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Sample records for bismuth bromides

  1. Reactivity at the film/solution interface of ex situ prepared bismuth film electrodes: A scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocevar, Samo B.; Daniele, Salvatore; Bragato, Carlo; Ogorevc, Bozidar

    2007-01-01

    Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) prepared ex situ with and without complexing bromide ions in the modification solution were investigated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A feedback mode of the SECM was employed to examine the conductivity and reactivity of a series of thin bismuth films deposited onto disk glassy carbon substrate electrodes (GCEs) of 3 mm in diameter. A platinum micro-electrode (φ = 25 μm) was used as the SECM tip, and current against tip/substrate distance was recorded in solutions containing either Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ or Fe(CN) 6 4- species as redox mediators. With both redox mediators positive feedback approach curves were recorded, which indicated that the bismuth film deposition protocol associated with the addition of bromide ions in the modification solution did not compromise the conductivity of the bismuth film in comparison with that prepared without bromide. However, at the former Bi film a slight kinetic hindering was observed in recycling Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ , suggesting a different surface potential. On the other hand, the approach curves recorded by using Fe(CN) 6 4- showed that both types of the aforementioned bismuth films exhibited local reactivity with the oxidised form of the redox mediator, and that bismuth film obtained with bromide ions exhibited slightly lower reactivity. The use of SECM in the scanning operation mode allowed us to ascertain that the bismuth deposits were uniformly distributed across the whole surface of the glassy carbon substrate electrode. Comparative AFM measurements corroborated the above findings and additionally revealed a denser growth of smaller bismuth crystals over the surface of the substrate electrode in the presence of bromide ions, while the crystals were bigger but sparser in the absence of bromide ions in the modification solution

  2. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  3. Bismuth toxicity in patients treated with bismuth iodoform paraffin packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, A; Cousin, G C S

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal used in bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) antiseptic dressings and in a number of other medical preparations. It can be absorbed systemically and cause toxicity. We report 2 cases of such neurotoxicity after it was used in operations on the jaws. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  5. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  6. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  7. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  8. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il; Yim, Mansung

    2014-01-01

    129 I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10 7 years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of 129 I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous 129 I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing 129 I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping 129 I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling

  9. Oxygen depletion of bismuth molybdates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, L.K.; Howe, R.F.; Keulks, G.W.; Hall, W.K.

    1978-05-01

    Pure ..cap alpha..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/Mo/sub 3/O/sub 12/), which is known to be weakly active for selective oxidation, and pure ..gamma..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/MoO/sub 6/), which has good activity, were subjected to oxidation-reduction cycles with known amounts of hydrogen and oxygen, at 300/sup 0/-570/sup 0/C and with evacuation steps between treatments. The volume of oxygen consumed during reoxidation was equal to half the hydrogen consumed during the reduction on the ..cap alpha..-phase, which indicated that no hydrogen was retained during reduction. For the ..gamma..-phase, the oxygen consumption was greater than half of the hydrogen consumption and it increased with extent of reduction. The excess oxygen was apparently consumed by filling anion vacancies formed during outgassing subsequent to the reduction step. ESR spectroscopy and temperature-programed oxidation-reduction indicated that lattice oxide ions which bridge between bismuth and molybdenum layers of the koechlinite structure become more labile when the catalyst is in a partially reduced state, and that this effect is greater in the ..gamma..- than the ..cap alpha..-phase. Table and 15 references.

  10. Bismuth absorption from sup 205 Bi-labelled pharmaceutical bismuth compounds used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresow, B.; Fischer, R.; Gabbe, E.E.; Wendel, J.; Heinrich, H.C. (Eppendorf University Hospital, Hamburg (Germany))

    1992-04-01

    The absorption of bismuth from five {sup 205}Bi-labelled pharmaceutically used bismuth compounds was studied in man. From single oral doses of all compounds under investigation only <0.1% bismuth was absorbed and excreted with the urine. A significantly higher absorption was observed from the colloidal bismuth subcitrate and the basic bismuth gallate than from the basic bismuth salicylate, nitrate and aluminate. No retention of bismuth in the whole body was found from the single dose experiment. The biologic fast-term half-lives of absorbed bismuth were calculated to be 0.12 and 1.5 days. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Bismuth ions are metabolized into autometallographic traceable bismuth-sulphur quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stoltenberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth – sulphur quantum dots can be silver enhanced by autometallography (AMG. In the present study, autometallographic silver enhanced bismuth-sulphur nanocrystals were isolated from unfixed cryo-sections of kidneys and livers of rats exposed to bismuth (Bi207 subnitrate. After being subjected to AMG all the organic material was removed by sonication and enzymatic digestion and the silver enhanced Bi- S quantum dots spun down by an ultracentrifuge and analyzed by scintillation. The analysis showed that the autometallographic technique traces approximately 94% of the total bismuth. This implies that the injected bismuth is ultimately captured in bismuthsulphur quantum dots, i.e., that Bi-S nanocrystals are the end product of bismuth metabolism

  12. Large-scale synthesis of bismuth sulfide nanorods by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiliang; Qin Fan; Cheng Gang; Li Hui; Zhang Jiuhong; Xie Yaoping; Yang Haijian; Lu Zhong; Yu Xianglin; Chen Rong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Large-scale Bi 2 S 3 nanorods have been prepared by microwave irradiation methods. → CTAB and β-CD are beneficial to the formation of Bi 2 S 3 nanorods. → DMF, EG and DEG were favorable solvents. → Bismuth and sulfur precursors influenced the size and morphology. → A proposed formation mechanism of Bi 2 S 3 nanorods was summarized. - Abstract: Bismuth sulfide (Bi 2 S 3 ) has attracted considerable interest due to its potential applications in thermoelectric and electronic devices, optoelectronic devices, and biomedicine. In this study, large-scale highly crystalline Bi 2 S 3 nanorods were successfully prepared from bismuth citrate and thiourea (Tu) by microwave irradiation methods. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The influences of reaction time, surfactants, solvents, and precursors on the formation of Bi 2 S 3 nanorods were discussed. The microwave irradiation method reduced reaction time by at least 80% in the synthesis of Bi 2 S 3 nanorods compared with the refluxing method. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were found to be beneficial to the formation of Bi 2 S 3 nanorods. N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol were the favorable solvents in the fabrication of these nanorods. It was found that different bismuth and sulfur precursors influenced the sizes and morphologies of the Bi 2 S 3 nanorods. The proposed growth mechanism of Bi 2 S 3 nanorods was also discussed.

