not much disturbed. However, during severe magnetic storms, the aurora oval extends towards the equator and the equator anomaly region may stretched towards poles extending the scintillation phenomena more typically associated with those regions into mid-latitudes. In such stormy conditions, the predicted TEC may deviate largely from the true value of the TEC both at low and mid-latitudes due to which GNSS applications may be strongly degraded. This work is an attempt to analyze ionospheric scintillation (S4 index) using ionospheric asymmetry index [3]. The asymmetry index is based on trans-ionospheric propagation between GPS and LEO satellites in a radio occultation (RO) scenario, using background ionospheric data provided by MIDAS [4]. We attempted to simulate one of the recent geomagnetic storms (NOAA scale G4) occurred over low/mid-latitudes. The storm started on 26 September 2011 at UT 18:00 and lasted until early hours of 27 September 2011. The scintillation data for the storm was taken from an ionospheric

  15. Bispectral index-guided intraoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine and midazolam infusion in orthopaedic surgery of lower limbs%脑电双频指数引导下右美托咪啶和咪达唑仑用于下肢手术镇静的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一凡; 陈倩茹; 胡楚文; 曹铭辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare and evaluate the effect and safety of dexmedetomidine(DEX) and midazolam sedation in lower limbs orthopaedic surgery. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing lower limbs surgery were randomly assigned to group D (n=27,DEX, 0.5 μg·kg-1·h-1, loading dose 0.5 μg/kg) and group M(n=25, midazolam, 50 μg·kg-1·h-1, loading dose 30 μg/kg). An infusion was administered after mounting a bispectral index (BIS) monitor under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. The target BIS level was≤85. An additional bolus dose of the study drug or cessation of the infusion was adjusted according to the BIS level, and the change should be recorded. Respiratory rates (RR), heart rate (HR), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were continually monitored. Sedation should be evaluated according to the Ramsay sedation scale(RSS) before the drug withdrawal. Results HR was lower in group D (72±7) bpm than that in group M (83±8) bpm (P0.05).两组的停药前RSS评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).D组有6例、M组有7例需要进行剂量调整.另外,M组有5例因舌后坠致SpO2下降需托下颌处理,D组无类似情况.结论 DEX用于骨科下肢手术镇静可引起HR减慢但对血压无明显影响;在相同的镇静程度下,DEX比咪达唑仑更有利丁维持呼吸道通畅,可能更适用于该类手术的镇静.

  16. Comparação dos valores do índice bispectral em pacientes com paralisia cerebral em estado de vigília Comparación de los valores del índice bispectral en pacientes con parálisis cerebral en estado de vigilia Comparison of the bispectral index in awake patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O EEG-BIS foi criado por meio de estudos em pacientes adultos saudáveis e as primeiras publicações em crianças surgiram a partir de 1998. A paralisia cerebral (PC é secundária à lesão estática do encéfalo em desenvolvimento. A necessidade de realização de exames e procedimentos cirúrgicos para correção de deformidades sob anestesia ou sedação é comum nesses pacientes. Torna-se cada vez mais necessária a monitorização do estado de hipnose do paciente anestesiado e pode-se incluir nesse grupo os pacientes com paralisia cerebral. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do EEG-BIS nos pacientes com paralisia cerebral (PC em comparação com os pacientes sem doenças neurológicas (sem PC, em estado de vigília. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados dois grupos de pacientes: um com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral e outro sem doença do sistema nervoso central (SNC. Na véspera da intervenção cirúrgica, na enfermaria, junto aos pacientes despertos era colocado o monitor de EEG-BIS e solicitado que fechassem os olhos. Os valores que apareciam na tela do monitor, em um intervalo de 10 minutos, eram anotados e registrados em ficha padronizada, sendo calculado um valor médio por paciente. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 188 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 10, 07 ± 2,9 (PC e 10,21 ± 3,1 (sem PC anos. O grupo PC apresentou EEG-BIS basal de 95,83 ± 5,142 e o grupo sem PC de 96,56 ± 1,941 sem haver diferença estatística significativa entre eles. CONCLUSÕES: Os sinais de EEG são captados normalmente e os valores de EEG-BIS dos pacientes com PC são semelhantes ao dos pacientes sem PC no estado de vigília.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El EEG-BIS fue creado a través de estudios en pacientes adultos saludables y las primeras publicaciones en niños surgieron a partir de 1998. La parálisis cerebral (PC es secundaria a la lesión estática del encéfalo en desarrollo. La necesidad de

  17. Regressão da anestesia geral em pacientes com paralisia cerebral: estudo comparativo utilizando o índice bispectral Regresión de la anestesia general en pacientes con parálisis cerebral: estudio comparativo utilizando el índice bispectral Regression of general anesthesia in patients with cerebral palsy: a comparative study using the bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2006-10-01

    pacientes del grupo control estaba en el estadio III de regresión anestésica, versus 29% del grupo con parálisis cerebral. A los treinta minutos, el 72% de los pacientes del grupo control estaba apto para recibir el alta, estadio IV de regresión anestésica, versus 41,9% de los pacientes con PC. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con parálisis cerebral presentaron un regreso más lento de la conciencia en comparación con el grupo control.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been said that patients with cerebral palsy (CP present a higher sensitivity to anesthetic agents, which may affect adversely the awakening from anesthesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the recovery of patients with CP compared with patients without CNS disease. METHODS: The study population was composed of children ages 5 to 15, divided in two groups: those with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy and those without CNS disease. All of them underwent general anesthesia with sevoflurane associated with nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen. Besides the parameters commonly monitored, they also underwent EEG-BIS monitoring. Regression of general anesthesia during awakening from anesthesia, tracheal extubation, and the immediate postanesthetic period were evaluated according to the criteria adopted by Saraiva. The speed of elimination of the anesthetic agents was also evaluated, correlating it with the EEG-BIS values, and comparing the two groups of patients. Statistical analysis was done through exploratory analysis of the data and statistical testing comparing the means. The statistical difference was considered significant for values of p smaller or equal to 5%. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were evaluated: 31 with CP and 25 without CNS disease. Both groups were homogenous regarding age and gender. Baseline EEG-BIS values for CP patients were smaller than those for the control group, and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.04. During the first five minutes after discontinuation of sevoflurane

  18. Efficacy of Sedation Scheme Research in ICU by Using Bispectral Index Scores%脑电双频指数评分用于重症监护病房镇静方案调整的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚芳; 葛称; 蔡福良; 沈正林

    2014-01-01

    目的:临床药师参与镇静方案研究,使镇静剂更加安全、合理地用于重症监护患者。方法选择18岁以上以治疗为目的进行有创机械通气重症监护病房( ICU )住院患者,利用脑电双频指数(BIS)数值调整其镇静剂,用量使镇静处于最佳水平,记录患者的生命体征、咪达唑仑总用量及平均日用量。结果咪达唑仑平均日用量与年龄呈负相关,与身高、体重、体表面积呈正相关,男性患者用量大于女性患者,60岁以上患者用量小于60岁以下患者。结论咪达唑仑应根据患者的年龄、性别、身高、体重给予个体化镇静。%Objective To make the sedative agents use in ICU patients more safe and more rational by the clinical pharmacists partici-pating in the sedative scheme research. Methods The ICU inpatients aged over 18 years old with injured mechanical ventilation were selected. The bispectral index ( BIS ) was adopted to adjust the sedative agent for making the dosage in the optimal level. The patient vi-tal signs,total amount and average daily dose of midazolam were recorded. Results The average daily dose of midazolam was negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with height,body weight and body surface area. The midazolam dose of the male patients was more than that of the female patients,the midazolam dose for the patients aged over 60 years old was less than that for the pa-tients aged less than 60 years old. Conclusion Midazolam sedation should be individualized according to the patient's age,gender, height and weight.

  19. Comparison of C50 for Propofol-remifentanil Target-controlled Infusion and Bispectral Index at Loss of Consciousness and Response to Painful Stimulus in Elderly and Young Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Yang; Ming-Zhang Zuo; Yun Yue; Yun Wang; Yu Shi; Xue-Na Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:In this prospective randomized study,we compared the predicted blood and effect-site C50 for propofol and remifentanil target-controlled infusion (TCI) and the bispectral index (BIS) values at loss of consciousness (LOC) and response to a standard noxious painful stimulus (LOS) in elderly and young patients,respectively.We hypothesized that the elderly patients will require lower target concentration of both propofol and remifentanil at above two clinical end-points.Methods:There were 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status Ⅰ Ⅱ unpremedicated patients enrolled in this study,they were divided into elderly group (age ≥65 years,n =40) and young group (aged 18-54 years,n =40).Propofol was initially given to a predicted blood concentration of 1.2 μg/ml and thereafter increased by 0.3 μg/ml every 30 s until Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation score was 1.The propofol level was kept constant,and remifentanil was given to provide a predict blood concentration of 2.0 ng/ml,and then increased by 0.3 ng/ml every 30 s until loss of response to a tetanic stimulus.BIS (version 3.22,BIS Quattro sensor) was also recorded.Results:In elderly group,the propofol effect-site C50 at LOC of was 1.5 (1.4-1.6) μg/ml,was significantly lower than that of young group,which was 2.2 (2.1-2.3) μg/ml,the remifentanil effect-site C50 at LOS was 3.5 (3.3-3.7) ng/ml in elderly patients,was similar with 3.7 (3.6-3.8) ng/ml in young patients.Fifty percent of patients lost consciousness at a BIS value of 57.3 (56.4-58.1),was similar with that of young group,which was 55.2 (54.0-56.3).Conclusion:In elderly patients,the predicted blood and effect-site concentrations of propofol at LOC were lower than that of young patients.At same sedation status,predicted blood and effect-site concentrations of remifentanil required at LOS were similar in elderly and young patients.BIS were not affected by age.Low-propofol/high-opioid may be optional TCI strategy

  20. Nonlinear damage detection in composite structures using bispectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Pickering, Simon; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Literature offers a quantitative number of diagnostic methods that can continuously provide detailed information of the material defects and damages in aerospace and civil engineering applications. Indeed, low velocity impact damages can considerably degrade the integrity of structural components and, if not detected, they can result in catastrophic failure conditions. This paper presents a nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method, based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for the detection of the nonlinear signature in a damaged composite structure. The proposed technique, based on a bispectral analysis of ultrasonic input waveforms, allows for the evaluation of the nonlinear response due to the presence of cracks and delaminations. Indeed, such a methodology was used to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the structure, by exploiting the frequency mixing of the original waveform acquired from a sparse array of sensors. The robustness of bispectral analysis was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged carbon fibre reinforce plastic (CFRP) composite panel, and the nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy. Unlike other linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods for damage detection, this methodology does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the nonlinear source, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Moreover, bispectral analysis can be considered as a nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) technique for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  1. 脑电双频指数监测对重症监护病房昏迷患者预后的评估%Study of estimating the prognosis of ICU patients with coma using Bispectral index value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红梅; 路玲; 窦琳; 常文秀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between Bispectral index (BIS) value and the prognosis of patients with coma in ICU.Methods A total of 208 patients with coma in ICU were divided into 4 groups according to the BIS value.In group I,BIS value was 0 to 20; groupⅡ,BIS value 21 to 40; group Ⅲ,BIS value 41 to 60; and group Ⅳ,BIS value greater than 60.Comparison of the difference in BIS value with the differences in prognosis of patients with coma was carried out between four groups,and the prognosis of patients with coma was stratified into consciousness,coma,vegetative state,and brain death.Subsequently,the best cutoff score of BIS value calculated for determining the correlation between BIS and mental state was proposed.Results There are no significant differences in the age and APACHE Ⅱ scores between four groups (P > 0.05).It was inverse correlation between BIS value and mental state (r =-0.749,P =0.00).According to the ROC curve,as BIS value was greater than 42.5,there were higher sensitivity and specificity in Conscious-Coma patients.Conclusions BIS value is correlated with the prognosis of patients with coma in ICU,and BIS value can be a useful marker for estimating the prognosis of comatose patients.%目的 观察脑电双频指数(BIS)监测值与重症监护室(ICU)中昏迷患者预后的相关性,探讨通过BIS值评估ICU昏迷患者的预后的可行性.方法 回顾性将纳入的208例昏迷危重病患者根据所监测的BIS监测值分为四组:Ⅰ组,0~20;Ⅱ组,21 ~40;Ⅲ组,41~60;Ⅳ组,>60.分别用BIS值和神志预后(神志清楚-昏迷、植物状态、脑死亡状态)为目标,比较组间差异,计算各组BIS值与昏迷患者预后的相关性,寻找较准确评估昏迷患者预后的BIS临界值.结果 四组患者的年龄、APACHEⅡ评分采用单因素方差分析,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),对BIS值与昏迷预后状态采用Spearman’s等级相关进行相关分析,结果呈负相关(r=-0.749,P

  2. Influence of intravenous clonidine pretreatment on anesthetic requirements during bispectral EEG-guided sevoflurane anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyne, C; Struys, M; Heylen, R; De Jongh, R; Vander Laenen, M; Buyse, L; Deghislage, J; Rolly, G

    2000-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess the anaesthetic effects of clonidine during sevoflurane anaesthesia guided by the bispectral index (BIS), which is a processed EEG variable correlated with anaesthetic-hypnotic depth. Design: Placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial Settings: Elective laparoscopic s

  3. Establishment of pharmacodynamic model of sevoflurane in pediatric patients: bispectral index%患儿七氟醚药效学模型的建立:脑电双频谱指数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕴安; 黄悦; 林琳; 张马忠; 牛静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the pharmacodynamic model of sevoflurane with bispectral index (BIS) as the effective index in pediatric patients.Methods Thirteen ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ pediatric patients,aged 4-9 yr,weighing 12-39 kg,undergoing non-cardiac surgery,were selected in the study.The pediatric patients sequentially inhaled 1%,5 % and 1% sevoflurane via a face mask and each concentration was inhaled for 15 min.BIS value,HR,BP and SpO2 were automatically recorded every 10 s.Based on nonlinear mixed effect modeling,the population pharmacodynamic model of sevoflurane was established using NONMEM software.The effect of age on the pharmacodynamic parameters was evaluated using a stepwise forward addition then backward elimination modeling approach.The standard for model improvement was defined as a decrease in the value of the objective function by more than 3.84.Results Twelve pediatric patients,aged 4.0-8.5 yr,weighing 12.8-38.0 kg,with body height of 92-135 cm,were enrolled in this study and the data which were enrolled comprised 2964 effective concentration-time-BIS points.The model was not improved significantly with any covariates (age,body height,and body weight) introduced (P > 0.05).The estimated parameters of the final pharmacodynamic model of sevoflurane were as follows:ke0 =O.516/min ; EC50 (BIS50) =2.11% ; γ =2.46 ; E0 =74.6 ; EMAx =11.2.Conclusion The pharmacodynamic model of sevoflurane is successfully established with BIS as the effective index in pediatric patients,and the analysis for each parameter of the model indicates that the sensitivity to sevoflurane is lower,but the blood-brain equilibration time of the drug is shorter and the onset and recovery are faster in children than in adults.%目的 以脑电双频谱指数(BIS)为效应指标,建立患儿七氟醚药效学模型.方法 选择行非心脏手术患儿13例,年龄4-9岁,体重12~39 kg,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级.患儿经面罩顺序吸入七氟醚1%、5%和1

  4. Midazolam por via oral como medicação pré-anestésica em crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral: estudo comparativo das variações do índice bispectral Midazolam por vía oral como medicación preanestésica en niños y adolescentes con parálisis cerebral: estudio comparativo de las variaciones del índice bispectral Oral midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication in children and teenagers with cerebral palsy: a comparative study on the variations of the bispectral index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2009-02-01

    grupo de pacientes que presentan una serie de particularidades, con alteraciones inclusive en la región de la acción del midazolam. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la acción del midazolam utilizado como medicación preanestésica sobre el índice bispectral (EEG-BIS de los pacientes con parálisis cerebral. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron dos grupos de pacientes: uno con diagnóstico de PC y el otro sin enfermedad del sistema nervioso central (SNC y periférico. Se registraron valores de EEG-BIS en la enfermería en la víspera de la operación y el día de la operación, 40 minutos después de la administración de 0,6 mg.kg-1 de midazolam por vía oral. Quedaron excluidos pacientes con historial de reacción paradoxal al midazolam y pacientes del grupo control que estuviesen usando otra medicación. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 77 pacientes de ambos sexos, entre 4 y 18 años de edad. No hubo diferencia entre los valores de EEG-BIS basal entre los grupos estudiados. Después del uso del midazolam hubo una reducción de los valores del EEG-BIS en los dos grupos estudiados, con diferencia estadística significativa en cada grupo. En la comparación entre los grupos no hubo diferencia estadística. CONCLUSIONES: El midazolam administrado como medicación preanestésica en la dosis de 0,6 mg.kg-1 redujo los valores basales del EEG-BIS sin caracterizar la hipnosis y sin diferencia estadística en los grupos estudiados.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with hypnotic action widely used as pre-anesthetic medication in pediatric anesthesia. Children with cerebral palsy (CP also benefit from the use of midazolam, but its effects on this group of patients, who present several particularities, including changes at the site of action of midazolam, are still unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of midazolam, when used as pre-anesthetic medication, on the bispectral index (EEG-BIS of patients with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Two groups of

  5. A NOVEL METHOD ON DESIGNING BISPECTRAL WINDOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoWenbing; YaoTianren; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel method on designing bispectral windows is proposed in this letter.Com-pound functions based on a function with binary quadric form,starting from the symmetry characteristic of three-order moments are used as the 2-D window functions.Two approaches on how to find the expressions of the compound functions are discussed in detail.One is to approxi-mate the compound function after being Taylor expanded under the MinimumMean Square Error (MMSE)criteria.Another is to compound the hyperbolic secant function and the binary quadric function directly.According to theoretical analysis,the first type new windows have been proved as slightly better than the conventional ones,the second type new windows are much better than the conventional ones ,and the bispectral estimation mean square error approximates to 0.

  6. Bispectral Index as an Indicator of Cerebral Hypoperfusion During Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting%脑电双频指数作为脑灌注不足指标在非体外循环下冠状动脉旁路移植术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas M. Hemmerling; Jean-Fran(c)ois Olivier; Fadi Basile; Nien Le; Ignatio Prieto; 徐静

    2006-01-01

    非体外循环下冠状动脉旁路移植术(off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting,OPCAB)中常发生心动过缓和低血压.本文报道一例58岁行冠脉左回旋支远端吻合时并发可逆性脑灌注不足的病例.术中行远端吻合时,该患者的脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)从45~50骤降至0.术后在手术室内拔除气管导管即刻的神经系统功能评估正常,无神经系统后遗症.术后恢复顺利,于术后第5天出院.OPCAB术中可能并发脑灌注不足,BIS可用于监测OPCAB术中脑灌注不足的发生.

  7. Application of Brain Electrical Double Spectrum Monitoring Tech-nique in the Monitoring of the Depth of Anesthesia Sedation%脑电双谱指数监护技术在麻醉镇静深度监测中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建刚

    2015-01-01

    脑电双频指数监护技术是监察镇静深度的新方法,对预测体动、术中知晓、意识消失及意识恢复具有一定的灵敏度,自脑电双频指数监护技术出现以来,它已受到医学界工作者的普遍关注。本文从脑电双频指数概述出发,介绍了脑电双频指数的临床应用情况,并阐明了它临床应用的局限性,希望能为临床工作者提高应用依据,保证患者安全地完成治疗。%Bispectral index monitoring technology was a new method of monitoring the depth of sedation, to predict body movement, intraoperative awareness, loss of consciousness and conscious-ness recovery had certain sensitivity, since the bispectral index monitoring technology, it has been widespread concern in the medical community workers. The from the bispectral index overview of clinical application of bispectral index is introduced, and clarifies the limitations of its clinical application, hope can for clinical workers to increase according to the application, ensure patient safety to complete the treatment.

  8. 脑电双频指数用于重度烧伤患者瑞芬太尼复合丙泊酚靶控输注镇静深度的观察%Observation of anesthesia depth in severe burn patients with target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil by bispectral index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭正纲; 郝建华; 贾晓鹏; 祈喆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring the anesthesia depth of severe burn patients with target controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol and remifentanil. Methods A total of 80 severe burns patients undergoing eschar excision (monitoring the anesthetic depth of severe burns patients

  9. Bispectral Operators of Rank $1$ and Dual Isomonodromic Deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, J

    1996-01-01

    A comparison is made between bispectral operator pairs and dual pairs of isomonodromic deformation equations. Through examples, it is shown how operators belonging to rank one bispectral algebras may be viewed equivalently as defining 1-parameter families of rational first order differential operators with matricial coefficients on the Riemann sphere, whose monodromy is trivial. By interchanging the rôles of the two variables entering in the bispectral pair, a second 1-parameter family of operators with trivial monodromy is obtained, which may be viewed as the dual isomonodromic deformation system.

  10. Comparison of bispectral index value induced by etomidate and propofol at same pharmacodynamics index%同等药效学指标下依托咪酯与丙泊酚脑电双频指数值的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新刚; 刘芳; 岳云

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究靶控输注(target controlled infusion,TCI)依托咪酯使50%手术患者意识消失时血浆和效应室靶浓度(EC50)与脑电双频谱指数(bispectral index,BIS).同时比较达到相同的药效学指标(意识消失EC50)时,依托咪酯与丙泊酚的BIS值有无差异.方法 选择年龄18岁~64岁,ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ的患者,不用任何术前药.靶控输注依托咪酯,以血浆靶浓度0.25 mg/L为起点,达到预期血浆靶浓度后每30秒递增0.03 mg/L,直至患者意识消失为止.采用概率单位回归分析方法计算患者意识消失时依托咪酯的血浆靶浓度和效应室靶浓度的EC05、EC50和EC95及其对应的BIS值.将所得BIS值与我们以前报道的丙泊酚意识消失时的BIS值进行比较.结果 择期手术患者TCI依托咪酯意识消失时的血浆靶浓度EC05、EC50和EC95分别是0.46 mg/L、0.59 ms/L、0.71 mg/L;效应室靶浓度的EC05、EC50和EC95分别是0.37 mg/L、0.51 mg/L、0.64 mg/L;5%、50%和95%患者意识消失时BIS分别是56、44、31.达到相同的药效学指标时(意识消失EC50),依托咪酯组的BIS值(44.50±9.96)明显低于丙泊酚组(57.93±11.28)(P<0.01).结论 择期手术患者TCI依托咪酯意识消失时血浆和效应室靶浓度EC50为0.59 mg/L和0.51 mg/L;依托咪酯组意识消失EC50的BIS值明显低于丙泊酚组.%Objective To measure the predicted plasma and effect-site EC50 and bispeetral index(BIS) of etomidate delivered with TCI,and to compare the difference in BIS value induced by etomidate and propofol at same pharmacodynamics index (EC50 of losing consciousness).Methods Forty seven patients scheduled for surgery were anesthetized with etomidate using TCI.TCL started to get a predicted plasma etomidate concentration of 0.25 mg/L,and increased by 0.03 mg/L every 30 s until patients lost their consciousness.A quantal response model(probit analysis) was used to calculate the predict plasma and effect-site EC50,EC50 and EC95 of etomidate,and the

  11. Monitoring drought intensity in Illinois with a combined index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guanling

    Many traditional drought assessments are conducted based on climate and hydrologic data. The availability and precision of data limit the spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy of derived drought indices. In this study, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI) were generated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. The VCI was derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that was calculated with near infrared and visible red band reflectance from MOD09Q1. The TCI was derived from land surface temperature (LST) product MOD11A2. The VCI and TCI were then combined with reference to the vegetation coverage information from MOD44B to generate the modified Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The modified VHI was applied to quantify the intensity of drought that took place in Illinois from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that the modified VHI identified the major droughts that occurred in Illinois from 2000 to 2012, especially the extreme one taking place in 2012. Moreover, the modified VHI led to the spatial distributions and temporal trends of drought severity, which were overall similar to those from the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) maps, but had more detailed spatial variability and much higher spatial resolution. The modified VHI also differentiated the drought impacts between the vegetated and non-vegetated areas, being a lack of the original VHI. Thus, the modified VHI takes advantage of spatially continuous and timely data from satellites and can be applied to conduct the monitoring and detection of drought intensity at local, regional, and national scales. The modified VHI can effectively synthesize the drought information of LST and NDVI to differentiate the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) types and provide the detailed spatial variability of drought intensity and thus enhance the understanding of relationship between drought condition and LULC types.

  12. A comparison of bispectral index and sedation-agitation scale in guiding sedation therapy: a randomized controlled study in patients undergoing short-term mechanical ventilation%脑电双频指数与镇静-躁动评分指导短期机械通气患者镇静治疗的随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栋; 许媛; 何伟; 李彤; 何茵

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较脑电双频指数(BIS)实时监测和镇静-躁动评分(SAS)在重症监护病房(ICU)短期机械通气患者镇静治疗实施过程中的可行性.方法 选择ICU中18~60岁外科手术后需持续机械通气(>12 h)患者105例,按信封法随机分为BIS组(42例)和SAS组(63例),分别依据BIS和SAS评估镇静深度.两组均给予芬太尼镇痛,丙泊酚和咪唑安定联合镇静,每小时根据镇静深度评估调节镇静药物泵入剂量(BIS组目标值为50~70,SAS组目标为3~4级).入ICU后次日晨6时停用镇静及镇痛药物,每小时记录镇静深度(BIS值或SAS分级)、镇静持续时间、觉醒时间、机械通气时间、单位时间内咪唑安定和丙泊酚用量及累计总量,以及吸痰后躁动发生率、镇静期间气管导管耐受率和疼痛耐受率、拔管后谵妄发生率.结果 BIS组单位时间内眯唑安定和丙泊酚用量均高于SAS组[咪唑安定(mg·kg-1·h-1):0.10±0.02比0.09±0.02,丙泊酚(mg·kg-1·h-1):0.95±0.23比0.86±0.20,均P<0.05],总体镇静达标时段(Dt,以1 h为1个时段)以及前3个时段(D1、D2、D3)的镇静达标率均明显高于SAS组[Dt:75.2%(507)比52.8%(421),D1:78.6%(33)比22.2%(14),D2:88.1%(37)比20.6%(13),D3:81.0%(34)比31.7%(20),均P<0.01],觉醒时间(min)明显短于SAS组[0(0,20)比15(0,47),P<0.05];BIS组和SAS组患者急性生理学与慢性健康状况评分系统Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ)评分(分:3.57±2.60比4.19±2.30)、机械通气时间[h:16.5(14.5,19.0)比17.0(15.0,19.0)]、镇静持续时间[h:14.0(12.9,17.1)比16.0(13.0,18.0)]及吸痰后躁动发生率(81.0%比79.4%)、镇静期间气管导管耐受率(71.4%比74.6%)和疼痛耐受率(92.8%比93.6%)、拔管后谵妄发生率(4.8%比1.6%)等差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 与SAS比较,BIS在指导ICU短期机械通气患者的镇静治疗中,对镇静深度调控具有更好的可操作性.%Objective To compare the value of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring and

  13. 脑电双频谱指数和脑电熵指数监测全麻患者镇痛水平的评价%Can bispectral index and entropy be used as mesgures of level of analgesia during general anesthesia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权翔; 叶铁虎; 王俏杰; 郝绒绒

    2008-01-01

    bispectral index(BIS)and entropy as measures of level of analgesia during general anesthesia.Methods After hospital ethics committee approval and written informed consent,26 ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients aged 18-64 yr weighing 50-90 kg undergoing elective abdominal operation under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of 2 groups(n=13 each):experiment group (L)and control group(S).Epidural catheter was phced into epidural space at T9,10 interspace in both groups.Epidural placement was confirmed by a test dose of 1% lidocaine 5 ml and then a mixture of 1% lidocaine + 0.5% ropivaeaine 5-10 ml Was given epidurally in experiment group.The incision was within the sensory block area.While in control group equal volume of normal saline(NS)was given instead of lidocaine and ropivacaine.ECG,BP,HR,SpO2,BIS(Aspect,USA)and entropy[response entropy(RE),state entropy(SE)](Datex-Ohmeda.Finland)Were continuously monitored.General anesthesia was induced with TCI of propofol(initial target plasma concentration 4μg/ml)and TCI of remifentanil(target effect-site concentration 2 ng/ml).The target concentration of propofol was progressively increased until BIS value reached 40-50.Tracheal intubation was facilitated with rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg.After intubation remifentanil infusion was discontinued in experiment group but was continued(target effect site concentration 2 ng/ml)in control group.Skin incision was made about 20 min after tracbeal intubafion.BIS,RE,SE,BP(SP,DP,MAP)and HR were recorded every minute for 3 min before(baseline)until 6 min after skin incision.The surgeons were asked to wait for 2 min after skin incision without doing anything including electrocautery.Results At 1 min after skin incision,BIS,the difference between RE and SE(RE-SE)and BP were significandy increased as compared with the baseline in control group;while in experiment group there was no significant change in BIS,RE-SE and BP.When electrocantery was employed BIS,RE and RE-SE were significantly increased as

  14. 脑电双频指数监测与靶控输注丙泊酚联合小剂量舒芬太尼在无痛胃肠镜检查麻醉中的应用%Study on the application of target-controlled infusion of propofol combined with small-dosage sufentanil guided by bispectral index in ;painless gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海军; 柯敬东; 刘英; 刘缚鲲; 田鸣

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨运用脑电双频指数( BIS)监测,获取靶控输注( TCI)丙泊酚复合小剂量舒芬太尼对无痛胃肠镜检查麻醉深度的指导意义。方法将300例接受无痛胃肠镜患者随机分为三组:BIS监测TCI丙泊酚复合小剂量舒芬太尼组(A组,n=100)、BIS监测TCI丙泊酚组(B组,n=100)、单纯TCI丙泊酚组(C组,n=100)。根据血流动力学及BIS值调整丙泊酚的靶浓度。观察血压、心率、呼吸的变化,记录手术时间、术中体动次数、苏醒时间、镇静评分、定向力恢复及其术后的不良反应。结果300例患者麻醉效果满意,术后均恢复良好,其中丙泊酚用量、苏醒时间和定向率恢复时间C组﹥B组﹥A组,A组术中呼吸抑制以及体动发生率以及明显低于C组( P ﹤0.01或P ﹤0.05)。三组术中呛咳发生率无显著差异,三组患者均未见术中知晓。结论 BIS监测TCI丙泊酚复合小剂量舒芬太尼用于无痛胃肠镜检查能减少丙泊酚用量,且可以达到合理的麻醉深度,保证术后麻醉快速苏醒。%Objective To explore the efficacy of bispectral index( BIS)monitoring on the depth of anesthesia in patients undergoing painless gastrointestinal endoscopy with target-controlled infusion( TCI)of propofol combined with small-dosage of sufentanil. Methods A to-tal of 300 patients performed with painless gastrointestinal endoscopy were randomly divided into 3 groups:group A( TCI of propofol combined with small-dosage of sufentanil guided by BIS ),group B( TCI of propofol guided by BIS)and group C( TCI of propofol). The target concentration was adjusted according to BIS monitoring numerical value and hemodynamic variables. Blood pressure,heart rate( HR),respiratory rate( RR), operating time,body involuntary movement during operation,postoperative waking time,sedation scores,recovery time of orientation and postoper-ative complications were analyzed. Results All patients

  15. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  16. Effect of propofol combined with remifentanil infusion on bispectral index in patients with essential hypertension%丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼靶控输注对高血压患者脑电双频指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉军

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of propofol compound fentanyl target controlled infusion on bispectral index (BIS) in hypertension patients.Methods: Selected 105 hypertension patients with propofol compound fentanyl target controlled infusion anesthesia from January 2015 to March 2016 in our hospital, divided the patients into three groups according to the fentanyl concentration of target controlled infusion, concentration of 2.0 ng/mL for group I, 3.0 ng/mL for group II, and 4.0 ng/mL for group III, and target concentrations of propofol in three groups were all 4 μg/mL, each group of 35 patients. Compared the mean arterial pressure, heart rate at each time point and the change of the electrical double frequency index in the home 5 min (T0), before intubation (T1), 1 min atfer intubation (T2), 3 min atfer intubation (T3) and 5 min atfer intubation (T4) among three groups of patients, and compared their waking time.Results: hTe mean arterial pressure and heart rate of T2, T3 time point in group I were signiifcantly higher than that of T1 time points; in group II, mean arterial pressure and heart rate of T2 time were signiifcantly higher than that of T1 time points, the differences were statistically signiifcant (P<0.05); at T2, T3, and T4 point, the brain electrical double-frequency index in group III was obviously lower than that of group I and II, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05); waking time in group III was obviously longer than that of group I, II, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion: Using propofol compound fentanyl target controlled infusion to anesthetize hypertension patients, the bispectral index will decrease with the concentration of fentanyl, reduce intubation stress reaction, and maintain stable hemodynamics.%目的:研究丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼靶控输注对高血压患者脑电双频指数的影响。方法:选择2015年1月至2016年3月在我院行丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼靶控

  17. Monitoring Rangeland Health With MODIS Vegetation Index Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Rangelands cover approximately one third of the land area of the conterminous U.S. These lands supply much of the forage for the U.S. cattle industry. Large area monitoring of these vast expanses of range has proved challenging since most of these lands are in the western U.S., are relatively sparsely populated, and are not well covered by meteorological weather stations. Improvements in the spatial and temporal precision of rangeland health information would be useful both for the cattle industry and for scientific studies of soil erosion, water runoff, ecosystem health, and carbon cycling. Optical multispectral remote sensing data from satellites are an objective source of synoptic, timely information for monitoring rangeland health. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a method for measuring and monitoring rangeland health over large areas. In the past, data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer has proved useful for this purpose, however the basic 1 km spatial resolution is not ideal when scaling up from ground observations. This study assesses MODIS 250 meter resolution vegetation index data for this purpose. MODIS data not only have finer spatial resolution and improved geolocation, but they also exhibit enhanced vegetation sensitivity and minimized variations associated with external atmospheric and non-atmospheric effects. Ground data collected over 51 sites in western South Dakota over four years are used as training for regression tree models of range health. Range health maps for the growing season derived from the models are presented and evaluated.

  18. 脑电双频指数调控下的七氟烷吸入麻醉在小儿腹腔镜手术中的应用%The application of bispectral index control in sevoflurane anesthesia for pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕林; 牟崇明; 卓庆亮; 刘江洪; 刘才堂

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility of application of bispertral index ( BIS ) control in sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatrir laparosropir surgery. Methods Laparoscopic hernia repair had been performed in 80 children, they were equally divided into experimental group ( group Ⅰ ) and control group ( group Ⅱ ). Patients in group Ⅰ maintained BIS value at 40 - 60 through the regulation of end - tidal sevoflurane concentration ( Etsevo ) , and patients in group II were maintained with control Etsevo according to fluctuation of basic value ± 20% of blood pressure and heart rate. Hemodynamic changes, BIS value, Etsevo, extubation time and off - room time were recorded in patients of these two groups. Results The mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) and BIS value during anesthesia in group Ⅰ were higher than those of group Ⅱ ( P < 0. 05 ) , but Etsevo was lower than that of group Ⅱ ( P < 0. 05 ) in maintaining anesthesia. Extubation time and off - room time in group Ⅰ were less than those of group Ⅱ ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The application of bispectral index control in sevoflurane anesthesia for pediatrir laparoscopic surgery can reduce the dosage of sevoflurane and keep steady hemodynamics in children and improve the safety of anesthesia, so its application in laparoscopic surgery for children is safe and feasible.%目的 探讨脑电双频指数(BIS)调控下七氟烷吸入麻醉在小儿腹腔镜手术中的应用.方法 择期行腹腔镜手术的患儿80例,随机分为试验组(I组)和对照组(II组),每组40例.I组通过调控七氟烷呼气末浓度(Etsevo)维持BIS值在40~60,II组维持血压和心率在基础值的±20% 波动调控Etsevo,并监测BIS值.记录两组血流动力学变化、BIS值、ETsevo、拔管时间和离室时间.结果 I组麻醉过程中平均动脉压(MAP)和BIS值均高于II组(P<0.05);麻醉维持期I组ETsevo低于II组(P<0.05);I组拔管时间和离室时间都明显少于II组(P均<0.05).结论 BIS调控七氟烷

  19. Some Noncommutative Matrix Algebras Arising in the Bispectral Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünbaum, F. Alberto

    2014-07-01

    I revisit the so called ''bispectral problem'' introduced in a joint paper with Hans Duistermaat a long time ago, allowing now for the differential operators to have matrix coefficients and for the eigenfunctions, and one of the eigenvalues, to be matrix valued too. In the last example we go beyond this and allow both eigenvalues to be matrix valued.

  20. ATLAS EventIndex monitoring system using the Kibana analytics and visualization platform

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Favareto, Andrea; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Gallas, Elizabeth; Garcia Montoro, Carlos; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Hrivnac, Julius; Malon, David; Prokoshin, Fedor; Salt, Jose; Sanchez, Javier; Toebbicke, Rainer; Yuan, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex is a data catalogue system that stores event-related metadata for all (real and simulated) ATLAS events, on all processing stages. As it consists of different components that depend on other applications (such as distributed storage, and different sources of information) we need to monitor the conditions of many heterogeneous subsystems, to make sure everything is working correctly. This paper describes how we gather information about the EventIndex components and related subsystems: the Producer-Consumer architecture for data collection, health parameters from the servers that run EventIndex components, EventIndex web interface status, and the Hadoop infrastructure that stores EventIndex data. This information is collected, processed, and then displayed using CERN service monitoring software based on the Kibana analytic and visualization package, provided by CERN IT Department. EventIndex monitoring is used both by the EventIndex team and ATLAS Distributed Computing shifts crew

  1. ATLAS EventIndex monitoring system using Kibana analytics and visualization platform

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Prokoshin, Fedor; Gallas, Elizabeth; Favareto, Andrea; Hrivnac, Julius; Sanchez, Javier; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Garcia Montoro, Carlos; Salt, Jose; Malon, David; Toebbicke, Rainer; Yuan, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex is a data catalogue system that stores event-related metadata for all (real and simulated) ATLAS events, on all processing stages. As it consists of different components that depend on other applications (such as distributed storage, and different sources of information) we need to monitor the conditions of many heterogeneous subsystems, to make sure everything is working correctly. This information is collected, processed, and then displayed using CERN service monitoring software based on the Kibana analytic and visualization package, provided by CERN IT Department. EventIndex monitoring is used both by the EventIndex team and ATLAS Distributed Computing shifts crew.

  2. Prediction of Bispectral index on state of consciousness of patients with colon cancer of different ages during Midazolam target controlled infusion%咪达唑仑靶控输注期间BIS对不同年龄结肠癌患者意识状态的预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏双江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the prediction of bispectral index (BIS) and the influence of age on the state of consciousness of patients with colon cancer during Midazolam target controlled infusion (TCI). Methods Clinical data of 40 patients receiving colon cancer surgery under epidural anesthesia in our hospital from February 2004 to February 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. These patients were divided into the young group (40-64 years old, group A) and the elder group (65-85 years old, group B) by age, with 20 patients in each group. TCI was implemented stage by stage based on the target concentration (Ce) of Midazolam effect-site and the state of consciousness was evaluated using the observer's assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) scale. The BIS values and hemodynamic parameters immediately prior to each scoring were recorded. The probability of BIS in predicting sedative depth was analyzed and used to evaluate the predictability of BIS on the sate of consciousness. Results With the increase of Midazolam Ce, BIS of the two groups of patients decreased gradually with the same changing trend. When patients lost consciousness, the BIS was (61.6±7.9) for group A and (72.9± 5.9) for group B, and the Ce was (69.8±8.9)μg/L for group A and (53.3±9.4) μg/L for group B. At the same sedation score (OAA/S4-1), the BIS of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (P 0.05); during TCI, the heart rate and pulse oximetry saturation had no significant changes. Compared to the basic values, when OAA/S score dropped below 2, the blood pressure decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion During midazolam TCI, BIS can predict the changes of state of consciousness equally for young patients and elder patients.%目的 探讨咪达唑仑靶控输注(TCI)期间脑电双频谱指数(BIS)对结肠癌患者意识状态变化的预测及不同年龄对其的影响.方法 回顾性分析我院2004年2月~2010年2月收治入院的采用硬膜外麻醉下行结肠癌手术患者40

  3. Efeitos de diferentes frações inspiradas de oxigênio no índice biespectral em cães submetidos à infusão contínua de propofol Effects of several inspired oxygen fractions on the bispectral index in dogs submitted to continuous infusion of propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.F. Lopes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento de diferentes frações inspiradas de oxigênio (FiO2 sobre o índice biespectral (BIS em cães submetidos a infusão contínua de propofol e mantidos em ventilação espontânea. Oito cães foram submetidos a cinco anestesias, diferenciando-se uma da outra pela FiO2 fornecida. Formaram-se cinco grupos denominados G100 (FiO2 = 1; G80 (FiO2 = 0,8; G60 (FiO2 = 0,6; G40 (FiO2 = 0,4 e G20 (FiO2 = 0,21. Os animais foram induzidos à anestesia com propofol na dose necessária para intubação, e, ato contínuo, iniciaram-se a infusão do fármaco e o fornecimento de oxigênio, conforme a FiO2 determinada para cada grupo. As primeiras mensurações (M0 foram efetuadas 30 minutos após o início da infusão do anestésico e, depois, em intervalos de 15 minutos (M15, M30, M45 e M60. A pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial (PaO2 variou conforme a FiO2, ou seja, quanto maior a FiO2, maior foi a PaO2. Para a pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono no sangue arterial (PaCO2, foram registradas diferenças em M30, no qual G100 foi maior que G20. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis estudadas do BIS. Os intervalos de médias registrados para o BIS foram, para G100, de 68 a 62; G80, de 71 a 58; G60, de 72 a 62; G40, de 76 a 68; e G20, de 77 a 68. Conclui-se que as variáveis relacionadas ao BIS não são afetadas pelo emprego de diferentes FiO2, e sugere-se que o monitoramento pelo BIS foi capaz de detectar alterações no equilíbrio do fluxo sangüíneo cerebral, oriundas das alterações ocasionadas na dinâmica respiratória pelo emprego de diferentes frações inspiradas de oxigênio.The effects of several inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 on the bispectral index in spontaneously breathing dogs submitted to continuous infusion of propofol were evaluated. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used. Each animal was submitted to five anesthesias. In each procedure, the patient was allowed to

  4. Ação do anticonvulsivante isolado e associado ao midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica sobre o índice bispectral (BIS em pacientes com paralisa cerebral Acción del antiepiléptico aislado y asociado al midazolam como medicación preanestésica sobre el índice bispectral (BIS en pacientes con parálisis cerebral Effect of isolated anticonvulsant drug use and associated to midazolam as pre-anesthetic medication on the bispectral index (BIS in patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Vieira da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com paralisia cerebral (PC frequentemente usam fármacos para tratamento de doenças concomitantes, como convulsões. O midazolam é o hipnótico mais utilizado como medicação pré-anestésica e suas interações medicamentosas nos pacientes com PC são desconhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica no BIS dos pacientes com PC em uso crônico de anticonvulsivantes. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados três grupos de pacientes: PC sem uso de anticonvulsivantes, PC em uso de anticonvulsivante e outro grupo sem doença e sem uso de medicações (Grupo Controle. Na véspera da cirurgia, com os pacientes despertos e em decúbito dorsal, foi colocado o monitor do BIS e foram registrados os valores basais do BIS. No dia seguinte, 40 minutos antes da cirurgia, os pacientes receberam 0,6 mg.kg-1 de midazolam por via oral. Antes do início da anestesia, foi realizado o mesmo procedimento para registro do BIS, após o uso do midazolam. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 107 pacientes - 39 pacientes do Grupo Controle e 68 com diagnóstico de PC. Desses, 17 faziam uso de anticonvulsivante. Com relação ao valor médio de BIS após o uso do midazolam, não houve diferença entres os pacientes do Grupo Controle e do Grupo PC que não tomavam anticonvulsivante, enquanto entre os pacientes que faziam uso de anticonvulsivantes houve diferença (p = 0,003. A possibilidade de diminuição do BIS após o uso do midazolam aumenta de acordo com o número de anticonvulsivantes usados pelo paciente. CONCLUSÕES: O uso crônico de anticonvulsivante associado ao midazolam via oral como medicação pré-anestésica pode levar à diminuição dos valores de BIS, configurando níveis profundos de hipnose.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los pacientes con parálisis cerebral (PC, a menudo usan fármacos para el tratamiento de enfermedades concomitantes, como las convulsiones. El midazolam es el hipnótico m

  5. Influência da dexmedetomidina na concentração expirada do sevoflurano: avaliação pelo índice bispectral, taxa de supressão e análise espectral da potência do eletroencefalograma Influencia de la dexmedetomidina en la concentración expirada del sevoflurano: evaluación por el índice bispectral, tasa de supresión y análisis espectral de la potencia del eletroencefalograma Influence of dexmedetomidine upon sevoflurane end-expiratory concentration: evaluation by bispectral index, suppression rate and electroencephalographic power spectral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogean Rodrigues Nunes

    2002-04-01

    del sexo femenino, estado físico ASA I, sometidas a laparoscopia ginecológica bajo anestesia general mantenida con sevoflurano, divididas aleatoriamente en dos grupos: Grupo I (20: sin dexmedetomidina, y Grupo II (20: con dexmedetomidina en infusión continua en el siguiente esquema: Fase rápida (1 µg.kg-1 en 10 minutos, 10 minutos antes de la inducción de la anestesia, seguida por un periodo de manutención (0,4 µg.kg-1.h-1 hasta el final de la cirugía. Fueron analizados los siguientes parámetros: PA, FC, BIS, SEF 95%, amplitud relativa en la frecuencia de banda delta (delta%, tasa de supresión (TS, rSO2, CE, SpO2 yP ET CO2, en los siguientes momentos: M1 - antes de la infusión de la dexmedetomidina o solución fisiológica a 0,9%, M2: antes de la intubación traqueal (IT, M3: después a IT, M4: antes de la incisión, M5: después de la incisión, M6: antes de la insuflación de CO2, M7: después de la insuflación de CO2, M8: 10 minutos después de la insuflación de CO2, M9: 10 min. después M8, M10: 20 min después M8, M11: 30 min después M8, M12: 40 min después M8 y M13: al despertar. Anotamos también el tiempo de despertar y de alta hospitalar. RESULTADOS: La dexmedetomidina redució la concentración expirada de sevoflurano de M4 hasta M13 (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dexmedetomidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, has been described as being able to decrease the demand for both venous and inhalational agents. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of Dexmedetomidine upon sevoflurane end-expiratory concentration (EC with monitoring the depth of anesthesia. METHODS: Participated in this study 40 female adult patients, physical status ASA I, submitted to gynecological laparoscopy under general anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane, who were randomly divided in two groups: Group I (n=20, without dexmedetomidine; and Group II (n=20, with dexmedetomidine, in continuous infusion, as follows: Rapid phase (1 µg.kg-1 in 10 min-1 10 minutes before

  6. Bi-spectral extraction through elliptic neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Henrik, E-mail: hjacobse@fys.ku.dk [Nanoscience center and eScience center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); ESS design update program (Denmark); Lieutenant, Klaus; Zendler, Carolin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); ESS design update program (Germany); Lefmann, Kim [Nanoscience center and eScience center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); ESS design update program (Denmark)

    2013-07-21

    In this paper we present the results of investigating a suggested guide extraction system utilizing both a thermal and a cold moderator at the same time, the so-called bi-spectral extraction. Here, the thermal moderator has line of sight to the sample position, and the neutrons from the cold source are reflected by a supermirror towards the sample. The work is motivated by the construction of the European Spallation Source (ESS) but the results are general and can be used at any neutron source. Due to the long pulse structure, most instruments at ESS will be long, often exceeding 50 m from moderator to detector. We therefore investigate the performance of bi-spectral extraction for instrument lengths of 30 m, 56 m, 81 m and 156 m. In all these cases, our results show that we can utilize both moderators (and thus high intensity in a wide wavelength band) in the same instrument at a cost of flux of 5–30% for neutrons with wavelength larger than 1 Å. In general, the divergence distribution is smooth at the sample position for all wavelengths. -- Highlights: • We simulate bi-spectral neutron beam extraction through elliptic guides. • Two independent ray-tracing tools (McStas and VITESS) give similar results. • Brilliance transfers of 70–95% for λ>1Å are achieved for guide lengths of 30–156 m. • The beam profile is smooth at the sample position. • The simulations are performed with ESS in mind, but have general validity.

  7. ATLAS EventIndex General Dataflow and Monitoring Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex has been running in production since mid-2015, reliably collecting information worldwide about all produced events and storing them in a central Hadoop infrastructure at CERN. A subset of this information is copied to an Oracle relational database for fast access. The system design and its optimization is serving event picking from requests of a few events up to scales of tens of thousand of events, and in addition, data consistency checks are performed for large production campaigns. Detecting duplicate events with a scope of physics collections has recently arisen as an important use case. This paper describes the general architecture of the project and the data flow and operation issues, which are addressed by recent developments to improve the throughput of the overall system. In this direction, the data collection system is reducing the usage of the messaging infrastructure to overcome the performance shortcomings detected during production peaks; an object storage approach is instea...

  8. ATLAS EventIndex General Dataflow and Monitoring Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex has been running in production since mid-2015, reliably collecting information worldwide about all produced events and storing them in a central Hadoop infrastructure at CERN. A subset of this information is copied to an Oracle relational database for fast datasets discovery, event-picking, crosschecks with other ATLAS systems and checks for event duplication. The system design and its optimization is serving event picking from requests of a few events up to scales of tens of thousand of events, and in addition, data consistency checks are performed for large production campaigns. Detecting duplicate events with a scope of physics collections has recently arisen as an important use case. This paper describes the general architecture of the project and the data flow and operation issues, which are addressed by recent developments to improve the throughput of the overall system. In this direction, the data collection system is reducing the usage of the messaging infrastructure to overcome t...

  9. ATLAS EventIndex general dataflow and monitoring infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex has been running in production since mid-2015, reliably collecting information worldwide about all produced events and storing them in a central Hadoop infrastructure at CERN. A subset of this information is copied to an Oracle relational database for fast dataset discovery, event-picking, crosschecks with other ATLAS systems and checks for event duplication. The system design and its optimization is serving event picking from requests of a few events up to scales of tens of thousand of events, and in addition, data consistency checks are performed for large production campaigns. Detecting duplicate events with a scope of physics collections has recently arisen as an important use case. This paper describes the general architecture of the project and the data flow and operation issues, which are addressed by recent developments to improve the throughput of the overall system. In this direction, the data collection system is reducing the usage of the messaging infrastructure to overcome th...

  10. Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the living planet index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Ben; Loh, Jonathan; Whitmee, Sarah; McRae, Louise; Amin, Rajan; Baillie, Jonathan E M

    2009-04-01

    The task of measuring the decline of global biodiversity and instituting changes to halt and reverse this downturn has been taken up in response to the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 target. It is an undertaking made more difficult by the complex nature of biodiversity and the consequent difficulty in accurately gauging its depletion. In the Living Planet Index, aggregated population trends among vertebrate species indicate the rate of change in the status of biodiversity, and this index can be used to address the question of whether or not the 2010 target has been achieved. We investigated the use of generalized additive models in aggregating large quantities of population trend data, evaluated potential bias that results from collation of existing trends, and explored the feasibility of disaggregating the data (e.g., geographically, taxonomically, regionally, and by thematic area). Our results show strengths in length and completeness of data, little evidence of bias toward threatened species, and the possibility of disaggregation into meaningful subsets. Limitations of the data set are still apparent, in particular the dominance of bird data and gaps in tropical-species population coverage. Population-trend data complement the longer-term, but more coarse-grained, perspectives gained by evaluating species-level extinction rates. To measure progress toward the 2010 target, indicators must be adapted and strategically supplemented with existing data to generate meaningful indicators in time. Beyond 2010, it is critical a strategy be set out for the future development of indicators that will deal with existing data gaps and that is intricately tied to the goals of future biodiversity targets.

  11. Multiple Optimal Solutions and Sag Occurrence Index Based Placement of Voltage Sag Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents optimal placement of voltage sag monitors based on new Sag Occurrence Index (SOI which ensures observability even in case of monitor failure or line outages. Multiple solutions for optimal placement of voltage sag monitors for voltage sag detection have been obtained by genetic algorithm approach such that observability of the whole system is guaranteed. A new Sag Occurrence Index (SOI is proposed to obtain the severity of voltage sag at all the buses in the system. To obtain the best monitor arrangement in the system, the sum of SOI for each optimal combination is determined. IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (RTS and IEEE 57-bus system were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The details of implementation and simulation results are also presented.

  12. An Index (PC) Aimed at Monitoring the (P)olar (C)ap for Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PC is an index for magnetic activity in the (P)olar (C)ap. It is based on data from a single nearpole station, and aimed to monitor the polar cap magnetic activity...

  13. Behavioral measures and EEG monitoring using the Brain Symmetry Index during the Wada test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Jurriaan M.; Tomas-Fernandez, Meritxell; Putten, van Michel J.A.M.; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    EEG monitoring is used routinely during the Wada test in children. We quantified EEG asymmetry using the Brain Symmetry Index (BSI) to reduce subjectivity of EEG interpretation. Clinical and procedural variables were obtained and EEG data were retrieved from 46 patients with a total of 89 injections

  14. Monitoring of plethysmography variability index and total hemoglobin levels during cesarean sections with antepartum hemorrhage for early detection of bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsakka

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Plethysmography variability index and non invasive hemoglobin monitoring as well can be used for optimization of intravascular volume status during cesarean sections in parturients with antepartum hemorrhage.

  15. Evaluation of bispectral LIDAR data for urban vegetation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabucet, Jean; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Corpetti, Thomas; Launeau, Patrick; Lague, Dimitri; Michon, Cyril; Quenol, Herve

    2016-10-01

    Because of the large increase of urban population in the last decades, the question of sustainable development in urban areas is crucial. In this context, vegetation plays a significant role in urban planning, environmental protecting, and sustainable development policy making, heating and cooling requirements of buildings, displacement of animals dispersion, concentration of pollutants, and well-being. In numerous cities, vegetation is limited to public areas using GPS surveys or aerial remote sensing data. Recently, very high-resolution sensors as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data have permitted significant improvements in vegetation mapping in urban areas. This paper presents an evaluation of a new generation of airborne LIDAR bi-spectral discrete point (Optech titan) for mapping and characterizing urban vegetation. The methodology is based on a four-step approach: 1) the analysis of the quality of data in order to estimate noise between the green and near-infrared LIDAR point clouds; 2) this enables to remove the topographic effects and 3) a first classification, devoted to the elimination of the non-vegetation class, is performed based on the intensity value of the two channels; finally, in 4), the tree coverage is classified into seven categories of strata combination. To this end specific descriptors related to the organization of the point clouds are used. These first results show that compared to monospectral LiDAR data, bi-spectral LiDAR enables to improve significantly both the extraction and the characterization of urban objects. This reveals new perspectives for mapping and characterizing urban patterns and other complex structures.

  16. [MTCARI: A kind of vegetation index monitoring vegetation leaf chlorophyll content based on hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-ye; Dong, Heng; Qin, Qi-ming; Wang, Jin-liang; Zhao, Jiang-hua

    2012-08-01

    The chlorophyll content of plant has relative correlation with photosynthetic capacity and growth levels of plant. It affects the plant canopy spectra, so the authors can use hyperspectral remote sensing to monitor chlorophyll content. By analyzing existing mature vegetation index model, the present research pointed out that the TCARI model has deficiencies, and then tried to improve the model. Then using the PROSPECT+SAIL model to simulate the canopy spectral under different levels of chlorophyll content and leaf area index (LAI), the related constant factor has been calculated. The research finally got modified transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MTCARI). And then this research used optimized soil background adjust index (OSAVI) to improve the model. Using the measured data for test and verification, the model has good reliability.

  17. Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions by refractive-index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Popov, A. P.; Bykov, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring of temperature-mediated adipose tissue phase transitions were studied in vitro using an Abbe refractometer. The 1-2-mm thick porcine fat tissues slices were used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue was associated with several phase transitions of lipid components of the adipose tissue. It was found that overall heating of a sample from the room to higher temperature led to more pronounced and tissue changes in refractive index if other experimental conditions were kept constant. We observed an abrupt change in the refractive index in the temperature range of 37-60 °C.

  18. Planning and Monitoring of Urban Development: The Role of the Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Deutsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the real estate market in Slovenia and selected Slovenian city municipalities is analyzed with the goal of establishing whether or not it is possible to use the Housing Price Index as an indicator of urban development. The analysis shows that the real estate market in the Slovenian city municipalities has in recent decades been subject to a number of changes with a long-term effect. The analysis further proves that under certain conditions the Housing Price Index can serve as one of the indicators policy makers could use in planning and monitoring of urban development.

  19. Monitoring Crop Yield in USA Using a Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce; Tan, Bin; Barlow, Mathew; Myneni, Ranga

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in continental USA. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1-km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The growing-season integrated CVII can provide an estimate of the fractional change in overall growth during a given year. In turn these estimates can provide fine-scale and aggregated information on yield for various crops. Trained from historical records of crop production, a statistical model is used to produce crop yield during the growing season based upon the strong positive relationship between crop yield and the CVII. By examining the model prediction as a function of time, it is possible to determine when the in-season predictive capability plateaus and which months provide the greatest predictive capacity.

  20. ارزیابی سطح ارامبخشی در بیماران بحرانی و بدحال تحت تنفس مکانیکال: ایا بین دو روش bispectral index و Richmond agitation –sedation scale ارتباطی وجود دارد؟ Assessment of sedation level in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients: Is bispectral index correlated with Richmond agitation–sedation scale?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hashemi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ارزیابی سطح ارامبخشی در بیماران بحرانی و بدحال تحت تنفس مکانیکال: ایا بین دو روش bispectral index و Richmond agitation –sedation scale ارتباطی وجود دارد؟ *دكتر حسنعلي سلطاني، **دكتر سيد جلال هاشمي، ***دكتر ریحانک طلاکوب،    #دكتر بهرام سليماني،##خدیجه زراعتکاری، ###سمیره شاهین مقدمه: متخصصين ICU بایستی از ارامبخشی بيش از حد يا كمتر از نياز در بیماران بحرانی و بدحال پرهيز

  1. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  2. Monitoring of high refractive index edible oils using coated long period fiber grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luís.; Viegas, Diana; Santos, José Luís.; de Almeida, Jose Manuel M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the quality of high refractive index edible oils is of great importance for the human health. Uncooked edible oils in general are healthy foodstuff, olive oil in particular, however, they are frequently used for baking and cooking. High quality edible oils are made from seeds, nuts or fruits by mechanical processes. Nevertheless, once the mechanical extraction is complete, up to 15% of the oil remains in oil pomace and in the mill wastewater, which can be extracted using organic solvents, often hexane. Optical fiber sensors based on long period fiber gratings (LPFG) have very low wavelength sensitivity when the surround refractive index is higher than the refractive index of the cladding. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated LPFG could lead to the realization of high sensitivity chemical sensor for the food industry. In this work LPFG coated with a TiO2 thin film were successfully used for to detect small levels of hexane diluted in edible oils and for real time monitoring the thermal deterioration of edible oils. For a TiO2 coating of 30 nm a wavelength sensitivity of 1361.7 nm/RIU (or 0.97 nm / % V/V) in the 1.4610-1.4670 refractive index range was achieved, corresponding to 0 to 12 % V/V of hexane in olive oil. A sensitivity higher than 638 nm/RIU at 225 ºC was calculated, in the 1.4670-1.4735 refractive index range with a detection limit of thermal deterioration of about 1 minute.

  3. 脑电双频指数指导下调节七氟烷体积分数对患儿眼心反射抑制的影响%Effect of bispectral index-guided sevoflurane concentration change on oculocardiac reflex in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠; 刘凤梅; 周峰; 米志华; 黄鹤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether bispectrial index (BlS)-guided sevoflurane concentration change can effectively suppress the oculocardiac reflex in pediatric patients receiving strabotomy. Methods Totally 52 congenital esotropia children were randomly divided into group A and B (each n = 26). All children were anesthetized with sevoflurane inhalation. The BIS was maintained at about 40 in group A and about 60 in group B. The following indicators, including pulse oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2). Blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram and end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide (petCO2), were monitored during the operation. The incidences of oculocardiac reflex and related sevoflurane concentration were recorded. Results All the other physical data were within normal range except for the heart rate. The incidence of oculocardiac reflex was 11.6% (3/26) in group A, which was significantly lower than that in group B (34. 9% [9/26], P<0.05). The mean sevoflurane concentration was 0. 021 ± 0. 003 in group A, which was significantly higher than that in group B (0.015±0.005, P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with the adjusted seveflurane concentration guided by BIS = 60±2, that guided by BIS = 40± 1 can reduce the incidence of oculocardiac reflex in congenital crosseye children receiving strabotomy. (Shanghai Med J, 2011, 34: 601-603)%目的 探讨脑电双频指数(BIS)指导下调节七氟烷体积分数能否有效抑制行斜视手术时患儿的眼心反射.方法 52例行手术治疗的先天性斜视患儿被随机分为A、B两组,分别维持BIS值为40(A组)和60(B组)左右,两组均采用吸入七氟烷行全身麻醉,术中监测脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO2)、血压(BP)、心电图(ECG)、呼吸末二氧化碳分压(pet CO2),记录眼心反射的发生率及呼气末七氟烷体积分数.结果 A组的眼心反射发生率为11.6%(3/26),显著低于B组的34.9%(9/26,P<0.05).A组的呼气末七氟烷体积分数为0.021±0.003,显著高于B组的0

  4. SeaDataNet network services monitoring: Definition and Implementation of Service availability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykiardopoulos, Angelos; Mpalopoulou, Stavroula; Vavilis, Panagiotis; Pantazi, Maria; Iona, Sissy

    2014-05-01

    SeaDataNet (SDN) is a standardized system for managing large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the automatic observation systems. The SeaDataNet network is constituted of national oceanographic data centres of 35 countries, active in data collection. SeaDataNetII project's objective is to upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art infrastructure; therefore Network Monitoring is a step to this direction. The term Network Monitoring describes the use of system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing components and that notifies the network administrator in case of outages. Network monitoring is crucial when implementing widely distributed systems over the Internet and in real-time systems as it detects malfunctions that may occur and notifies the system administrator who can immediately respond and correct the problem. In the framework of SeaDataNet II project a monitoring system was developed in order to monitor the SeaDataNet components. The core system is based on Nagios software. Some plug-ins were developed to support SeaDataNet modules. On the top of Nagios Engine a web portal was developed in order to give access to local administrators of SeaDataNet components, to view detailed logs of their own service(s). Currently the system monitors 35 SeaDataNet Download Managers, 9 SeaDataNet Services, 25 GeoSeas Download Managers and 23 UBSS Download Managers . Taking advantage of the continuous monitoring of SeaDataNet system components a total availability index will be implemented. The term availability can be defined as the ability of a functional unit to be in a state to perform a required function under given conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external resources are provided. Availability measures can be considered as a are very important benefit becauseT - The availability trends that can be

  5. Dynamic Drought Monitoring in Guangxi Using Revised Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yuan; TAG Heping; WU Hua

    2007-01-01

    Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are very suitable for vast extent, long term and dynamic drought monitoring for its high temporal resolution, high spectral resolution and moderate spatial resolution. The composite Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and composite land surface temperature (Ts) obtained from MODIS data MOD11A2 and MOD13A2 were used to construct the EVI-rs space. And Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) was calculated to evaluate the agriculture drought in Guangxi province, China in October of 2006. The results showed that the drought area in Guangxi was evidently increasing and continuously deteriorating from the middle of September to the middle of November. The TVDI, coming from the EVI-rs space, could effectively indicate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of drought, so that it could provide a strong technical support for the forecasting agricultural drought in south China.

  6. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  7. Litterfall and Leaf Area Index in the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea CUTINI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopies are more sensitive and react more promptly to abiotic and biotic disturbances than other stand structural components. Monitoring crown and canopy characteristics is therefore a crucial issue for intensive and continuous monitoring programs of forest ecosystem status. These observations formed the basis for the measurement of annual litter production and leaf area index (LAI in the Italian permanent monitoring plots (CONECOFOR program established within the EC-UN/ECE program "Intensive Monitoring (Level II of Forest Ecosystems". Preliminary results after three years of observation are presented. The low value of within plot mean relative standard deviation (20.8 ± 1.9% of litter production, which in any case never exceeded 30%, accounted for the good sampling error and accuracy of the chosen method, which seems to be accurate enough to detect changes in litter production through the years. The higher inconsistency of the amount of woody and fruits fractions over the years demonstrated the greater reliability of leaf fraction or, on the other hand, of LAI compared to total litter. Mean values of annual leaf-litter and total litter production and LAI were rather high in comparison with data reported in literature for similar stands, and reflected both a medium-high productivity and a juvenile phase in the development of the selected stands on average. Focusing on changes in litter production through the years, statistical analysis on a sub-sample of plots showed the existence of significant differences both in leaf litter and total litter production. These findings seem to attribute to the "year" factor a driving role in determining changes in litter production and LAI. Temporal intermittence in data collection, together with the shortness of the monitoring period, make it difficult to speculate or arrive at definitive conclusions on changes in litter production due to time-dependent factors. The importance of having a complete

  8. Recurrence Relations of the Multi-Indexed Orthogonal Polynomials : III

    CERN Document Server

    Odake, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper, we presented conjectures of the recurrence relations with constant coefficients for the multi-indexed orthogonal polynomials of Laguerre, Jacobi, Wilson and Askey-Wilson types. In this paper we present a proof for the Laguerre and Jacobi cases. Their bispectral properties are also discussed, which give a method to obtain the coefficients of the recurrence relations explicitly.

  9. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  10. Evaluating an Enhanced Vegetation Condition Index (VCI Based on VIUPD for Drought Monitoring in the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Jiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex hazard, and it has an impact on agricultural, ecological, and socio-economic systems. The vegetation condition index (VCI, which is derived from remote-sensing data, has been widely used for drought monitoring. However, VCI based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI does not perform well in certain circumstances. In this study, we examined the utility of the vegetation index based on the universal pattern decomposition method (VIUPD based VCI for drought monitoring in various climate divisions across the continental United States (CONUS. We compared the VIUPD-derived VCI with the NDVI-derived VCI in various climate divisions and during different sub-periods of the growing season. It was also compared with other remote-sensing-based drought indices, such as the temperature condition index (TCI, precipitation condition index (PCI and the soil moisture condition index (SMCI. The VIUPD-derived VCI had stronger correlations with long-term in situ drought indices, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and the standardized precipitation index (SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-9, and SPI-12 than did the NDVI-derived VCI, and other indices, such as TCI, PCI and SMCI. The VIUPD has considerable potential for drought monitoring. As VIUPD can make use of the information from all the observation bands, the VIUPD-derived VCI can be regarded as an enhanced VCI.

  11. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  12. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity.

  13. Weekly Water Stress Monitoring in a Savannah Environment using a new Data Fusion Drought Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M.; Rudiger, C.; Walker, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the increasing pressure on water resources, water stress monitoring has become one of the most significant issues in water resources planning and management, especially during periods of extreme climate conditions. The present study compares the performance of four currently used data fusion based drought indices (DFDIs) to evaluate the weekly water stress at the Howard Springs OzFlux Tower in Northern Australia, covering a 3-year period from January 2011 to December 2013. In addition, a new DFDI has been developed and applied to address the individual shortcomings of the traditional indices. The proposed DFDI comprehensively considers all types of drought through a selection of indices and proxies associated with each drought type (water, vegetation etc). Here, weekly data from three different data sources (OzFlux Network, Asia-Pacific Water Monitor, and MODIS-Terra satellite) were utilized for the evaluations. To derive the new DFDI, an appropriate set of individual standardized drought indices (SDIs) was derived, that are categorized through an advanced clustering method. For two groups in which the clustered SDIs best reflected the water availability and vegetation conditions, the variables are aggregated based on an averaging between the standardized first principal components of three different multivariate methods of PCA, FA and ICA. Then, considering those aggregated indices as well as the classifications of months into dry/wet and active/non-active, the time series of the proposed DFDI is finalized. A comparison, employing the Spearman correlation coefficient, between the proposed index and the traditional data fusion based indices shows a range of correlations from 0.46 to 0.85. The results underline that the proposed index can be more reliable in compare to the previous indices, due to simultaneously relating hydro-meteorological and ecological concepts to define the actual water stress throughout the study area.

  14. Choroidal Vascularity Index (CVI--A Novel Optical Coherence Tomography Parameter for Monitoring Patients with Panuveitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Agrawal

    Full Text Available To compute choroidal vascularity index (CVI using an image binarization tool on enhanced depth imaging (EDI-optical coherence tomography (OCT scans as a non-invasive optical tool to monitor progression in panuveitis and to investigate the utility of volumetric data from EDI-OCT scans using custom image analysis software.In this retrospective cohort study, segmented EDI-OCT scans of both eyes in 19 patients with panuveitis were taken at baseline and at 3-month follow-up and were compared with EDI-OCT scans of normal eyes. Subfoveal choroidal area was segmented into luminal (LA and stromal interstitial area (SA. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI was defined as the proportion of LA to the total circumscribed subfoveal choroidal area (TCA.The mean choroidal thickness was 265.5±100.1μm at baseline and 278.4±102.6μm at 3 months follow up (p = 0.06. There was no statistically significant difference in TCA between study and control eyes (p = 0.08. CVI in the control group was 66.9±1.5% at baseline and 66.4±1.5% at follow up. CVI was 74.1±4.7% at baseline and 69.4±4.8% at 3 months follow up for uveitic eyes (p<0.001. The % change in CVI was 6.2 ±3.8 (4.3 to 8.0 for uveitic eyes, which was significantly higher from % change in CVI for control eyes (0.7±1.1, 0.2 to 1.3, p<0.001.The study reports composite OCT-derived parameters and CVI as a possible novel tool in monitoring progression in panuveitis. CVI may be further validated in larger studies as a novel optical tool to quantify choroidal vascular status.

  15. Scale effects of leaf area index inversion based on environmental and disaster monitoring satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of sub-pixel components has an impact on retrieval accuracy,and should be accounted for when inverting a three-dimensional adiative transfer model to retrieve leaf area index(LAI).To investigate this effect,we constructed three realistic scenarios with the same LAI values and other properties,except that the simulated plants had different distributions.We implemented the radiosity method to subsequently produce synthetic bidirectional reflectance factor(BRF) datasets based upon these simulated scenes.The inversion was conducted using these data,which showed that spatial distribution affects retrieval accuracy.The inversion was also conducted for LAI based on charge-coupled device(CCD) data from the Environment and Disaster Monitor Satellite(HJ-1),which depicted both forest and drought-resistant crop land cover.This showed that heterogeneity in coarse-resolution remote sensing data is the main error source in LAI inversion.The spatial distribution of global fractal dimension index,which can be used to describe the area of sub-pixel components and their spatial distribution modes,shows good consistency with the coarse resolution LAI inversion error.

  16. The Dust Storm Index (DSI): A method for monitoring broadscale wind erosion using meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loingsigh, T.; McTainsh, G. H.; Tews, E. K.; Strong, C. L.; Leys, J. F.; Shinkfield, P.; Tapper, N. J.

    2014-03-01

    Wind erosion of soils is a natural process that has shaped the semi-arid and arid landscapes for millennia. This paper describes the Dust Storm Index (DSI); a methodology for monitoring wind erosion using Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM) meteorological observational data since the mid-1960s (long-term), at continental scale. While the 46 year length of the DSI record is its greatest strength from a wind erosion monitoring perspective, there are a number of technical challenges to its use because when the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recording protocols were established the use of the data for wind erosion monitoring was never intended. Data recording and storage protocols are examined, including the effects of changes to the definition of how observers should interpret and record dust events. A method is described for selecting the 180 long-term ABM stations used in this study and the limitations of variable observation frequencies between stations are in part resolved. The rationale behind the DSI equation is explained and the examples of temporal and spatial data visualisation products presented include; a long term national wind erosion record (1965-2011), continental DSI maps, and maps of the erosion event types that are factored into the DSI equation. The DSI is tested against dust concentration data and found to provide an accurate representation of wind erosion activity. As the ABM observational records used here were collected according to WMO protocols, the DSI methodology could be used in all countries with WMO-compatible meteorological observation and recording systems.

  17. A hybrid algorithm for reengineering the refractive index profile of inhomogeneous coatings from optical in-situ broadband monitoring data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Wilbrandt; O.Stenzel; D.G(a¨)bler; N.Kaiser

    2005-01-01

    Reengineering the refractive index profile of inhomogeneous coatings is a troublesome task. Multiplicity of solutions may significantly reduced by providing additional information. For this reason an in-situ broadband monitoring system was developed to measure the transmittance of the growing film directly at the rotating substrate. For characterization of these coatings, a new model was developed, which significantly reduces the number of parameters. The refractive index profile may be described by a proper number of equally spaced volume fraction values using the Bruggeman effective media approach. A good initial approximation of the refractive index profile can be generated based on deposition rates for both materials recorded with quartz crystal monitor during manufacturing. During the optimization process, a second order minimization algorithm was used to vary the refractive index profile of the whole coating and film thickness of the intermediate stages. Finally, a significantly improved accuracy of the modelled transmittance was achieved.

  18. Lung clearance index for monitoring early lung disease in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Susanne I; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Pittschieler, Klaus; Ahrens, Frank; Baden, Winfried; Bals, Robert; Fähndrich, Sebastian; Gleiber, Wolfgang; Griese, Matthias; Hülskamp, Georg; Köhnlein, Thomas; Reckling, Ludmilla; Rietschel, Ernst; Staab, Doris; Gappa, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and a PI-ZZ genotype are at high risk to develop severe emphysema during adulthood. However, little is known about early stages of emphysema and disease manifestation in other PI-types. Spirometry is commonly used for monitoring although early manifestation of emphysema is suspected within the peripheral airways that are not accessible by forced expiratory manoeuvres. We hypothesized that the Lung Clearance Index (LCI) derived from multiple breath nitrogen-washout (N2-washout) is useful to bridge this diagnostic gap. Patients from age 4 years onward and different PI-types performed N2-washout and spirometry. Results were compared to controls. 193 patients (4-79 years, 75% PI-ZZ) and 33 controls (8-60 years) were included. Mean (SD) LCI in patients was 9.1 (3.1) and 6.3 (0.6) in controls (p ≤ 0.001). 47% of adult patients with other than PI-ZZ genotypes and 39% of all patients with normal spirometry had abnormal LCIs. The LCI measured by N2-washout discriminates between patients with AATD and controls, reflects AATD related lung disease in all stages and appears to identify early peripheral lung changes in younger age than spirometry. We conclude that a normal spirometry does not exclude presence of AATD related lung disease even in genotypes other than PI-ZZ.

  19. Monitoring the Sequential Cropping Index of Arable Land in Zhejiang Province of China Using MODIS-NDVI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dai-liang; HUANG Jing-feng; JIN Hui-min

    2007-01-01

    The sequential cropping index of arable land is important agricultural information. The aim of this article is to monitor and analyze the parameter, and offer reference for agricultural production. The cropping index of arable land in Zhejiang Province, China from 2001 to 2004 was calculated using the second order difference based MODIS (moderate resolution imagine spectroradimeter) vegetation data from NASA (National Aeronautic and Space Administration) in America and the land use map with a scale of 1:25 000. It was found that the peak of the time series of the NDVI curve indicated that the ground biomass of crops reached the maximum, and fluctuated with the crops growing processes such as sowing,seeding, heading, ripeness, and harvesting within one year. Thus, the sequential cropping index was defined as the number of peaks of the time series of the NDVI curve. The sequential cropping index of all cities in Zhejiang Province,China was worked out. It is seen from the spatial distribution that the cropping index in the southwest Zhejiang Province is larger than that in the northeast. As for the temporal distribution, the sequential cropping index decreased from 2001 to 2003, whereas it increased slightly from 2003 to 2004. However, the index of arable land was relatively low, as far as the geographic position and climatic resource were concerned, and the potential of the sequential cropping index was great.