  13. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  14. System of lithium, sodium, and strontium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, G.N.; Yagub'yan, E.S.; Bukhalova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The visual-polythermal and partially differential thermal methods of analysis have been applied to investigate the meltability diagram of the Li 2 Br 2 -Na 2 Br 2 -SrBr 2 ternary system. Three fields of crystallization belonging to strontium bromide, to the compound LiSr 2 Br 5 and solid solutions of lithium and sodium bromides are found. Two points complying with nonvariant equilibria are discovered

  15. Short report: evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth sucralfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, M. H.; Noach, L. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In a pilot study we have evaluated the clinical efficacy of bismuth sucralfate to eradicate H. pylori. Ten consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia and H. pylori associated gastritis were treated with bismuth sucralfate (220 mg bismuth per tablet, 4 tablets per day for 4 weeks). If a 14C urea

  16. Effect of ipratropium bromide in bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskar V

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of ipratropium bromide was evaluated in 20 patients with bronchial asthma. It was observed that there was no significant improvement in the forced vital capacity and the forced expired volume in one second, while there was significant improvement in the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR measured at 9 pm, after inhalation of 2 puffs of ipratropium bromide aerosol (0.02mg/puff three to four times a day for 2 weeks. Since PEFR is a measure of large airway function and cholinergic mechanisms are primarily involved for airflow obstruction at large airways, improvement in PEFR by ipratropium bromide highlights its role as a useful bronchodilator in patients in whom vagal reflexes are responsible for the provocation of bronchoconstriction.

  17. Bismuth titanate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Liu, H.D.; Lin, N.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth titanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. • The size of bismuth titanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Bismuth titanate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue and Rhodamine B. - Abstract: Bismuth titanate nanorods have been prepared using a facile hydrothermal process without additives. The bismuth titanate products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern shows that the bismuth titanate nanorods are composed of cubic Bi 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase. Electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the bismuth titanate nanorods are 50-200 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Hydrothermal temperature and reaction time play important roles on the formation and size of the bismuth titanate nanorods. UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectrum indicates that bismuth titanate nanorods have a band gap of 2.58 eV. The bismuth titanate nanorods exhibit good photocatalytic activities in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation. The bismuth titanate nanorods with cubic Bi 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase are a promising candidate as a visible light photocatalyst

  18. Bismuth Subgallate Toxicity in the Age of Online Supplement Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampognaro, Paul; Vo, Kathy T; Richie, Megan; Blanc, Paul D; Keenan, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Bismuth salts have been used to treat gastroenterological disorders and are readily available over-the-counter and via the internet. Even though generally considered safe, bismuth compounds can cause a syndrome of subacute, progressive encephalopathy when taken in large quantities. We present the case of woman who developed progressive encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, and gait instability after chronically ingesting large amounts of bismuth subgallate purchased from a major online marketing website to control symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. After extensive neurological work-up, elevated bismuth levels in her blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of bismuth-related neurotoxicity. She improved slowly following cessation of exposure. This case highlights bismuth subgallate as a neurotoxic bismuth formulation and reminds providers of the potential for safety misconceptions of positively reviewed online supplements.

  19. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans with particular reference to inorganic bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1976-01-01

    Inorganic bromide residues and 14 C-labelled methylated products (expressed as CH 3 Br equivalent) in cocoa beans fumigated with [ 14 C]-methyl bromide have been determined by radiometric and chemical methods. Determination of 14 C by direct combustion in an oxygen chamber followed by liquid scintillation counting confirmed previous findings with respect to the magnitude, distribution and chemical nature of the residues. Although recovery of added bromide was good, the values of total bromide obtained by the chemical method were only half of those estimated from the total residual 14 C-activity. This is attributed to loss of organic (presumably, protein-bound) bromide. In agreement with the total 14 C-labelled residue contents, total bromide in shells was 20 times greater than that in nibs. The low levels of residues in the nib (12ppm as CH 3 Br equivalent, 10ppm Br) and the further reduction of organic residues by roasting suggest that no toxicological and nutritional hazards may be expected from fumigation of cocoa beans with methyl bromide. (author)

  20. Radio-sensitization of animals by bismuth; Radio sensibilisation de l'animal par le bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierotti, T; Verain, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Digestive absorption of bismuth by animals leads to radio-sensitization. This effect is very marked when the X-rays used are centered on the absorption line of bismuth. This work has involved the use of more than 2000 C3H/JAX mice, and has shown that a maximum lethal effect, with respect to the standard, occurs for bismuth sub-nitrate doses of the order of 3 g/kg and for exposures of 700 R. For stronger or weaker doses, the sensitization effect is less marked. (authors) [French] L'absorption digestive de bismuth provoque une radiosensibilisation de l'animal. Celle-ci est nette quand le rayonnement X utilise est centre sur la raie d'absorption du bismuth. L'etude portant sur plus de 2000 souris C3H/JAX a montre une lethalite maximale par rapport aux temoins pour des doses de sous-nitrate de bismuth de l'ordre de 3 g/kg et pour des expositions de 700 R. Pour des doses plus fortes ou plus faibles, l'effet de sensibilisation est moins net. (auteurs)

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis of bismuth oxybromochloride nanoflakes for visible light photodegradation of pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijanzad, Keyvan; Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Moghaddasi Khiavi, Mohammad [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, Omid, E-mail: oakhavan@sharif.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x} (0bismuth nitrate pentahydrate, potassium bromide and sodium chloride by a microwave-assisted synthesis method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the formation of pure crystalline phase of BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x}. The UV–visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies revealed the indirect band gap of ~2.82 eV for the bismuth oxybromochloride nanoflakes. Visible light-assisted photocatalytic studies showed that the degradation efficiency of the as-prepared BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x} for (100 mL of 10 mg L{sup −1}) Rhodamine B (RhB), Natural Red 4 (N-Red) dye solutions was 98.14% and for the colorless organic pentachlorophenol (PCP) solution was 91.09% over 150 min. The possible mechanisms involved in the visible light photodegradation of the pollutants by BiOBr{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x} photocatalyst were also discussed.

  2. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... paragraph (c)(1), effective April 27, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth...