  20. The Effect of Fentanyl on Bispectral Index (BIS) Values and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    M. (1997). Anesthesia for the patient with neurologic disease. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America , 15, 561. Bower, A., Ripepi, A., Dilger, J...sedation for third molar extractions. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , 58, 364- 368. Sebel, P., Lang, E., Rampil, I., White, P., Cork, R., Jopling...Education Clinic (founded the Nurse-Run Diabetes Clinic ) 1993-1994 Air Force Nurse Internship Program, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio Hi CURRICULUM VITAE Name

  1. The bilateral bispectral and the composite variability indexes during anesthesia for unilateral surgical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lopes-Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that the large interindividual variability of BIS and CVI limits their usefulness. We found differences between the left and right measurements in a right-handed series of patients during surgical stimuli though they were not clinically relevant.

  2. Monitoring of peripheral vascular condition using a log-linearized arterial viscoelastic index during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Hiroki; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Hirano, Harutoyo; Kurita, Yuichi; Ukawa, Teiji; Nakamura, Ryuji; Saeki, Noboru; Yoshizumi, Masao; Kawamoto, Masashi; Tsuji, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique to support the monitoring of peripheral vascular conditions using biological signals such as electrocardiograms, arterial pressure values and pulse oximetry plethysmographic waveforms. In this approach, a second-order log-linearized model (referred to here as a log-linearized peripheral arterial viscoelastic model) is used to describe the non-linear viscoelastic relationship between blood pressure waveforms and photo-plethysmographic waveforms. The proposed index enables estimation of peripheral arterial wall stiffness changes induced by sympathetic nerve activity. The validity of the method is discussed here based on the results of peripheral vascular condition monitoring conducted during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS). The results of ETS monitoring showed significant changes in stiffness variations between the periods before and during the procedures observed (p < 0.01) as well as during and after them (p < 0.01), so that it was confirmed that sympathetic nerve activity is drastically decreased in the area around the monitoring site after the thoracic sympathetic nerve trunk on the monitoring side is successfully blocked. In addition, no change was observed in the values of the proposed index during the ETS procedure on the side opposite that of the monitoring site. The experimental results obtained clearly show the proposed method can be used to assess changes in sympathetic nerve activity during ETS.

  3. Condition index monitoring supports conservation priorities for the protection of threatened grass-finch populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maute, Kimberly; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee; Garnett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation agencies are often faced with the difficult task of prioritizing what recovery actions receive support. With the number of species under threat of decline growing globally, research that informs conservation priorities is greatly needed. The relative vulnerability of cryptic or nomadic species is often uncertain, because populations are difficult to monitor and local populations often seem stable in the short term. This uncertainty can lead to inaction when populations are in need of protection. We tested the feasibility of using differences in condition indices as an indication of population vulnerability to decline for related threatened Australian finch sub-species. The Gouldian finch represents a relatively well-studied endangered species, which has a seasonal and site-specific pattern of condition index variation that differs from the closely related non-declining long-tailed finch. We used Gouldian and long-tailed finch condition variation as a model to compare with lesser studied, threatened star and black-throated finches. We compared body condition (fat and muscle scores), haematocrit and stress levels (corticosterone) among populations, seasons and years to determine whether lesser studied finch populations matched the model of an endangered species or a non-declining species. While vulnerable finch populations often had lower muscle and higher fat and corticosterone concentrations during moult (seasonal pattern similar to Gouldian finches), haematocrit values did not differ among populations in a predictable way. Star and black-throated finch populations, which were predicted to be vulnerable to decline, showed evidence of poor condition during moult, supporting their status as vulnerable. Our findings highlight how measures of condition can provide insight into the relative vulnerability of animal and plant populations to decline and will allow the prioritization of efforts towards the populations most likely to be in jeopardy of extinction.

  4. Impact of reward and punishment motivation on behavior monitoring as indexed by the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Geoffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is thought to index a neural behavior monitoring system with its source in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). While ACC is involved in a wide variety of cognitive and emotional tasks, there is debate as to what aspects of ACC function are indexed by the ERN. In one model the ERN indexes purely cognitive function, responding to mismatch between intended and executed actions. Another model posits that the ERN is more emotionally driven, elicited when an action is inconsistent with motivational goals. If the ERN indexes mismatch between intended and executed actions, then it should be insensitive to motivational valence, e.g. reward or punishment; in contrast if the ERN indexes the evaluation of responses relative to goals, then it might respond differentially under differing motivational valence. This study used a flanker task motivated by potential reward and potential punishment on different trials and also examined the N2 and P3 to the imperative stimulus, the response Pe, and the FRN and P3 to the outcome feedback to assess the impact of motivation valence on other stages of information processing in this choice reaction time task. Participants were slower on punishment motivated trials and both the N2 and ERN were larger on punishment motivated trials, indicating that loss aversion has an impact on multiple stages of information processing including behavior monitoring.

  5. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  6. Seasonal trends of spectral indexes for monitoring GPP in a Mediterranean cork oak savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, S.; Silva, J. M. N.; Carvalhais, N.; Silva, F.; López, G.; Pereira, J. M. C.; Pereira, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    It is nowadays clear that the inclusion of spectral indexes into biogeochemical models can greatly improve actual estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) at local and global scale. Several vegetation indexes can be obtained by the reflectance of light at specific wavelengths. Among them, the Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) were found suitable to represent different characteristics of ecosystems strictly related with GPP, such as biomass and photosynthetic capacity (NDVI, EVI) or radiation use efficiency (PRI). In Mediterranean cork oak savannas, characterized by high heterogeneity, the application of spectral indexes derived from coarse spatial resolution remotely sensed data (e.g. MODIS imagery) to represent the performance of the whole ecosystem is complex. A better knowledge of the variability of vegetation indexes for specific vegetation types, assessed in fieldwork, is fundamental to the interpretation of the same indexes obtained with satellite data and a key step through the integration of such indexes into biogeochemical models. We consider three different vegetation types: trees, grasses and shrubs, concurring to the overall ecosystem carbon budget in Mediterranean cork oak savannas. Since April 2011, reflectance measurements were performed in the range of 300-2500nm by the use of a handheld hyperspectral spectroradiometer (FieldSpec3, ASD Inc. CO, USA) in several species of the three vegetation types in a cork oak savanna eddy covariance site located in central Portugal. Measurements were always performed around solar noon and repeated approximately every two weeks. Several vegetation indexes were calculated. All indexes showed clear differences among vegetation types and among species. Marked seasonal trends were identified for grasses and shrubs, clearly related with the onset of dry summer conditions. Both NDVI and EVI decreased in grasses from April to the

  7. Monitoring effects of simulated disturbance at INDEX site: Current status and future activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.; Valsangkar, A.B.; Khadge, N.H.; Parthiban, G.; Sankar, S.J.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Raghukumar, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Babu, M.T.; Sardar, A.

    During the Indian Deep-Sea Environment Experiment (INDEX), greater than 6000 cu.m of sediment was resuspended 5 m above seafloor. Data collected from deep-towed photography, sediment traps, sediment coring and CTD operations before and after...

  8. Experimental evaluation of instantaneous phase based index for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratneshwar; Cross, Kevin; Janoyan, Kerop D.; Sazonov, Edward S.; Fuchs, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Vidya

    2006-03-01

    The sensitivity and consistency of a damage index based on instantaneous phase values obtained through vibration measurements of a structure is investigated experimentally. An 'empirical mode decomposition' is performed to decompose structural vibrations into a small number of 'intrinsic mode functions' following the methodology generally known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform. Instantaneous phase information is derived through the Hilbert transform of intrinsic mode functions. The damage index is based on the idea that the difference in phase functions between any two points on a structure is altered if the structure is damaged. Experimental investigations are performed on a beam structure with varying excitations (white noise signals), damage levels, and damage locations. The damage index shows generally consistent results, but its sensitivity to damages needs improvements for practical applications.

  9. Long-term monitoring of fish farms: application of Nematode/Copepod index to oligotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Rodríguez, Myriam; Monterroso, Oscar; Ramos, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Interannual variability (2003-2008) of meiofaunal assemblages were analyzed in sediments beneath fish cages (Impact group) and in areas not affected by aquaculture activities (Control group). Organisms responded with spatial and seasonal variation in meiofauna assemblages, with an abrupt increase of abundances in locations beneath fish cages throughout the study period. This increase was greater during the last sampling year (2008) and mainly due to high abundances of nematodes. Univariate analyses showed differences between control and impacted sites at both sites, however, only significant variations were found in Los Gigantes, which are consistent with seasonal meiofauna variations throughout the study period. These results are partially explained by differences in current velocity between both sampling areas. The Ne/Co index showed the same trend and it seems to be a reliable index in sediment slightly affected by aquaculture wastes. This index is especially recommended in oligotrophic areas (e.g. Canary Islands) where meiofaunal assemblages are poorly represented in terms of abundances.

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  11. Photochemical reflectance index as a mean of monitoring early water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Driever, S.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Water stress in plants affects a number of physiological processes such as photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance as well as the operating efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is reported to be sensitive to changes in xan

  12. Multi-index time series monitoring of drought and fire effects on desert grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Buckley, Steven; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Coe, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    The Western United States is expected to undergo both extended periods of drought and longer wildfire seasons under forecasted global climate change and it is important to understand how these disturbances will interact and affect recovery and composition of plant communities in the future. In this research paper we describe the temporal response of grassland communities to drought and fire in southern Arizona, where land managers are using repeated, prescribed fire as a habitat restoration tool. Using a 25-year atlas of fire locations, we paired sites with multiple fires to unburned control areas and compare satellite and field-based estimates of vegetation cover over time. Two hundred and fifty Landsat TM images, dating from 1985–2011, were used to derive estimates of Total Vegetation Fractional Cover (TVFC) of live and senescent grass using the Soil-Adjusted Total Vegetation Index (SATVI) and post-fire vegetation greenness using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We also implemented a Greenness to Cover Index that is the difference of time-standardized SATVI-TVFC and NDVI values at a given time and location to identify post-fire shifts in native, non-native, and annual plant cover. The results highlight anomalous greening and browning during drought periods related to amounts of annual and non-native plant cover present. Results suggest that aggressive application of prescribed fire may encourage spread of non-native perennial grasses and annual plants, particularly during droughts.

  13. Desertification Risk Monitoring for North Shaanxi Province, China, Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the remote sensing is applied to the examination of the relationship between desertification and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the context of northern Shaanxi Province. This relationship is also examined using spatial analysis methods. A strong negative correlation is found in the largest area desert, indicating that the relationship between desert and NDVI is not a simple linear one and that the correlation coefficient between NDVI and vegetation abundance is significant.The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was compared with other vegetation index-based methodologies. NDVI is a valuable first-cut indicator for such systems, although the analysis and interpretation of its relationship to desertification are complex and also based on the detailed analysis of its reiationship to ecological zone, vegetation type and season. Conclusions thus made would help to upgrade the methodology as an effective tool for early-warning desertification in the northern Shaanxi Province where a drought is a recurring threat. This methodology includes the integration of NDVI with other socio-economic and bio-physical indicators in GIS, the complementation of desert area data with satellite data, and the analysis of the relationship between NDVI and specific climatic zones, for each season and vegetation type.

  14. Evaluation of a remotely sensed evaporative stress index for monitoring patterns of anomalous water-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought assessment is a complex endeavor, requiring monitoring of deficiencies in multiple components of the hydrologic budget. Precipitation anomalies reflect variability in water supply to the land surface, while soil moisture (SM), ground and surface water anomalies reflect deficiencies in moist...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart G of... - Process Vents-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements For Maintaining a TRE Index...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Reporting Requirements For Maintaining a TRE Index Value >1.0 and. â¤4.0 4 Table 4 to Subpart G of... for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for... TRE Index Value >1.0 and. ≤4.0 Final recovery device Parameters to be monitored a Recordkeeping...

  16. Changing guards: time to move beyond Body Mass Index for population monitoring of excess adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Tanamas, Stephanie K.; Lean, Michael E. J.; Combet, Emilie; Vlassopoulos, Antonios; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Peeters, Anna

    2016-01-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorisation...

  17. Human Daily Activities Indexing in Videos from Wearable Cameras for Monitoring of Patients with Dementia Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Svebor; Mégret, Rémi; Dovgalecs, Vladislavs; Dartigues, Jean-François; Gaëstel, Yann

    2010-01-01

    Our research focuses on analysing human activities according to a known behaviorist scenario, in case of noisy and high dimensional collected data. The data come from the monitoring of patients with dementia diseases by wearable cameras. We define a structural model of video recordings based on a Hidden Markov Model. New spatio-temporal features, color features and localization features are proposed as observations. First results in recognition of activities are promising.

  18. Toward an objective indexing system for ADHD-screening using children's activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Hye Jin; Choi, Jong Pil; Park, Rae Woong

    2008-11-06

    Signs of ADHD are discernible in specific situations, and usually assessed according to subjective impressions. We performed a preliminary comparative study from children's activity at a natural classroom environment with 3-axis accelerator for a feasible objective index. From a total of 157 children (7-9 yrs) and clinically diagnosed 24 children out of them, variances in 1-min epoch mean activity had shown significant differences among the subgroups: (1) ADHD=.0194, Other Diseases=.0080, Normal=.0009; (2) ADHD=.0194, non-ADHD=.0057(p1.6G) features among subgroups with the same order (pindexing system for screening ADHD patients.

  19. Multitemporal Monitoring of Plant Area Index in the Valencia Rice District with PocketLAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Campos-Taberner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is a key biophysical parameter used to determine foliage cover and crop growth in environmental studies in order to assess crop yield. Frequently, plant canopy analyzers (LAI-2000 and digital cameras for hemispherical photography (DHP are used for indirect effective plant area index (PAIeff estimates. Nevertheless, these instruments are expensive and have the disadvantages of low portability and maintenance. Recently, a smartphone app called PocketLAI was presented and tested for acquiring PAIeff measurements. It was used during an entire rice season for indirect PAIeff estimations and for deriving reference high-resolution PAIeff maps. Ground PAIeff values acquired with PocketLAI, LAI-2000, and DHP were well correlated (R2 = 0.95, RMSE = 0.21 m2/m2 for Licor-2000, and R2 = 0.94, RMSE = 0.6 m2/m2 for DHP. Complementary data such as phenology and leaf chlorophyll content were acquired to complement seasonal rice plant information provided by PAIeff. High-resolution PAIeff maps, which can be used for the validation of remote sensing products, have been derived using a global transfer function (TF made of several measuring dates and their associated satellite radiances.

  20. Monitoring leaf area index at watershed level through NDVI from Landsat-7/ETM+ data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alexandre Cândido

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter of the vegetation canopy, and is used, for instance, to estimate evapotranspiration, an important component of the hydrological cycle. This work analyzed the relationship between LAI, measured in field, and NDVI from four dates (derived from Landsat-7/ETM+ data, and with such vegetation index, to generate and analyze LAI maps of the study area for the diverse dates. LAI data were collected monthly in the field with LAI-2000 equipment in stands of sugar cane, pasture, corn, eucalypt, and riparian forest. The relationships between LAI and NDVI were adjusted by a potential model; 57% to 72% of the NDVI variance were explained by the LAI. LAI maps generated by empirical relationships between LAI and NDVI showed reasonable precision (standard error of LAI estimate ranged from 0.42 to 0.87 m² m-2. The mean LAI value of each monthly LAI map was shown to be related to the total precipitation in the three previous months.

  1. Condition monitoring of induction motor bearing based on bearing damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel R.K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rolling element bearings are used broadly in many machinery applications. It is used to support the load and preserve the clearance between stationary and rotating machinery elements. Unfortunately, rolling element bearings are exceedingly prone to premature failures. Vibration signal analysis has been widely used in the faults detection of rotating machinery and can be broadly classified as being a stationary or non-stationary signal. In the case of the faulty rolling element bearing the vibration signal is not strictly phase locked to the rotational speed of the shaft and become “transient” in nature. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the identification of an Inner Raceway Fault (IRF and an Outer Raceway Fault (ORF with the different fault severity levels. The conventional statistical analysis was only able to detect the existence of a fault but unable to discriminate between IRF and ORF. In the present work, a detection technique named as bearing damage index (BDI has been proposed. The proposed BDI technique uses wavelet packet node energy coefficient analysis method. The well-known combination of Hilbert transform (HT and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT has been carried out in order to identify the IRF and ORF faults. The results show that wavelet packet node energy coefficients are not only sensitive to detect the faults in bearing but at the same time they are able to detect the severity level of the fault. The proposed bearing damage index method for fault identification may be considered as an ‘index’ representing the health condition of rotating machines.

  2. Autoregulation monitoring and outcome prediction in neurocritical care patients: Does one index fit all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Reinhard, Matthias; Lezaic, Vesna; McLeod, Damian D; Weinhold, Marco; Mattes, Heinz; Klingelhöfer, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Indexes PRx and Mx have been formerly introduced to assess cerebral autoregulation and have been shown to be associated with 3-month clinical outcome. In a mixed cohort of neurocritical care patients, we retrospectively investigated the impact of selected clinical characteristics on this association. Forty-one patients (18-77 years) with severe traumatic (TBI, N = 20) and non-traumatic (N = 21) brain injuries were studied. Cerebral blood flow velocity, arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure were repeatedly recorded during 1-h periods. Calculated PRx and Mx were correlated with 3-month clinical outcome score of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) in different subgroups with specific clinical characteristics. Both PRx and Mx correlated significantly with outcome (PRx: r = 0.38, p PRx: r = 0.73, p PRx, correlated significantly with mRS in patients with heart failure (N = 17; r = 0.69, p PRx, not Mx, correlated significantly with mRS in TBI patients (r = 0.63, p PRx failed in hypocapnic patients (N = 26). Both PRx and Mx were significantly associated with 3-month clinical outcome, even in patients with hemicraniectomy. PRx was more appropriate for TBI patients, while Mx was better suited for non-traumatic patients and patients with heart failure. Prognostic values of indexes were affected by diabetes (both Mx and PRx) and hypocapnia (PRx only).

  3. Neutronic analysis of the bi-spectral moderator such as that proposed for ESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magán, M., E-mail: miguel.magan@essbilbao.org [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sordo, F. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Zanini, L. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Terrón, S.; Ghiglino, A.; Martínez, F.; Vicente, J.P. de; Vivanco, R. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear – UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mezei, F. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Muhrer, G. [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    This paper reports on design studies concerning a moderator concept which aims to maximize the time averaged flux. The idea is to provide neutron spectra showing two clear maxima, with peaks at (∼1Å) and (∼2.5Å) arising from leakage from both cryogenic and thermal moderators. Such a concept known as a bi-spectral moderator (Mezei, 2006 [1]) while proven on a reactor source has only been examined for the ESS 2003 proposal. Filges et al. (2003 [2]), which featured a different design than the current ESS. This paper thus reports on a baseline design for such a moderator concept and shows that it can provide substantial gains in count rates for those applications not requiring high resolution in time-of-flight.

  4. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  5. Complexity index from a personalized wearable monitoring system for assessing remission in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Antonio; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Gentili, Claudio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses a personalized wearable monitoring system, which provides information and communication technologies to patients with mental disorders and physicians managing such diseases. The system, hereinafter called the PSYCHE system, is mainly comprised of a comfortable t-shirt with embedded sensors, such as textile electrodes, to monitor electrocardiogram-heart rate variability (HRV) series, piezoresistive sensors for respiration activity, and triaxial accelerometers for activity recognition. Moreover, on the patient-side, the PSYCHE system uses a smartphone-based interactive platform for electronic mood agenda and clinical scale administration, whereas on the physician-side provides data visualization and support to clinical decision. The smartphone collects the physiological and behavioral data and sends the information out to a centralized server for further processing. In this study, we present experimental results gathered from ten bipolar patients, wearing the PSYCHE system, with severe symptoms who exhibited mood states among depression (DP), hypomania(HM), mixed state (MX), and euthymia (EU), i.e., the good affective balance. In analyzing more than 400 h of cardiovascular dynamics, we found that patients experiencing mood transitions from a pathological mood state (HM, DP, or MX-where depressive and hypomanic symptoms are simultaneously present) to EU can be characterized through a commonly used measure of entropy. In particular, the SampEn estimated on long-term HRV series increases according to the patients' clinical improvement. These results are in agreement with the current literature reporting on the complexity dynamics of physiological systems and provides a promising and viable support to clinical decision in order to improve the diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders.

  6. Early-season agricultural drought: detection, assessment and monitoring using Shortwave Angle and Slope Index (SASI) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prabir Kumar; Murthy, Srirama C; Seshasai, M V R

    2013-12-01

    Early season or crop-planting-period (ES/CPP) drought conditions have become a recurrent phenomenon in tropical countries like India, due to fluctuations in the time of onset and progression of monsoon rains. ES/CPP agricultural drought assessment is a major challenge because of the difficulties in the generation of operational products on soil moisture at larger scales. The present study analyzed the Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI) derived from Near Infrared and Shortwave Infrared data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, for tracking surface moisture changes and assessing the agricultural drought conditions during ES/CPP, over Andhra Pradesh state, India. It was found that in-season progression of SASI was well correlated with rainfall and crop planting patterns in different districts of the study area state in both drought and normal years. Rainfall occurrence, increase in crop planted area, and decrease in SASI were in chronological synchronization in the season. Change in SASI from positive to negative values is a unique indication of dryness to wetness shift in the season. Duration of positive SASI values indicated the persistence of agricultural drought in the crop planting period. Mean SASI values were able to discriminate an area which was planted in normal year and unplanted in drought year. SASI thresholds provide an approximate and rapid estimate of the crop planting favorable area in a region which is useful to assess the impact of drought. Thus, SASI is a potential index to strengthen the existing operational drought monitoring systems. Further work needs to be on the integration of multiple parameters-SASI, soil texture, soil depth, rainfall and cropping pattern, to evolve a geospatial product on crop planting favorable areas. Such products pave the way for quantification of drought impact on agriculture in the early part of the season, which is a major inadequacy in the current drought monitoring system.

  7. Use of a similarity index based on microbial fatty acid (MFA) analysis to monitor biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K S; Hall, E R

    2003-09-01

    Estimating the stability of microbial community structures may be useful in advanced biological wastewater treatment system design and operation. In this research, a monitoring method using fatty acid profiles was evaluated for detecting changes in microbial community structures. For the evaluation, the operating parameters such as pH, organic loading, and chlorine addition were varied in two identical laboratory scale conventional activated sludge systems. A similarity index based on microbial fatty acid analysis was used to express the stability of microbial community structures in the systems. Experiments using a model microbial community showed that microbial compositions changed daily even under constant operating conditions and that the rate of change increased under dynamic operating conditions. Substrate changes brought about a relatively large change in a microbial community structure, eventually resulting in a very different microbial community. After only 7 days following a substrate change in a lab-scale bioreactor, the biomass exhibited only 45% similarity to the original structure. The analysis of microbial fatty acids conveys additional information, in that it could be used for the calculation of biomass concentrations in a wastewater treatment system if microbial fatty acid analyses are executed on a routine basis as a monitoring tool for biological wastewater treatment systems. The total fatty acid concentrations were about 0.61% of the biomass concentration as mixed liquor volatile suspended solid concentrations in this research.

  8. Impact of Sitting or Semi-Setting Position of Patients During Breast Surgery on Hemodynamic Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Karvandian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keeping the patient in a sitting or semi-sitting position for time-consuming oncoplastic breast surgery is a major challenge for anesthesiologists due to several considerations. This cohort study was conducted on two groups of patients undergoing breast surgery.Methods: Study participants were categorized into two groups: one group was composed of normotensive women (group A and the other group comprised women with controlled hypertension (group B. After the induction of anesthesia in the supine position, the position was changed to sitting and the surgery was done in the sitting position. Hemodynamic monitoring included ECG, heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP, invasive blood pressure (IBP, cardiac output (CO, arterial O2 saturation (SPO2, end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2, and bispectral index (BIS. The amount of administrated fluid and vasopressor was recorded for each patient. Any episode of hemodynamic instability was recorded, too.Results: Hemodynamic variation occurred in both groups, but the changes were more significant in group B and the amount of fluid and vasopressor administration was more prominent in group B. Changing the position caused no significant variation in BIS, SPO2, and EtCO2 in the two groups.Conclusions: The sitting position can be safe for time-consuming oncoplastic breast surgery using adequate hemodynamic monitoring. Hemodynamic changes are more significant in patients with controlled hypertension, and more medical interference is needed for these patients.

  9. Indian deep-sea environment experiment (INDEX): Monitoring the restoration of marine enviroment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Erratum Marine Georesources and Geotechnology vol. 23, no. 4 (September–December 2005) was a special issue, but this was not indicated. The correct special issue information is below. Indian Deep-Sea Environment Experiment (INDEX): Monitoring... the restoration of marine environment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in Central Indian Basin Guest Editor Rahul Sharma Note from guest editor A special issue on Indian Deep-sea Environment Experiment (INDEX) conducted by the scientists...

  10. Forested floristic quality index: An assessment tool for forested wetland habitats using the quality and quantity of woody vegetation at Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Cretini, Kari F.

    2017-02-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana and the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, developed the Forested Floristic Quality Index (FFQI) for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The FFQI will help evaluate forested wetland sites on a continuum from severely degraded to healthy and will assist in defining areas where forested wetland restoration can be successful by projecting the trajectories of change. At each CRMS forested wetland site there are stations for quantifying the overstory, understory, and herbaceous vegetation layers. Rapidly responding overstory canopy cover and herbaceous layer composition are measured annually, while gradually changing overstory basal area and species composition are collected on a 3-year cycle.A CRMS analytical team has tailored these data into an index much like the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) currently used for herbaceous marsh and for the herbaceous layer of the swamp vegetation. The core of the FFQI uses basal area by species to assess the quality and quantity of the overstory at each of three stations within each CRMS forested wetland site. Trees that are considered by experts to be higher quality swamp species like Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) are scored higher than tree species like Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) and Salix nigra (black willow) that are indicators of recent disturbance. This base FFQI is further enhanced by the percent canopy cover in the overstory and the presence of indicator species at the forest floor. This systemic approach attempts to differentiate between locations with similar basal areas that are on different ecosystem trajectories. Because of these varying states of habitat degradation, paired use of the FQI and the FFQI is useful to interpret the vegetative data in transitional locations. There is often an inverse relation between the health of the

  11. Application of “taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts to fish farming environmental monitoring. Comparison of BOPA index versus polychaete assemblage structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Giménez, Felipe; Gairin Deulofeu, Joan Ignasi; Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Ballester-Moltó, Mateo; Cerezo-Valverde, Jesús; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    “Taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts were applied to the monitoring of soft bottoms macrobenthic assemblages influenced by fish farming following two approaches. Polychaete assemblage evaluation through multivariate analysis and the benthic index BOPA were compared. Six fish farms along the Spanish Mediterranean coast were monitored. Polychaete assemblage provided a suitable picture of the impact gradient, being correlated with total free sulphides. BOPA did not support...

  12. [Monitoring myocardial performance after open heart surgery by calculation of diastolic and systolic pressure time index (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold-Epting, W; Fenchel, G; Stunkat, R; Seboldt, H; Hoffmeister, H E

    1978-10-01

    In order to determine the incidence of subendocardial ischemia after open heart surgery, subendocardial blood flow was monitored in 171 patients subjected to mitral and/or aortic valve replacement or coronary revascularization by on-line calculation of Diastolic (DPTI) and Systolic Pressure Time Index (TTI). Body hypothermia with an esophageal temperature of 25 degrees C and magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia were applied for myocardial protection. Ten patients developed low cardiac output state with two early deaths. In the two patients with fatal low cardiac output DPTI/TTI remained below 0.8. In the remaining 8 patients DPTI/TTI rose to 1.4 after a mean recovery time of 36 hours. In 161 patients (94%) no low cardiac output state evolved and DPTI/TTI rose to 1.3 within 60 min. after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results indicate that body hypothermia of 25 degrees C combined with magnesium-aspartate-procaine cardioplegia can reduce the incidence of subendocardial ischemia, but does not prevent this complication completely after anoxic times beyond 60-70 minutes.

  13. Bi-spectral beam extraction in combination with a focusing feeder

    CERN Document Server

    Zendler, C; Nekrassov, D; Cussen, L D; Strobl, M

    2013-01-01

    Bi-spectral beam extraction combines neutrons from two different kind of moderators into one beamline, expanding the spectral range and thereby the utilization of an instrument. This idea can be realized by a mirror that reflects long wavelength neutrons from an off-axis colder moderator into a neutron guide aligned with another moderator emitting neutrons with shorter wavelengths which will be transmitted through the mirror. The mirror used in such systems is typically several meters long, which is a severe disadvantage because it reduces the possible length of a focusing device in design concepts requiring a narrow beam at a short distance from the source, as used in many instruments under development for the planned European Spallation Source (ESS). We propose a shortened extraction system consisting of several mirrors, and show that such an extraction system is better suited for combination with a feeder in an eye of the needle design, illustrated here in the context of a possible ESS imaging beamline.

  14. 脑电双频指数在监测重度颅脑损伤合并顽固性颅内高压患者的巴比妥盐昏迷中的应用%The Use of Bispectral Index to Monitor Barbiturate Coma in Severely Brain-Injured Patients with Refractory Intracranial Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Cottenceau; 沙欢欢; Laurent Petit; Fran(c)oise Masson; Dominique Guehl; Julien Asselineau; Jean-Fran(c)ois Cochard; Catherine Pinaquy; Alain Leger; Fran(c)ois Sztark

    2010-01-01

    背景在重症创伤性颅脑损伤(TBI)患者运用巴比妥盐治疗中,通常将暴发-抑制模式的脑电图(EEG)作为监测指标.双频指数(BIS)是脑电图的衍生物,并且考虑到了皮层电静止.本研究测定一定范围内的BIS是否可以预测一个特殊的暴发-抑制模式.方法前瞻性收入l1例应用巴比妥盐治疗的TBI患者.每天记录1小时EEG,每5分钟从原始EEG上计算1分钟的暴发数量及抑制率[抑制率(SREEG):从EEG上得到的前60秒皮层电静止所占的百分率],并与BIS-XPTM监测仪上伴行的数据对比[BIS和抑制商(SRBIS)].巴比妥盐昏迷的最佳水平定义为脑电图上每分钟有2~5个暴发发生.根据所得数据求出最佳水平的BIS预测值范围,对每一例数据都测定其精确度.结果 SREEG和SRBIS一致性很高[组间相关系数0.94(95%可信区间:0.90~0.96)].SREEG和BIS之间有显著相关性.在某些受试者中观察到显著不一致性.BIS值在6~15范围之间时预测精确度最高.结论应用巴比妥盐治疗的重症创伤性颅脑损伤患者,BIS和SREEG有很高相关性.当BIS值<6时巴比妥盐输注速率需要降低,而当BIS值>15时,则需要升高.BIS和抑制图形的关系应该周期性地通过EEG模拟信号(BIS-XPTM所示)来校正.

  15. EEG Signals Analysis Using Multiscale Entropy for Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring during Surgery through Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a reliable index to monitor the depth of anesthesia (DOA, many algorithms have been proposed in recent years, one of which is sample entropy (SampEn, a commonly used and important tool to measure the regularity of data series. However, SampEn only estimates the complexity of signals on one time scale. In this study, a new approach is introduced using multiscale entropy (MSE considering the structure information over different time scales. The entropy values over different time scales calculated through MSE are applied as the input data to train an artificial neural network (ANN model using bispectral index (BIS or expert assessment of conscious level (EACL as the target. To test the performance of the new index’s sensitivity to artifacts, we compared the results before and after filtration by multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD. The new approach via ANN is utilized in real EEG signals collected from 26 patients before and after filtering by MEMD, respectively; the results show that is a higher correlation between index from the proposed approach and the gold standard compared with SampEn. Moreover, the proposed approach is more structurally robust to noise and artifacts which indicates that it can be used for monitoring the DOA more accurately.

  16. Using Social Media to Detect Outdoor Air Pollution and Monitor Air Quality Index (AQI: A Geo-Targeted Spatiotemporal Analysis Framework with Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Outdoor air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries today. This study focuses on monitoring the dynamic changes of air quality effectively in large cities by analyzing the spatiotemporal trends in geo-targeted social media messages with comprehensive big data filtering procedures. We introduce a new social media analytic framework to (1 investigate the relationship between air pollution topics posted in Sina Weibo (Chinese Twitter and the daily Air Quality Index (AQI published by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection; and (2 monitor the dynamics of air quality index by using social media messages. Correlation analysis was used to compare the connections between discussion trends in social media messages and the temporal changes in the AQI during 2012. We categorized relevant messages into three types, retweets, mobile app messages, and original individual messages finding that original individual messages had the highest correlation to the Air Quality Index. Based on this correlation analysis, individual messages were used to monitor the AQI in 2013. Our study indicates that the filtered social media messages are strongly correlated to the AQI and can be used to monitor the air quality dynamics to some extent.

  17. The implementation of an aquatic toxicity index as a water quality monitoring tool in the Olifants River (Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wepener

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Large sets of water quality data can leave water quality managers and decision-makers totally overwhelmed. In order to convey the interpretation of the data in a simplified and understandable manner, the water quality results from bi-monthly surveys undertaken at seven different sampling sites in the Letaba, Olifants, and Selati rivers over a two year period (February 1990 to April 1992 were reduced to index values, using a water quality index. The water quality index (Aquatic Toxicity Index or ATI revealed spatial and temporal trends. The higher index values, recorded for the sampling sites towards the eastern part of the Kruger National Park (KNP, revealed that the water quality was better than the quality measured in the Olifants River on the western bound-ary. The lowest index values were calculated for the Selati River, with index values consistently below 50. Index values indicate that the water quality in the Selati River was unsuitable for supporting normal physiological processes in fish. The water quality of the Selati River had an immediate impact on the water quality of the Olifants River directly below the confluence. Lower index values recorded at sites further downstream was also attributed to the influence of the Selati River since there are no known point sources of contaminants within the boundaries of the KNP. The index scores also elucidated temporal trends with lower scores evident during winter months. This was due to reduced flow in the Olifants River and a greater contribution of contaminated water from the Selati River. Index values increased following the first seasonal rains due to a dilution effect. Very low index values were recorded at certain sites during flood periods due to increased turbidity, reduced oxygen, and increased metal concentrations.

  18. Intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces bispectral index-guided requirements of propofol only during surgical stimulation(dagger)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, G. A.; Lauwick, S. M.; Kaba, A.; Bonhomme, V.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Hans, P. C.; Lamy, M. L.; Joris, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    I.V. lidocaine reduces volatile anaesthetics requirements during surgery. We hypothesized that lidocaine would also reduce propofol requirements during i.v. anaesthesia. A randomized controlled study of 40 patients tested the effect of i.v. lidocaine (1.5 mg kg(-1) then 2 mg kg(-1) h(-1)) on propofo

  19. Uncertainty in drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index: the case study of the Abruzzo region (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, L.; Di Lena, B.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2015-12-01

    As shown by several authors, drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) presents some uncertainties, mainly dependent on the choice of the probability distribution used to describe the cumulative precipitation and on the characteristics (e.g., length and variability) of the dataset. In this paper, the uncertainty related to SPI estimates has been quantified and analyzed with regards to the case study of the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), by using monthly precipitation recorded at 75 stations during the period 1951-2009. First, a set of distributions suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month time scales was identified by using L-moments ratio diagrams. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Normality test on the derived SPI series. Then the confidence intervals of SPI have been calculated by applying a bootstrap procedure. The size of the confidence intervals has been considered as a measure of uncertainty, and its dependence on several factors such as the distribution type, the time scale, the record length, and the season has been examined. Results show that the distributions Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), Generalized Normal (GNO), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma (GA2) are all suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation, with a slightly better performance of the PE3 and GNO distributions. As expected, the uncertainty increases as the record length and time scale decrease. The leading source of uncertainty is the record length while the effects due to seasonality and time scale are negligible. Two-parameter distributions make it possible to obtain confidence intervals of SPI (particularly for extreme values) narrower than those obtained by three-parameter distributions. Nevertheless, due to a poorer goodness of fit, two-parameter distributions can provide less reliable estimates of the precipitation probability. In any event, independently

  20. Mine remote sensing monitoring and assessment characteristics and the index system%矿山遥感监测评估特点与指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进生; 牛建英; 张旭; 于艳蕊

    2014-01-01

    矿山遥感监测评估是通过遥感监测手段获得对矿产资源开发利用状况、矿山环境和矿产资源规划执行情况的评判,为改进矿产资源规划、整顿矿业秩序、治理矿山环境等提供依据。根据矿山遥感监测实施效果评估的对象多、内容多、应用面广及难度大等特点,提出了矿产资源监管效果、效率和效益3个一级指标,9个二级指标的评估体系,并根据实验性评估结论提出简化指标体系、侧重连续监测区动态评估等建议。%Remote sensing monitoring is used by mine remote sensing monitoring and assessment so as to understand the situation of mineral resources development, mining environment and evaluate mineral resource planning implementation, thus providing the basis for mineral resources planning, mining order rectifying and mine environment governing. The authors analyzed the situation of evaluating the implementation effect of the mine remote sensing monitoring, which is characterized by numerous objects and contents, wide applications and considerable difficulties. In view of such a complex situation, this paper puts forward the index evaluation system for the mineral resources monitoring result, benefit and efficiency, which consists of three primary and nine secondary indexes. According to the experimental evaluation conclusion, some constructive suggestions, such as simplification of the index system and emphasis on the dynamic assessment of continuous monitoring area, have been put forward in this paper.

  1. [Vasomotor tone and CBP : monitoring components, pratical and therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetta, C; Janot, N

    2012-05-01

    The vasomotor tone is an essential determinant of blood pressure. Vascular resistance is the result of a calculation including vasomotor tone, blood flow and blood viscosity. The vascular tone is modulated by the sympathetic system and the direct actions of drugs (patient's pathology, anaesthesia). The pressure and flow allow the vascular tone apprehension. A decrease in vasomotor tone lowers the mean arterial pressure and may cause an intense vasoplegia with arterial vascular resistance below than 800 dyn/s/cm(5) leading to a lack of tissue oxygenation. Vasomotor paralysis can be caused by the patient medications or an intense inflammatory reaction starting at the extracorporeal circulation onset. Monitoring parameters of extracorporeal circulation such as pressure, flow, arterial and venous oxygen saturation, blood level in the venous reservoir, and extensively blood gases, haemoglobin, CO(2) partial pressure level of the oxygenator vent, bispectral index, and oxygen saturation of cerebral tissue are reviewed. They will know the vasoplegia consequences and bear an indication of adequate tissue oxygenation. It may be obtained by using vasopressors (ephedrine, norepinephrine, terbutalin and vasopressin) methylene blue, increasing blood viscosity (erythrocytes) and blood flow, even by inducing hypothermia.

  2. Awareness during anaesthesia for surgery requiring evoked potential monitoring: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish J Korula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evoked potential monitoring such as somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP or motor-evoked potential (MEP monitoring during surgical procedures in proximity to the spinal cord requires minimising the minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs below the anaesthetic concentrations normally required (1 MAC to prevent interference in amplitude and latency of evoked potentials. This could result in awareness. Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of awareness while administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics for these unique procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of our anaesthetic technique from neurophysiologist′s perspective. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, 61 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients undergoing spinal surgery for whom intraoperative evoked potential monitoring was performed were included; during the maintenance phase, 0.7-0.8 MAC of isoflurane was targeted. We evaluated the intraoperative depth of anaesthesia using a bispectral (BIS index monitor as well as the patients response to surgical stimulus (PRST scoring system. Post-operatively, a modified Bruce questionnaire was used to verify awareness. The adequacy of evoked potential readings was also assessed. Results: Of the 61 patients, no patient had explicit awareness. Intraoperatively, 19 of 61 patients had a BIS value of above sixty at least once, during surgery. There was no correlation with PRST scoring and BIS during surgery. Fifty-four out of 61 patient′s evoked potential readings were deemed ′good′ or ′fair′ for the conduct of electrophysiological monitoring. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics to facilitate evoked potential monitoring does not result in explicit awareness. However, larger studies are needed to verify this. The conduct of SSEP electrophysiological monitoring was satisfactory with the use of this

  3. Root mass ratio: index derived by assimilation of synthetic aperture radar and the improved World Food Study model for heavy metal stress monitoring in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Jin, Ming; Wu, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic assessment of heavy metal contamination in crops is essential for food security and the farmland ecological environment. A new index for monitoring heavy metal stress based on the assimilation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and the crop growth model is performed. The improved World Food Study (WOFOST) model was used in this study, which is embedded with two stress factors to improve the accuracy of assimilation. Biomass (BM) values retrieved by SAR data were assimilated into the improved WOFOST model to simulate dry weight of rice roots (WRT), and the root mass ratio (RMR, WRT/BM) was calculated as an index for monitoring heavy metal stress. SAR shows enormous potential for monitoring crop growth status in cloudy area. Compared with other physiological indices, RMR could weaken the weight change of rice caused by other background factors. In the temporal scale, RMR showed a faster significant decrease when the stress was greater. The spatial distribution of RMR and the stress factors exhibited good consistency. These results suggest that RMR derived from the assimilation method based on SAR data and the improved WOFOST model is effective for dynamically monitoring the rice growth status in cloudy regions under heavy metal stress.

  4. Submergence Vulnerability Index development and application to Coastwide Reference Monitoring System Sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Thomas E.; Snedden, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its implementation in 2003, the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) in Louisiana has facilitated the creation of a comprehensive dataset that includes, but is not limited to, vegetation, hydrologic, and soil metrics on a coastwide scale. The primary impetus for this data collection is to assess land management activities, including restoration efforts, across the coast. The aim of the CRMS analytical team is to provide a method to synthesize this data to enable multiscaled evaluations of activities in Louisiana’s coastal wetlands. Several indices have been developed to facilitate data synthesis and interpretation, including a Floristic Quality Index, a Hydrologic Index, and a Landscape Index. This document details the development of the Submergence Vulnerability Index, which incorporates sediment-elevation data as well as hydrologic data to determine the vulnerability of a wetland based on its ability to keep pace with sea-level rise. The objective of this document is to provide Federal and State sponsors, project managers, planners, landowners, data users, and the rest of the coastal restoration community with the following: (1) data collection and model development methods for the sediment-elevation response variables, and (2) a description of how these response variables will be used to evaluate CWPPRA project and program effectiveness.

  5. Spectral Reflectance and Vegetation Index Changes in Deciduous Forest Foliage Following Tree Removal: Potential for Deforestation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, D.; Hu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-05-01

    It is important to detect and quantify deforestation to guide strategic decisions regarding environment, socioeconomic development, and climate change. In the present study, we conducted a field experiment to examine spectral reflectance and vegetation index changes in poplar and locust tree foliage with different leaf area indices over the course of three sunny days, following tree removal from the canopy. The spectral reflectance of foliage from harvested trees was measured using an ASD FieldSpec Prospectroradiometer; synchronous meteorological data were also obtained. We found that reflectance in short-wave infrared and red-edge reflectance was more time sensitive after tree removal than reflectance in other spectral regions, and that the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the red-edge chlorophyll index (CIRE) were the preferred indicators of these changes from several indices evaluated. Synthesized meteorological environments were found to influence water and chlorophyll contents after tree removal, and this subsequently changed the spectral canopy reflectance. Our results indicate the potential for such tree removal to be detected with NDWI or CIRE from the second day of a deforestation event.

  6. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  7. Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 score (RAPID3) correlates well with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity index (BASDAI) in the assessment of disease activity and monitoring progression of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danve, Abhijeet; Reddy, Anusha; Vakil-Gilani, Kiana; Garg, Neha; Dinno, Alexis; Deodhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) is a composite index, very useful for assessment of disease activity of various rheumatic diseases including RA. If RAPID3 can also reliably measure disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), it may prove to be a practical and effective quantitative assessment tool in busy practices. We studied the association of RAPID3 with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) seen from 2007 to 2012 were classified as having AS or non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) using modified New York criteria and Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria, respectively. Patients with simultaneous BASDAI and RAPID3 scores were enrolled (N = 112; 105 with AS, seven with nr-axSpA). Multiple regression and nonparametric receiver operating characteristics were used. Baseline mean (SD) BASDAI and RAPID3 were 4.2 (2.5) and 3.8 (2.3), respectively. Multiple linear regressions modeled a quadratic relationship between BASDAI and RAPID3 for 321 observations in 112 patients with axSpA (1) cross-sectionally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.171; s.e. = 0.113, p < 0.001) and RAPID3(2) (β = -0.037; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.011) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.676; and (2) longitudinally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.196; s.e. = 0.111, p < 0.001), RAPID3(2) (β = -0.042; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.004), and visit number (β = -0.142; s.e. = 0.038, p < 0.001) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.689. RAPID3 (correctly classified) corresponded to BASDAI scores of 2, 4, and 6: 1.40 (85.8 %), 3.33 (81.9 %), and 5.43 (87.1 %), respectively. RAPID3 correlates well with BASDAI in monitoring axSpA patients (including AS) in cross-sectional and longitudinal follow-up. Since it also correlates with measures of disease activity of other rheumatic diseases including RA, RAPID3 could be an attractive measure

  8. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  9. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  10. Monitoring change in refractive index of cytosol of animal cells on affinity surface under osmotic stimulus for label-free measurement of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Jin, Sung Il; Kim, Hyung Min; Ahn, Junhyoung; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Eun Gyo; Kim, Min-Gon; Shin, Yong-Beom

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrated that a metal-clad waveguide (MCW)-based biosensor can be applied to label-free measurements of viability of adherent animal cells with osmotic stimulation in real time. After Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cell 293 (HEK293) cells were attached to a Concanavalin A (Con A)-modified sensor surface, the magnitudes of cell responses to non-isotonic stimulation were compared between live and dead cells. The live cells exhibited a change in the refractive index (RI) of the cytosol caused by a redistribution of water through the cell membrane, which was induced by the osmotic stimulus, but the dead cells did not. Moreover, the normalized change in the RI measured via the MCW sensor was linearly proportional to the viability of attached cells and the resolution in monitoring cell viability was about 0.079%. Therefore, the viability of attached animal cells can be measured without labels by observing the relative differences in the RI of cytosol in isotonic and non-isotonic buffers.

  11. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  12. Monitoring changes in biodiversity over Canada during the past three decades using a dynamic habitat index derived from a long-term AVHRR record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, F. M.; Coops, N. C.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Trishchenko, A. P.; Wulder, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the drivers of biodiversity and establishing methods for biodiversity monitoring and conservation has gained increasing importance over the past decade, with particular focus in 2010, proclaimed by the United Nations to be the International Year of Biodiversity. In this context, satellite remote sensing can provide broad-scale information on a range of geophysical variables such as fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) absorbed by a vegetated canopy, or land cover, both of which have been shown to be useful indirect indicators of biodiversity through a connection to species abundance and richness. One satellite-derived indirect indicator of species diversity is the Dynamic Habitat Index (DHI), which combines the cumulative annual fPAR, providing an indication of overall site greenness, the minimum annual apparent fPAR, indicating the base level of vegetation cover observed at a location, and the variation of fPAR (seasonality), estimated as the coefficient of variation. To date the application of the DHI has been restricted to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors from 2000 onwards. To obtain a longer term time series and earlier baseline of DHI conditions across Canada utilization of the archive of historical satellite data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor is proposed. In this paper we will discuss the reprocessing of the 1 km spatial resolution AVHRR archive (1981-2007) using a recently developed processing system, Canadian AVHRR Processing System (CAPS). The CAPS produces multi-date composites that satisfy the geolocation requirements defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). For the compositing process, a cloud contamination index as well as information on the view zenith angle and cloud shadows is incorporated, and observations are constrained to either the forward or backward scattering hemisphere to reduce Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution

  13. Timely monitoring of Asian Migratory locust habitats in the Amudarya delta, Uzbekistan using time series of satellite remote sensing vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Waldner, François; Latchininsky, Alexandre; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Bolkart, Maximilian; Colditz, René R

    2016-12-01

    The Asian Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratoria L.) is a pest that continuously threatens crops in the Amudarya River delta near the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Its development coincides with the growing period of its main food plant, a tall reed grass (Phragmites australis), which represents the predominant vegetation in the delta and which cover vast areas of the former Aral Sea, which is desiccating since the 1960s. Current locust survey methods and control practices would tremendously benefit from accurate and timely spatially explicit information on the potential locust habitat distribution. To that aim, satellite observation from the MODIS Terra/Aqua satellites and in-situ observations were combined to monitor potential locust habitats according to their corresponding risk of infestations along the growing season. A Random Forest (RF) algorithm was applied for classifying time series of MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from 2003 to 2014 at an 8-day interval. Based on an independent ground truth data set, classification accuracies of reeds posing a medium or high risk of locust infestation exceeded 89% on average. For the 12-year period covered in this study, an average of 7504 km(2) (28% of the observed area) was flagged as potential locust habitat and 5% represents a permanent high risk of locust infestation. Results are instrumental for predicting potential locust outbreaks and developing well-targeted management plans. The method offers positive perspectives for locust management and treatment of infested sites because it is able to deliver risk maps in near real time, with an accuracy of 80% in April-May which coincides with both locust hatching and the first control surveys. Such maps could help in rapid decision-making regarding control interventions against the initial locust congregations, and thus the efficiency of survey teams and the chemical treatments could be increased, thus potentially reducing environmental pollution

  14. Indexing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  15. Comparative evaluation of bispectral index system after sedation with midazolam and propofol combined with remifentanil versus ketamine in uncooperative during dental procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that intravenous sedation technique with PMR combination induces effective and safe sedation, with less pain and more forgetfulness and a shorter recovery time for children 3-7 years of age during dental procedures.

  16. The response of bispectral index to laryngoscopy, comparison between hemispheres in patients with a brain tumour versus a healthy control group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyler, B.; Wyffels, P.; de Hert, S.; Okito, Jean Pierre Kalala; Struys, Michel; Vereecke, Hugo Eric Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study: Electroencephalogram during anaesthesia may be affected by brain tumour.(1) We studied whether patients with a brain tumour have different BIS responses after laryngoscopy (LAR). We compared tumour patients with healthy control patients. Materials and Methods: After EC

  17. Perbandingan Kebutuhan Propofol dan Lama Bangun antara Kombinasi Propofol-Ketamin dan Propofol-Fentanil pada Pasien yang Dilakukan Kuretase yang Diukur dengan Bispectral Index (BIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirawan Anggorotomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate administration of safe, easy-to-obtain, and constantly available sedatives and analgesia, is needed for pain reduction throughout curettage procedures. The goal of this study was to examine differences in propofol requirements and emergence time between propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl combinations in patients undergoing curettage. A single-blind randomized controlled trial study was performed on 60 patients who underwent curettage procedures. The patients were divided into two groups: propofol-ketamine (PK and propofol-fentanyl (PF. Blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, and oxygen saturation and BIS data were analysed using a t-test and Mann-Whitney test. This study showed that propofol requirements differ significantly (p<0.001 between the two groups where in PK group where 4/30 subjects received additional propofol, compared to PF group 14/30 subjects received additional propofol. The wake up time for PK group was 25.75±2.47 minutes compared to 21.08±2.52 minutes for the PF group. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. The conclusions of this study are propofol requirements for PK group is less compared to PF group and the emergence time for PK group is longer compared to PF group.

  18. Monitoring muscle metabolic indexes by time-domain near infrared spectroscopy during knee flex-extension induced by functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Molteni, Franco; Ferrante, Simona; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2007-07-01

    A time-domain NIRS multichannel system was used to monitor hemodynamic changes in the muscle of volunteers and hemiplegic patients during functional electrical stimulation for rehabilitation purposes.

  19. [Construction and validation of a socio-environmental vulnerability index for monitoring and management of natural disasters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Martins, Raphael Nascimento; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Fróes

    2014-10-01

    Floods account for approximately 40% of natural disasters that occur around the world and they are therefore considered a major public health problem. While floods constitute a global problem, data from the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction showed that almost all of the deaths or individuals affected are concentrated in developing countries. It is assumed that, although they have natural causes, the consequences of floods also involve social issues. To try to predict such vulnerability in the occurrence of natural disasters, a social and environmental index that shows the degree of vulnerability of a location was developed in this paper. This index was developed using multivariate analysis involving factor analysis and demographic, social and environmental variables. The index was applied in the municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro and compared with the official figures of the Civil Defense Unit. The results found suggest that the proposed index meets the expectation of predicting the vulnerability of the local population.

  20. Development of clothing micro climate monitoring system for human physiological indexes%人体生理指标与服装微气候监测系统研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪岩; 杨敏; 陈雁

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to how to monitor human physiological indexes by observing the change of related indexes of the clothing micro climate monitoring system. Having analyzed the clothing which makes a person feel comfortable and enjoy good healthy as well as related physiological indexes, we investigated the route and method for applying the technologies of sensor and LCD to clothing, designed a smart clothing for collecting, transmitting, displaying and recording the signals from human body, and developed a smart monitoring system for human physiological indexes. The system, based on single chip microcomputer AT89C52, can be used in the clothing. This findings may serve as a reference for the application of sensor and display technologies in the field of smart clothing.%为研究人体生理特征指标和服装微气候指标的监测方法,在分析人体健康状况的生理特征指标和人体舒适感的服装的基础上,探讨了将传感器和显示器技术应用于服装产品的路径与方法,设计了应用于人体生理指标监测智能服装的信息采集、传输、显示和记录系统,研制了可以用于服装的、以AT89C52单片机为基础的智能化生理指征监测服装系统.其研究成果可以为传感器和显示器技术在智能服装领域的应用提供参考.

  1. Fluvial functional index, extended biotic index and law 152/99 to evaluate the quality of rivers: 'Potenza' river monitoring; Indice di funzionalita fluviale, IBE e D.Lgs. 152/99 nella valutazione della qualita fluviale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuri, Stefania; Morichetti, Luciana; Amici, Valeria; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Petrelli, Fabio; Cocchioni, Mario [Camerino Univ., Camerino (Italy). Dipartimento di medicina sperimentale, sanita pubblica, Sezione scienze igienistiche e sanitarie-ambientali

    2006-01-15

    The article explain at the first the importance of the set of rules evolution concerning the water resources conservation. Illustrates then the latest river monitoring techniques and effects a comparative analysis of the emerged results from their application on the River Potenza. [Italian] L'articolo sottolinea dapprima l'importanza dell'evoluzione normativa nella tutela delle risorse idriche ed effettua poi una analisi comparativa dei risultati emersi dalla loro applicazione sul Fiume Potenza.

  2. Novel monitoring method for the management of heart failure: combined measurement of body weight and bioimpedance index of body fat percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2009-11-01

    Although body weight scales are most commonly used to evaluate body fluid status during follow-up of definite heart failure (HF) patients, bioimpedance measurement methods have become increasingly available in the clinical setting. These monitoring methods, however, are typically used separately to evaluate body fluid status in HF patients. Kataoka developed a novel method for monitoring HF patients using a digital weight scale that incorporated a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. This method combines the well-known advantages of body weighing with a refined bioimpedance technique to monitor HF status and provides valid information regarding a change in a patient's body fluid status during follow-up for HF, such as predominant fluid versus fat weight gain or loss. This special report describes examples of the practical use of this method for monitoring and treating definite HF patients.

  3. 末梢灌注指数与全身麻醉患者血流动力学及儿茶酚胺的相关性%Correlation of tip perfusion index with hemodynamics and catechalomines in patients undergoing general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑琴; 罗宝蓉; 王保国

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation of tip perfusion index (TPI) with the hemodynamics and catechalomines and to assess the value and meaning of TPI for monitoring stress responses in general anesthesia. Methods Twenty patients who were to receive selective neurosurgery underwent induction and maintenance of propofol and remifentanil by target controlled infusion (TCI). A 60mA-5OHz5s electrostimulus was applied before tracheal intubation and head holder setting respectively. TPI, SBP,diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) were recorded at nine time points: before induction (baseline), before and after electrostimulation, before and after tracheal intubation, before and after electrostimulation, and before and after head holder setting. The changes of parameters (△TPI,△SBP,△DBP,△HR, and △BIS) were calculated after each stimulation. Five out of 20 patients were selected randomly to monitor the plasma concentration of catecholamine at the above time points. The responses to tracheal intubation and head holder setting were defined as the SBP increasing >15mm Hg over the baseline value. Results △TPI was significantly correlated with △SBP and △DBP (r=0.623 and 0.317, P0.05).电刺激后ATPI小于刺激前TPI10%的患者,气管插管和上头架反应显著减少.TPI与NE和E负相关(r值分别为-0.679和-0.364,P值分别<0.01和0.05).结论 (1)应激引起TPI变化与血压变化密切相关,而且电刺激后TPI变化对气管插管后和上头架后血压变化有一定预测作用.(2),TPI变化间接反映了血浆NE的水平.

  4. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  5. Speech Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, R.J.F.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Leeuwen, van D.A.; Blanken, H.M.; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the automatic extraction of information from the speech in multimedia documents. This approach is often referred to as speech indexing and it can be regarded as a subfield of audio indexing that also incorporates for example the analysis of music and sounds. If the objecti

  6. Precipitation-temperature index and its application in drought and flood disasters monitoring%降水温度指数及其在旱涝灾害监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田苗; 王鹏新

    2016-01-01

    A new precipitation-temperature index ( PTI) was developed based on precipitation data from passive mi-crowave remote sensing of tropical rainfall measurement mission ( TRMM) and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiome-ter ( MODIS) land surface temperature products in this study. The new index is not only related to precipitation changes in a region, but also gives emphasis on land surface temperature changes, aiming at integrated monitoring of both drought and flood disasters. The performance of temperature. The PTI pixels in the central Taihu Lake and Hongze Lake were applied to determine the flood line of PTI. ASMR-E soil moisture data was used to determine the drought line of PTI. The performance of temperature condition index ( TCI) was consistent with PTI when applied to monitor drought, while standardized precipi-tation index ( SPI) agreed well with PTI in monitoring flood disasters. The results indicated that PTI is capable of integrated monitoring of drought and flood disasters.%应用被动微波遥感热带降雨测量卫星( TRMM)降水量数据结合中分辨率成像光谱仪( MODIS)地表温度产品,建立了降水温度指数模型,用于旱涝灾害的监测。该指数参考了地表温度与植被指数特征空间反演地表水分的方法,同时考虑了降水量和地表温度2个因素,并将旱灾和涝灾的监测结合起来。应用水系所在区域的降水温度指数的统计值,确定了涝灾的值域范围;应用AMSR-E土壤湿度数据,确定了旱灾的值域范围。结果表明,降水温度指数旱灾监测结果与条件温度指数监测结果一致,降水温度指数涝灾监测结果与标准化降水指数监测结果一致,且与历年相关的新闻报道相符。说明降水温度指数可以用来进行旱涝灾害监测。

  7. Comparison of auditory evoked potentials and the A-line ARX Index for monitoring the hypnotic level during sevoflurane and propofol induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litvan, H; Jensen, E W; Revuelta, M

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the a......Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation...

  8. Integrated use of biomarkers and condition indices in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for monitoring pollution and development of biomarker index to assess the potential toxic of coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, Imene; Boutiba, Zitouni; Merabet, Amina; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we are interested in spatial and temporal variations of the biological and physiological responses of mussels collected from contrasting marine sites regarding their levels of pollution. We measured both the conditions indices and the enzymatic biomarker expression: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. The enzymatic biomarkers were chosen because they respond to environmental stress. Results show a significant interactions between biomarker variations and conditions indices in the industrial harbor site throughout the seasons. But no significant changes in the reference site. Furthermore, we classified the sites along the seasons according to their potential ecotoxicity, calculated based on the sum of the normalised values of the biomarkers. The results show a very high biomarker index in the impacted site with irregular changes between seasons. This biomarker index is therefore a valuable tool that could be used to classify the toxic potential of coastal sites.

  9. Application and Verification of Drought Index in Meteorology Drought Monitoring and Prediction%GEV干旱指数及其在气象干旱预测和监测中的应用和检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王澄海; 王芝兰; 郭毅鹏

    2012-01-01

    A new drought index, which is based on generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, was proposed. The GEV index' s theory and method was introduced. By using the monthly precipitation data of 160 sites during 1951-2010, the drought events calculated and observed are compared and validated. By predicting the drought events occurred during 2009-2010, the prediction performances of the GEV drought index is validated on monthly scale. The results show that the GEV method has well performances for drought monitoring and prediction, which also has good agreement with CI index, which is widely used for drought monitoring practices. Meanwhile, this drought index can be used for the predication of drought climatology and categorizing of the drought severity. The results also show that the index has good performances in observation sites density regions, but it has some errors in site-sparse regions.%介绍了一种新的基于广义极值分布(Generalized Extreme Value,GEV)的干旱指数的构建过程及其原理。并利用1951—2010年中国地区160个气象台站的逐月降水资料,选择6个代表台站,检验1951_2010年60年间预测的干旱和实际干旱事件发生的吻合程度;利用2009--2010年资料检验GEV指数和实际发生的干旱事件在月尺度上的监测效果。结果表明,利用GEV方法定义的干旱指数能较好地监测干旱事件的发生和发展,与目前广泛使用的ci指数监测结果较为一致。同时这种指数也能用于某一地区干旱事件的预测和干旱等级的划分。对干旱业务监测和预测有重要的参考意义。但该指数对站点疏密有一定的依赖性,站点稀疏的区域存在着一些误差。

  10. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  11. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkabiliy Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  12. Ultra-low permeability oilfield water quality assessment index and monitoring technology%特低渗透性油田水质评价指标及检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天坤

    2011-01-01

    与油田水处理相关的水质分析与检测受地质条件和环保要求的双重制约,如何制定特低渗透性油田水质评价指标和检测手段是一项较为复杂的工作.针对地质条件和环保要求,制定了包含25个大项、120多个小项的水质评价指标和检测方法,基本上能够满足特低渗透性油田水处理工作的需要.%It is a complex work to establish the water quality assessment index and monitoring methods in ultra-low permeability oilfield, which is dependent on both the geological properties and environmental protection requirements. The water quality assessment index and monitoring methods including 25 main items and more than 120 branch items have been worked out aiming at the geological properties and environmental protection requirements, which can meet the demands of wastewater treatment in ultra-low permeability oilfield.

  13. Louisiana ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  14. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  15. Maryland ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  16. 有氧运动强度监测指标特征分析与研究%Analysis and Study on Features of Monitoring Indexes of Aerobic Exercise Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武春英

    2015-01-01

    The features of heart rate ,metabolic equivalent of energy ,rating of perceived exertion and energy consumption of sport in exercise indexes are studied .Firstly ,the feature of heart rate index is analyzed from the aspects of basic respondent feature of exercise burden from heart rate ,arrangement of exercise burden intensity by using target heart rate ,feature of measuring heart rate ,exercise intensity monitoring of heart rate .Secondly ,the indexes of metabolic equivalent of energy and the rating of perceived exertion are shown as well as their level indexes .Thirdly ,the methods of exercise energy consumption are analyzed from the aspects of metabolic gas analyzer and the heart rate testing method .Finally the conclusion and advices are shown .%研究了运动指标中的心率、代谢当量、主观感觉程度与运动能量消耗等指标特征,首先,从心率对运动负荷的基本应答特征、运用目标心率安排锻炼负荷强度、心率测量的特征、心率的运动强度监测等方面分析了心率指标特征;其次,阐述了代谢当量指标与主观感觉程度特征及其分级指标;再次,从气体代谢分析仪与心率测试法等方面分析了运动能量消耗测定方法;最后进行了总结与建议。

  17. The Strategic-Oriented Risk Monitoring Index System to Guangzhou Mobile%战略导向的广州移动风险监控指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨碧玲

    2012-01-01

    The thesis creates a method which connects corporate strategy with corporate operational risk though activities, to set a strategic-oriented risk monitoring index system to Guangzhou Mobile and to carry out an empirical test and application. It is the first time to give an intuitive show to the monitoring and the comparability of the company's risk, and to achieve the quantitative observations and forecasts of the company's risk. The methodology is instructive and promotes the value of the enterprises to establish a risk monitoring system.%笔者创建了一种以作业活动为媒介,将公司战略与公司运营风险链接的方法,为广州移动量身定做了一套战略导向的风险监控指标体系并开展了实证检验和应用,首次实现了对公司风险的可监控、可比较的直观展现,并实现了对公司风险的数量化观察与预测。其方法体系对企业建立风险监控体系具启发意义和推广价值。

  18. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ruotsalainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n=46 were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n=15, whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n=16 and a third group served as the control group (n=15. Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p=0.021, but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17.

  19. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats’ Health Status by On-Line Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland’s health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals’ pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks. Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors.

  20. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats’ Health Status by On-Line Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland’s health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals’ pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors. PMID:26307993

  1. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats' Health Status by On-Line Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0-60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61-120 DIM; 121-180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland's health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals' pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors.

  2. INDEXING MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  3. Using FY-2 Based Evapotranspiration Index to Monitor the Severe Drought in Southwest China%应用FY-2地表蒸散产品监测西南特大干旱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元元

    2011-01-01

    . Satellite based evapotranspiration according to the energy balance principle has clear physical meaning, and is widely used in the field of remote sensing for drought monitoring. Based on the China Energy and Water Balance Monitoring System (CEWBMS) and long time-series (11 years) dataset of geostationary satellite, the percentage of relative evapotranspiration anomaly (PRETA) is obtained by using FY- 2/VISSR remote sensing data and investigated for large-area drought monitoring. Compared with polar-orbiting satellite based drought indices, the FY-2 based PRETA drought index has obvious advantages in the scope and frequency Of monitoring. Due to the introduction of anomaly to relative evapotranspiration, the drought intensity classification is no longer dependent on seasonal and regional variations. Continuous quantitative evaluations of drought conditions in Southwest China from autumn 2009 to spring 2010 are carried out and statistics of the arid area are collected. Results show that spatial and temporal changes of drought status derived from PRETA are highly correlated with the actual drought situations. Trends of the area-averaged PRETA and the precipitation anomaly percentage time-series are highly consistent. Mean- while, PRETA has a reasonable correlation with 10 cm relative soil moisture measurements. On the whole, the drought monitoring application in this study provided a practical way for real-time, large-area, high spatial resolution, quantitative and dynamic monitoring of drought.%基于能量平衡原理的卫星遥感地表蒸散产品具有清晰明确的物理含义,广泛地应用于遥感干旱监测领域。本研究以中国能量与水平衡监测系统(CEWBMS)和近11年的静止卫星遥感数据集为基础,利用FY-2/VISSR数据生成相对蒸散距平百分率(Percentage of Relative Evapotranspiration Anomaly,PRETA)产品,应用于全国范围的旱情连续监测。与极轨卫星同类产品相比,基于FY-2

  4. Evidences from long-term monitoring of Italian forests. Tree radial growth as response index to disturbances and its relations with the stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertini G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the work undertaken since 1995 within the national level II network framed into the ICP-Forests ICP-IM programme. A synthesis of results from tree growth monitoring and relationships with stand structure and related parameters, are reported. Current changes in the growth medium, i.e. physics and chemistry of atmosphere and soil, (increase of average air temperature, rainfall shortage and drought, CO2 enrichment, ozone level, nitrogen fertilization, sulphate deposition drive today the soil-tree-atmosphere relationships. The overall result of these concurrent and counteracting factors is recorded along each growing seasons by radial stem growth, it providing a sensitive response. A few occurrences of disturbances to growth at regional and at case-study level, likely due to climate deviations, are discussed. Seasonal fluctuations and anomalous or extreme events are, as a matter of fact, the major evidences over the last decade. The heat wave 2003 is the main case occurred over a large part of Europe. Growth rate 2000-04 compared with 1997-2000, showed reductions up to 50% on plots located within the Southern continental border of the heat wave. These occurred more specifically at low elevations and for pre-determined early growth species (beech and oaks. Over the following time-window 2005-09, a significant growth decrease was vice versa detected within the coniferous spruce forests located at medium-high elevation in the Alps, where repeated seasonal anomalies both in air temperature and rainfall were recorded over the same time-span. The heavy effect of climate disturbance at a local scale is finally examined where two oak species with different auto-ecology grow together at the same site. Reasons why and awaited goals from protocols’ updating and the more intensive surveys applied to core-areas in 2009-10 under LIFE+FutMon, are reported. Perspectives at short to medium term of monitoring programme at national and European

  5. Non-invasive imaging to monitor lupus nephritis and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5gh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Thurman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that can affect multiple different organs, including the kidneys and central nervous system (CNS. Conventional radiological examinations in SLE patients include volumetric/ anatomical computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasound (US. The utility of these modalities is limited, however, due to the complexity of the disease. Furthermore, CT and MRI contrast agents are contraindicated in patients with renal impairment. Various radiologic methods are currently being developed to improve disease characterization in patients with SLE beyond simple anatomical endpoints. Physiological non-contrast MRI protocols have been developed to assess tissue oxygenation, glomerular filtration, renal perfusion, interstitial diffusion, and inflammation-driven fibrosis in lupus nephritis (LN patients. For neurological symptoms, vessel size imaging (VSI, an MRI approach utilizing T2-relaxing iron oxide nanoparticles has shown promise as a diagnostic tool. Molecular imaging probes (mostly for MRI and nuclear medicine imaging have also been developed for diagnosing SLE with high sensitivity, and for monitoring disease activity. This paper reviews the challenges in evaluating disease activity in patients with LN and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE. We describe novel MRI and positron-emission tomography (PET molecular imaging protocols using targeted iron oxide nanoparticles and radioactive ligands, respectively, for detection of SLE-associated inflammation.

  6. Research on the Monitoring and Early-warning Index Systems of Tourism Crisis Events' Network Public Opinions%旅游危机事件网络舆情的监测预警指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付业勤; 郑向敏; 郑文标; 陈雪钧; 雷春

    2014-01-01

    According to the connotation and composition of tourism crisis events' network public opinions, using corrected Delphi method and AHP, this paper designs an index system, which consists of three level indicators, for monitoring and early-warning the network pub-lic opinion on tourism crisis events. It defines the measurement and quantification methods of the indicators, establishes the classifying cri-teria of the levels of network public opinion risk, and carries out an empirical research using the charge policy event of Phoenix Ancient City in Hunan as an example. The results show that the proposed network public opinion risk index can simulate the evolution of network public opinion, and plays a desired role in tourism crisis events' network public opinion monitoring and early-warning.%根据旅游危机事件网络舆情的内涵和构成,运用修正德尔菲法、层次分析法,建构由三级指标组成的旅游危机事件网络舆情监测预警指标体系,确定各项指标的测量与量化方法,划分舆情风险警级,以湖南凤凰古城收费事件为例进行实证研究,结果发现由该指标体系得到的舆情风险指数可以对网络舆情演化进行模拟,起到了对网络舆情的监测和预警作用。

  7. Study and application of Northwest Guangxi drought remote sensing monitoring based on vegetation supply water index%基于植被供水指数的桂西北旱情遥感监测研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建波; 吴立愿; 张文明

    2014-01-01

    In view of frequent extreme weather,drought increasing and being more and more serious,Northwest Guangxi was studied. Remote sensing images of different periods were collected. Based on analysis of image indexes such as vegetation and temperature,grading rules of vegetation supply water index was determined according to his⁃torical drought information. In accordance with the rules,real-time and dynamic drought information monitoring is possible. The achievements of study may strengthen drought alarm capability and provide technical basis for drought prevention and protection.%针对极端天气频繁出现,干旱增多、严重等问题,以桂西北为研究区域,获取不同时期遥感影像数据,通过分析植被及温度等影像指数,依据历史旱情发生情况,建立植被供水指数分级规则,并依此规则,可实时、动态地监测旱情信息。其成果可增强旱情的预警能力,为防旱、抗旱决策提供了技术参考依据。

  8. Adaptive indexing in modern database kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idreos, S.; Manegold, S.; Graefe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Physical design represents one of the hardest problems for database management systems. Without proper tuning, systems cannot achieve good performance. Offline indexing creates indexes a priori assuming good workload knowledge and idle time. More recently, online indexing monitors the workload trend

  9. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...... basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security....

  10. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid, zinc sulfate, experimental colitis, 2003328AC133 antigen, hematopoietic stem cells, fetal blood, immunophe-notyping, 2003138ALR2 gene, eNOS gene, PON1 gene, RAGE gene, 2003179 ATN-ISI, prognosis, acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis-individual severity index, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, 2003118 Alzheimer disease, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha,

  11. Multi-Temporal Crop Surface Models Combined with the RGB Vegetation Index from Uav-Based Images for Forage Monitoring in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoch, M.; Bieker, S.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bolten, A.; Schellberg, J.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs) were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition). Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI) was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based) and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs) were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon) with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass. There is a

  12. MULTI-TEMPORAL CROP SURFACE MODELS COMBINED WITH THE RGB VEGETATION INDEX FROM UAV-BASED IMAGES FOR FORAGE MONITORING IN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Possoch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of crop biomass is important in regard to precision agriculture, which aims to improve nutrient use efficiency and to develop better stress and disease management. In this study, multi-temporal crop surface models (CSMs were generated from UAV-based dense imaging in order to derive plant height distribution and to determine forage mass. The low-cost UAV-based RGB imaging was carried out in a grassland experiment at the University of Bonn, Germany, in summer 2015. The test site comprised three consecutive growths including six different nitrogen fertilizer levels and three replicates, in sum 324 plots with a size of 1.5×1.5 m. Each growth consisted of six harvesting dates. RGB-images and biomass samples were taken at twelve dates nearly biweekly within two growths between June and September 2015. Images were taken with a DJI Phantom 2 in combination of a 2D Zenmuse gimbal and a GoPro Hero 3 (black edition. Overlapping images were captured in 13 to 16 m and overview images in approximately 60 m height at 2 frames per second. The RGB vegetation index (RGBVI was calculated as the normalized difference of the squared green reflectance and the product of blue and red reflectance from the non-calibrated images. The post processing was done with Agisoft PhotoScan Professional (SfM-based and Esri ArcGIS. 14 ground control points (GCPs were located in the field, distinguished by 30 cm × 30 cm markers and measured with a RTK-GPS (HiPer Pro Topcon with 0.01 m horizontal and vertical precision. The errors of the spatial resolution in x-, y-, z-direction were in a scale of 3-4 cm. From each survey, also one distortion corrected image was georeferenced by the same GCPs and used for the RGBVI calculation. The results have been used to analyse and evaluate the relationship between estimated plant height derived with this low-cost UAV-system and forage mass. Results indicate that the plant height seems to be a suitable indicator for forage mass

  13. 熵指数和脑电双频指数与麻醉镇静深度38例临床观察%The relationship observation of entropy index and bispectral index and anaesthesia calm depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾树山; 刘强; 张勇; 姚光; 王耀岐

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较熵指数和脑电双频指数(BIS)与丙泊酚镇静深度的相关性.方法 38例患者入室后在丙泊酚麻醉诱导直至患者对指令性反应消失后,观察丙泊酚镇静深度的评价不同镇静/ 警觉评分(OAA/S)时RE、SE和BIS 的变化.结果 OAA/ S 评分与反应熵(RE)、状态熵(SE)和BIS 的相关系数分别为rRE =0. 7643 、rSE = 0.7372 和rBIS = 0.8602 , rBIS与rRE和rSE之间差异均有统计学意义,( P<0.01),而rRE与rSE之间差异无显著意义.结论 研究发现熵指数和BIS与OAA/ S评分均具有良好的相关性.