  3. Magnetoreflection studies of ion implanted bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.; Chieu, T.C.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Dresselhaus, G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the implantation of Sb ions on the electronic structure of the semimetal bismuth is studied by the magnetoreflection technique. The results show long electronic mean free paths and large implantation-induced increases in the band overlap and L-point band gap. These effects are opposite to those observed for Bi chemically doped with Sb. (author)

  4. A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide complex and silver bromide nanoparticles obtained by the surfactant counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Hao; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Jing-Chang; Cao, Wei-Liang

    2007-03-01

    A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide (CTASB) complex has been prepared simply through the reaction of silver nitrate with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous solution at room temperature by controlling the concentration of CTAB and the molar ratio of CTAB to silver nitrate in the reaction solution, in which halogen in CTAB is used as surfactant counterion. The structure and thermal behavior of cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the complex possesses a metastable layered structure. Upon heating the CTASB aqueous dispersion to above 80 degrees C, the structure change of the complex took place and CTAB-capped nanosized silver bromide particles further formed.

  5. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., postharvest 30.0 Lemon, postharvest 30.0 Lime, postharvest 30.0 Mango, postharvest 20.0 Melon, honeydew... methyl bromide or from such fumigation in addition to the authorized use of methyl bromide on the source...

  6. Bismuth( Ⅲ ) Salts: Green Catalysts for Organic Transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Le Roux

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Bismuth, the heaviest stable element in the periodic table, stands out from other heavy elements (such as mercury, thallium and lead) due to its relatively non-toxic character which confers on bismuth the enviable status of being an eco-friendly element. Therefore, bismuth and its compounds hold considerable promise as useful catalysts for green chemistry. The research presented in this communication is devoted to the applications of bismuth( Ⅲ ) salts as catalysts for organic transformations.After some general comments about bismuth and a short presentation of the various applications of bismuth( Ⅲ ) salts in organic synthesis, this communication will focus on the works done in our research group during the last several years which deals mainly with electrophilic substitutions. When appropriate, some mechanistic details will be given.

  7. Thermal decomposition synthesis of nanorods bismuth sulphide from bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Nurul Hidayah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Silong, Sidik; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tan, Kar-Ban; Chang, Sook-Keng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate was used as single source precursor. • No surfactant was used in the preparation of Bi_2S_3 nanorods. • Pure phase orthorhombic Bi_2S_3 is obtained. • Bismuth sulphide with an average atomic ratio of Bi:S close to 2:3 is obtained. - Abstract: Nanorods of bismuth sulphide were prepared by thermal decomposition of bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate at different calcination duration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that at 400 °C, the precursor was fully decomposed to orthorhombic bismuth sulphide after 2 h of calcination. Besides, calcination duration does not affect the existence of Bi_2S_3 phase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that Bi_2S_3 nanorods with an average width ranging from 29–36 nm were obtained. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the atomic ratio of Bi and S close to 2:3, giving a possible composition of Bi_2S_3. Direct band gap energy of Bi_2S_3 decreases from 1.83 eV to 1.54 eV as calcination time increases.

  8. Radiolytic reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Zushi, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Kunihiko; Matsuura, Tatsuo.

    1995-01-01

    The reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr 3 ) 2- in nitrous oxide gas saturated solution of some alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol by γ-irradiation was studied spectrophotometrically in order to elucidate the mechanism of the formation of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr 3 ) 3- at ambient temperature. The amount of colloidal silver bromide formed increases in the order: i-PrOH, EtOH, MeOH. In t-BuOH, colloidal silver bromide did not form. The relative reactivities of alcohols for colloidal silver bromide was also studied kinetically. (author)

  9. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  10. "Chemical contraction" in rubidium-bismuth melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairulin, R. A.; Abdullaev, R. N.; Stankus, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    The density and thermal expansion of liquid rubidium and rubidium-bismuth alloy containing 25.0 at % Bi were measured by the gamma-ray attenuation technique at temperatures from liquidus to 1000 K. The results of this study were compared with the data obtained by other authors. The molar volume of the Rb75Bi25 melt strongly deviates from the additivity rule for ideal solutions.

  11. Electrocatalytic activity of bismuth doped silver electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Amjad, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of redox reactions on silver, and bismuth doped silver electrodes in aqueous KOH solutions, by using potentiostatic steady-state polarization technique, has been carried out. The redox wave potential and current displacements along with multiplicity of the latter have been examined. These electrodes were employed for the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylamine in alkaline media. Subsequently, these electrodes were ranked with respect to their activity for the redox reactions. (author)

  12. Flame spray synthesis under a non-oxidizing atmosphere: Preparation of metallic bismuth nanoparticles and nanocrystalline bulk bismuth metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J. [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: wendelin.stark@chem.ethz.ch

    2006-10-15

    Metallic bismuth nanoparticles of over 98% purity were prepared by a modified flame spray synthesis method in an inert atmosphere by oxygen-deficient combustion of a bismuth-carboxylate based precursor. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy confirming the formation of pure, crystalline metallic bismuth nanoparticles. Compression of the as-prepared powder resulted in highly dense, nanocrystalline pills with strong electrical conductivity and bright metallic gloss.

  13. Doping of germanium telluride with bismuth tellurides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrikosov, N.Kh.; Karpinskij, O.G.; Makalatiya, T.Sh.; Shelimova, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of germanium telluride doping with bismuth fellurides (Bi 2 Te 3 ; BiTe; Bi 2 Te) on phase transition temperature, lattice parameters and electrophysical properties of alloys is studied. It is shown that in alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 (BiTe)(Bi 2 Te) cross sections solid solution of GeTe with Bi 2 Te 3 , characterized by deviation from stoichiometry, and germanium in the second phase the quantity of which increases during the transition from GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section to GeTe-Bi 2 Te are in equilibrium. Lower values of holes concentration and of electric conductivity and higher values of thermo e.m.f. coefficient in comparison with alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section with the same bismuth content are characterized for GeTe-Bi 2 Te cross section alloys. It is shown that in the range of GeTe-base solid solution the α→γ phase transformation which runs trough the two-phase region (α→γ) is observed with tellurium content increase. Extension of α-phase existence region widens with the bismuth content increase. Peculiarities of interatomic interaction in GeTe-base solid solutions with isovalent and heterovalent cation substitution are considered [ru

  14. Effect of excess bismuth on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of strontium bismuth niobate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Maya; Tanwar, Amit; Sreenivas, K.

    2013-01-01

    Excess Bismuth Strontium Bismuth Niobate (Sr 2 Bi 2 Nb 2 O 9 + x wt% Bi 2 O 3 ) ceramics were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method by varying x in the range (x=0%wt - 20%wt). X-ray diffraction studies reveal no significant shift in the peak positions as the Bi content increases from 0.0 to 5%wt. However, at a higher content of Bi beyond x = 5wt% secondary phases relating to Bi 2 O 3 are identified. The c-axis orientation is found to be minimum for SBN ceramic prepared with 5% excess bismuth whereas with further increase in excess Bi 2 O 3 addition during processing, SBN ceramics show a much stronger c-axis orientation. Room temperature dielectric constant measured at 100 KHz is found to increase from 117 to 130 with increase in Bi content from x = 0 to 10wt% suggesting Bi addition has make up for the bismuth losses at higher sintering temperature (1200℃), however with further increase in Bi content (x > 10wt%), the dielectric constant decreases, and could be due to the increased probability of segregation of Bi on the grains of SBN ceramics. The improvement in ferroelectric properties were obtained when the bismuth excess is increased from 0% to 5%. It may be observed that on increasing the excess bismuth to 5%, the transition temperature increases from 424 to 450℃, while further increasing to 10%, transition becomes slightly diffused and phase transition temperature gets decreased to 398℃, which may be due to the formation of secondary phase. 5% excess Bi is found to enhance the dielectric and ferroelectricity properties, and any further increase of Bi in excess (>10%) during processing is found to degrade the electrical and functional properties of SBN. (author)

  15. Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies of Helicobacter pylori in Turkey. ... Results: When we look at the eradication rates of the treatment groups, only two groups (ranitidine bismuth citrate and rabeprazole groups) had eradication rates greater than 80%, both at intention to ...

  16. Bismuth-silver mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth-silver mineralization attendant to gold mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence has been studied in detail. Bi-Ag mineralization is connected with diorite porphyry dykes, which cut volcanic-sedimentary Lopian complexes of the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt – hornblendite and actinolite-chlorite amphibolites, biotite and bi-micaceous gneisses. Distribution of Bi-Ag mineralization similar to gold mineralization is controlled by 80 m thick zone of silicification. Bi minerals are found in brecciated diorite porphyry. Bismuth-silver mineralization includes native metals (bismuth, electrum, silver, tellurides (hedleyite, hessite, selenides (ikunolite, sulfides and sulfosalts of Bi and Ag (matildite, lillianite, eckerite, jalpaite, prustite, acanthite, a few undiagnosed minerals. All Bi and Ag minerals associate with galena. Composition of mineralization evolved from early to late stages of development, depending on intensity of rock alteration. The earliest Bi-Ag minerals were native bismuth and hedleyite formed dissemination in galena, and electrum with 30-45 mass.% Au. Later native bismuth was partly substituted by silver and bismuth sulfosalts and bismuth sulfides. The latest minerals were low-temperature silver sulfides eckerite, jalpaite, and acanthite, which were noted only in the most intensively altered rocks. As soon as the process of formation of Bi-Ag mineralization is the same as formation of gold, findings of bismuth-silver mineralization can serve as a positive exploration sign for gold in the region.

  17. Heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of bismuth niobate and bismuth tantalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hampl, M.; Strejc, A.; Sedmidubský, D.; Růžička, K.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Leitner, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, - (2006), s. 77-80 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : heat capacity * heat of formation * heat content * bismuth perovskite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  18. Heat-Pipe Bismuth Laser; Examination of Laser Action at 4722A in Bismuth Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    11, 15(1975). of Type 6p 3 -6p 2 7s in the Bismuth Atomic Spectrum in Intermediate Coupling," Acta Physica Polonica A47, 231(1975). 19. A.N. Nesmeyanov...Calculated Transit n Probabilities and Lifetimes for the First Excited Configuration np (n+l)s in the Neutral As, Sb and Bi Atoms, " Physica Scripta

  19. Bismuth X-ray absorber studies for TES microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadleir, J.E.; Bandler, S.R.; Brekosky, R.P.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; King, J.M.; Porter, F.S.; Robinson, I.K.; Saab, T.; Talley, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth's large atomic number and low carrier density makes it an attractive X-ray absorber material for microcalorimeters. Bismuth's long Fermi wavelength and long mean free paths have motivated much interest in the fabrication of high quality bismuth films to study quantum size effects. Despite such incentives, fabrication of high quality bismuth films has proven difficult, and measured properties of such films are highly variable in the literature. Implementing a bismuth deposition process for TES (superconducting Transition Edge Sensor) device fabrication presents additional challenges particularly at interfaces due to the inherent granularity and surface roughness of its films, its low melting point, and its tendency to diffuse and form undesired intermetallic phases. We report observations of Bi-Cu and Bi-Au diffusion in our devices correlating with large shifts in T c (superconducting transition temperature). Using SEM and in situ R vs T annealing experiments we have been able to study these diffusion processes and identify their activation temperatures

  20. Bismuth-Based Quadruple Therapy with Bismuth Subcitrate, Metronidazole, Tetracycline and Omeprazole in the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lahaie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A previous study showed that 14 days of qid bismuth-based triple therapy with tetracycline 500 mg, metronidazole 250 mg and colloidal bismuth subcitrate 120 mg resulted in excellent Helicobacter pylori eradication rates (89.5%. The present study looked at a shorter treatment period by adding omeprazole and by reducing the dose of tetracycline.

  1. Advanced hydrogen electrode for hydrogen-bromide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Jack A.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1987-01-01

    Binary platinum alloys are being developed as hydrogen electrocatalysts for use in a hydrogen bromide battery system. These alloys were varied in terms of alloy component mole ratio and heat treatment temperature. Electrocatalyst evaluation, performed in the absence and presence of bromide ion, includes floating half cell polarization studies, electrochemical surface area measurements, X ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and corrosion measurements. Results obtained to date indicate a platinum rich alloy has the best tolerance to bromide ion poisoning.

  2. Quantum oscillations of conductivity in bismuth wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the resistance of bismuth nanowires with several diameters and different quality reveal oscillations on the dependence of resistance under uniaxial strain at T = 4.2 K. Amplitude of oscillations is significant (38 %) at helium temperature and becomes smearing at T = 77 K. Observed oscillations originate from quantum size effect. A simple evaluation of period of oscillations allows us to identify the groups of carriers involved in transport. Calculated periods of 42.2 and 25.9 nm satisfy approximately the ratio 2:1 for two experimentally observed sets of oscillations from light and heavy electrons.