  14. Extravascular lung water index monitoring and fluid management in patients with pulmonary contusion%肺挫伤患者血管外肺水指数的监测和液体管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭民; 宋世辉; 周文; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To guide fluid management and evaluate the clinical index through monitoring extravascular lung water index(EVLWI) of patients with pulmonary contusion.Methods Thirtyone severe chest trauma patients with pulmonary contusion were selected,performed with central venous catheterization or femoral artery catheterization,and connected to pulse index continuous cardiac output (PICCO).EVLWI after pulmonary contusion were measured by using thermal dilution.The intake and output of patients were recorded in detail,fluid intake was controlled,furosemide was prescribed,and the changes and correlations of oxygenation index,EVLWI and liquid balance difference at different time points were evaluated.Results EVLWI after pulmonary contusion at 1st to 7th d after hospitalization was respectively (9.25 ±0.71),(8.98 ±0.61),(8.61 ±0.59),(7.75±0.53),(6.64 ±0.49),(6.22±0.36),(5.59 ±0.39) ml/kg.Comparing with 1st d after hospitalization,EVLWI declined from 3rd d (P < 0.05).Oxygenation index at Ist to 7th d after hospitallzation was respectively( 145.76±23.61 ),( 144.19±20.24),( 146.67±19.25 ),(159.33±15.42),(177.38±14.25),(199.33±19.04),(213.71±18.51) mm Hg(1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa).Comparing with 1st d,oxygenation index from 4th to 7th d had significant difference (P < 0.05 ).The fluid volume at 1st d to 7th d were all negative balance,that of 3rd d to 6th d had significant difference comparing with 1st d [(-431.43±121.17),(-601.43±127.09),(-629.52±140.69),(-320.01 ±93.71) ml vs.(-213.81±63.91 ) ml](P < 0.05 ).Oxygenation index and EVLWI had negative correlation(r =-0.824,P<0.01).Liquid balance difference and the changes of oxygenation index and EVLWI had no correlation.Conclusion EVLWI effectively monitoring after pulmonary contusion can not only evaluate the changes of pulmonary vascular permeability of patients with pulmonary contusion,but also have important significance to guide fluid management.%目的 通过对肺挫伤患者血管外肺水指

  15. A Framework for Quantifying the Impacts of Sub-Pixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bi-Spectral Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Werner, F.; Cho, H. -M.; Wind, Galina; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    The so-called bi-spectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave-infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring sub-pixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In this study, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of sub-pixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bi-spectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the sub-pixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval.

  16. 通过测量氡的放射性来监测大气稳定度的新方法%Measurement of atmospheric stability index by monitoring radon natural radioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬娟; 张华; Maria Pia Ancora; 邓晓东

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种通过测量氡和其短周期衰变产物的自然放射性来监测大气稳定度的新方法,该指标反映了低层大气边界层的混合特性,能够反映一次污染物的稀释扩散特征.将这种方法测量的大气稳定度与通用的帕斯奎尔分类法计算的稳定度进行对比,该方法不仅能准确反映大气稳定度长期趋势和昼夜变化,还能反映大气稳定度的瞬时变化,是解析环境污染数据,特别是一次污染物的有利工具.2007年在兰州市的观测结果显示PM10与大气稳定度的观测数值有很好的一致性趋势,表明低层大气的混合特性是决定一次污染物浓度的关键因素.%A method to measure atmospheric stability index (ASI) by monitoring the natural radioactivity of radon and its shot-live decay products with OPSIS SM200 monitor was introduced. The index gives information about the dilution properties of the lower boundary layer and allows to highlight the relevant role of the dilution factor in determining pollution events. The measured ASI data had good agreement with the atmospheric stability classes calculated by Pasquill method. ASI can indicate the diurnal variation and long-term trends of atmospheric stability, as a useful tool to interpret pollution events, especially for primary pollutants. Measurement data taken in Lanzhou in 2007 showed that PM10 trend was consistent with the ASI trend, which indicates that mixing properties of lower boundary layer is the key factor determining primary pollutants' concentration.

  17. Vegetation Drought Response Index: 2010-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — VegDRI, short for Vegetation Drought Response Index, is a drought-monitoring tool developed by scientists at EROS in collaboration with the National Drought...

  18. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  19. WBAN-based real-time monitoring system of human health indexes%无线体域网(WBAN)的人体健康指标实时监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲彤晖; 赵潇腾; 李博文

    2013-01-01

    在此介绍一种便携式的人体健康指标实时监测系统,该系统以无线体域网(WBAN)构建网络,以MSP430单片机为核心,采用NELLCOR公司的指夹式血氧探头改造后采集血氧及脉搏信号,采集的信号经单片机处理后通过cc2530Zig-Bee模块定时发送到液晶屏上进行显示。当人体数据超标时可通过GPRS模块以发短信方式发到指定手机上。此系统所采用设备可便携在人体,体积小,测量精度较高。此系统可对人体数据实时监控与远程监控。%A portable real-time monitoring system of human health indexes is introduced in this paper,in which the wire-less body area network(WBAN)is taken as the network and MSP430 microcontroller as the core. The modified finger-clipped oxygen probe developed by Nellcor Company is used to collect oxygen and pulse signals. After being processed by a microcon-troller,the accumulated signals would be transmitted onto a LCD screen through CC2530ZigBee module to display. Once the ab-normal data from a person under test is detected,a built-in GPRS module will send a prompting message to a cell phone as a re-minder. The system takes a proper use of portable equipment so that it can be conveniently carried by human body,due to its small size. Of course this equipment is of high measuring precision. The main purpose of this system lies in its real-time remote monitoring of the data from human bodies.

  20. Circulating Water Stability Index and Its Application in Online Monitoring Device Based on Cygnal Technology%基于Cygnal技术循环水安定指数在线监测装置的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙墨杰; 李昭; 张莉蔷; 张庭; 万瑞军

    2015-01-01

    Considering the heating equipment’s scaling and corrosion incurred by complex composition of in-dustrial circulating cooling water,the online monitoring device for the quality stability of industrial cooling wa-ter was developed,which adopting stability index to reflect the tested water stability can simplify the manual a-nalysis in situ and control cooling water quality to reduce scaling or corrosion in condenser pipes.It has signifi-cance in keeping reliable operation,saving energy and water as well as in extending the service life of heating equipment.%针对当前工业循环冷却水水质成分复杂而导致热力设备易腐蚀结垢的现状,采用 C8051 F020微控制器研制了工业循环冷却水水质稳定性的在线监测装置。装置以安定指数来反映工业循环冷却水水质的稳定性,在现场运行中克服了人工繁杂的手工分析的难题,并且能很好地控制循环水水质来减轻凝汽器管道的结垢或腐蚀,对工业生产的安全可靠运行、节能节水、延长热力设备使用寿命等具有重要意义。

  1. Development of indoor environmental index: Air quality index and thermal comfort index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, index for indoor air quality (also known as IAQI) and thermal comfort index (TCI) have been developed. The IAQI was actually modified from previous outdoor air quality index (AQI) designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In order to measure the index, a real-time monitoring system to monitor indoor air quality level was developed. The proposed system consists of three parts: sensor module cloud, base station and service-oriented client. The sensor module cloud (SMC) contains collections of sensor modules that measures the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless. Each sensor modules includes an integrated sensor array that can measure indoor air parameters like Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Oxygen, Volatile Organic Compound and Particulate Matter. Temperature and humidity were also being measured in order to determine comfort condition in indoor environment. The result from several experiments show that the system is able to measure the air quality presented in IAQI and TCI in many indoor environment settings like air-conditioner, chemical present and cigarette smoke that may impact the air quality. It also shows that the air quality are changing dramatically, thus real-time monitoring system is essential.

  2. Monitoring Frost Disaster of Cotton Based on Difference of Vegetation Index and Canopy Temperature by Remote Sensing%基于ETM植被指数和冠层温度差异遥感监测棉花冷害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海荣; 李章成; 周清波; 吕新

    2009-01-01

    大范围地、及时地遥感监测棉花的冻害状况及损失对安排救灾、灾后评估有着现实的意义.利用2001年6月7日、8月10日和2000年8月7日ETM影像,结合农业灾害和农作物生长发育统计数据,通过植被指数变化和冠层温度差异对新疆沙湾2001年8月初棉花结桃时发生的冷害进行遥感监测.结果表明:与往年未遭受冷害的同期棉花植被指数相比,棉花植被指数NDVI绝对差值降低区域占67.8%,其中下降0~0.2占51%,下降大于0.2占17%,降低百分比处于0~20%.植被指数和温度图像散点图呈现显著负相关,相关系数-0.63.其中未受冷害影响,植被指数增加,长势较好的棉花冠层温度平均为26.4℃,植被指数未变化区域为27.6℃,植被指数降低较多,冷害程度较重区域冠层温度约为29.3℃,冠层温度差异显著.基于ETM遥感影像植被指数变化幅度和冠层温度差异可用于冷害程度区域划分.%Frostbite occurrence lies mainly on condition of weather and vegetation.Frostbite can be monitored by remote sensing according to the difference of vegetation index,which has higher spatial and temporal resolution, and to the canopy temperature,which has higher precision of temperature retrieval.In addition,considering the aerosol and humidity effect on the temperature retrieval and the quality of the remote sensing image,monitoring the frostbite by remote sensing is rather complicated and difficult.North Xinjiang is the main production zone of cotton in China,where cotton is influenced seriously by later spring frost or early autumn low-temperature injury.Remote sensing is proved feasible in monitoring crop growth,especially after stresses.But monitoring frostbite of cotton with remote sensing has been rarely studied so far.So combining with the statistical data of agriculture disaster and crop development,according to the difference of NDVI and canopy temperature (CT), the remote sensing was applied to three

  3. Index and Indexing Assessment: Criteria and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashrafi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Indexing is one of the most important methods of content representation where by assigning descriptors to the documents, their subject content are made known. Since index and indexing are remarkably significant in information retrieval, its quality and evaluation and provision of criteria and standards had always been the mainstay of researchers in this field. Given the fact that Indexing is a complex process, offering definitions, principles and methods could be step towards optimal use of the information. The present study, while offering a capsule definition of index, will investigate the indexing evaluation criteria and would follow it up with a definition of indexing. Finally a number of standards in the field of indexing are presented and would make its conclusions.

  4. Application of pleth variability index monitoring in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy%脉搏灌注变异指数监测在腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴倩; 王嘉锋; 倪文; 刘毅; 李金宝; 邓小明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of pleth variability index (PVI) in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia,and to investigate the clinical influencing factors of pre-operation baseline PVI value.Methods Totally 67 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ,aged 18 to 65 years old,were included in the present study.The heart rate (HR),systolic blood pressure (SBP),diastolic blood pressure (DBP),mean arterial pressure (MAP),pulse oximetry (SpO2),perfusion index (PI),and PVI value were monitored with a Masimo pulse oxygen monitor (Radical-7,USA) after entering the operation room.Fluid expansion with 10 mL/kg of balanced solution was given before the induction.Anesthesia was maintained under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil.Results The average baseline PVI value was (16.8± 6.3) % in the patients; then it decreased to (10.3±5.4) % after induction of anesthesia and increased to (21.2±9.5)% after establishment of pneumoperitoneum.The pre-operation baseline PVI value ([19.2±6.5] %) of patients <45 years old was significantly higher than that in patients ≥45 years old ([15.5±5.9]%,P< 0.05 %).Male patients had a significantly higher PVI ([18.8 ± 7.5] %) value than female patients ([15.3 ± 4.8] %,P <0.05).Body mass index (BMI) was not significantly associated with pre-operation baseline PVI.Conclusion The baseline value of PVI is higher than 14%,suggesting insufficient volume load in most of patients.Age and sex are both associated with pre-operation PVI value:male patients and those <45 years old have a higher pre-operation baseline PVI value.%目的 研究全麻下行腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者脉搏灌注变异指数(PVI)的变化趋势及术前基础PVI值的影响因素.方法 选择ASA分级为Ⅰ~Ⅱ级的67例腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者,年龄18~65岁,入室后持续监测患者心率(HR)、收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、平均动

  5. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  6. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  7. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are 12 EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 12 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  8. Application of bispectrai index monitoring inpatients with coma due to massive cerebral infarction%脑电双频指数在大面积脑梗死昏迷患者中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛世芹; 袁俊亮; 李海英; 王姝梅; 李淑娟; 刘芳; 李向红; 岳云; 胡文立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the application of bispectrai index monitoring(BIS) in patients with coma due to massive cerebral infarction and its relation with the prognosis of such patients. Methods Thirty patients with coma due to massive cerebral infarction were divided into survival group (n=20)and death group(n = 10). Their BISmin, BIS?, and BISm.,n were recorded, and their vital signs,clinical symptoms and signs,Glasgow outcome scale(GOS)-based coma score were monitored. The patients were followed up for 3 months,during which their coma was scored according to the GOS. Whether death occurred within 3 months after the patients were discharged was used as the end assessment indication. Results The average hospital stay time was significantly longer in death group than in survival group<41. 0?. 3 d vs 30. 2?. 1 d,P<0. 01). The BIS?BISmx and BISmean were significantly lower in death group than in survival group(45. 1 + 19. 2 vs 69. 1?13. 6,51. l?0. 0 vs 74. 5 + 13. 0,48. 1?9. 5 vs 71. 8+13. 1 ,P<0. 01). The BIS? was positively related with the GOSbased coma score in death group(r=0. 486,P = 0. 03). Conclusion BIS can directly and objectively show the severity of cerebral injury in patients with coma due to massive cerebral infarction,accurately and reliably predict their prognosis,and is thus of a potential application value in clinical practice.%目的 探讨应用脑电双频指数(BIS)评估大面积脑梗死导致昏迷患者病情严重程度的可靠性及其与预后的关系.方法 选择大面积脑梗死导致昏迷的患者30例,分为生存组20例和死亡组10例,记录BISmin、BISmax,计算BISmean.同时动态监测生命体征、临床症状体征、评价格拉斯哥昏迷评分.随访3个月,评估格拉斯哥结局和格拉斯哥昏迷评分,以出院后3个月内有无死亡为终点评价指标.结果 与生存组住院时间(30.2±5.1)d比较,死亡组住院时间(41.0±7.3)d明显延长(P<0.01);死亡组BISmin、BISmax、BISmean分别为45.1±19

  9. 基于NDVI加权指数的冬小麦种植面积遥感监测%Remote sensing monitoring winter wheat area based on weighted NDVI index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民; 刘佳; 杨玲波; 杨福刚; 滕飞; 王小龙

    2016-01-01

    格中,以初始识别获取的冬小麦面积为准,等概率选择10个样方作为精度验证样方进行验证。精度验证结果表明分类总体精度达到94.4%,Kappa系数达0.88。该文通过构建冬小麦NDVI加权指数,将比较复杂的多个参数转换为一个参数,并且农学意义明确,相比传统的NDVI时序影像进行冬小麦面积的提取,具有自动化程度高、面积提取精度高、分类结果稳定的特点,已经在全国农作物面积遥感监测业务中进行了应用。%Remote sensing technology is a major method to obtain spatial distribution and quantity of winter wheat area, and classification method suitable for business operation is a key technology target of annual winter wheat remote sensing monitoring. Aimed at the conditions and demands of winter wheat background survey business operation in agriculture information service, this paper has proposed a weighted NDVI index (WNDVI) based on normal difference vegetation index (NDVI) time sequence. By taking the extraction of 2013-2014 winter wheat area of Anping County, Hebei Province as an example, the algorithm is realized by using GF-1/WFV (wide field view) data. The main idea of the algorithm is to amplify the difference between winter wheat land type and other ground object types by establishing a winter wheat area index based on time sequence images, and to differentiate winter wheat land type from the others and thus to obtain the crop area of winter wheat by automated threshold value setting method. The algorithm includes the following 5 parts: acquisition of winter wheat time sequence images, sample points setting based on grid, establishment of winter wheat area index, identifying winter wheat area index estimation threshold value by iteration, and accuracy validation. Acquisition of images is based on the identification of growth time of winter wheat, and the principle is to ensure to get one GF-1/WFV cloudless image each month. Growth

  10. 利用时序合成孔径雷达数据监测水稻叶面积指数%Monitoring rice leaf area index using time-series SAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓倩; 郭琳; 马尚杰; 赵占营; 裴志远

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in China, so timely obtaining accurate rice growth information in regional scale is highly significant for crop management and decision making. However, there are plenty of rain and dense cloud cover in rice growth season, that makes it difficult to monitor rice paddy information by optical remote sensing data. It is an accepted fact that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is a suitable alternative for crop monitoring in cloud-prone and raining area. In this paper, we investigated the potential of Radarsat-2 SAR data for rice paddy growth monitoring at regional scale. Four C-band SAR backscattering coefficients (VH, VV, HH, HV) and HH/VV ratio backscattering coefficient were employed for setting up the relationship with leaf area index (LAI) in rice growing season. The test site located in Leizhou (20°52′N, 110°05′E), Guangdong province. Four Radarsat-2 products in fine quad polarization mode were acquired during the critical rice growth stage. In situ measurement in year 2013 was also made concurrently with the satellite pass. 25 plots were selected for measuring the rice growth parameters, such as LAI, plant height, sowing date, etc. The backscattering coefficients with multi-incidence angle were extracted from multi-temporal SAR images and then normalized to same angle. Firstly, the study analyzed the temporal behavior of microwave backscattering coefficients (VH, VV, HH, HV, HH/VV) and LAI in rice growth season. Secondly, correlation analyses between the backscattering coefficients in different polarization and LAI were also carried out in vegetative stage, reproductive stage and whole growth period respectively, then picking the polarization and growth stage corresponding with high correlation coefficient which was above 0.8 to build water cloud model and evaluate the performance of each model. Finally, based on the previous result, the LAI distribution map in time domain was generated using the best model of

  11. Nucleic acid indexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  12. Application of Joint Drought Index in Drought Monitoring-A Case Study in Shaoguan of Guangdong Province%联合干旱指数在干旱监测中的应用--以广东韶关地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 陈子遷; 孔兰; 蒋任飞

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that climate change has a great impact on water cycle and regional water balance,and thus it would change the formation and evolution of drought conditions in some degree.In this context,the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI),which has also taken another important factor evapotranspiration in the process of regional water balance into consideration, would be more suitable for drought monitoring than the standardized precipitation index (SPI).The different time scales SPEI can re-flect the duration informations of drought,so the single SPEI of a certain time scale can only indicate a fraction of drought information. In order to form an overall judgement in drought monitoring,a new index called joint drought index (JDI)was established by the com-bination with different SPEIs.The accuracy and effectiveness of JDI in drought monitoring were then verified by the forecast evaluation system and comparison with the actual drought.In conclusion,JDI can be used as a new ideal index for future drought monitoring.%气候变化影响了水循环与地区的水量平衡过程,一定程度上改变了干旱的形成与演变条件。以标准化降水量与蒸散发量差值表征水分偏离正常程度的标准化降水蒸散发指数(SPEI)为基础,从多时间尺度联合的视角建立联合干旱指数(JDI),并以广东韶关为例分析修正的新指数JDI在干旱监测中的准确性和有效性。结果表明,综合了不同时间尺度干旱特征信息的JDI能够较全面地反映干旱的形成与演进过程。通过对干旱监测的评价以及与实际旱情的对比分析,验证了联合干旱指数JDI在实际干旱监测中的准确性和有效性,其可作为未来干旱监测的新理想指标。

  13. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  14. [Evaluation of circulatory state using pulse oximeter: 2. PI (perfusion index) x PVI (pleth variability index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toru; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2009-07-01

    Pulse oximeter expressed by SpO2 is used for monitoring respiratory state during operation and in ICU. Perfusion index (PI) and pleth variability index (PVI) as new indexes are calculated from pulse oximeter (Masimo SET Radical-7, Masimo Corp., USA, 1998) waveforms. And these indices were used as parameters to evaluate the circulatory state. For PI calculation, the pulsatile infrared signal is indexed against the nonpulsatile infrared signal and expressed as a percentage. It might thus be of future value in assessment of perioperative changes in peripheral perfusion. PVI is a measure of a dynamic change in PI that occurs during complete respiratory cycle. It might be thought that PVI, an index automatically derived from the pulse oximeter waveform analysis, had potentially clinical applications for noninvasive hypovolemia detection and fluid responsiveness monitoring.

  15. American Samoa ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  16. Performance Indexes: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Machado Caldeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investor of today is more rigorous on monitoring a financial assets portfolio. He no longer thinks only in terms of the expected return (one dimension, but in terms of risk-return (two dimensions. Thus new perception is more complex, since the risk measurement can vary according to anyone’s perception; some use the standard deviation for that, others disagree with this measure by proposing others. In addition to this difficulty, there is the problem of how to consider these two dimensions. The objective of this essay is to study the main performance indexes through an empirical study in order to verify the differences and similarities for some of the selected assets. One performance index proposed in Caldeira (2005 shall be included in this analysis.

  17. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  18. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  19. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000941.htm Glycemic index and diabetes To use the sharing features on ... GI diet also may help with weight loss. Glycemic Index of Certain Foods Low GI foods (0 to ...

  20. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  1. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  2. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  3. Unified Index Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENWEI

    2005-01-01

    China unveiled a unified stock index to track both markets in Shanghai and Shenzhen in April, a move likely to open a floodgate for more trading derivatives such as index futures. The new index, with 300 component companies traded on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges, will be the first of its kind on the mainland. The index members will be the largest 300 stocks - 180 from Shanghai and 120 from Shenzhen - in terms of market capitalization,

  4. Index to Volume 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2001-02-01

    The Subject Index references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are indexed as such, but their subjects are not further cross-indexed. The Author Index details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.

  5. Optimal wavelengths obtained from laws analogous to the Wien's law for monospectral and bispectral methods, and general methodology for multispectral temperature measurements taking into account global transfer function including non-uniform emissivity of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiet, Christophe; Remy, Benjamin; Degiovanni, Alain

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, it is shown how to select the optimal wavelengths minimizing the relative error and the standard deviation of the temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal wavelengths in mono-spectral and bi-spectral methods (for a Planck's law) can be determined by laws analogous to the displacement Wien's law. The simplicity of these laws can thus allow real-time selection of optimal wavelengths for a control/optimization of industrial processes, for example. A more general methodology to obtain the optimal wavelengths selection in a multi-spectral method (taking into account the spectral variations of the global transfer function including the emissivity variations) for temperature measurement of surfaces exhibiting non-uniform emissivity, is also presented. This latter can then find an interest in glass furnaces temperature measurement with spatiotemporal non-uniformities of emissivity, the control of biomass pyrolysis, the surface temperature measurement of buildings or heating devices, for example. The goal consists of minimizing the standard deviation of the estimated temperature (optimal design experiment). For the multi-spectral method, two cases will be treated: optimal global and optimal constrained wavelengths selection (to the spectral range of the detector, for example). The estimated temperature results obtained by different models and for different number of parameters and wavelengths are compared. These different points are treated from theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view.

  6. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...... the indexing process and suggests that the domain-centered approach offers a guide for indexers that can help them manage the complexity of indexing. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5dm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis, we considered behavior, nest search runs, feeding habits and path segmentations including detailed information on solar position and azimuth calculation, ant orientation and time of day. For this we established a user friendly database system integrating the Ant-App-DB with a smart phone and tablet application, combining experimental data manipulation with data management and providing solar position and timing estimations without any GPS or GIS system. Moreover, the new desktop application Dataplus allows efficient data extraction and conversion from smart phone application to personal computers, for further ecological data analysis and sharing. All features, software code and database as well as Dataplus application are made available completely free of charge and sufficiently generic to be easily adapted to other field monitoring studies on arthropods or other migratory organisms. The software applications Ant-App-DB and Dataplus described here are developed using the Android SDK, Java, XML, C# and SQLite Database.

  8. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/59a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis, we considered behavior, nest search runs, feeding habits and path segmentations including detailed information on solar position and Azimuth calculation, ant orientation and time of day. For this we established a user friendly database system integrating the Ant-App-DB with a smart phone and tablet application, combining experimental data manipulation with data management and providing solar position and timing estimations without any GPS or GIS system. Moreover, the new desktop application Dataplus allows efficient data extraction and conversion from smart phone application to personal computers, for further ecological data analysis and sharing. All features, software code and database as well as Dataplus application are made available completely free of charge and sufficiently generic to be easily adapted to other field monitoring studies on arthropods or other migratory organisms. The software applications Ant-App-DB and Dataplus described here are developed using the Android SDK, Java, XML, C# and SQLite Database.

  9. Gradient Index in Wear Debris Image Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVZhi-yong; GAOHui-liang; YANXin-ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve a problem of oil on-line monitoring, this instrument adopts a prinripium of self-focus lens of Gradieat index fiber( GRIN Len) to design optics system and magnetic circuit. For the magnetic circuit, the monitor can catch particle wear debris in oil. And for the optics circuit. GRIN Len can transfer image of debris to apparatus of gather image, e . g, CCD and camera. And the image of debris is transferred to computer for analyzing seize and physiognomy of debris. The character of the monitor is of micro weight, micro volume andcurve imaging And it is directly pluged into oil to catch image of wear particles.

  10. On eccentric connectivity index

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bo

    2010-01-01

    The eccentric connectivity index, proposed by Sharma, Goswami and Madan, has been employed successfully for the development of numerous mathematical models for the prediction of biological activities of diverse nature. We now report mathematical properties of the eccentric connectivity index. We establish various lower and upper bounds for the eccentric connectivity index in terms of other graph invariants including the number of vertices, the number of edges, the degree distance and the first Zagreb index. We determine the n-vertex trees of diameter with the minimum eccentric connectivity index, and the n-vertex trees of pendent vertices, with the maximum eccentric connectivity index. We also determine the n-vertex trees with respectively the minimum, second-minimum and third-minimum, and the maximum, second-maximum and third-maximum eccentric connectivity indices for

  11. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  12. Primary Selection of Physiological and Biochemical Index on Monitoring Sanda Athletes During Collective Training%监控散打运动员集训期间的生理生化指标的初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志强; 刘存忠

    2012-01-01

    探讨监控散打运动员集训过程的各项生理生化指标的变化特点、规律及相互间的关系,初步筛选出代表性的指标。结果表明:BL、LDH、CK监控运动强度较理想,但CK与SOD、MDA结合或CK与LDH结合更能反映强度;BUN、HB监控运动量较理想;尿液成份PRO、BLD、UBG监控恢复情况较理想,结合次日晨CK、BUN则效果更佳。T、C、T/C、CK、BUN监控机能水平较理想,在评价训练效果方面Cur、HB、HR非常有效。%This paperams to discuss the character of change, rule and relation of physiological and biochemical index of sanda athletes during collective training, and primarily selected represanfafive indexs. Results shows that BL, LDH, CK were well on montioring exercise intensity, but it was well in CK combined with SOD and MDA or LDH. There was a good use of montioring exercise volume of BUN and HB a good job of montioring the come- back of body use of the PRO, BLD, UBG, and even better when combined with the indexs of CK and BUN. It was ideal of montioring the degree of enginery use of T, C, T/C, CK, BUN. and Cur, HB, HR work well on estimate the effect of training.

  13. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  14. Semantic Text Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific issue of the semantic analysis of texts in natural language – text indexing and describes one field of its application (web browsing.The main part of this article describes the computer system assigning a set of semantic indexes (similar to keywords to a particular text. The indexing algorithm employs a semantic dictionary to find specific words in a text, that represent a text content. Furthermore it compares two given sets of semantic indexes to determine texts’ similarity (assigning numerical value. The article describes the semantic dictionary – a tool essentialto accomplish this task and its usefulness, main concepts of the algorithm and test results.

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Oceanic Nino Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) is one of the primary indices used to monitor the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The ONI is calculated by averaging sea surface...

  16. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  17. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 60 supplementary EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  18. Model and Calculation of Container Port Logistics Enterprises Efficiency Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The throughput of China’s container port is growing fast, but the earnings of inland port enterprises are not so good. Firstly ,the initial efficiency evaluation indexes of port logistics are reduced and screened by rough set model, and then logistics performance indexes weight are assigned by the rough totalitarian calculation method. As well, the rank of the indexes and the important indexes are picked up by combining with ABC management method. So the port logistics enterprises can monitor the key indexes to reduce cost and improve the efficiency of the logistics operations.

  19. Universal Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  20. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  1. Eccentric connectivity index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    The eccentric connectivity index $\\xi^c$ is a novel distance--based molecular structure descriptor that was recently used for mathematical modeling of biological activities of diverse nature. It is defined as $\\xi^c (G) = \\sum_{v \\in V (G)} deg (v) \\cdot \\epsilon (v)$\\,, where $deg (v)$ and $\\epsilon (v)$ denote the vertex degree and eccentricity of $v$\\,, respectively. We survey some mathematical properties of this index and furthermore support the use of eccentric connectivity index as topological structure descriptor. We present the extremal trees and unicyclic graphs with maximum and minimum eccentric connectivity index subject to the certain graph constraints. Sharp lower and asymptotic upper bound for all graphs are given and various connections with other important graph invariants are established. In addition, we present explicit formulae for the values of eccentric connectivity index for several families of composite graphs and designed a linear algorithm for calculating the eccentric connectivity in...

  2. Drought Monitoring by Remote Sensing over India and Pakistan Based on Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index%基于温度植被干旱指数的印度和巴基斯坦干旱监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华; 张佳华; 夏学齐

    2016-01-01

    Drought has frequently been witnessed in the country due to various environmental changes such as rise in atmospheric pollution and climatic changes.Based on MOD13A3 and MOD11A2 data,the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI)model was constructed and verified.This study used MODIS data for many years during the same period over India and Pakistan to build the feature space of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)and land surface temperature (Ts),and fit dry and wet edge equations in the feature space.The TVDI was calculated over India and Pakistan of hot season (from March to May)from 2009 to 2014.In addition,the TVDI drought level standard is graded to analyze its temporal and spatial variation characteristics with using land use type and terrain data.TVDI is verified using the precipitation data from meteorological sites, and TVDI is contrasted with the standard precipitation index (SPI).The results show that:1)from the drought area statistics, the study region is mainly moderate drought,the area proportion of other grades is smaller;2)from the land use type,the land cover of entire district is good,the TVDI has certain rationality as drought evaluation index for study area;3 ) from meteorological sites,the inversion of TVDI from NDVI-Ts feature space and the total precipitation of the prophase and same period are closely related.%针对印度和巴基斯坦近年干旱频发的问题,该文使用温度植被干旱指数对印巴地区2009~2014年干季(3~5月)实现遥感干旱监测,利用多年同期 MODIS 卫星数据构建印巴地区归一化植被指数-陆地表面温度的特征空间,拟合特征空间中的干、湿边方程,进一步反演温度植被干旱指数,对该区土地利用和地形作了统计与分析,对温度植被干旱指数划分等级,并利用印巴气象站点的实测降水量以及标准降水指数进行验证。结果表明:1)从干旱等级面积统计来看,印巴地区干季主要

  3. Ⅱ类超晶格双光谱红外探测器光谱串音的量化分析计算%Quantitative Analysis and Calculation of Spectral Crosstalk of Type Ⅱ Superlattice Bispectral Infrared Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆锋; 余连杰; 田萦

    2011-01-01

    对于起降阶段的各类飞机来说,便携式导弹是主要威胁.以基于Ⅱ类超晶格双光谱红外探测器的机载导弹逼近告警(MAW)系统为应用背景,介绍了光谱串音的定义及计算方法.分别测出两个光谱通道的光谱响应曲线,容易利用MATLAB样条函数积分命令算出两条曲线交叉部分围成的面积,该面积的数值反映了器件光谱串音的大小.给出了所用MATLAB程序,该方法具有实现容易、使用快捷等特点.%The main threats for any type of aircraft are the man portable missiles during taking-off and landing.Under the application background of missile approach warning (MAW) based on type Ⅱ superlatice bispectral infrared detectors, the definition and calculation methods of spectral crosstalk were introduced.After measuring separately the spectral response curves of the two spectral channels, the area of the region bounded by the crossed sections of the two curves reflecting the amount of spectral crosstalk of the device, can be calculated easily with MATLAB spline function integration commands.The MATLAB program was listed in this paper.It is easier to implement and convenient to use.

  4. Monitoring ferumoxide-labelled neural progenitor cells and lesion evolution by magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cell transplantation in cerebral ischaemia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/20l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael A Panizzo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC therapies after cerebral ischaemia could be better evaluated by monitoring in vivo migration and distribution of cells post-engraftment in parallel with analysis of lesion volume and functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is ideally placed to achieve this, but still poses several challenges. We show that combining the ferumoxide MRI contrast agent Endorem with protamine sulphate (FePro improves iron oxide uptake in cells compared to Endorem alone and is non-toxic. Hence FePro complex is a better contrast agent than Endorem for monitoring NPCs. FePro complex-labelled NPCs proliferated and differentiated normally in vitro, and upon grafting into the brain 48 hours post-ischaemia they were detected in vivo by MRI. Imaging over four weeks showed the development of a confounding endogenous hypointense contrast evolution at later timepoints within the lesioned tissue. This was at least partly due to accumulation within the lesion of macrophages and endogenous iron. Neither significant NPC migration, assessed by MRI and histologically, nor a reduction in the ischaemic lesion volume was observed in NPC-grafted brains.  Crucially, while MRI provides reliable information on engrafted cell location early after an ischaemic insult, pathophysiological changes to ischaemic lesions can interfere with cellular imaging at later timepoints.

  5. Monitoring ferumoxide-labelled neural progenitor cells and lesion evolution by magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cell transplantation in cerebral ischaemia [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael A Panizzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC therapies after cerebral ischaemia could be better evaluated by monitoring in vivo migration and distribution of cells post-engraftment in parallel with analysis of lesion volume and functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is ideally placed to achieve this, but still poses several challenges. We show that combining the ferumoxide MRI contrast agent Endorem with protamine sulphate (FePro improves iron oxide uptake in cells compared to Endorem alone and is non-toxic. Hence FePro complex is a better contrast agent than Endorem for monitoring NPCs. FePro complex-labelled NPCs proliferated and differentiated normally in vitro, and upon grafting into the brain 48 hours post-ischaemia they were detected in vivo by MRI. Imaging over four weeks showed the development of a confounding endogenous hypointense contrast evolution at later timepoints within the lesioned tissue. This was at least partly due to accumulation within the lesion of macrophages and endogenous iron. Neither significant NPC migration, assessed by MRI and histologically, nor a reduction in the ischaemic lesion volume was observed in NPC-grafted brains.  Crucially, while MRI provides reliable information on engrafted cell location early after an ischaemic insult, pathophysiological changes to ischaemic lesions can interfere with cellular imaging at later timepoints.

  6. Different Concentrations of Sevoflurane Anesthesia Depth Monitor to Monitor Application of Anesthesia in Elderly%麻醉深度监测仪监测下不同浓度的七氟醚在老年麻醉中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖亿粦; 林跃华; 钟瑜婷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the evaluation of depth of anesthesia was monitored by different concentrations of sevoflurane application results in older anesthesia.Methods From June 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital undergoing general anesthesia in elderly patients with a total of 60 cases.So that end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was followed by stabilization at the lowest effective alveolar gas concentration(MAC) 0.6 MAC,1.0 MAC,1.3 MAC,each concentration remained 15min,recording monitor anesthesia depth monitoring process bispectral index(BIS),arterial blood pressure,oxygen saturation,body temperature. Results ompared with before anesthesia,the BIS,arterial blood pressure,body temperature value in 0.6 MAC,1.0 MAC were lower than 1.3 MAC(P0.05),the heart rate in 0.6 MAC,1.0 MAC,1.3 MAC were significantly higher than before anesthesia,postoperative arterial blood pressure was significantly lower than anesthesia(P0.05). Conclusions Intraoperative monitoring depth of anesthesia monitor display with sevoflurane concentration increased BIS,arterial blood pressure,oxygen saturation,body temperature values decrease,the depth of anesthesia monitor has a good prospect of clinical anesthesia.%目的:探讨评价麻醉深度监测仪监测下不同浓度的七氟醚在老年麻醉中的应用效果。方法纳入2013年6月~2015年6月本院拟行全身麻醉的老年患者共60例。使七氟醚呼气末浓度依次稳定在最低肺泡气有效浓度(MAC)0.6 MAC、1.0 MAC、1.3 MAC,各浓度均维持15min,记录麻醉深度监测仪监测过程中脑电双频指数(BIS)、动脉血压、血氧饱和度、体温。结果与麻醉前比较,0.6 MAC、1.0 MAC、1.3 MAC 的 BIS、动脉血压、体温值均降低(P0.05),0.6 MAC、1.0 MAC、1.3 MAC 的心率显著高于麻醉前,术后动脉血压显著低于麻醉前(P0.05)。结论术中麻醉深度监测仪监测显示随着七氟醚浓度增高 BIS、动脉血压、血氧饱和度、体温值降低,麻醉深度

  7. Supersymmetric Berry index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilinskii, K N; Melezhik, V S; Ilinski, K N; Kalinin, G V; Melezhik, V V

    1994-01-01

    We revise the sequences of SUSY for a cyclic adiabatic evolution governed by the supersymmetric quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The condition (supersymmetric adiabatic evolution) under which the supersymmetric reductions of Berry (nondegenerated case) or Wilczek-Zee (degenerated case) phases of superpartners are taking place is pointed out. The analogue of Witten index (supersymmetric Berry index) is determined. As the examples of suggested concept of supersymmetric adiabatic evolution the Holomorphic quantum mechanics on complex plane and Meromorphic quantum mechanics on Riemann surface are considered. The supersymmetric Berry indexes for the models are calculated.