  3. An evaluated neutronic data file for bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Meadows, J.W.; Smith, A.B.; Smith, D.L.; Sugimoto, M.; Howerton, R.J.

    1989-11-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for bismuth, extending from 10 -5 eV to 20.0 MeV, is described. The experimental database, the application of the theoretical models, and the evaluation rationale are outlined. Attention is given to uncertainty specification, and comparisons are made with the prior ENDF/B-V evaluation. The corresponding numerical file, in ENDF/B-VI format, has been transmitted to the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. 106 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi Ming Oo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi2O3x (TeO2100−x was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, Eopt decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi3+ content increases.

  5. Optical Properties of Bismuth Tellurite Based Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Hooi Ming; Mohamed-Kamari, Halimah; Wan-Yusoff, Wan Mohd Daud

    2012-01-01

    A series of binary tellurite based glasses (Bi2O3)x (TeO2)100−x was prepared by melt quenching method. The density, molar volume and refractive index increase when bismuth ions Bi3+ increase, this is due to the increased polarization of the ions Bi3+ and the enhanced formation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results show the bonding of the glass sample and the optical band gap, Eopt decreases while the refractive index increases when the ion Bi3+ content increases. PMID:22605999

  6. Studies on chlorinated bromide salt for microfouling control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, K.K.; Rajmohan, R.; Rao, T.S.; Nair, K.V.K.; Mathur, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fast Breeder Test reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam has been facing various problems in cooling water systems in spite of intermittent chlorination.Effects of chlorinated-bromide mixture was evaluated against heterotrophic bacteria (TVC) and iron oxidising bacteria (IOB) vis-a-vis chlorine. Results indicated that chlorinated-bromide mixture was far superior (2 orders of magnitude for TVC and 2 times for IOB) to chlorine in microfouling control. Results also showed that at bromide to chlorine ratio of one effectiveness of chlorinated-bromide was at its maximum. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  7. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  8. Liquid Lead-Bismuth Materials Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcharnotskaia, Valentina; Ammerman, Curtt; Darling, Timothy; King, Joe; Li, Ning; Shaw, Don; Snodgrass, Leon; Woloshun, Keith

    2002-01-01

    We designed and built the Liquid Lead-Bismuth Materials Test Loop (MTL) to study the materials behavior in a flow of molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). In this paper we present a description of the loop with main components and their functions. Stress distribution in the piping due to sustained, occasional and expansion loads is shown. The loop is designed so that a difference of 100 deg. C can be attained between the coldest and the hottest parts at a nominal flow rate of 8.84 GPM. Liquid LBE flow can be activated by a mechanical sump pump or by natural convection. In order to maintain a self-healing protective film on the surface of the stainless steel pipe, a certain concentration of oxygen has to be maintained in the liquid metal. We developed oxygen sensors and an oxygen control system to be implemented in the loop. The loop is outfitted with a variety of instruments that are controlled from a computer based data acquisition system. Initial experiments include preconditioning the loop, filling it up with LBE, running at uniform temperature and tuning the oxygen control system. We will present some preliminary results and discuss plans for the future tests. (authors)

  9. What is the structure of liquid Bismuth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, El'ad N; Greenberg, Yaron; Yahel, Eyal; Beuneu, Brigitte; Makov, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The structure of liquid Bismuth is probably the best-studied among elemental liquid metals because of a combination of the interesting physical properties of Bismuth and its excellent neutron scattering properties. Over the last six decades there have been more than 10 independent studies of the structure of liquid Bi, near the melting temperature. This remarkable number of measurements provides an opportunity to compare these results and to analyze the different sources of error contributing to the calculated pair distribution function. In the present contribution we analyze possible sources of error by varying the analysis procedure for a given measurement. By repeating a previous measurement in a new experimental configuration we demonstrate that an invariant (i.e. up to an absolute error) structure factor can be obtained. Transforming the structure factor into the radial distribution introduces new sources of error which causes the scatter to be greater than that required to resolve issues such as the existence of liquid-liquid phase transitions in Bi and to obtain correlation between thermo-physical properties and structure. We consider the contribution of different parameters when transforming the structure factor to the radial distribution function.

  10. Study of point defects in bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bois, P.

    1987-03-01

    Single crystalline samples of bismuth, pure and n or p - doped by adding tellurium or tin, were electron irradiated at low temperature (4.2 K and 20 K). In the energy range 0.7 - 2.5 MeV, a displacement threshold energy of 13 eV and an athermal recombination volume of 150 atomic volumes were determined. Joint measurements of resistivity, magnetotransport and positron annihilation enabled to precised the nature of the annealing stages: 40-50 K, free migration of interstitials; 90-120 K long range migration of vacancy. Point defects have according to their nature a different effect on the electronic properties of bismuth: isolated Frenkel pairs are globally donnors with a charge of + 0.16 e- and the vacancy is donnor, which seems to attribute to it a negative formation volume. A simple model with non-deformating bands is no longer sufficient to explain the behaviour under irradiation: one has to take into account an acceptor level with a charge of - 0,27 e-, linked to the cascade-type defects and resonating with the valence band. It's position in the band overlap and it's width (8 meV) could be precised. In first approximation this coupling with less mobile carriers does not affect the simple additive rule which exists for relaxation times. Some yet obscure magnetic properties seem to be linked to this defect level [fr

  11. Development of lead-bismuth coolant technology for nuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kin-ya; Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori

    2004-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth is a promising material as a future fast reactor coolant or an intensive neutron source material for accelerator driven transmutation system (ADS). To develop nuclear plants and their installations using lead-bismuth coolant for practical use, both coolant technologies, inhabitation process of steels and quality control of coolant, and total operation system for liquid lead-bismuth plants are required. Based on the experience of liquid metal coolant, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) has completed the liquid lead-bismuth forced circulation loop and has acquired various engineering data on main components including economizer. As a result of tis operation, MES has developed key technologies of lead-bismuth coolant such as controlling of oxygen content in lead-bismuth and a purification of lead-bismuth coolant. MES participated in the national project, ''The Development of Accelerator Driven Transmutation System'', together with JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and started corrosion test for beam window of ADS. (author)

  12. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te and bismuth (Bi were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to show granular growth.

  13. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of ...

  14. Conduction bands and invariant energy gaps in alkali bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of the alkali bromides LiBr, NaBr, KBr, RbBr and CsBr are reported. It is shown that the conduction band has primarily bromine character. The size of the band gaps of bromides and alkali halides in general is reinterpreted.

  15. Ion adsorption properties of molybdenum (II) bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzerli-Valentini, M.T.; Meloni, S.; Caramella-Crespi, V.; Borroni, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    The adsorption of about 50 ions on molybdenum dibromide, (Mo 6 Br 8 )Br 4 .2H 2 O in nitric acid was investigated. The behaviour of the investigated elements on MDB in nitric acid, in the concentration range 10 -2 -8M is presented, where the distribution coefficients are given against the HNO 3 molarity. In some cases the elements were investigated in different oxidation states. Most of the elements are not adsorbed or poorly adsorbed, among these the stable anions, thus indicating that bromide ions substitution with other anions is not competitive. The preparation of the adsorber and its characterization is presented and discussed. Adsorption mechanism studies were carried out for some noble metals and chromium. Sorption cannot be ascribed to ion exchange mechanism but to formation of insoluble species, and to settlement of few ions into surface sorption sites or into a limited number of cavitites in the cluster crystal structure of the adsorber. (T.G.)

  16. Alkene- and alkyne- substituted methylimidazolium bromides: structural effects and Physical properties (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Stefan; Drake, Gregory; Hall, Leslie; Hawkiins, Tommy; Rosander, Michael; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    .... X-ray structures of 1-(2-butynyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-propargyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as well as the X-ray structure of 1-allyl-3- methylimidazolium bromide which was previously identified as a room temperature ionic...

  17. Alkene- and Alkyne- Substituted Methylimidazolium Bromides: Structural Effects and Physical properties (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Stefan; Drake, Gregory; Hall, Leslie; Hawkiins, Tommy; Rosander, Michael; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    .... X-ray structures of 1-(2-butynyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-propargyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as well as the X-ray structure of 1-allyl-3- methylimidazolium bromide which was previously identified as a room temperature ionic...

  18. Ultrasonic investigations of some bismuth borate glasses doped with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bismuth borate glasses; elastic moduli; Makishima–Mackenzie model. 1. Introduction ... former because of the small field strength of Bi3+ ion. Bi2O3 ..... Typically, when the material undergoes a phase change, the value of the.

  19. Studies on bismuth carboxylates—synthesis and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    crystalline modification (4 ) of the previously reported coordination polymer, bismuth tris(picolinate), [Bi(2– .... no significant change in the IR spectrum or the melting behaviour between 4 .... lens et al.7 There are moderate differences in the.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of superconducting bismuthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Horngyi.

    1991-01-01

    A new electrosynthetic technique for low-temperature crystal growth of superconducting bismuthates was developed, and its utility demonstrated by growing various high-quality BiO 3 crystals. The crystals of Ba 1-x K x BiO 3 and Ba 1-x Rb x BiO 3 display their T c onset at 31.8k and 28k, respectively, using SQUID magnetometry. The structure of a KBiO 3 x H 2 O single crystal determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction confirms previous results from powder samples that it is isostructural with KSbO 3 . The crystals of Ba 1-x Cs x BiO 3 do not show superconductivity to 4k. Chemical vapor-transport experiments leading to the fabrication of MoS 2 /WSe 2 junctions were also performed and are described in detail

  1. A new supramolecular based liquid solid microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of trace bismuth in human blood serum and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahe, Hadi; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    A simple and reliable supramolecule-aggregated liquid solid microextraction method is described for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of bismuth in water as well as human blood serum and hair samples. Catanionic microstructures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants, dissolved in deionized water/propanol, are used as a green solvent to extract bismuth (III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by dispersive microextraction methodology. The extracted solid phase is easily removed and dissolved in 50 μL propanol for subsequent measurement by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). The procedure benefits the merits of supramolecule aggregates' properties and dispersive microextraction technique using water as the main component of disperser solvent, leading to direct interaction with analyte. Phase separation behavior of extraction solvent and different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of bismuth ion such as salt concentration, pH, centrifugation time, amount of chelating agent, SDS:CTAB mole ratio, and solvent amounts were thoroughly optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.3-6 μg L -1 Bi (III) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.16 μg L -1 (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of determination were obtained to be 5.1 and 6.2 % for 1 and 3 μg L -1 of Bi (III), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied as a sensitive and accurate technique for determination of bismuth ion in human blood serum, hair samples, and a certified reference material.

  2. Flotation atomic absorption determination of bismuth in nonferrous metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, V.K.; Plintus, A.M.; Kornelli, M.Eh.; Zakhariya, A.N.; Lozanova, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    Technique of flotation concentration and atomic absorption determination of bismuth microquantities in alloys on the basis of copper and zinc has been developed. Fine-dispersed EhDEh-10P anionite was used as a carrier in flotation concentration. State standard samples (SSS) of brasses and German silver were used as analysed objects. Effect of macrocomponents on the results of bismuth content determination has been studied. Satisfactory coincidence of the results obtained and SSS certificates is shown

  3. Platinum-Bismuth Bimetallic Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo, Jose A, Jr; Xiao, Yang; Varma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic catalysts have been explored and shown to exhibit unique characteristics which are not present in monometallic catalysts. Platinum is well known as an effective catalyst for oxidation and reduction reactions, and it can be made more effective when bismuth is introduced as a promotor. Thus, the effectiveness of the Pt-Bi catalyst was demonstrated in prior work. What is not clear, however, is the mechanism behind the catalyst function; why addition of bismuth to platinum decreases de...

  4. In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shiv Prakash; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi 0 NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects of EB irradiation were investigated in situ using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The EB irradiation for 2–8 min enhanced the construction of bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 4–9 nm. The average particle size was found to increase with the irradiation time. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 °C and this low melting temperature makes easy the progress of energy induced structural changes during in situ TEM observations. This is a very useful technique in nano-patterning for integrated optics and other applications.