  8. Glycemic index and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2002-07-01

    It has been suggested that foods with a high glycemic index are detrimental to health and that healthy people should be told to avoid these foods. This paper takes the position that not enough valid scientific data are available to launch a public health campaign to disseminate such a recommendation. This paper explores the glycemic index and its validity and discusses the effect of postprandial glucose and insulin responses on food intake, obesity, type 1 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Presented herein are the reasons why it is premature to recommend that the general population avoid foods with a high glycemic index.

  9. Arterial stiffness, as monitored by cardio–ankle vascular index, is affected by obstructive sleep apnea, blood glucose control, and body weight – a case with 8 years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Shimizu,1 Tomoyuki Yamamoto,2,3 Kohji Shirai2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Vascular Function, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, Japan; 3Biological Information Analysis Section, Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Mihama Hospital, Chiba, Japan Abstract: The cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI is an indicator of arterial stiffness from the heart to the ankles. The CAVI increases as arteriosclerosis progresses, but it can be decreased by appropriate treatment. There are several risk factors for coronary artery disease, however, the degree of stress caused by each separate risk factor to arteries cannot be assessed. CAVI increases with age and according to the severity of atherosclerosis. We found that CAVI also changes in response to the control of risk factors, which may be associated with the functional stiffness of arteries. CAVI can be a useful indicator of risk control for coronary artery disease. We followed a patient aged 71 years who had diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA by measuring CAVI for 8 years from age 63. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting due to angina pectoris when he was 63 years old. Before coronary artery bypass grafting, CAVI was 11.8 on the right and 11.5 on the left. Three years later he was found to have OSA and received treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. There was a marked improvement in CAVI after continuous positive airway pressure (age 68; right 10.4, left 10.2. However, following a gradual increase in body weight and worsening of diabetes mellitus, CAVI showed an increasing trend. CAVI decreased with biguanides treatment, but increased again with an increase in body weight. In conclusion, CAVI responded to the patient’s conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and OSA. CAVI is not only a marker of arterial stiffness, but can also be a

  10. Index of Glossary Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Index of Glossary Terms Share this page: Was this ... Serum Serum Sickness Shock Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Sideroblastic Anemia Sigmoidoscopy Sign Somatic Cells Specificity Spina bifida Spirochete ...

  11. Arizona - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  12. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  13. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  14. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  15. Topographic Accessability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The topographic accessibility index is a measure of elevation in relation to valley floor corrected for variation in valley floor elevation across the western United...

  16. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    A lack of comprehensive and standardized metrics for measuring park exposure limits park-related research and health promotion efforts. This study aimed to develop and demonstrate an empirically-derived and spatially-represented index of park access (ParkIndex) that would allow researchers......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...... using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park...

  17. Index Conditions of Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chun Cheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the following results are proved: (1) Using both deletion strategy and lock strategy, resolution is complete for a clause set where literals with the same predicate or proposition symbol have the same index. (2) Using deletion strategy, both positive unit lock resolution and input lock resolution are complete for a Horn set where the indexes of positive literals are greater than those of negative literals. (3) Using deletion strategy, input half-lock resolution is complete for a Horn set.

  18. Nudibranch Systematic Index

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is an index of my approximately 6,200 nudibranch reprints and books. I have indexed them only for information concerning systematics, taxonomy, nomenclature, & description of taxa. This list should allow you to quickly find information concerning the description, taxonomy, or systematics of almost any species of nudibranch. The full citation for any of the authors and dates listed may be found in the nudibranch bibliography at http://repositories.cdlib.org/ims/Bibliographia_Nudibranch...

  19. Index of Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mandira Sarma

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of an inclusive financial system is considered a policy priority in many countries. While the importance of financial inclusion is widely recognized, the literature lacks a comprehensive measure that can be used to measure the extent of financial inclusion across economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by proposing an index of financial inclusion (IFI). The IFI is a multi-dimensional index that captures information on various dimensions of financial inclusion in one sing...

  20. Fiberoptic monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation (PediaSat in small children undergoing cardiac surgery: continuous is not continuous [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3qt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca G. Iodice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring of superior vena cava saturation (ScvO2 has become routine in the management of pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of our study was to evaluate the correlation between continuous ScvO2 by the application of a fiber-optic oximetry catheter (PediaSat and intermittent ScvO2 by using standard blood gas measurements. These results were compared to those obtained by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (cNIRS. Setting: Tertiary pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU. Methods and main results: A retrospective study was conducted in consecutive patients who were monitored with a 4.5 or 5.5 F PediaSat catheter into the right internal jugular vein. An in vivo calibration was performed once the patient was transferred to the PCICU and re-calibration took place every 24 hours thereafter. Each patient had a NIRS placed on the forehead. Saturations were collected every 4 hours until extubation. Ten patients with a median age of 2.2 (0.13-8.5 years and a weight of 12.4 (3.9-24 kg were enrolled. Median sampling time was 32 (19-44 hours: 64 pairs of PediaSat and ScVO2 saturations showed a poor correlation (r=0.62, 95% CI 44-75; p<0.0001 and Bland Altman analysis for repeated measures showed an average difference of 0.34 with a standard deviation of 7,9 and 95% limits of agreement from -15 to 16. Thirty-six pairs of cNIRS and ScVO2 saturations showed a fair correlation (r=0.79, 95% CI 0.60-0.89; p<0.0001 an average difference of -1.4 with a standard deviation of 6 and 95% limits of agreement from -13 to 10. Analysis of median percentage differences between PediaSat and ScvO2 saturation over time revealed that, although not statistically significant, the change in percentage saturation differences was clinically relevant after the 8th hour from calibration (from -100 to +100%. Conclusion: PediaSat catheters showed unreliable performance in our cohort. It should be further investigated whether repeating

  1. Arterial stiffness, as monitored by cardio–ankle vascular index, is affected by obstructive sleep apnea, blood glucose control, and body weight – a case with 8 years follow up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Shirai, Kohji

    2016-01-01

    The cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI) is an indicator of arterial stiffness from the heart to the ankles. The CAVI increases as arteriosclerosis progresses, but it can be decreased by appropriate treatment. There are several risk factors for coronary artery disease, however, the degree of stress caused by each separate risk factor to arteries cannot be assessed. CAVI increases with age and according to the severity of atherosclerosis. We found that CAVI also changes in response to the control of risk factors, which may be associated with the functional stiffness of arteries. CAVI can be a useful indicator of risk control for coronary artery disease. We followed a patient aged 71 years who had diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by measuring CAVI for 8 years from age 63. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting due to angina pectoris when he was 63 years old. Before coronary artery bypass grafting, CAVI was 11.8 on the right and 11.5 on the left. Three years later he was found to have OSA and received treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. There was a marked improvement in CAVI after continuous positive airway pressure (age 68; right 10.4, left 10.2). However, following a gradual increase in body weight and worsening of diabetes mellitus, CAVI showed an increasing trend. CAVI decreased with biguanides treatment, but increased again with an increase in body weight. In conclusion, CAVI responded to the patient’s conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and OSA. CAVI is not only a marker of arterial stiffness, but can also be a useful indicator of physiological status; it may be effective in total risk control for coronary artery disease. PMID:27563259

  2. 脑电双频指数监测在小儿射频消融术中的应用%The application of Bispectrai index in pediatric radio frequency catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嵘; 卿恩明; 丁雪峰; 李秋霞; 董秀华

    2009-01-01

    我院心脏儿科2005至2008年择期行心导管射频消融术患儿106例,随机分为脑电双频指数(BIS)监测组(A组,50例)和改良警觉镇静(OAA/S)评分组(B组,56例),按需以靶控输注丙泊酚维持麻醉.A组维持BIS值55~65;B组以改良OAA/S评分1分控制麻醉深度.分别于麻醉诱导前、诱导后1 min、术中、术毕时,测定心率、平均动脉压(MAP)、脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO2),记录丙泊酚用量、辅助呼吸时间、清醒时间及术后有无恶心呕吐和呼吸抑制.结果 示两组心率、MAP、SpO2差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),术中辅助呼吸时间、丙泊酚用量及清醒时间较短(P<0.05),两组术后均无恶心呕吐及呼吸抑制.提示应用脑电双频指数监测在小儿射频消融术中能正确判断麻醉深度,可保持患儿呼吸循环平稳,减少麻醉药用量,缩短术后清醒时间,提高麻醉质量.%The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in pediatric radio frequency catheter ablation. One hundred and six children aged 0. 6-12 years, scheduled for radio frequency catheter ablation, were randomly divided into two groups. In group A patients received BIS monitoring during the operation (n = 50), and the group B received modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scaling (n = 56). The anesthesia was maintained with propofol target-controlled infusion. The intraoperative propefol target concentration was adjusted to maintain the BIS values between 55-65 in group A and OAA/S scale about 1 in group B respectively, The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) were measured before anesthetic induction, 1 min after induction, catheter puncturing and the end of operation respectively. The requirements of propofol, the times of supporting ventilation and recovery, the respiratory depression, nausea and vomiting postoperatively were also recorded. The intraoperative

  3. New unifying procedure for PC index calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. Currently, there are now the three separate PC index versions constructed from the different procedures used at the three institutes: the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), and the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). It is demonstrated in this presentation, that two consistent unifying procedures can be built from the best elements of the three different versions. One procedure uses a set of coefficients aimed at the calculation of final PC index values to be accepted by IAGA. The other procedure uses coefficients aimed at on-line real-time production of preliminary PC index values for Space Weather monitoring applications. For each of the two cases the same procedure is used for the northern (PCN) and the southern (PCS) polar cap indices, and the derived PCN and PCS coefficients are similar.

  4. Application and nursing of evaluation indexes of fetal electronic monitoring in late pregnancy%妊娠晚期胎儿电子监护评价指标的应用与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张再青; 柯伟琳; 罗军; 孙波; 郑碧霞; 康汉丽

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨胎儿无应激试验(NST)与脐动脉血流S/D异常值对妊娠晚期胎儿的影响,寻求最佳的护理措施.方法 选择妊娠28周以上NST试验异常105例作为研究组,进行脐动脉血流检测和有效的护理干预措施,回顾性资料98例作为对照组.结果 研究组105例NST异常中,Fischer评分5~7分103例,<5分2例;脐动脉血流S/D值正常者87例、轻度异常16例、重度异常2例.轻度异常者S/D值为(3.716±0.432)分,吸氧后,S/D值变为(3.132±0.398)分,差异有统计学意义(t=3.977,P<0.01).研究组胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息、低体重儿及围产儿病死率均低于对照组.结论 妊娠晚期有必要常规联合进行NST试验和脐动脉血流检测,及早发现胎儿宫内异常,及时采取有效的监护和护理干预措施,减少新生儿并发症和窒息,降低围产儿病死率.%Objective To investigate the influence of Nan-stress test (NST) and abnormal umbilical blood flow S/D on fetus in late pregnancy, and to explore the effective nursing. Methods A total of 105 cases with abnormal NST, above 25 weeks pregnancy, were selected to be undergone umbilical blood flow graph and effective nursing interventions. Retrospective data of 98 cases were selected as control group. Results According to the results of NST positive eases of the case group, 103 cases with NST Fischer score 5 ~7(98.1% ), 2cases with less than 4 ( 1.9% ). Umbilical blood flow S/D of 87 cases were normal ( 82.9% ), 16 cases were mild abnormity( 15.2% ), 2 cases were severe abnormality( 1.9% ). Umbihcal blood flow S/D of mild abnormity was (3.716±0.432), it became lower (3. 132±0.398) after Oxygen was given to the cases. The rates of fetal distress ,neonatal asphyxia, low birth wight neonatal and perinatal mortality in case group were lower than that of the control group. Conclusions NST and umbilical blood flow monitoring should be done as routine tests in late pregnancy in order to detect the fetal abnormal

  5. The Monitoring of Some Blood Physiological and Biochemical Index of Cows During Perinatal Period%围产期奶牛几种血液生理生化指标监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 申国新; 汪恩强; 安锡忠; 陨祺

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor and diagnose common perinatal cow nutrition and metabolic diseases,totally 60 perinatal cows (10 cows respectively in prenatal 15d, prenatal 7d, prenatal 1d, postpartum 1d, postpartum 7d, postpartum 15d) were selected for physiological and biochemical blood testing. The experimental results showed that:all transition cows white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit of blood were little changed. It can not be served as the basis for monitoring of nutritional and metabolic diseases on transition cows. the minimum content of prenatal 1d cow serum free fatty acid was the lowest (460.76±268.34)μmol/L, in which respectively having the signiifcant differences (P<0.01) among prenatal 15d, postpartum 7d, 15d postpartum. The minimum content of postpartum cow serum glucose was the lowest (2.12±0.35)mmol/L, in which respectively compared with other times measured values were significantly different (P<0.01). The maximum content of postpartum 1d cow serum aspartate aminotransferase was the highest (15.33±3.24)U/L, in which respectively having the signiifcant differences(P<0.01)among prenatal 15d and prenatal 7d. 15d postpartum cow serum alanine aminotransferase activity and triglyceride levels were elevated (14.10 ± 4.40) U/L and (0.90 ± 0.14) mmol / L, compared with prenatal different periods were significantly different (P<0.01). The minimize content of Ca in the serum of postpartum 1d down to(1.76±0.32)mmol/L, serum hydroxyproline content and alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated (25.50 ± 7.90)μmol/L and (85.13±7.57) IU/L respectively, having signiifcant difference with prenatal(P<0.01). Conclusion:Using serum FFA, serum GLU and serum AST, and according to formula calculate Y as a basis for the diagnosis of fatty liver cows. The content of cow serum Ca was decreased. The content of serum HYP and activity increasing of serum ALP serve as the basis for the diagnosis of malnutrition cow bone. Ketone monitoring

  6. Estimating the Upcrossings Index

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastião, João Renato; Ferreira, Helena; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    For stationary sequences, under general local and asymptotic dependence restrictions, any limiting point process for time normalized upcrossings of high levels is a compound Poisson process, i.e., there is a clustering of high upcrossings, where the underlying Poisson points represent cluster positions, and the multiplicities correspond to cluster sizes. For such classes of stationary sequences there exists the upcrossings index $\\eta,$ $0\\leq \\eta\\leq 1,$ which is directly related to the extremal index $\\theta,$ $0\\leq \\theta\\leq 1,$ for suitable high levels. In this paper we consider the problem of estimating the upcrossings index $\\eta$ for a class of stationary sequences satisfying a mild oscillation restriction. For the proposed estimator, properties such as consistency and asymptotic normality are studied. Finally, the performance of the estimator is assessed through simulation studies for autoregressive processes and case studies in the fields of environment and finance.

  7. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  8. Path indexing for term retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Different methods for term retrieval in deduction systems have been introduced in literature. This report eviews the three indexing techniques discrimination indexing, path indexing, and abstraction tree indexing. A formal approach to path indexing is presented and algorithms as well as data structures of an existing implementation are discussed. Eventually, experiments will show that our implementation outperforms the implementation of path indexing in the OTTER theorem prover.

  9. Guidebook/index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The Guidebook/Index introduces information dealing with the general rationale for energy conservation and deals with some of the definitions and concepts common to each of the subjects covered in the series of 10 booklets. The master index for the series is presented. Subjects covered are saving money in heating, cooling, and lighting; in process design and heat recovery; through production optimization; through combustion control; through steam and compressed air management; in transportation and delivery; through efficient people moving; in office practices; and through employee motivation and participation.

  10. 不同生育时期冬小麦叶面积指数高光谱遥感监测模型%Monitoring model of leaf area index of winter wheat based on hyperspectral reflectance at different growth stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺佳; 刘冰锋; 李军

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing can rapidly and nondestructively acquire vegetation canopy information. It is an important real time technology to monitor and manage crop growth. Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter for crop growth evaluation and yield prediction. The objectives of this study were to establish wheat LAI estimation model based on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) canopy hyperspectral reflectance with different rates of nitrogen or phosphorus application, and to improve the forecast precision of the LAI estimation model at different growth stages of winter wheat on the Loess Plateau of China. The experiments were carried out during 2009-2014 at Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China. The treatments included different winter wheat varieties with various drought resistance grown under five nitrogen fertilizer application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg N/hm2) and four phosphorus application rates (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg P2O5/hm2) LAI and canopy hyperstpectral reflectance of different varieties under fertilizer treatments were measured at jointing, booting, heading, grain filling and maturity stage, respectively. Then LAI monitoring models at different growth stages of winter wheat were constructed by using correlation analysis, regression analysis. The results showed that LAI of wheat was increased with increase in nitrogen and phosphorus application rate at different growth stages, and LAI from jointing to maturity showed a parabolic curve, and the maximum LAI of wheat was at heading stage. When nitrogen or phosphorus application was sufficient, the canopy hyperspectral reflectance of wheat was reduced 3%-5% in the visible wavelength (P<0.05), and increased 4%-10% in the near infrared wavelength (P<0.05). There were significant (P<0.01) correlation between Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index Ⅱ (EVI2), New Vegetation Index (NVI), Modified Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDVI), and Modified

  11. Graded-index magnonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  12. $Local^{3}$ Index Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Teleman, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    $Local^{3}$ Index Theorem means $Local(Local(Local \\;Index \\; Theorem)))$. $Local \\; Index \\; Theorem$ is the Connes-Moscovici local index theorem \\cite{Connes-Moscovici1}, \\cite{Connes-Moscovici2}. The second "Local" refers to the cyclic homology localised to a certain separable subring of the ground algebra, while the last one refers to Alexander-Spanier type cyclic homology. The Connes-Moscovici work is based on the operator $R(A) = \\mathbf{P} - \\mathbf{e}$ associated to the elliptic pseudo-differential operator $A$ on the smooth manifold $M$, where $\\mathbf{P}$, $\\mathbf{e}$ are idempotents, see \\cite{Connes-Moscovici1}, Pg. 353. The operator $R(A)$ has two main merits: it is a smoothing operator and its distributional kernel is situated in an arbitrarily small neighbourhood of the diagonal in $M \\times M$. The operator $R(A)$ has also two setbacks: -i) it is not an idempotent (and therefore it does not have a genuine Connes-Chern character); -ii) even if it were an idempotent, its Connes-Chern character ...

  13. Nitrate Leaching Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  14. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present...... an indexing structure that, for any given constant >0, uses O(N/B) disk blocks and answers a query in O((N/B)1/2+ +K/B) I/Os, where B is the block size. It can also report all the points of S that lie inside R during a given time interval. A point can be inserted or deleted, or the trajectory of a point can...... be changed, in O(logB2 N) I/Os. Next, we present a general approach that improves the query time if the queries arrive in chronological order, by allowing the index to evolve over time. We obtain a tradeoff between the query time and the number of times the index needs to be updated as the points move. We...

  15. The Misery Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  16. A Tourism Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK mode

  17. Index for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  18. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  19. Perioperative cerebral ischaemia in cardiac surgery and BIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, J; Kerbaul, F; Collart, F; Guidon, C; Bonnet, M; Guillen, J C; Gouin, F

    2005-08-01

    A 46-year-old woman was monitored by bispectral index monitoring (BIS) during redo aortic and mitral valve replacement. On release of the aortic cross clamp there was a sudden, severe, unexplained, and sustained fall in the BIS value. Postoperatively, a CT scan was consistent with multiple ischaemic lesions. The lesions were presumed to be due to air embolism. This case suggests that a sudden unexplained and persistent fall in BIS may indicate cerebral ischaemia.

  20. 甲氨蝶呤血药浓度与患者肝肾功能指标的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between therapeutic drug monitoring of methotrexate by high performance liquid chromatography and hepatic and renal function index in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松柳; 沈炳香; 段自皞; 蒋俊杰; 王法财

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对22例次应用大剂量甲氨蝶呤(HD-MTX)化疗的急性淋巴细胞白血病(ALL)患者血药浓度监测、肝肾功能实验室检查数据进行分析总结,探讨 MTX 20 h 和44 h 血药浓度与 MTX 实验室肝肾功能指标之间的联系。方法对 ALL 患者应用 HD-MTX 化疗后20、44 h 进行血药浓度监测,患者 HD-MTX 化疗后进行血常规、肝肾功能、血糖、血脂、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)等相关实验室检查,收集资料。采用 SPSS 19.0软件 Spearman 相关分析两变量之间的相关性。结果MTX 20、44 h 血药浓度与患者化疗后血肌酐(CRE)值呈正相关,而与血尿素氮(BUN)、尿酸(UA)值无关。MTX 20 h 血药浓度与患者化疗后血总胆红素(STB)、直接胆红素(DBIL)、谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)值均呈正相关,而44 h 血 MTX 浓度与 STB、DBIL、ALT、AST 值无相关性。结论MTX 20、44 h 血药浓度监测可以预测 MTX 化疗造成的肌酐升高型肾损害,而 MTX 20 h血药浓度监测对于 MTX 造成的肝损害也有一定的预测作用。%Objective To investigate the relationship between hepatic,renal function index in patients and therapeutic drug monitoring of methotrexate 20 h,44 h serum concentrations by analyzing and summarizing therapeutic drug monitoring of high-dose methotrexate in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and hepatic,renal function index in patients.Methods We monitored methotrexate 20 h,44 h serum concentrations in patients with HD-MTX after chemotherapy and performed blood routine,liver and kidney function,blood glu-cose,blood lipid,LDH and related lab tests and collected the relative data.Two variables were analyzed with Spearman method correla-tion analysis by using SPSS 19.0 software.Results Methotrexate 20 h,44 h serum concentrations had positive correlation with blood creatinine(Cre),yet had no correlation with blood urea nitrogen(Bun)and uric acid

  1. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  2. A data fusion-based drought index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohammad; Rüdiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-03-01

    Drought and water stress monitoring plays an important role in the management of water resources, especially during periods of extreme climate conditions. Here, a data fusion-based drought index (DFDI) has been developed and analyzed for three different locations of varying land use and climate regimes in Australia. The proposed index comprehensively considers all types of drought through a selection of indices and proxies associated with each drought type. In deriving the proposed index, weekly data from three different data sources (OzFlux Network, Asia-Pacific Water Monitor, and MODIS-Terra satellite) were employed to first derive commonly used individual standardized drought indices (SDIs), which were then grouped using an advanced clustering method. Next, three different multivariate methods (principal component analysis, factor analysis, and independent component analysis) were utilized to aggregate the SDIs located within each group. For the two clusters in which the grouped SDIs best reflected the water availability and vegetation conditions, the variables were aggregated based on an averaging between the standardized first principal components of the different multivariate methods. Then, considering those two aggregated indices as well as the classifications of months (dry/wet months and active/non-active months), the proposed DFDI was developed. Finally, the symbolic regression method was used to derive mathematical equations for the proposed DFDI. The results presented here show that the proposed index has revealed new aspects in water stress monitoring which previous indices were not able to, by simultaneously considering both hydrometeorological and ecological concepts to define the real water stress of the study areas.

  3. A monitoring analysis on biochemical indexes of woman’s Wushu routine athletes during pre-competition training%女子武术套路运动员赛前训练部分生化指标的监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅寒

    2015-01-01

    By using the methods of monitoring analysis of blood routine(HB,RBC,HCT),blood urea nitrogen(BU), creatine kinase(CK),testosterone(T),cortisol(C)and other biochemical indicator ,this artical analyzes the biochemical indexes of athletes before the match with different training stages showed a different trend,during the preseason of 12 Liaoning province athletes,who participate in the 2013 National Woman’s Wushu routine Championship.The result shows that:the athletes take the competition adjustment to a better physical condition during one weeks before,shows that the pre-competition training arrangement of basic to achieve better results, biochemical indexes can reflect the athletes to pre-competition load adjustment and physical function changes.%对辽宁省参加2013年全国女子武术套路冠军赛的12名运动员赛前训练期间的血常规(HB、RBC、HCT)、血尿素(BU)、肌酸肌酶(CK)、睾酮(T)、皮质醇(C)等生化指标进行监测分析,结果表明:赛前运动员的部分生化指标随不同的训练阶段呈现不同的变化趋势,赛前1周基本调整至较好状态,表明赛前训练安排基本达到了较好的效果,生化指标的测试能够很好地反映运动员对赛前运动负荷的适应情况以及身体机能变化情况。

  4. Just In Time Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Pinaki; Sundaram, Girish; PS, Sreedish

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges being faced by Database managers today is to manage the performance of complex SQL queries which are dynamic in nature. Since it is not possible to tune each and every query because of its dynamic nature, there is a definite possibility that these queries may cause serious database performance issues if left alone. Conventional indexes are useful only for those queries which are frequently executed or those columns which are frequently joined in SQL queries. This p...

  5. Comparison of relative oxycodone consumption in surgical pleth index-guided analgesia versus conventional analgesia during sevoflurane anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young Ju; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, So Hyun; Park, Sangwoo; Kim, Heezoo; Lee, Il Ok; Kong, Myoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The surgical pleth index (SPI) is proposed for titration of analgesic drugs during general anesthesia. Several reports have investigated the effect of SPI on the consumption of opioids including remifentanil, fentanyl, and sufentanil during anesthesia, but there are no reports about oxycodone. We aimed to investigate intravenous oxycodone consumption between SPI-guided analgesia and conventional analgesia practices during sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods: Forty-five patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were randomly assigned to an SPI group (SPI-guided analgesia group, n = 23) or a control group (conventional analgesia group, n = 22). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane to achieve bispectral index values between 40 and 60. In the SPI group, oxycodone 1 mg was administered intravenously at SPI values over 50; in the control group, oxycodone 1 mg was administered intravenously at the occurrence of tachycardia or hypertension event. Intraoperative oxycodone consumption and extubation time were recorded. The number of hemodynamic and somatic movement events was recorded, as were postoperative pain and recovery scores. Results: Patients’ characteristics were comparable between the groups. Intraoperative oxycodone consumption in the SPI group was significantly lower than the control group (3.5 ± 2.4 vs 5.1 ± 2.4 mg; P = 0.012). Extubation time was significantly shorter in the SPI group (10.6 ± 3.5 vs 13.4 ± 4.6 min; P = 0.026). Hemodynamic and somatic movement events during anesthesia were comparable between the groups, as were numeric rating scales for pain and modified Aldrete scores at postanesthesia care unit. Conclusions: SPI-guided analgesia reduces intravenous oxycodone consumption and extubation time compared with conventional analgesia based on clinical parameters during sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. PMID:27583920

  6. 铁代谢血液指标监测对肾性贫血使用静脉铁剂的指导意义%Guidance Significance of Iron Metabolism Indexes Monitoring on Appropriate Use Intravenous Iron in Renal Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓琳

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察对肾性贫血使用静脉铁剂的临床疗效,探讨监测铁代谢血液指标等指标对治疗肾性贫血的临床意义。方法选择2012年6月至2013年6月收治的接受血液透析患者98例,按照随机数字表法分为两组,各49例。两组患者均采用常规血液透析治疗,对照组在此基础上口服琥珀酸亚铁,观察组在此基础上静脉注射右旋糖酐铁。观察两组患者治疗效果及铁代谢血液指标变化水平。结果治疗8周后观察组患者总有效率显著高于对照组( P<0.05);两组患者铁代谢血液指标比治疗前均显著升高( P<0.05),治疗后观察组上升幅度均高于对照组( P<0.05),但均未超过检测范围。结论肾性贫血使用静脉铁剂能有效提高治愈率,但使用时应严格监测铁代谢血液指标,严禁铁过载给患者带来不良反应。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of proper use of intravenous iron in renal anemia, and to investigate the clinical significance of monitoring blood indexes of iron metabolism for the treatment of renal anemia. Methods 98 patients with hemodialysis in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2013 were selected and randomly divided into two groups according to the random number table, 49 cases in each group. Both the two groups were treated by the conventional hemodialysis. On this basis the control group took oral ferrous succinate, while the observation group was intravenously injected by iron dextran. The treatment effects and change of the levels in iron metabolism blood indexes were observed in the two groups. Results The total effective rate after 8-week treatment in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group with statistical difference ( P < 0. 05 );the iron metabolism blood indexes after treatment in the two groups were significantly increased compared with before treatment, the differences were statisti-cally significant ( P < 0

  7. 江苏省女子皮艇运动员赛前训练期生化指标监测分析%Monitoring and Analysis of Biochemical Indexes of Woman Kayak Athletes before the Training Period in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严石

    2016-01-01

    Using literature method, experimental method, mathematical statistics and interviews of Jiangsu Province in 2015 national canoe Championship 10 woman kayak athletes in before six weeks training in serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, the backlog of hemoglobin, red blood cell, urine pH, urine specific gravity index were monitored. Results:after before the six week high intensity exercise, athletes serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen content appear greatly increased, product overall low hemoglobin and red blood cell hematocrit, indicating that high intensity training produced a strong stimulation, and not in the short term good recovery;after a positive adjustment, blood index gradually reduced to normal levels, outside the part of the team urine index in normal; after the third week of appropriate to increase the amount and intensity of training, training increased means of recovery and adjustment of nutrition, the second week to increase training to reduce the amount of strength, part of the stress response, take active recovery method, before the first week as a whole in normal range. Conclusion: biochemical index can reflect the athletes to pre exercise adaptation and status of body function;through the timely analysis of biochemical index changes, timely adjustment of training program and restoration measures can effectively control the athletes body function; suggest that the arrangement of the training load should be gradual, vary from person to person;recovery training methods are various.%运用文献资料法、实验法、数理统计法和访谈法对江苏省参加2015年全国皮划艇锦标赛的10名女子皮艇运动员在赛前6周训练中血清肌酸激酶、血尿素氮、血红蛋白、红细胞积压、尿PH值、尿比重等指标进行监测。结果:在赛前第6周高强度大运动量后,运动员血清肌酸激酶、血尿素氮含量出现较大程度的上升,血红蛋白和红细胞压积整体偏低,表明高

  8. Development and evaluation of a physically based multiscalar drought index: The Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Zhao, Xining; Jin, Jiming; Wu, Pute

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a new physically based multiscalar drought index, the Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index (SZI), was developed and evaluated, which combines the advantages of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The SZI is based on the water budget simulations produced with a sophisticated hydrological model, and it also includes a multiscalar feature to quantify drought events at different temporal scales taken from SPEI. The Chinese Loess Plateau was selected to evaluate the performance of the SZI. Our evaluation indicates that the SZI accurately captures the onset, duration, and ending of a multiyear drought event through its multiscalar feature, while the PDSI, which lacks this feature, is often unable to describe the evolution of a multiyear drought event. In addition, the variability of the SZI is more consistent with observed streamflow and the satellite normalized difference vegetation index than that of the Standardized Precipitation Index and the SPEI. Although the SPEI includes potential evapotranspiration (PE) as water demand, water demand is often unrealistically estimated based solely on PE, especially over arid and semiarid regions. The improved drought quantification with the SZI is the result of a more reasonable estimation of water demand by including evapotranspiration, runoff, and any change in soil moisture storage. In general, our newly developed SZI is physically based and includes a multiscalar feature, which enables it to provide better information for drought monitoring and identification at different temporal scales.

  9. A clinical index for evaluating and monitoring dental erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I B; Westergaard, J; Stoltze, K

    2000-01-01

    This study describes a new fine-scaled system for classifying initial and advanced dental erosions. The system includes the use of study casts of the teeth in an epoxy resin with an accurate surface reproduction. The severity of erosion on each tooth surface is scored according to six grades...... of severity. In addition, the presence of a Class V restoration and dental erosion on the same surface increases the erosion score, as it is assumed that the need for restorative treatment can be caused by the erosion. A high inter-examiner agreement was found when the present scoring system was used by two...

  10. Negative refractive index metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie J. Padilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.

  11. Relação entre a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina e a fração expirada de sevoflurano monitorizada pelo índice bispectral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Edno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A associação de agentes venosos à anestesia geral inalatória proporciona melhor qualidade de analgesia e hipnose. A dexmedetomidina é um agonista específico alfa2-adrenérgico com estas características e reconhecida por proporcionar estabilidade hemodinâmica. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina na fração expirada de sevoflurano (FEsevo em anestesia geral, monitorizada pela análise bispectral do EEG (BIS. MÉTODO: Estudou-se, de modo prospectivo, 24 pacientes adultos, de ambos os sexos, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos à cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, monitorizados com ECG, PANI, SpO2, P ET CO2, FEsevo e BIS. Procedeu-se a indução venosa com alfentanil (30 µg.kg-1, tiopental (5 mg.kg-1 e vecurônio (0,1 mg.kg-1 e intubação traqueal. Iniciaram-se a administração de sevoflurano (manutenção do BIS entre 40 e 60, a ventilação controlada com volume corrente de 10 ml.kg-1 e a manutenção da P ET CO2 entre 35 e 45 mmHg. Na fase de manutenção da anestesia, após 60 minutos da indução anestésica (M60, foi iniciada a infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina em 2 fases: infusão inicial (1 µg.kg-1 em 20 minutos; e, infusão de manutenção (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1. A concentração de sevoflurano foi ajustada para manter o valor de BIS entre 40 e 60. As variáveis de PA, FC, FEsevo, SpO2, P ET CO2 e BIS foram avaliadas nos momentos pré-indução (M-15, M15, M45, M75, M105 e M120. RESULTADOS: A associação da dexmedetomidina à anestesia geral com sevoflurano proporcionou redução significativa (p < 0,05 da FEsevo de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M105 (1,073 ± 0,457 e de M45 (1,604 ± 0,485 a M120 (1,159 ± 0,475. As variáveis hemodinâmicas analisadas apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes com p < 0,05, mas sem repercussões clínicas. CONCLUSÕES: A associação de dexmedetomidina em infusão contínua (0,5 µg.kg-1.h-1 à anestesia

  12. Application of pulse index continuous cardiac output monitoring to improve efficiency of acute heart failure care%应用脉搏指数连续心输出量监测提升急性心力衰竭护理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀月; 张领; 赵书琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To ihvestigate the effect of pulse index continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring to nursing care of acute heart failure care.Methods The clinical data of 43 acute heart failure patients were retrospectively analyzed,patients were given pulse index continuous cardiac output monitoring and care,the patient' s nursing outcomes were observed,and the intrathoracic blood volume,cardiac output and oxygen consumption before and after the intervention were compared.Results After the implementation of PiCCO and nursing intervention,43 patients had no serious complications,improved 42 cases discharged,the other 1 patient in critical condition due to old age and heart function improvement sustained no automatic discharge.Oxygen consumption,cardiac output and intrathoracic blood volume were improved after the intervention,there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) compared to the previous indicators and intervention after intervention.Conclusions Application of pulse index continuous cardiac output can effectively improve patient's clinical parameters such as cardiac output,through the implementation of appropriate care can improve symptoms and reduce complications.%目的 探讨急性心力衰竭患者护理中应用脉搏指数连续心输出量监测(PiCCO)的效果.方法 选取平顶山市第二人民医院收治的43例急性心力衰竭患者作为研究对象,收集患者的临床资料并对其做回顾性分析,对患者实施脉搏指数连续心输出量监测和护理,对患者的护理效果进行观察,并对其干预前后的胸腔内血容量、心排血量与氧耗量进行对比观察.结果 实施PiCCO和护理干预,本研究43例患者均无严重并发症产生,42例好转出院,1例由于病情危重、高龄及心功能持续无改善自动出院.患者干预后的氧耗量、心排血量与胸腔内血容量均有所改善,干预后各项指标与干预前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 应用脉搏指数连续心

  13. Torsadogenic index for prevention of acute death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Ángel Inchauspe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This risk management project aims to apply a global preventive and predictive measure in potential victims of acute death and heart failure. Among the main causes are identified sub-diagnosed genetic mutations; prescription, interaction, self-medication or abuse of suspected drugs due to internet prospect's consult; and a parasitic pandemia, the Chagas disease (over 100000000 population is potentially infected worldwide. Promoting a global extensive determination of the torsadogenic index which was successfully published in Frontiers of Pharmacology Journal, will allow to monitor general population, set security patterns to categorize silent high risk groups of serious prognosis of tachyarrhythmias. For this purpose, applications of known QT determinations are proposed, recommending Dr. Rautaharju's formula, actually improved with gender adult versions. Torsadogenic index will allow to establish an individual traceability, obtain comparative samples that are alert to possible QT enlargements. Thus, torsadogenic index results a valuable, simple and costless resource to consider in the fight against acute death and cardiac arrest. Torsadogenic index represents a global indicator capable of predicting and preventing acute death and heart failure for most relevant reasons.

  14. A drought index accounting for snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Maria; Stahl, Kerstin; Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is the most widely used index to characterize and monitor droughts that are related to precipitation deficiencies. However, the SPI does not always deliver the relevant information for hydrological drought management when precipitation deficiencies are not the only reason for droughts as it is the case for example in snow influenced catchments. If precipitation is temporarily stored as snow, then there is a significant difference between meteorological and hydrological drought because the delayed release of melt water from the snow accumulation to the stream. In this study we introduce an extension to the SPI, the Standardized Snow Melt and Rain Index (SMRI), that captures both rain and snow melt deficits, which in effect modify streamflow. The SMRI does not require any snow data instead observations of temperature and precipitation are used to model snow. The SMRI is evaluated for seven Swiss catchments with varying degrees of snow influence. In particular for catchments with a larger component of snowmelt in runoff generation, we found the SMRI to be a good complementary index to the SPI to describe streamflow droughts. In a further step, the SPI and the SMRI were compared for the summer drought of 2003 and the spring drought of 2011 for Switzerland, using gridded products of precipitation and temperature including the entire country.

  15. Torsadogenic index for prevention of acute death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrián Ángel Inchauspe

    2015-01-01

    This risk management project aims to apply a global preventive and predictive measure in potential victims of acute death and heart failure. Among the main causes are identified sub-diagnosed genetic mutations; prescription, interaction, self-medication or abuse of suspected drugs due to internet prospect's consult; and a parasitic pandemia, the Chagas disease (over 100 000 000 population is potentially infected worldwide). Promoting a global extensive determination of the torsadogenic index which was successfully published in Frontiers of Pharmacology Journal, will allow to monitor general population, set security patterns to categorize silent high risk groups of serious prognosis of tachyarhythmias. For this purpose, applications of known QT determinations are proposed, recommending Dr. Rautaharju's formula, actually improved with gender adult versions. Torsadogenic index will allow to establish an individual traceability, obtain comparative samples that are alert to possible QT enlargements. Thus, torsadogenic index results a valuable, simple and costless resource to consider in the fight against acute death and cardiac arrest. Torsadogenic index represents a global indicator capable of predicting and preventing acute death and heart failure for most relevant reasons.