  5. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  6. Growth and Characterization of Tetraphenylphosphonium Bromide Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqiang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds are a group of chemical materials that have been used as reactants, pharmaceutical intermediates, extractants, and catalysts in organic synthetic reactions. However, the crystal growth of bulk crystals of multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds, which may expand their applications in photonics technology, have been largely overlooked. In this article, the crystal growth of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (TPPB has been studied in organic solvents and water. The crystal structures and crystallization features are analyzed by X-ray diffraction data. By a slow temperature-lowering method, a single-crystal of TPPB (2H2O with the size of 27 × 20 × 20 mm3 has been obtained in water. The basic thermal and optical properties were characterized. We find that the TPPB (2H2O crystal shows excellent transparent property in the near-IR region. Large Raman shifts and strong Raman scattering intensity indicate that TPPB is a potential candidate in Raman-scattering-based nonlinearity applications.

  7. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  8. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at ... The spectral distribution of power at .... It is evident from the voltage waveforms that the breakdown voltage drops.

  9. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  10. Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can beused for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We studyperformance of a plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as atunable material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metalplates (metal...

  11. Fluoride, bromide and iodide in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.

    Fluoride concentrations varying from 1.32 mg/l at the surface to 1.37 mg/l at depth showed an average of 1.35 + or - 0.004 mg/l with F/Cl of (6.65 + - 0.07) x 10/5. Average bromide was 70 mg/l with Br/Cl of 0.00347. Bromide was found to bear a...

  12. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM 3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. On-line production of [11C]cyanogen bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, G.; Laangstroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    The electrophilic labelling precursor [ 11 C]cyanogen bromide was produced in 95% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide within 3 min from the end of bombardment using a simple and convenient solid-phase on-line procedure. The [ 11 C]cyanogen bromide has been used in the synthesis of a number of labelled compounds for use in positron emission tomography. (author)

  14. Controlled synthesis of bismuth oxyiodide toward optimization of photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chenxing; Ma, Zhijun [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Chen, Xiaofeng, E-mail: chenxf@scut.edu.c [Biomaterials Research Institute, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou 510641 (China); He, Xin [School of Applied Physics and Materials, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020 (China); Qiu, Jianrong, E-mail: qjr@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Different bismuth oxyiodide was synthesized. • The hollow Bi{sub 4}O{sub 5}I{sub 2} microspheres was obtained. • Formation mechanism of the hollow structure was discussed in detail. - Abstract: A new investigation on the variation rule of the structure, morphology, chemical composition and photocatalytic performance of bismuth oxyiodide synthesized by solvothermal method as a function of reaction conditions was performed here. The composition and morphology of the product could be determined by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the particle size together with content of iodide in bismuth oxyiodide decrease with the increase of the concentration of reaction precursors. Hollow Bi{sub 4}O{sub 5}I{sub 2} microsphere with specific surface area as high as 120.88 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} can be easily synthesized when the concentration of the reaction precursors finally increased to 62.5 mM. Photocatalytic water purification performance of the as-prepared samples was evaluated by using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model contaminant. The results revealed that the hollow Bi{sub 4}O{sub 5}I{sub 2} exhibited the best performance among all the bismuth oxyodide synthesized here for the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of the hierarchical hollow structure of bismuth oxyiodide was investigated by the dissolution-recrystallization mechanism.

  15. Lead- or Lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Courouau, J.L.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Latge, C.; Martinelli, L.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.

    2014-01-01

    Lead-cooled fast reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. So far no lead-cooled reactors have existed in the world except lead-bismuth-cooled reactors in soviet submarines. Some problems linked to the use of the lead-bismuth eutectic appeared but were satisfactorily solved by a more rigorous monitoring of the chemistry of the lead-bismuth coolant. Lead presents various advantages as a coolant: no reactivity with water and the air,a high boiling temperature and low contamination when irradiated. The main asset of the lead-bismuth alloy is the drop of the fusion temperature from 327 C degrees to 125 C degrees. The main drawback of using lead (or lead-bismuth) is its high corrosiveness with metals like iron, chromium and nickel. The high corrosiveness of the coolant implies low flow velocities which means a bigger core and consequently a bigger reactor containment. Different research programs in the world (in Europe, Russia and the USA) are reviewed in the article but it appears that the development of this type of reactor requires technological breakthroughs concerning materials and the resistance to corrosion. Furthermore the concept of lead-cooled reactors seems to be associated to a range of low output power because of the compromise between the size of the reactor and its resistance to earthquakes. (A.C.)

  16. Oxygen holes and hybridization in the bismuthates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie, Arash; Foyevtsova, Kateryna; Elfimov, Ilya; Sawatzky, George A.

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the recently renewed interest in the superconducting bismuth perovskites, we investigate the electronic structure of the parent compounds A BiO3 (A = Sr, Ba) using ab initio methods and tight-binding (TB) modeling. We use the density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA) to understand the role of various interactions in shaping the A BiO3 band structure near the Fermi level. It is established that interatomic hybridization involving Bi-6 s and O-2 p orbitals plays the most important role. Based on our DFT calculations, we derive a minimal TB model and demonstrate that it can describe the properties of the band structure as a function of lattice distortions, such as the opening of a charge gap with the onset of the breathing distortion and the associated condensation of holes onto a1 g-symmetric molecular orbitals formed by the O-2 pσ orbitals on collapsed octahedra. We also derive a single band model involving the hopping of an extended molecular orbital involving both Bi-6 s and a linear combination of six O-2 p orbitals which provides a very good description of the dispersion and band gaps of the low energy scale bands straddling the chemical potential.

  17. Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron Rich Bismuth Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS344 :\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to measure the optical isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of bismuth isotopes across the N=126 shell closure in order to extract the change in mean square charge radii ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle$) and static moments. These include the first isotones of lead to be measured directly above the shell closure and will provide new information on the systematics of the kink ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle)$ seen in the lead isotopic chain. After two very successful runs the programme has been extended to include the neutron deficient isotopes below $^{201}$Bi to study the systematics across the $i_{13/2}$ neutron sub-shell closure at N=118.\\\\ \\\\ During the initial 2 runs (9 shifts) the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of three new isotopes, $ ^{210,212,213}$Bi and the 9$^{-}$ isomer of $^{210}$Bi have been measured. The accuracy of the previous measurements of $^{205,206,208}$Bi have been greatly improved. The samples of $ ^{208,210,210^{m}}$Bi were prepared by c...

  18. Tunneling in cuprate and bismuthate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasadzinski, J.F.; Huang, Qiang; Tralshawala, N.