  16. Growth Index after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possible deviation from the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model and the Einstein's gravity theory in the dynamical perspectives, the growth index $\\gamma_L$ was proposed. Recently, thanks to the measurement of the cosmic growth rate via the redshift-space distortion, one can understand the evolution of density contrast through $f\\sigma_8(z)$, where $f(z)=d\\ln \\delta/d \\ln a$ is the growth rate of matter and $\\sigma_8(z)$ is the rms amplitude of the density contrast $\\delta$ at the comoving $8h^{-1}$ Mpc scale. In this paper, we use the red-shift space distortion data points to investigate the growth index on the bases of the Einstein's gravity theory and a modified gravity theory under the assumption $f=\\Omega_m(a)^{\\gamma_L}$. To fix the background evolution, the cosmic observational data points from the type Ia supernovae SNLS3, cosmic microwave background radiation from {\\it Planck} and baryon acoustic oscillation are used. Via the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, the $\\gamma_L$ values were obta...

  17. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...

  18. An improved molecular connectivity index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 俞庆森; 朱龙观

    2000-01-01

    Through modification of the delta values of the molecular connectivity indexes, and connecting the quantum chemistry with topology method effectively, the molecular connectivity indexes are converted into quantum-topology indexes. The modified indexes not only keep all information obtained from the original molecular connectivity method but also have their own virtue in application, and at the same time make up some disadvantages of the quantum and molecular connectivity methods.

  19. Indexing Depth and Retrieval Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Barbara J.

    1972-01-01

    There are six major studies of the effect of indexing depth on retrieval performance. They differ in purpose, methodology, measures, indexing language, field of study, and data base--nevertheless, all have found depth of indexing to have the same effect upon information retrieval. (13 references) (Author/NH)

  20. The Austrian UV monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef

    2017-02-01

    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website http://www.uv-index.at where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  1. Application of entropy of EEG in monitoring anesthetic depth%脑电熵在麻醉深度监测中的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金升; 岳云

    2009-01-01

    Entropy of EEG is the quantified parameter of irregularity or unpredictability of EEG.Entropy of EEG(ap-proximate entropy.Shannon entropy,spectral entropy)is a good measurement for anesthetic depth.The Datex Ohmeda En-tropyTM module is a commercial available device called-time requency balanced spectral entropy,including two entropy indica-tors:state entropy (SE) and response entropy (RE).State entropy is computed over the frequency range from 0.8 Hz to 32Hz.It includes the EEG.dominant part of the spectrum,and therefore primarily reflects the cortical state of the patient.Re-sponse entropy is computed over a frequency range from 0.8 Hz to 47 Hz.It includes both the EEG-dominant and EMG-dom-inant part of the spectrum.EntropyTM module has similar ability in hypnosis monitoring with BIS monitor.However,response entropy may be useful to identify inadequate anesthesia and patient arousal during painful stimuli.Entropy of EEG is derived from electroencephalogram like other qEEG.The differences are their own algorithms.Therefore,new predictors of anesthetic depth are called in clinical practice.%脑电熵是对脑电信号不规则性、无序性、不可预知性的量化指标.脑电熵(近似熵、Shannon 熵、谱熵)是临床监测麻醉深度的良好指标.Dutex-Ohmeda公司推出的EntropyTM模块是时一域平衡谱熵,它引入了状态熵(state entropy,SE)与反应熵(response entropy.RE)两个参数指标.状态熵,只是覆盖了脑电图(electroencephalogram,EEG)频率范围(0.8 Hz-32 Hz),因此主要反映大脑皮层状态;反应熵则覆盖了包括EEG 和肌电图(electromyogram,EMG)在内的频率范围(0.8 Hz-47 Hz),其数值受肌电活动的影响.在镇静监测方面,EntropyTM模块与脑电双频指数(bispectral index,BIS)监护仪对镇静水平的监测能力相似;在镇痛监测方面,反应熵可能对确定麻醉过浅及疼痛刺激所致的患者麻醉苏醒有意义.脑电熵像其他数量化脑电图一样,仍源于脑电,

  2. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    to the environment. The monitoring of the ship’s performance can be used as decision support in determining when actions to improve performance should be taken. The performance evaluation is based on a model of the ship and the added resistance from wind and waves during operation. Logged data on board the ship...... in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been...... determined to establish cases where the ship is in steady state conditions and where these conditions are inside the boundaries of the const raints of the model. Several indexes have been used in the evaluation. Two indexes relate to the ship’s logged speed and one relates to the measured torque...

  3. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...

  4. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    An abundance of literature on image indexing, visual and image retrieval methods, content-based image retrieval, image tagging, visual information seeking, etc., is available in information studies. In 2008, decades of development with its great diversity in approaches was summed up...... as an “evolution” where the literature recently had “grown at a stupendous rate” (Enser, p. 531). In this ‘evolutionary’ process, critical inspections are, however, also needed in specific cases. In the following, three aspects are in concern: 1. the use of an interpretation model created by the renowned art...... “Modeling and Analyzing the Topicality of Art Images” (Huang, Soergel, & Klavans, 2015), recently published in this journal, will be targeted as an indication of these aspects....

  5. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  6. Review of Cohesion in Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi Rizi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Indexers often disagree on judging terms that best reflect the content of a document. Difference of opinion highlights one of the characteristics of indexing which is indexing cohesion. Also known as consistency, little study of the subject matter has been undertaken in the past few years. However, its importance has been recently acknowledged in effective information retrieval and expansion of access points to the document content. The present paper investigates cohesion in indexing. In addition of presenting the definitions offered by experts, it takes note of the factors influencing indexing cohesion. Methods for measuring cohesion are offered.

  7. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring;

    2015-01-01

    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  8. Solar index generation and delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  9. Generalizations of Wiener polarity index and terminal Wiener index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    In theoretical chemistry, distance-based molecular structure descriptors are used for modeling physical, pharmacologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. We introduce a generalized Wiener polarity index $W_k (G)$ as the number of unordered pairs of vertices $\\{u, v\\}$ of $G$ such that the shortest distance $d (u, v)$ between $u$ and $v$ is $k$. For $k = 3$, we get standard Wiener polarity index. Furthermore, we generalize the terminal Wiener index $TW_k (G)$ as the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of degree $k$. For $k = 1$, we get standard terminal Wiener index. In this paper we describe a linear time algorithm for computing these indices for trees and partial cubes, and characterize extremal trees maximizing the generalized Wiener polarity index and generalized terminal Wiener index among all trees of given order $n$.

  10. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  11. Change in refractive index of muscle tissue during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Chen, Meimei; Liu, Shupeng; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-period fiber-grating (LPG) based Michelson interferometric refractometry to monitor the change in refractive index of porcine muscle during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). As the wavelength of RI interferometer alters with the change in refractive index around the probe, the LPG based refractometry is combined with LITT system to measure the change in refractive index of porcine muscle when irradiated by laser. The experimental results show the denaturation of tissue alters the refractive index significantly and the LPG sensor can be applied to monitor the tissue state during the LITT.

  12. Comparison of Midazolam and Propofol for BIS-Guided Sedation During Regional Anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Khurana; Ankit Agarwal; R. K. Verma; Gupta, P K

    2009-01-01

    Summary Regional anaesthesia has become an important anaesthetic technique. Effective sedation is an essential for regional techniques too. This study compares midazolam and propofol in terms of onset & recovery from sedation, dosage and side effects of both the drugs using Bispectral Index monitoring. Ninety eight patients were randomly divided into two groups,one group recieved midazolam infusion while the other recieved propofol infusion until BIS reached 75. We observed Time to reach desi...

  13. The Harary index of trees

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'; Feng, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The Harary index of a graph $G$ is recently introduced topological index, defined on the reverse distance matrix as $H(G)=\\sum_{u,v \\in V(G)}\\frac{1}{d(u,v)}$, where $d(u,v)$ is the length of the shortest path between two distinct vertices $u$ and $v$. We present the partial ordering of starlike trees based on the Harary index and we describe the trees with the second maximal and the second minimal Harary index. In this paper, we investigate the Harary index of trees with $k$ pendent vertices and determine the extremal trees with maximal Harary index. We also characterize the extremal trees with maximal Harary index with respect to the number of vertices of degree two, matching number, independence number, domination number, radius and diameter. In addition, we characterize the extremal trees with minimal Harary index and given maximum degree. We concluded that in all presented classes, the trees with maximal Harary index are exactly those trees with the minimal Wiener index, and vice versa.

  14. Glycaemic index methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; Bjorck, I; Frayn, K N; Gibbs, A L; Lang, V; Slama, G; Wolever, T M S

    2005-06-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified as being digested and absorbed slowly and high-GI foods as being rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in different glycaemic responses. Low-GI foods were found to induce benefits on certain risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Accordingly it has been proposed that GI classification of foods and drinks could be useful to help consumers make 'healthy food choices' within specific food groups. Classification of foods according to their impact on blood glucose responses requires a standardised way of measuring such responses. The present review discusses the most relevant methodological considerations and highlights specific recommendations regarding number of subjects, sex, subject status, inclusion and exclusion criteria, pre-test conditions, CHO test dose, blood sampling procedures, sampling times, test randomisation and calculation of glycaemic response area under the curve. All together, these technical recommendations will help to implement or reinforce measurement of GI in laboratories and help to ensure quality of results. Since there is current international interest in alternative ways of expressing glycaemic responses to foods, some of these methods are discussed.

  15. Ankle Brachial Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, J.; Hansen, T.; Johansson, L.; Lind, L.; Ahlstroem, H. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Medical Sciences, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) permits noninvasive vascular assessment, which can be utilized in epidemiological studies. Purpose: To assess the relation between a low ankle brachial index (ABI) and high-grade stenoses in the pelvic and leg arteries in the elderly. Material and Methods: WBMRA was performed in a population sample of 306 subjects aged 70 years. The arteries below the aortic bifurcation were graded after the most severe stenosis according to one of three grades: 0-49% stenosis, 50-99% stenosis, or occlusion. ABI was calculated for each side. Results: There were assessable WBMRA and ABI examinations in 268 (right side), 265 (left side), and 258 cases (both sides). At least one >=50% stenosis was found in 19% (right side), 23% (left side), and 28% (on at least one side) of the cases. The corresponding prevalences for ABI <0.9 were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 6.6%. An ABI cut-off value of 0.9 resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 20%, 99%, 83%, and 84% on the right side, and 15%, 99%, 82%, and 80% on the left side, respectively, for the presence of a >= 50% stenosis in the pelvic or leg arteries. Conclusion: An ABI <0.9 underestimates the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the general elderly population

  16. A Global Grassland Drought Index (GDI Product: Algorithm and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing drought indices have been widely used to monitor meteorological drought and agricultural drought; however, few of them are focus on drought monitoring for grassland regions. This study presented a new drought index, the Grassland Drought Index (GDI, for monitoring drought conditions in global grassland regions. These regions are vital for the environment and human society but susceptible to drought. The GDI was constructed based on three measures of water content: precipitation, soil moisture (SM, and canopy water content (CWC. The precipitation information was extracted from the available precipitation datasets, and SM was estimated by downscaling exiting soil moisture data to a 1 km resolution, and CWC was retrieved based on the PROSAIL (PROSPECT + SAIL model. Each variable was scaled from 0 to 1 for each pixel based on absolute minimum and maximum values over time, and these scaled variables were combined with the selected weights to construct the GDI. According to validation at the regional scale, the GDI was correlated with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI to some extent, and captured most of the drought area identified by the United States Drought Monitor (USDM maps. In addition, the global GDI product at a 1 km spatial resolution substantially agreed with the global Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI product throughout the period 2005–2010, and it provided detailed and accurate information about the location and the duration of drought based on the evaluation using the known drought events.

  17. Monarch Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The US Fish and Wildlife Service has engaged in a multi-partnered, integrated strategy for monitoring conservation of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus...

  18. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-03

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  19. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2015-01-01

    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  20. Bayesian Monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the inspection game: The ?Bayesian Monitoring? model rests on the assumption that judges are interested in enforcing compliant behavior and making correct decisions. They may base their judgements on an informative but imperfect signal which can be generated costlessly. In the original inspection game, monitoring is costly and generates a perfectly informative signal. While the inspection game has only one mixed strategy equilibrium, three Perfect Bayesia...

  1. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  2. Index Bioclimatic "Wind-Chill"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoreanu Elena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an important bioclimatic index which shows the influence of wind on the human body thermoregulation. When the air temperature is high, the wind increases thermal comfort. But more important for the body is the wind when the air temperature is low. When the air temperature is lower and wind speed higher, the human body is threatening to freeze faster. Cold wind index is used in Canada, USA, Russia (temperature "equivalent" to the facial skin etc., in the weather forecast every day in the cold season. The index can be used and for bioclimatic regionalization, in the form of skin temperature index.

  3. Semiotics and Indexing: An Analysis of the Subject Indexing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Explains some major problems related to the subject indexing process and proposes semiotics as a framework for understanding the interpretive nature of the process. Explores the approach to studies of indexing and library and information science suggested by Fairthorne, Blair, Benediktsson, and others. Offers an explanation of what occurs in the…

  4. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  5. 肌松闭环注射系统联合听觉诱发电位指数在老年人全身麻醉中的应用研究%The application research in the close-loop muscle relaxant injection system combined with auditory evoked potentials index for monitoring in elderly patients during general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜建龙; 吴纯西; 孙翼; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察肌松闭环注射系统(CLMRIS)联合听觉诱发电位指数监测在老年人全身麻醉中的临床效果及安全性. 方法 选取我院2012年2月至2012年10月期间收治的美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)Ⅰ~Ⅱ级腹部手术麻醉老年患者100例.随机将其分为两组,经验组和CLMRIS组,每组50例.经验组根据麻醉师临床经验判断用药实施麻醉;CLMRIS组依据肌松闭环注射系统指导肌松药使用.在入室、诱导即刻、插管、切皮、进腹、探查、关腹、缝皮、意识恢复、气管拔管、出室11个时间点(T0~T10),观察记录听觉诱发电位指数及各项生命指标;记录肌松药总量、诱导苏醒时间、术中体动反应率;不良反应. 结果 所有患者生命体征均平稳,经验组T8~T10各时点RR最低(P<0.05).组内与T0~T1比较,T8~T10各时点平均动脉压、心率未见升高(P>0.05).CLMRIS组插管时间为(268±30.4)min、拔管时间为(14±6.4)min,经验组插管时间为(172±23.7)min、拔管时间为(18±7.9)min,CLMRIS组均短于经验组(t=3.277,6.341.P<0.05); CLMRIS组苏醒时间(8.8±2.9)min较经验组(12.2±4.6)min时间短(t=3.346,P<0.05);两组基础值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),意识消失时差异明显,CLMRIS组优于经验组. 结论 肌松闭环注射系统的应用提高了老年人全身麻醉安全性,可减少术后残余肌松的发生率,同时配合听觉诱发电位监测麻醉深度,防止及减少了术中知晓的发生率,使老年人全身麻醉可控性强,麻醉诱导平稳,达到减少麻醉药物达到最佳麻醉效果.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of close-loop muscle relaxant injcction system (CLMRIS) combined with auditory evoked potentials index for monitoring in elderly patients during general anesthesia.Methods A total of 100 patients undergong abdominal operation with ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ anesthesia in our hospital from February 2012 to October 2012 were selected

  6. The HLD (CalMod) index and the index question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, W S

    1998-08-01

    The malocclusion index problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann Index in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any index. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many indexes have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) Index is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this index. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the index. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The index problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) Index has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the index question and one solution in the United States.

  7. Satisfiability with Index Dependency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yu Liang; Jing He

    2012-01-01

    We study the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) restricted on input formulas for which there are linear arithmetic constraints imposed on the indices of variables occurring in the same clause.This can be seen as a structural counterpart of Schaefer's dichotomy theorem which studies the SAT problem with additional constraints on the assigned values of variables in the same clause.More precisely,let k-SAT(m,A) denote the SAT problem restricted on instances of k-CNF formulas,in every clause of which the indices of the last k-m variables are totally decided by the first m ones through some linear equations chosen from A.For example,if A contains i3 =i1+2i2 and i4 =i2-i1 + 1,then a clause of the input to 4-SAT(2,A) has the form yi1∨yi2∨yi1+2i2∨yi2-i1+1,with yi being xi or (xi).We obtain the following results:1) If m ≥2,then for any set A of linear constraints,the restricted problem k-SAT(m,A) is either in P or NP-complete assuming P ≠ NP.Moreover,the corresponding #SAT problem is always #P-complete,and the MAx-SAT problem does not allow a polynomial time approximation scheme assuming P ≠ NP.2) m =1,that is,in every clause only one index can be chosen freely.In this case,we develop a general framework together with some techniques for designing polynomial-time algorithms for the restricted SAT problems.Using these,we prove that for any A,#2-SAT(1,A) and MAX-2-SAT(1,A) are both polynomial-time solvable,which is in sharp contrast with the hardness results of general #2-SAT and MAX-2-SAT.For fixed k≥ 3,we obtain a large class of non-trivial constraints A,under which the problems k-SAT(1,A),#k-SAT(1,A)and MAx-k-SAT(1,A) can all be solved in polynomial time or quasi-polynomial time.

  8. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  9. An automated fog monitoring system for the Indo-Gangetic Plains based on satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dinesh; Chourey, Reema; Rizvi, Sarwar; Singh, Manoj; Gautam, Ritesh

    2016-05-01

    Fog is a meteorological phenomenon that causes reduction in regional visibility and affects air quality, thus leading to various societal and economic implications, especially disrupting air and rail transportation. The persistent and widespread winter fog impacts the entire the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), as frequently observed in satellite imagery. The IGP is a densely populated region in south Asia, inhabiting about 1/6th of the world's population, with a strong upward pollution trend. In this study, we have used multi-spectral radiances and aerosol/cloud retrievals from Terra/Aqua MODIS data for developing an automated web-based fog monitoring system over the IGP. Using our previous and existing methodologies, and ongoing algorithm development for the detection of fog and retrieval of associated microphysical properties (e.g. fog droplet effective radius), we characterize the widespread fog detection during both daytime and nighttime. Specifically, for the night time fog detection, the algorithm employs a satellite-based bi-spectral brightness temperature difference technique between two spectral channels: MODIS band-22 (3.9μm) and band-31 (10.75μm). Further, we are extending our algorithm development to geostationary satellites, for providing continuous monitoring of the spatial-temporal variation of fog. We anticipate that the ongoing and future development of a fog monitoring system would be of assistance to air, rail and vehicular transportation management, as well as for dissemination of fog information to government agencies and general public. The outputs of fog detection algorithm and related aerosol/cloud parameters are operationally disseminated via http://fogsouthasia.com/.

  10. Maslov index for Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Portaluri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an explicit formula for computing the Maslov index of the fundamental solutions of linear autonomous Hamiltonian systems in terms of the Conley-Zehnder index and the map time one flow.

  11. Indexed Languages and Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Burheim, T

    1995-01-01

    Indexed languages are interesting in computational linguistics because they are the least class of languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has not been shown not to be adequate to describe the string set of natural language sentences. We here define a class of unification grammars that exactly describe the class of indexed languages.

  12. A Tourism Financial Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The paper uses monthly data on financial stock index returns, tourism stock sub-index returns, effective exchange rate returns and interest rate differences from April 2005 – August 2013 for Taiwan that applies Chang’s (2014) novel approach for constructing a tourism fi

  13. Developments in Indexing Picture Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for indexing to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; indexing languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  14. Wallah. Indexing the new locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    This paper aims to add new, empirically based insights to the understanding of the dynamics by which linguistic features come to index locality. It does so through examining the indexicalities of the term wallah among adolescents living in the suburban, multi-ethnic Danish neighborhood Vollsmose....... The paper shows how the term wallah, by being emblematic of the enregistered voices of somewhat competing, locally constructed characterological figures (Agha 2005), comes to serve as an index of highly specific kinds of locality. The data comes from an experimental mapping method tapping into informants...... in a wide range of multi-ethnic settings in Scandinavia – wallah is nevertheless capable of indexing both local and supralocal sociolinguistic scales at once, reflecting the multiscalarity of the “new localities” of globalization (Blommaert 2010). By considering the possibility of features indexing a range...

  15. Trajectory Indexing Using Movement Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfoser, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, the ability to index efficiently the movements of mobile objects becomes important. Objects are typically seen as moving in two-dimensional (x,y) space, which means that their movements across time may be embedded in the three-dimensional (x,y,t) space...... is to reduce movements to occur in one spatial dimension. As a consequence, the movement occurs in two-dimensional (x,t) space. The advantages of considering such lower-dimensional trajectories are that the overall size of the data is reduced and that lower-dimensional data is to be indexed. Since off......-the-shelf database management systems typically do not offer higher-dimensional indexing, this reduction in dimensionality allows us to use existing DBMSes to store and index trajectories. Moreover, we argue that, given the right circumstances, indexing these dimensionality-reduced trajectories can be more efficient...

  16. [Probe into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Da-Ning; Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Focusing on the problems of Chinese materia medica resources,and combining with the national Chinese materia medica resources survey, the paper probes into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources. The establishment of the monitoring mechanism needs one organization and management agencies to supervise and guide monitoring work, one network system to gather data information, a group of people to perform monitoring work, a system of technical methods to assure monitoring work scientific and practical, a series of achievements and products to figure out the methods for solving problems, a group of monitoring index system to accumulate basic data, and a plenty of funds to keep normal operation of monitoring work.

  17. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  18. Monitoring Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geanakoplos, John; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We argue that leverage is a central element of economic cycles and discuss how leverage can be properly monitored. While traditionally the interest rate has been regarded as the single key feature of a loan, we contend that the size of the loan, i.e., the leverage, is in fact a more important...... offered on new loans (which captures current credit conditions) since the economy enters a crisis when leverage on new loans is low and leverage on old loans is high. While leverage plays an important role in several economic models, the data on leverage is model-free and simply needs to be collected...... and monitored....

  19. Wellbeing in the Netherlands : the SCP life situation index since 1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelhouwer, J

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of interest in achieving a broader perspective on prosperity and the development of countries. This study is about a composite index for describing and monitoring developments in the life situation of the Dutch population. Since 1974 this Life Situation Index (LSI) is

  20. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  1. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  2. Louisiana ESI: SM_INDEX (Small Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. Louisiana ESI: LG_INDEX (Large Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  4. Condition Monitoring of Control Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Horch, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The main concern of this work is the development of methodsfor automatic condition monitoring of control loops withapplication to the process industry. By condition monitoringboth detection and diagnosis of malfunctioning control loops isunderstood, using normal operating data and a minimum amount ofprocess knowledge. The use of indices for quantifying loop performance is dealtwith in the first part of the thesis. The starting point is anindex proposed by Harris (1989). This index has been mo...

  5. Methods for Predicting Stock Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on methods that have been used in the last two decades to predict Stock Market Indexes. Methods studied range from those enabling to grab the linear characteristics present in the stock market indexes, going through those that focus on non-linear features and finally hybrid methods that are more robust, since they capture linear and non-linear features. In addition, this research includes methods that use macroeconomic variables to predict indexes from different stock exchanges around the world.

  6. Assessment of agricultural drought in Rajasthan (India using remote sensing derived Vegetation Condition Index (VCI and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanwita Dutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its severe effect on productivity of rain-fed crops and indirect effect on employment as well as per capita income, agricultural drought has become a prime concern worldwide. The occurrence of drought is mainly a climatic phenomenon which cannot be eliminated. However, its effects can be reduced if actual spatio-temporal information related to crop status is available to the decision makers. The present study attempts to assess the efficiency of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring the spatio-temporal extent of agricultural drought. In the present study, NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data were used for monitoring agricultural drought through NDVI based Vegetation Condition Index. VCI was calculated for whole Rajasthan using the long term NDVI images which reveals the occurrence of drought related crop stress during the year 2002. The VCI values of normal (2003 and drought (2002 year were compared with meteorological based Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Rainfall Anomaly Index and Yield Anomaly Index and a good agreement was found among them. The correlation coefficient between VCI and yield of major rain-fed crops (r > 0.75 also supports the efficiency of this remote sensing derived index for assessing agricultural drought.

  7. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  8. Region 9 - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  9. Stator Indexing in Multistage Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.

    1997-01-01

    The relative circumferential location of stator rows (stator indexing) is an aspect of multistage compressor design that has not yet been explored for its potential impact on compressor aerodynamic performance. Although the inlet stages of multistage compressors usually have differing stator blade counts, the aft stages of core compressors can often have stage blocks with equal stator blade counts in successive stages. The potential impact of stator indexing is likely greatest in these stages. To assess the performance impact of stator indexing, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center used the 4 ft diameter, four-stage NASA Low Speed Axial Compressor for detailed experiments. This compressor has geometrically identical stages that can circumferentially index stator rows relative to each other in a controlled manner; thus it is an ideal test rig for such investigations.

  10. Introduction to indexing and abstracting

    CERN Document Server

    Cleveland, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Successful information access in the digital information age requires robust systems of indexing and abstracting. This book provides a complete introduction to the subject that covers the many recent changes in the field.

  11. The Callias index formula revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gesztesy, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes aim at providing a purely analytical and accessible proof of the Callias index formula. In various branches of mathematics (particularly, linear and nonlinear partial differential operators, singular integral operators, etc.) and theoretical physics (e.g., nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, and quantum field theory), there is much interest in computing Fredholm indices of certain linear partial differential operators. In the late 1970’s, Constantine Callias found a formula for the Fredholm index of a particular first-order differential operator (intimately connected to a supersymmetric Dirac-type operator) additively perturbed by a potential, shedding additional light on the Fedosov-Hörmander Index Theorem. As a byproduct of our proof we also offer a glimpse at special non-Fredholm situations employing a generalized Witten index.

  12. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  13. Index Grids - MDC_DMLIndex

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Digital Map Library (DML) index layer. This layer identifies the areas, which is divided into square mile that we have...

  14. VT - Vermont Heat Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This map shows: The overall vulnerability of each town to heat related illness. This index is a composite of the following themes: Population Theme, Socioeconomic...

  15. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    the emission impact of various possible municipal climate plans over time. As such, the index promotes the export of solutions from one region on another, as it enables policy makers to look elsewhere for best practices and test them on their own city before potential implementation. The index facilitates...... an easy to use and transparent comparison of factual and planned emission policies in different cities and can inform regional sustainability discussion and contribute to the dissemination of solutions....

  16. Nudibranch Systematic Index, second edition

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This is an index of my approximately 7,000 nudibranch reprints and books. I have indexed them only for information concerning systematics, taxonomy, nomenclature, & description of taxa. This list should allow you to quickly find information concerning the description, taxonomy, or systematics of almost any species of nudibranch. The full citation for any of the authors and dates listed may be found in the nudibranch bibliography at http://repositories.cdlib.org/ims/Bibliographia_Nudibranchia_...

  17. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  18. Coastal Sediment Monitoring by Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttitanon, W.

    2014-11-01

    Water monitoring is important to environment control and ecosystem studies which not only scientifically relevant but also legally binding in several countries. Suspended sediment concentration is one of the main parameters for the water monitoring and can be roughly detected from satellite. In the present study, the Chao Phraya River mouth was used as a case study to assess the suspended measuring using water quality index with Landsat TM imagery. A turbidity map was obtain by applying band math and convert to turbidity backscattering. This solution can be used for water quality index and applying with all satellite data.

  19. Material monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly.

  20. Contactless optoelectronic technique for monitoring epoxy cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, A; Buonocore, V; Breglio, G; Calabrò, A; Giordano, M; Cutolo, A; Nicolais, L

    2000-03-01

    We describe a novel noninvasive optical technique to monitor the refractive-index variation in an epoxy-based resin that is due to the polymerization process. This kind of resin is widely used in polymer matrix composites. It is well known that the process of fabricating a thermoset-based composite involves mass and heat transfer coupled with irreversible chemical reactions that induce physical changes. To improve the quality and the reliability of these materials, monitoring the cure and optimization of the manufacturing process are of key importance. We discuss the basic operating principles of an optical system based on angle deflection measurements and present typical cure-monitoring results obtained from optical characterization. The method provides a flexible, high-sensitivity, material-independent, low-cost, noninvasive tool for monitoring real-time refractive-index variation.

  1. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  2. Kitap İndeksleri / Book Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Alakuş

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of Book Indexes from a variety of points, which are in fact the oldest indexes used in the world. They are different than journal indexes and database indexes which are ongoing projects. Book indexes, on the other hand, are unique in their own frameworks, as each one is a completed and finished unit. Construction of book indexes, types of indexes (according to subject headings and proper names, synthesis and analytic methods; and formats of indexes (indented and run-in formats are described. There is a list of important conventions relating to book indexes at the end of the article

  3. Technology monitoring; Technologie-Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways of systematically monitoring energy technology development and the cost of such technologies in order to pave the way to a basis for judging the economic development of new energy technologies. Initial results of a survey of the past development of these technologies are presented and estimates are made of future developments in the areas of motor-based combined heat and power systems, fuel-cell heating units for single-family homes and apartment buildings, air/water heat pumps for new housing projects and high-performance thermal insulation. The methodology used for the monitoring and analysis of the various technologies is described. Tables and diagrams illustrate the present situation and development potential of various fields of technology.

  4. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamadi

    Full Text Available One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA, and is free for academic use.

  5. Seasonal ARIMA for Forecasting Air Pollution Index: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad H. Lee; Rahman, Nur H.A.; Suhartono; Mohd T. Latif; Maria E. Nor; Nur A.B. Kamisan

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Both developed and developing countries are the major reason that affects the world environment quality. In that case, without limit or warning, this pollution may affect human health, agricultural, forest species and ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of Air Pollution Index (API) at all monitoring stations in Johor. Approach: In this study, time series models will be discussed to analyze future air quality and ...

  6. The Research of Monitor Index of Physiology and Biochemistry of Jiangsu Province Female Middle-distance Athlete on the Pre-game%江苏省女子中长跑运动员赛前期高原训练的生理生化指标监控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵飞; 孙景召; 程广振

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨江苏省女子中长跑运动员在赛前期高原训练部分生理、生化指标的变化规律,为教练员科学安排比赛周期,进行运动监控提供依据。方法:对江苏省备战第11届全国运动会6名优秀女子中长跑运动员于平原、亚高原、高原期间及不同训练负荷阶段的部分生理、生化指标进行了跟踪检测。结果:(1)亚高原、高原训练初期,晨脉极高值现象的出现主是非训练因素所致。(2)亚高原、高原训练初期安排有氧耐力训练和低负荷集体跑(如8km)符合运动员心血管系统的机能状态,对于初上高原、亚高原的训练安排具有指导意义。(3)初上亚高原和高原,由于训练环境的改变(高原脱水、低氧刺激下肾脏分泌EPO增加)引起运动员血红蛋白值的升高。(4)大负荷训练阶段,个别运动员Hb值不降反而上升的原因可能是针对其的训练负荷量不足所致,在此训练阶段应差别对待。(5)在高原训练前从海拔高度上我们采取了从"平原—亚高原—高原"这一海拔递进过程,在训练方式上我们安排了"有氧耐力训练—有氧耐力基础上的无氧耐力训练—耐力和速度训练"这一训练过程。%Purpose: Investigate the index change discipline of physiology and biochemistry to our province female middle-distance athlete on the pre-game altitude training,to give the basis of the sport monitor for the coach to arrange the match cycle scientifically.Methods: To detect index of the physiology and biochemistry on the different load stage to the plane,pre-plateau and plateau of our province six female middle-distance athlete,they prepare of the 11th China Sport.Result: 1) higher morning pulse is because of the un-training factors on initial period of the pre-plateau and plateau.2) It is in keeping with functional status of the athlete cardiovascular system from arrange the aerobic endurance and lower

  7. Monitoring microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Işık; Kara, Atila; Ince, Can

    2016-12-01

    The clinical relevance of microcirculation and its bedside observation started gaining importance in the 1990s since the introduction of hand-held video microscopes. From then, this technology has been continuously developed, and its clinical relevance has been established in more than 400 studies. In this paper, we review the different types of video microscopes, their application techniques, the microcirculation of different organ systems, the analysis methods, and the software and scoring systems. The main focus of this review will be on the state-of-art technique, CytoCam-incident dark-field imaging, and the most recent technological and technical updates concerning microcirculation monitoring.

  8. Fiber optic based multiparametric spectroscopy in vivo: Toward a new quantitative tissue vitality index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutai-Asis, Hofit; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Deutsch, Assaf; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2006-02-01

    In our previous publication (Mayevsky et al SPIE 5326: 98-105, 2004) we described a multiparametric fiber optic system enabling the evaluation of 4 physiological parameters as indicators of tissue vitality. Since the correlation between the various parameters may differ in various pathophysiological conditions there is a need for an objective quantitative index that will integrate the relative changes measured in real time by the multiparametric monitoring system into a single number-vitality index. Such an approach to calculate tissue vitality index is critical for the possibility to use such an instrument in clinical environments. In the current presentation we are reporting our preliminary results indicating that calculation of an objective tissue vitality index is feasible. We used an intuitive empirical approach based on the comparison between the calculated index by the computer and the subjective evaluation made by an expert in the field of physiological monitoring. We used the in vivo brain of rats as an animal model in our current studies. The rats were exposed to anoxia, ischemia and cortical spreading depression and the responses were recorded in real time. At the end of the monitoring session the results were analyzed and the tissue vitality index was calculated offline. Mitochondrial NADH, tissue blood flow and oxy-hemoglobin were used to calculate the vitality index of the brain in vivo, where each parameter received a different weight, in each experiment type based on their significance. It was found that the mitochondrial NADH response was the main factor affected the calculated vitality index.

  9. Effective indexing for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  10. Index for Wind Power Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Scharff, Richard; Milligan, Michael; Weir, David Edward

    2014-11-13

    Variability of large scale wind power generation is dependent on several factors: characteristics of installed wind power plants, size of the area where the plants are installed, geographic dispersion within that area and its weather regime(s). Variability can be described by ramps in power generation, i.e. changes from time period to time period. Given enough data points, it can be described with a probability density function. This approach focuses on two dimensions of variability: duration of the ramp and probability distribution. This paper proposes an index based on these two dimensions to enable comparisons and characterizations of variability under different conditions. The index is tested with real, large scale wind power generation data from several countries. Considerations while forming an index are discussed, as well as the main results regarding what the drivers of variability experienced for different data.

  11. Witten Index for Noncompact Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is $L^2$, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical $L^2$ Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For $d=1$ theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral $L^2$ Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and ...

  12. Socializing the h-index

    CERN Document Server

    Cormode, Graham; Muthukrishnan, S; Thompson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A variety of bibliometric measures have been proposed to quantify the impact of researchers and their work. The h-index is a notable and widely-used example which aims to improve over simple metrics such as raw counts of papers or citations. However, a limitation of this measure is that it considers authors in isolation and does not account for contributions through a collaborative team. To address this, we propose a natural variant that we dub the Social h-index. The idea is to redistribute the h-index score to reflect an individual's impact on the research community. In addition to describing this new measure, we provide examples, discuss its properties, and contrast with other measures.

  13. A new method for calculation of an air quality index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilvessalo, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality measurement programs in Finnish towns have expanded during the last few years. As a result of this it is more and more difficult to make use of all the measured concentration data. Citizens of Finnish towns are nowadays taking more of an interest in the air quality of their surroundings. The need to describe air quality in a simplified form has increased. Air quality indices permit the presentation of air quality data in such a way that prevailing conditions are more easily understandable than when using concentration data as such. Using an air quality index always means that some of the information about concentrations of contaminants in the air will be lost. How much information is possible to extract from a single index number depends on the calculation method. A new method for the calculation of an air quality index has been developed. This index always indicates the overstepping of an air quality guideline level. The calculation of this air quality index is performed using the concentrations of all the contaminants measured. The index gives information both about the prevailing air quality and also the short-term trend. It can also warn about the expected exceeding of guidelines due to one or several contaminants. The new index is especially suitable for the real-time monitoring and notification of air quality values. The behaviour of the index was studied using material from a measurement period in the spring of 1994 in Kaepylae, Helsinki. Material from a pre-operational period in the town of Oulu was also available. (author)

  14. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  15. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  16. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  17. Developing an operational rangeland water requirement satisfaction index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Rowland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an operational water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) for range-land monitoring is an important goal of the famine early warning systems network. An operational WRSI has been developed for crop monitoring, but until recently a comparable WRSI for rangeland was not successful because of the extremely poor performance of the index when based on published crop coefficients (Kc) for rangelands. To improve the rangeland WRSI, we developed a simple calibration technique that adjusts the Kc values for rangeland monitoring using long-term rainfall distribution and reference evapotranspiration data. The premise for adjusting the Kc values is based on the assumption that a viable rangeland should exhibit above-average WRSI (values >80%) during a normal year. The normal year was represented by a median dekadal rainfall distribution (satellite rainfall estimate from 1996 to 2006). Similarly, a long-term average for potential evapotranspiration was used as input to the famine early warning systems network WRSI model in combination with soil-water-holding capacity data. A dekadal rangeland WRSI has been operational for east and west Africa since 2005. User feedback has been encouraging, especially with regard to the end-of-season WRSI anomaly products that compare the index's performance to 'normal' years. Currently, rangeland WRSI products are generated on a dekadal basis and posted for free distribution on the US Geological Survey early warning website at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov/adds/.

  18. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ) the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Headers and Digests; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index; and Facility Index.

  19. Indexing from thesauri to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    de Keyser, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Indexing consists of both novel and more traditional techniques. Cutting-edge indexing techniques, such as automatic indexing, ontologies, and topic maps, were developed independently of older techniques such as thesauri, but it is now recognized that these older methods also hold expertise. Indexing describes various traditional and novel indexing techniques, giving information professionals and students of library and information sciences a broad and comprehensible introduction to indexing. This title consists of twelve chapters: an Introduction to subject readings and theasauri; Automatic i

  20. Indexing spoken audio by LSA and SOMs

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an indexing system for spoken audio documents. The framework is indexing and retrieval of broadcast news. The proposed indexing system applies latent semantic analysis (LSA) and self-organizing maps (SOM) to map the documents into a semantic vector space and to display the semantic structures of the document collection. The SOM is also used to enhance the indexing of the documents that are difficult to decode. Relevant index terms and suitable index weights are computed by...

  1. Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...

  2. Venture Capital Industry Index Portfolio Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagang Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper using index analysis method, knowledge of venture capital as well as index funds investment ideas, successively set up the Markowitz model and the single index model of index investing. Markowitz model for the calculation of the risk of workload is too big and single-index model although accuracy is slightly lower, but can certainly be very well used in practice. Therefore, We use index invest to invest in Shanghai 10 index securities with the single-index model , and apply lingo software to figure out the venture capital portfolio which have different yields.

  3. Wp index: A new substorm index derived from high-resolution geomagnetic field data at low latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nose, M.; Iyemori, T.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Geomagnetic field data with high time resolution (typically 1 s) have recently become more commonly acquired by ground stations. Such high time resolution data enable identifying Pi2 pulsations which have periods of 40-150 s and irregular (damped) waveforms. It is well-known that pulsations...... of this type are clearly observed at mid-and low-latitude ground stations on the nightside at substorm onset. Therefore, with 1-s data from multiple stations distributed in longitude around the Earth's circumference, substorm onset can be regularly monitored. In the present study we propose a new substorm...... index, the Wp index (Wave and planetary), which reflects Pi2 wave power at low-latitude, using geomagnetic field data from 11 ground stations. We compare the Wp index with the AE and ASY indices as well as the electron flux and magnetic field data at geosynchronous altitudes for 11 March 2010. We find...

  4. Teaching Physiology with Citation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    Explains use of the Citation Index in writing term papers by assigning an older publication as a starting point in a literature search. By reading the original research report and following its subsequent use by other researchers, the student discovers the impact of the original research. (CS)

  5. The weighted vertex PI index

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'

    2011-01-01

    The vertex PI index is a distance--based molecular structure descriptor, that recently found numerous chemical applications. In order to increase diversity of this topological index for bipartite graphs, we introduce weighted version defined as $PI_w (G) = \\sum_{e = uv \\in E} (deg (u) + deg (v)) (n_u (e) + n_v (e))$, where $deg (u)$ denotes the vertex degree of $u$ and $n_u (e)$ denotes the number of vertices of $G$ whose distance to the vertex $u$ is smaller than the distance to the vertex $v$. We establish basic properties of $PI_w (G)$, and prove various lower and upper bounds. In particular, the path $P_n$ has minimal, while the complete tripartite graph $K_{n/3, n/3, n/3}$ has maximal weighed vertex $PI$ index among graphs with $n$ vertices. We also compute exact expressions for the weighted vertex PI index of the Cartesian product of graphs. Finally we present modifications of two inequalities and open new perspectives for the future research.

  6. Anomalies and noncommutative index theory

    CERN Document Server

    Perrot, D

    2006-01-01

    These are the notes of a lecture given during the summer school "Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum Field Theory", Villa de Leyva, Colombia, july 11 - 29, 2005. We review basic facts concerning gauge anomalies and discuss the link with the Connes-Moscovici index formula in noncommutative geometry.

  7. Index to AEC Information Booklets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The U. S. Atomic Energy Commission publishes a series of information booklets for the general public. These booklets explain many aspects of nuclear science. Because these booklets cover such a variety of scientific fields, this index was prepared to help the reader find quickly those booklets that contain the information he needs.

  8. Index theorems for quantum graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fulling, S A; Wilson, J H

    2007-01-01

    In geometric analysis, an index theorem relates the difference of the numbers of solutions of two differential equations to the topological structure of the manifold or bundle concerned, sometimes using the heat kernels of two higher-order differential operators as an intermediary. In this paper, the case of quantum graphs is addressed. A quantum graph is a graph considered as a (singular) one-dimensional variety and equipped with a second-order differential Hamiltonian H (a "Laplacian") with suitable conditions at vertices. For the case of scale-invariant vertex conditions (i.e., conditions that do not mix the values of functions and of their derivatives), the constant term of the heat-kernel expansion is shown to be proportional to the trace of the internal scattering matrix of the graph. This observation is placed into the index-theory context by factoring the Laplacian into two first-order operators, H =A*A, and relating the constant term to the index of A. An independent consideration provides an index f...

  9. Future of gradient index optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hideki; Hamanaka, Kenjiro; Graham, Alan C., III; Zhu, X. Frank

    2001-11-01

    First developed over 30 years ago, gradient index lenses play an important role not only in telecommunications technology, but also in applications such as information interface and biomedical technology. Traditional manufacturing consists of doping a certain ion, A+ into the mother glass, drawing the glass into rods and then immersing the rods into s molten salt bath containing another certain ion B+. During a thermal ion exchange process, the original ion migrates out of the mother glass, and is replaced by the alternate ion, creating a refractive index variation. Current research is being conducted to improve the thermal ion exchange technology, and open new applications. This research includes extending working distances to greater than 100mm, decreasing the lens diameter, increasing the effective radius, and combining the technology with other technologies such as photolithographically etched masks to produce arrays of gradient index lenses. As a result of this ongoing research, the gradient index lens is expected to continue to be the enabling optical technology in the first decade of the new millennium and beyond.

  10. USGS 1-min Dst index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  11. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  12. An automatic bibliography indexing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple FORTRAN IV programme, designed for a small computer, for author and key-word indexes to bibliographic records is described, and examples of output are given. It is com­pared with some other systems. Suggested improvements to the programme are given.

  13. Coming to Schools: Creativity Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an index that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…

  14. Prevalent Color Extraction and Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.Thyagharajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colors in an image provides tremendous amount of information. Using this color information images can be segmented, analyzed, labeled and indexed. In content based image retrieval system, color is one of the basic primitive features used. In Prevalent Color Extraction and indexing, the most extensive color on an image is identified and it is used for indexing. For implementation, Asteroideae flower family image dataset is used. It consist of more than 16,000 species, among them nearly 100 species are considered and indexed by dominating colors. To extract the most appealable color from the user defined images, the overall color of an image has to be quantized. Spatially, quantizing the color of an image to extract the prevalent color is the major objective of this paper. A combination of K-Mean and Expectation Minimization clustering algorithm called hidden-value learned K-mean clustering quantization algorithm is used to avoid the over clustering behavior of K-Mean algorithm. The experimental result shows the marginal differences between these algorithms.

  15. 1988 Bulletin compilation and index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-02-01

    This document is published to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1988 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information.

  16. Index coding via linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Anna; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    Index Coding has received considerable attention recently motivated in part by applications such as fast video-on-demand and efficient communication in wireless networks and in part by its connection to Network Coding. The basic setting of Index Coding encodes the side-information relation, the problem input, as an undirected graph and the fundamental parameter is the broadcast rate $\\beta$, the average communication cost per bit for sufficiently long messages (i.e. the non-linear vector capacity). Recent nontrivial bounds on $\\beta$ were derived from the study of other Index Coding capacities (e.g. the scalar capacity $\\beta_1$) by Bar-Yossef et al (FOCS'06), Lubetzky and Stav (FOCS'07) and Alon et al (FOCS'08). However, these indirect bounds shed little light on the behavior of $\\beta$ and its exact value remained unknown for \\emph{any graph} where Index Coding is nontrivial. Our main contribution is a hierarchy of linear programs whose solutions trap $\\beta$ between them. This enables a direct information-...

  17. Equiseparability on Terminal Wiener Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the properties of the terminal Wiener index, which was recently proposed by Gutman et al. (2004) [3], and to show the fact that there exist pairs of trees and chemical trees which cannot be distinguished by using it. We give some general methods for constructing...

  18. Transportation Environment Data Bank index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

    1977-04-01

    In an effort to determine the environment intensities to which energy materials in transit will be exposed, a ''Data Bank'' of environmental information has been established by Sandia Laboratories, Division 1285 for the ERDA Division of Environmental Control Technology. This document is an index which can be used to request data of interest.

  19. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Lingenfelder, I.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) related research that deals with national and international security. An interdisciplinary approach was adopted in this book in order to provide the reader with a broad understanding on the uses...... of remote sensing technologies. The book therefore comprises management aspects (issues and priorities of security research, crisis response), applied methodologies and process chains (treaty monitoring, estimation of population densities and characteristics, border permeability models, damage assessment......, as well as project managers and decision makers working in the field of security having an interest in technical solutions. The integrative use of many figures and sample images are ideal in enabling the non-technical reader to grasp quickly the modern technologies that are being researched in the area...

  20. Traffic Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  1. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  2. Mental fatigue, motivation and action monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, MAS; Meijman, TF; Lorist, MM

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined whether the effects of mental fatigue on behaviour are due to reduced action monitoring as indexed by the error related negativity (Ne/ERN), N2 and contingent negative variation (CNV) event-related potential (ERP) components. Therefore, we had Subjects perform a task, which

  3. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  4. Drought Monitoring in Peru as a Climate Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado, Waldo; Felipe, Oscar; Caycho, Tania; Sosa, Jesus; Fernandez, Carlos; Endara, Sofia

    2015-04-01

    Given the need to reduce socio- economic and environmental drought in Peru as well as the vulnerability and increasing responsiveness and recovery to these events, the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology of Peru (SENAMHI ) in conjunction with the Peru's Environment Ministry has developed a plan Drought Monitoring nationwide, which consists of two components: 1) Monitoring System and 2 ) Dissemination System . The first component consists of calculating drought indicators at national level; and for that purpose we have selected the following indexes: Normal Precipitation Index (NPI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) , Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) , Vegetation Condition Index (VCI ) , Temperature Condition Index ( TCI) , Healthy Vegetation Index (VHI ) and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI). In order to estimate these index observed climatological and hydrological data of SENAMHI network is used as well as remote sensing data of precipitation, temperature and vegetation (TRMM, CHIRPS and MODIS). The second component is the spread of these indicators and a compilation thereof to a summary document that integrates all indicators (Monthly Bulletin). This will be done through newsletters and a website (www.senamhi.gob.pe/serviciosclimaticos); in the case of exceptional drought events special notes will be made. A date has launched the first newsletter in September 2014. This drought monitoring system will be used as an instrument of climate service and we intend to make it a useful tool for decision makers and the general population .

  5. A simple index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras was calculated using two parameters: acceptability indices for different grass species, and the aerial cover of the grass species in the habitat. The index was tested by calculating its value for a range of different habitat patches and comparing this with the frequency of use of the patches by zebras. The close relationship between the index and the observed frequency of use verified that the index could be used as a guide to habitat suitability. Two methods were used to determine the frequency of use of the patches: counts of faecal pellet groups and frequency of sightings. Both methods yielded similar results but the pellet group counts were less time- consuming and expensive. It is recommended that the index of habitat suitability be used (i as a parameter for monitoring of long-term changes in habitat suitability in the Mountain Zebra National Park and (ii as a guide for selecting appropriate areas to re- introduce mountain zebras.

  6. Effect of Body Mass Index on Parameters of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Population with Pre-hypertension Examination%高血压前期体检人群体质指数对24 h动态血压监测血压水平的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曦; 胡荣; 芦燕玲; 于利群; 周生来

    2012-01-01

    进行多元线性回归分析发现,体质指数与24h平均舒张压、白天平均舒张压、白天舒张压变化标准差、夜间舒张压变化标准差独立相关.结论 24h动态血压监测提示超重与肥胖可使高血压前期体检人群血压水平、血压负荷及血压变异性明显增加,高血压前期人群可通过改善饮食结构、加强体育锻炼、减轻体质量而防止进展为高血压.%Objective To investigate relationship between body mass index (BMI) and parameters from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in population who underwent pre - hypertension examination. Methods Totally 243 persons who underwent pre - hypertension examination form January 2007 to December 2011 in our physical examination center were recruited. They were divided based on their BMI as normal group (18. 5 kg/m2 ≤BMI 0. 05 ) . And there were significant differences in 24 h average diagnostic blood pressure, average diagnostic blood pressure in daytime and at night, standard deviation of daytime diagnostic blood pressure , loads of daytime and night diagnostic blood pressure ( P 0. 05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the BMI was positively correlated with the 24 h average systolic and diagnostic blood pressure (r =0. 128, r =0. 188) , daytime average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r =0. 154, r =0. 186) , night average diagnostic blood pressure (r =0. 148) , loads of daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0. 126, r =0. 146) , and standard deviations of daytime and night (r =0.253, r =0.190) (P<0. 05). After regulating age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, Cr, TC, TG, HDL - C and LDL -C, the multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI was still correlated with 24 h average diagnostic blood pressure, daytime average diagnostic blood pressure, standard deviations of daytime and night diagnostic blood pressure independently. Conclusion The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring indicates that the

  7. Finding Chemical Information through Citation Index Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan L.

    1999-08-01

    The concept of indexing the scientific literature through cited references (citation indexing) is explained and reviewed. Both print and electronic products based on citation indexing are discussed, and examples of searching the latter are included. Citation indexing is also useful in mapping the scientific literature itself and in assessing the contributions of individual scientists.

  8. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  9. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariño Arturo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity of a country; (b the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a identifying

  10. Fundamentals of database indexing and searching

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Database Indexing and Searching presents well-known database searching and indexing techniques. It focuses on similarity search queries, showing how to use distance functions to measure the notion of dissimilarity.After defining database queries and similarity search queries, the book organizes the most common and representative index structures according to their characteristics. The author first describes low-dimensional index structures, memory-based index structures, and hierarchical disk-based index structures. He then outlines useful distance measures and index structures

  11. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A.L. [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-06-01

    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  12. Condensed Extended Hyper-Wiener Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Hua; Abraham F. Jalbout; JI Zhi

    2008-01-01

    According to the definitions of molecular connectivity and hyper-Wiener index, a novel set of hyper-Wiener indexes (Dn, mDn) were defined and named as condensed extended hyper-Wiener index, the potential usefulness of which in QSAR/QSPR is evaluated by its correlation with a number of C3-C8 alkanes as well as by a favorable comparison with models based on molecular connectivity index and overall Wiener index.

  13. A Remotely Sensed Global Terrestrial Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Q.; Zhao, M.; Kimball, J. S.; McDowell, N. G.; Running, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    Regional drought and flooding from extreme climatic events are increasing in frequency and severity, with significant adverse eco-social impacts. Detecting and monitoring drought at regional to global scales remains challenging, despite the availability of various drought indices and widespread availability of potentially synergistic global satellite observational records. We developed a method to generate a near-real-time remotely sensed Drought Severity Index (DSI) to monitor and detect drought globally at 1-km spatial resolution and regular 8-day, monthly and annual frequencies. The new DSI integrates and exploits information from current operational satellite based terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) and Vegetation greenness Index (NDVI) products, which are sensitive to vegetation water stress. Specifically, our approach determines the annual DSI departure from its normal (2000-2011) using the remotely sensed ratio of ET to potential ET (PET) and NDVI. The DSI results were derived globally and captured documented major regional droughts over the last decade, including severe events in Europe (2003), the Amazon (2005 and 2010), and Russia (2010). The DSI corresponded favorably (r=0.43) with the precipitation based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), while both indices captured similar wetting and drying patterns. The DSI was also correlated with satellite based vegetation net primary production (NPP) records, indicating that the combined use of these products may be useful for assessing water supply and ecosystem interactions, including drought impacts on crop yields and forest productivity. The remotely-sensed global terrestrial DSI enhances capabilities for near-real-time drought monitoring to assist decision makers in regional drought assessment and mitigation efforts, and without many of the constraints of more traditional drought monitoring methods.

  14. Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance sensor...camera. Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer

  15. Need for an Ecological Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Wickramasinghe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article was published in the Sri Lankan newspaper 'The Island' on the 30th November 2005 after the World Environmental Education Congress (WEEC held in Milan. Author hopes it could provide a base for a project for senior school children or more senior students to devise an Ecological Index and ‘If nothing else, it could help them in thinking out the issues involved!’ Author supposes that could be a form of environmental education.

  16. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding;

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... performance improvement, such as measures derived from the receiver operating characteristic curve, the net benefit function, and the Brier score, cannot be large due to poorly fitting risk functions....

  17. Fast Digit-Index Permutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Bollman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tensor sum which is useful for the design and analysis of digit-index permutations (DIPs algorithms. Using this operation we obtain a new high-performance algorithm for the family of DIPs. We discuss an implementation in the applicative language Sisal and show how different choices of parameters yield different DIPs. The efficiency of the special case of digit reversal is illustrated with performance results on a Cray C-90.

  18. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  19. Type-indexed data types

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2004-01-01

    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, pattern matching, unification, rewriting, and structure editing. For each of these problems, we not only have to define polytypic functionality, but also a type-indexed data type: a data type that is con...

  20. Succincter Text Indexing with Wildcards

    CERN Document Server

    Thachuk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of indexing text with wildcard positions, motivated by the challenge of aligning sequencing data to large genomes that contain millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)---positions known to differ between individuals. SNPs modeled as wildcards can lead to more informed and biologically relevant alignments. We improve the space complexity of previous approaches by giving a succinct index requiring $(2 + o(1))n \\log \\sigma + O(n) + O(d \\log n) + O(k \\log k)$ bits for a text of length $n$ over an alphabet of size $\\sigma$ containing $d$ groups of $k$ wildcards. A key to the space reduction is a result we give showing how any compressed suffix array can be supplemented with auxiliary data structures occupying $O(n) + O(d \\log \\frac{n}{d})$ bits to also support efficient dictionary matching queries. The query algorithm for our wildcard index is faster than previous approaches using reasonable working space. More importantly our new algorithm greatly reduces the query working space to ...

  1. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  2. On modular semifinite index theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kaad, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We propose a definition of a modular spectral triple which covers existing examples arising from KMS-states, Podles sphere and quantum SU(2). The definition also incorporates the notion of twisted commutators appearing in recent work of Connes and Moscovici. We show how a finitely summable modular spectral triple admits a twisted index pairing with unitaries satisfying a modular condition. The twist means that the dimensions of kernels and cokernels are measured with respect to two different but intimately related traces. The twisted index pairing can be expressed by pairing Chern characters in reduced versions of twisted cyclic theories. We end the paper by giving a local formula for the reduced Chern character in the case of quantum SU(2). It appears as a twisted coboundary of the Haar-state. In particular we present an explicit computation of the twisted index pairing arising from the sequence of corepresentation unitaries. As an important tool we construct a family of derived integration spaces associated...

  3. Indexing the etymological lexicographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Indexing the etymological lexicographic systems The main problems and directions for the development of the etymological lexicographic systems in the digital environment are studied. The formal conceptual model of the lexicographic system for fundamental academic Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language (EDUL is developed. The lexicographic structure of the EDUL individual elements are developed and described. The EDUL metalanguage was studied and described. The formal model and technology of the EDUL parsing are worked out. That made it possible to convert automatically the EDUL text into the lexicographic database, which corresponds to the conceptual model of the lexicographic system. The conceptual foundations of instrumental tool to form the etymological dictionaries are developed to create the Virtual Lexicographic Laboratory «Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language», which was implemented with a modern approach to the real lexicographic array of the EDUL. That allowed to form the database of the EDUL multilingual index (about 250 languages in the automatic mode. This index is a basis of the seventh (final volume of the EDUL. The possibility of applying the developed models to other etymological dictionaries are studied. The conceptual foundations for integration of the etymological lexicographic systems are discussed.

  4. ATLAS Eventlndex monitoring system using the Kibana analytics and visualization platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, D.; Cárdenas Zárate, S. E.; Favareto, A.; Fernandez Casani, A.; Gallas, E. J.; Garcia Montoro, C.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Hrivnac, J.; Malon, D.; Prokoshin, F.; Salt, J.; Sanchez, J.; Toebbicke, R.; Yuan, R.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex is a data catalogue system that stores event-related metadata for all (real and simulated) ATLAS events, on all processing stages. As it consists of different components that depend on other applications (such as distributed storage, and different sources of information) we need to monitor the conditions of many heterogeneous subsystems, to make sure everything is working correctly. This paper describes how we gather information about the EventIndex components and related subsystems: the Producer-Consumer architecture for data collection, health parameters from the servers that run EventIndex components, EventIndex web interface status, and the Hadoop infrastructure that stores EventIndex data. This information is collected, processed, and then displayed using CERN service monitoring software based on the Kibana analytic and visualization package, provided by CERN IT Department. EventIndex monitoring is used both by the EventIndex team and ATLAS Distributed Computing shifts crew.

  5. 脑电双频谱指数监测提高麻醉管理及全麻苏醒质量Meta分析研究%Bispectral index improves anesthetic management and facilitates recovery from general anesthesia of Metaanalysis study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴丽坚; 王波; 黄宇光

    2006-01-01

    目的 评价脑电双频谱指数(BIS)监测是否改善麻醉管理和麻醉苏醒质量.方法 按照制定的检索策略检索Pubmed和Medline-CDRom数据库(1990年1月至2004年1月),随后按照一定的入选原则找出符合要求的文献.按已制定的研究评价标准进行筛选,共10篇文献纳入最终的Meta分析.结果 BIS监测在镇痛药用量一致的情况下可减少催眠药物的用量.吸入麻醉中BIS监测可减少吸入麻醉药用量,但肌松药用量增加.BIS组病人睁眼时间、言语指令反应恢复时间、拔管时间、定向力恢复时间均缩短.BIS监测对术后恶心呕吐及术后疼痛的发生率没有影响.BIS监测减少术中知晓与术后记忆发生的证据尚不足.结论 BIS监测能减少全身麻醉中药物用量并提高麻醉苏醒质量.

  6. 脑电双频指数监测下全身麻醉联合胸段硬膜外镇痛在快通道胃部手术中的应用%Impact of bispectral index(BIS)guided general anesthesia in combination with thoracic epidural analgesia in fast-track stomach surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田悦; 郭善斌; 蒋晶晶; 韩光; 寇有为

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价BIS监测下的全身麻醉联合胸段硬膜外镇痛对快通道胃部手术的患者苏醒过程和术后早期活动的影响.方法 选取2009年1月-2012年3月行快通道开放性胃部手术的患者48例,按随机数字表法分为BIS监测组(B组,n=24)和临床观测组(C组,n=24),所有患者均采用异丙酚全身静脉麻醉复合术中及术后胸段硬膜外镇痛.记录术中平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、低血压发生率、麻醉药物用量、补液量及麻黄素用量.记录拔管时间、入麻醉恢复室(PACU)即刻改良Aldrete评分及PACU停留时间.记录术后6h内可活动下肢的例数、排气时间、疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)及麻醉满意度评分.结果 与C组比较,B组拔管时间和PACU停留时间明显缩短(P<0.01),入PACU即刻改良Aldrete评分明显升高(P<0.05),术中异丙酚用量减少20%(P <0.01),MAP升高(P<0.05),术中低血压例数及麻黄素用量明显减少(P<0.01和P<0.05).两组患者术后早期活动、排气时间、VAS评分、麻醉满意度评分比较差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 BIS监测下全身麻醉联合胸段硬膜外镇痛可降低术中异丙酚用量,缩短拔管时间和PACU停留时间,且不影响术后早期活动,可在临床推广.

  7. THE CONDITION INDEX OF MUSSELS (Mytilus galloprovincialis IN BUDAVA AND RAŠA BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Marušić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Condition index is a factor that can show of some area for shellfish cultivation. Analysis of the condition index from various sites may show importance of these sites for cultivation and shellfish during the year. By monitoring the condition index it is possible to determine dynamic of meat amount change in time. Condition index depends on mussel spawning period, presence of food and changes of environmental factors (temperature, salinity, concentration of dissolved oxygen. The research of condition index was monitored in Budava and Ra{a Bay at depth of 0.5 and 2.5 m. In summer months (July and August when the sea water temperature and salinity were in optimum, the mussel condition index had maximum value. Value of the condition index is proportional with sea temperature and salinity. The condition index of mussels significantly changed over the year period, at different sites (Budava and Raška Bay and at different depth (0.5 and 2.5 m.

  8. A New, Low Braking Index For the LMC Pulsar B0540-69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Francis E.; Guillemot, Lucas; Kust Harding, Alice; Martin, Pierrick; Smith, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of a 16 month monitoring campaign using the Swift satellite of PSR B0540-69, a young pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Phase connection was maintained throughout the campaign so that a reliable ephemeris could be determined, and the length of the campaign is adequate to accurately determine the spin frequency and its first and second derivatives. The braking index n is 0.031 ± 0.013 (90% confidence), a value much lower than previously reported for B0540-69 and almost all other young pulsars. The monitoring campaign is continuing, and the pulsar remains in its high spin-down state. We use data from the extensive monitoring campaign with RXTE to show that timing noise is unlikely to significantly affect the measurement. This is the first measurement of the braking index in the pulsar's recently discovered high spin-down state. We discuss possible mechanisms for producing the low braking index.

  9. The German drought monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  10. Liquid refractive index sensing independent of opacity using an optofluidic sensor based on diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhida

    2014-01-01

    We have implemented a multi-functional optofluidic sensor that can monitor changes in the refractive index and pressure of biofluid simultaneously and can detect free-solution molecular interaction in-situ. In this paper, we demonstrate two major improvements of this sensor proven by both simulation and experiments. One improvement is the broader measurement range of refractive index by making the diffraction grating with high-index polymer. The other improvement is the separation of refractive index sensing from opacity sensing by using the relative power ratio of diffraction orders. This simple, compact and low-cost multi-functional optofluidic sensor has the potential to be used for in-situ biofluid monitoring.

  11. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  12. AGILITY INDEXES AND APPLICATION OF PRODUCTION PLANNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhixiang

    2006-01-01

    The agility of production planning is defined as two characters: synchronization and flexibility. Measurement indexes for evaluating agility are then divided into two dimensions separately. Synchronization includes two horizontal indexes: order lead time ratio and demand fulfilling rate; Two vertical indexes: instruction-reaction cycle time and resource matching rate.Flexibility includes five indexes: scope flexibility, delivery flexibility, variety flexibility, capacity buffer, inventory buffer and modification flexibility. Quantitative formulas for each measurement index are constructed. One application is discussed to illustrate the feasibility and reasonability of the indexes.

  13. Wellbeing in the Netherlands : the SCP life situation index since 1974

    OpenAIRE

    Boelhouwer, J

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of interest in achieving a broader perspective on prosperity and the development of countries. This study is about a composite index for describing and monitoring developments in the life situation of the Dutch population. Since 1974 this Life Situation Index (LSI) is used by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to measure objective aspects of the individual life situation (realised wellbeing). In the study the (international) context and the choice...

  14. Evaluation of a reproductive index for estimating productivity of grassland breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M.R.; Norment, C.; Runge, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Declining populations of grassland breeding birds have led to increased efforts to assess habitat quality, typically by estimating density or relative abundance. Because some grassland habitats may function as ecological traps, a more appropriate metric for determining quality is breeding success, which is challenging to determine for many cryptic-nesting grassland birds. This difficulty led Vickery et al. (1992) to propose a reproductive index based on behavioral observations rather than nest fate. We rigorously evaluated the index for 2 years using a Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) population in western New York and found a weak correlation in classification of the breeding stages of monitored territories among multiple observers (r = 0.398). We also discovered a large difference between overall territory and nest success rates independently estimated with the index (9.8% over the entire breeding cycle) and with nest searching and monitoring (41.7% of nests successfully fledged young). Most importantly, we made territory-level comparisons of index estimates with actual nest fate and found that the index correctly predicted fates for only 43% of the monitored nests. A Mayfield logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only index rank 4 (eggs hatched, but young failed to fledge) showed a strong positive correlation with nest success. Although the reproductive index may function as a coarse indicator of habitat suitability (e.g., documenting production in potential ecological traps), in our study the index exhibited neither internal consistency nor the ability to predict nest fate at the plot or territory level and functioned poorly as a substitute for nest searching and monitoring. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  15. Minimal dispersion refractive index profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feit, M D

    1979-09-01

    The analogy between optics and quantum mechanics is exploited by considering a 2-D quantum system whose Schroedinger equation is closely related to the wave equation for light propagation in an optical fiber. From this viewpoint, Marcatili's condition for minimal-dispersion-refractive-index profiles, and the Olshansky- Keck formula for rms pulse spreading in an alpha-profile fiber may be derived without recourse to the WKB approximation. Besides affording physical insight into these results, the present approach points out a possible limitation in their application to real fibers.

  16. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 2, Lesson 1-Introduction to Indexing; Lesson 2-How to Index a Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    This volume contains the first two lessons of a course in subject indexing based upon the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Thesaurus, Lesson 1 is an introduction to indexing, containing definitions and concepts related to the theory of indexing and information retrieval as well as an introduction to the ERIC Thesaurus. Lesson 2 is…

  17. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.; Chilton, B.D.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually grouped as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).

  18. Viscosity Index Improvers and Thickeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, R. L.; Kinker, B. G.

    The viscosity index of an oil or an oil formulation is an important physical parameter. Viscosity index improvers, VIIs, are comprised of five main classes of polymers: polymethylmethacrylates (PMAs), olefin copolymers (OCPs), hydrogenated poly(styrene-co-butadiene or isoprene) (HSD/SIP/HRIs), esterified polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (SPEs) and a combination of PMA/OCP systems. The chemistry, manufacture, dispersancy and utility of each class are described. The comparative functions, properties, thickening ability, dispersancy and degradation of VIIs are discussed. Permanent and temporary shear thinning of VII-thickened formulations are described and compared. The end-use performance and choice of VI improvers is discussed in terms of low- and high-temperature viscosities, journal bearing oil film thickness, fuel economy, oil consumption, high-temperature pumping efficiency and deposit control. Discussion of future developments concludes that VI improvers will evolve to meet new challenges of increased thermal-oxidative degradation from increased engine operating temperatures, different base stocks of either synthetic base oils or vegetable oil-based, together with alcohol- or vegetable oil-based fuels. VI improvers must also evolve to deal with higher levels of fuel dilution and new types of sludge and also enhanced low-temperature requirements.

  19. Dietary glycemic index: health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; McMillan-Price, Joanna; Steinbeck, Katherine; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    Weight loss can be achieved by any means of energy restriction, but the challenge is to achieve sustainable weight loss and prevent weight "creep" without increasing the risk of chronic disease. The modest success of low fat diets has prompted research on alternative dietary strategies, including high protein diets and low glycemic index (GI) diets. Conventional high carbohydrate diets, even when based on wholegrain foods, increase postprandial glycemia and insulinemia and may compromise weight control via mechanisms related to appetite stimulation, fuel partitioning, and metabolic rate. This paper makes the case for the benefits of low glycemic index diets over higher protein diets. Both strategies are associated with lower postprandial glycemia, and both are commonly labeled as "low glycemic load," but the long-term health effects are likely to be different. A large body of evidence, which now comprises observational prospective cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, and mechanistic experiments in animal models, provides robust support for low GI carbohydrate diets in the prevention of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Although lower carbohydrate, higher protein diets increase the rate of weight loss, cohort studies and meta-analyses of clinical trials suggest the potential for increased mortality.

  20. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January--June 1995. Volume 41, Index 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. The information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case name index; digests and headers; legal citations index; subject index; and facility index.

  1. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, July--December 1993. Volume 38, Index 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Digests and Headers; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  2. Ultraviolet light induced refractive index structures in germanosilica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    bulk optics. Finally, I have developed a new method for direct UV writing of planar waveguide devices using a focussed continuous wave UV laser beam which is scanned across a photosensitive thin film deposited on a silicon wafer. Contrary to other waveguide fabrication techniques this method requires...... application of a scanning near-field optical microscope to obtain high resolution images of UV induced refractive index structures and by monitoring the dynamics of UV induced index changes and luminescence. During part of my ph.d. project I have worked at the National Institute of Standards and Technolgy...... in Colorado (USA) under supervision of Dr. Sarah L. Gilbert, fabricating and characterizing erbium doped fiber lasers incorporating UV written Bragg gratings. Due to their compact structure, such devices are shown to exhibit a frequency stability several orders of magnitude better than lasers incorporating...

  3. Water-resources data index for Osceola National Forest, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Paul R.; Hull, Robert W.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an intensive investigation from December 1975 to December 1977 of the geohydrology of Osceola National Forest, Fla. The primary purpose was to provide the geohydrological understanding needed to predict the impact of potential phosphate industry operations in the forest on the natural hydrologic system. The investigation involved test drilling, implementation of a hydrologic monitoring network, water-quality sampling, comprehensive aquifer tests, and literature study. This report is an index to the type, source, location, and availability of the data used in the interpretive investigation. The indexes include: geological, geophysical, ground water, surface water, quality of water, meteorological, climatological, aquifer tests, maps, photographs, elevations, and reference publications. The manner of storage and retrieval of the data is decribed also. (Woodard-USGS).

  4. Radioecological indexes of fallout measurements from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou, Metaxia; Stoulos, Stylianos; Ioannidou, Alexandra; Vagena, Eleni

    2014-05-01

    Fallout from the Fukushima nuclear accident has been monitored for about 1 month in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Three different radionuclides, one short-lived, one relatively long-lived and one long- lived fission product were identified in air, grass and milk samples. The 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in air reached 497, 145 and 126 μBqm-3, respectively on 4 April, 2011. These radionuclides are of particular concern regarding their transfer from the environment to population through the ingestion pathways for the assessment of the Fukushima accident consequences. Radioecological indexes (eco-indexes) of fallout measurements in the air-grass-cow-milk-man pathway for 131I were determined, as they are related to radiological impact of the Fukushima derived radionuclides on the public and environment.

  5. Scaling in the Bombay stock exchange index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Razdan

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we study Bombay stock exchange (BSE) index financial time series for fractal and multifractal behaviour. We show that BSE index time series is monofractal and can be represented by a fractional Brownian motion.

  6. The inconsistency of the h-index

    CERN Document Server

    Waltman, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    The h-index is a popular bibliometric indicator for assessing individual scientists. We criticize the h-index from a theoretical point of view. We argue that for the purpose of measuring the overall scientific impact of a scientist (or some other unit of analysis) the h-index behaves in a counterintuitive way. In certain cases, the mechanism used by the h-index to aggregate publication and citation statistics into a single number leads to inconsistencies in the way in which scientists are ranked. Our conclusion is that the h-index cannot be considered an appropriate indicator of a scientist's overall scientific impact. Based on recent theoretical insights, we discuss what kind of indicators can be used as an alternative to the h-index. We pay special attention to the highly cited publications indicator. This indicator has a lot in common with the h-index, but unlike the h-index it does not produce inconsistent rankings.

  7. The PC index: review of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. McCreadie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Polar Cap (PC index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. There is no doubt as to the scientific merit of the index which is not discussed here. What is in doubt is the methodology of the derivation of the index by different groups. The Polar Cap index (PC: PCN, northern; PCS, southern described in Troshichev et al. (2006 and Stauning et al. (2006, both termed the "unified PC index", and the PCN index routinely derived at DMI are inspected using only available published literature. They are found to contain different derivation procedures, thus are not unified. The descriptions of the derivation procedures are found to not be adequate to independently derive the PC indices.

  8. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  9. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  10. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  11. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  12. EJSCREEN Version 1, EJ Index Alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays alternative environmental justice (EJ) indexes used in EJSCREEN. The alternative EJ indexes combine each of the 12 environmental indicators...

  13. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial...

  14. Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard;

    2001-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres.......Photonic crystal fibres are investigated with an effective index approach. The effective index of both core and cladding is found to be wavelength dependent. Accurate modelling must respect the rich topology of these fibres....

  15. UMLS-based automatic image indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneiderman, C; Sneiderman, Charles Alan; Demner-Fushman, D; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Fung, K W; Fung, Kin Wah; Bray, B; Bray, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    To date, most accurate image retrieval techniques rely on textual descriptions of images. Our goal is to automatically generate indexing terms for an image extracted from a biomedical article by identifying Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts in image caption and its discussion in the text. In a pilot evaluation of the suggested image indexing method by five physicians, a third of the automatically identified index terms were found suitable for indexing.

  16. The predictability of the Hirsch index evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The h-index can be used as a predictor of itself. However, the evolution of the h-index with time is shown in the present investigation to be dominated for several years by citations to previous publications rather than by new scientific achievements. This inert behaviour of the h-index raises questions, whether the h-index can be used profitably in academic appointment processes or for the allocation of research resources.

  17. Monitoring nanoparticle aggregation by optical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicea, Dan

    2013-11-01

    The traditional Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) produces the average size of the suspended particles from a recorded time series of the light scattered at a particular angle. A modified and simplified version of DLS was designed, tested and used in monitoring FE3O4 nanoparticle aggregation in aqueous suspensions. In addition two another simple and easy to implement optical procedures were tested aiming a qualitative monitoring of the nanoparticle aggregation process. One of them consists of monitoring the time variation of the scattered light intensity at a certain angle and fitting an analytic function on it and the other one in monitoring the refractive index of the aqueous suspension during nanofluid dilution. The results are presented and discussed.

  18. Indexing: Its Importance in Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Stephen M.; Laflin, Molly T.; Nims, Julia K.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated how health educators could improve literature searches and increase the accessibility of their research to others. A frequency count of databases indexed 84 health education journals and analyzed the 16 top indexes for journal coverage. Results indicated that selecting the appropriate indexes can help health educators more effectively…

  19. Science Fair Project Index 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cynthia, Ed.; Crowe, Deborah, Ed.

    This second supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1981 through 1984. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  20. Science Fair Project Index 1973-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akron - Summit County Public Library, OH.

    This supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1973 through 1980. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…