    1991-10-01

    Tunneling measurements using a point-contact technique are reported for the following high temperature superconducting oxides: Ba 1-x K x BiO 3 (BKBO), Nd 2-x Ce x CuO 4 (NCCO), Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 7 (BSCCO) and Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O x (TBCCO). For the bismuthate, BKBO, ideal, S-I-N tunneling characteristics are observed using a Au tip. The normalized conductance is fitted to a BCS density of states and thermal smearing only proving there is no fundamental limitation in BKBO for device applications. For the cuprates, the normalized conductance displays BCS-like characteristics, but with a broadening larger than from thermal smearing. Energy gap values are presented for each material. For BKBO and NCCO the Eliashberg functions, α 2 F(ω), obtained from the tunneling are shown to be in good agreement with neutron scattering results. Proximity effect tunneling studies are reported for Au/BSCCO bilayers and show that the energy gap of BSCCO can be observed through Au layers up to 600 Angstrom thick

  19. Use of Russian technology of ship reactors with lead-bismuth coolant in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Chitaykin, V.I.; Gromov, B.F.; Grigoryv, O.G.; Dedoul, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Dragunov, Yu.G.; Stepanov, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    The experience of using lead-bismuth coolant in Russian nuclear submarine reactors has been presented. The fundamental statements of the concept of using the reactors cooled by lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear power have been substantiated. The results of developments for using lead bismuth coolant in nuclear power have been presented. (author)

  20. Prognostic Value of Bismuth Typing and Modified T-stage in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengen Yi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The majority of our patients with HCC were characterized as Subtype IV in Bismuth typing and Stage T3 in modified T-stage. Both Bismuth typing and modified T-stage showed prognostic value in HCC. Compared with Bismuth typing, modified T-stage is a better indicator of the resectability of HCC.

  1. Microstructure and electrical properties of bismuth and bismuth oxide deposited by magnetron sputtering UBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora B, D. M.; Dussan, A.; Olaya F, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, bismuth (Bi) and bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ) thin films were prepared, at room temperature, by Sputtering Unbalanced Magnetron (UBM - Unbalance Magnetron) technique under glass substrates. Microstructural and electrical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and System for Measuring Physical Properties - PPMS (Physical Property Measurement System). Dark resistivity of the material was measured for a temperature range between 100 and 400 K. From the XRD measurements it was observed a polycrystalline character of the Bi associated to the presence of phases above the main peak, 2θ = 26.42 grades and a growth governed by a rhombohedral structure. Crystal parameters were obtained for both compounds, Bi and Bi 2 O 3 . From the analysis of the spectra of the conductivity as a function of temperature, it was established that the transport mechanism that governs the region of high temperature (T>300 K) is thermally activated carriers. From conductivity measurements the activation energies were obtained of 0.0094 eV and 0.015 eV for Bi 2 O 3 and Bi, respectively. (Author)

  2. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  3. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M., E-mail: cscientific2@aec.org.sy [IBA Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Mrad, O. [Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2015-02-14

    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed.

  4. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A. Reyes [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca, Ixtlahuaca Kilómetro 15.5, C.P. 50200 Edo. de México (Mexico); Hautefeuille, M., E-mail: mathieu_h@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, Circuito Exterior S/N, Coyoacán, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 D.F. Mexico (Mexico); García, A. Esparza [Fotofísica y Películas Delgadas, Departamento de Tecnociencias, CCADET-UNAM, Circuito exterior s/n C.P. 04510 Cd. Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mejia, O. Olea [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, 50200 San Cayetano, Estado de México (Mexico); López, M.A. Camacho [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Tollocan s/n, esq. Paseo Colón, Toluca, Estado de México 50110 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser-induced microbumps were formed on bismuth films using a simple, low-cost, laser setup. • The patterns, similar to those typically obtained with high-power lasers, were characterized. • Control of laser ablation conditions is critical in the fabrication of surface microbumps. - Abstract: In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD–DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  5. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.; Mrad, O.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed

  6. Extraction spectrophotometric determination of rare earth with trioctylethylammonium bromide and Xylenol Orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shijo, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method of determination of the rare earth was studied by the solvent extraction of rare earth-Xylenol Orange chelate into xylene solution of trioctylethylammonium bromide(TOEA). The rare earth-XO-TOEA complexes are extracted into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, but not into polar solvents such as n-butanol ethylacetate, methylisobutylketone, and nitrobenzene. The optimum pH range for the extraction were 6.3 -- 6.7, 6.3 -- 6.5, 5.8 -- 6.9, 5.7 -- 6.9, and 5.5 -- 6.8 for lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, gadolinium, and dysprosium, respectively. The absorption maximum of the complexes extracted into xylene were found at 605 nm for lanthanum, praseodymium, and cerium, 596 nm for gadolinium, and 590 nm for dysprosium. Beer's law held for about 0 -- 4.5 μg of rare earth per 5 ml of xylene. The molar absorptivity of the extracted species were 1.53x10 5 , 1.42x10 5 , 1.35x10 5 , 8.5x10 4 , 8.2x10 4 cm -1 mol -1 l for lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, gadolinium, and dysprosium, respectively. The composition of the ternary complexes were estimated to be M:XO:TOEA=1:1:2 for gadolinium and dysprosium, whereas 1:2:n for lanthanum, praseodymium and cerium. Combination ratio n of TOEA to metal-XO chelates in the latters could not be estimated by the commonly available methods. Thorium, vanadium, uranium, bismuth, aluminum, zirconium, chromium, nitrate, perchlorate and iodide interfered when triethylenetetramine and 1,10-phenanthroline were added as masking agent. (auth.)

  7. Interaction of cephalosporin drugs with dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, Md. Anamul; Hossain, Mohammed Delwar; Khan, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We carry out the interaction of cephalosporin drugs with DTAB conductometrically. • We examine the effect of drugs on the critical micelle concentration of DTAB. • Three critical micelle concentrations are obtained for drug- DTAB system. • Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between drugs and DTAB are proposed. • Drug supported micelle formation of DTAB is much favoured in aq. solution of K 2 SO 4 . -- Abstract: The interaction of three cephalosporin drugs namely cefadroxyl monohydrate (CFM), cephalexin monohydrate (CLM) and cephradine monohydrate (CDM) with dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide (DTAB) has been carried out by conductance measurements in aqueous medium and in aqueous solution of K 2 SO 4 salt over temperature range of (303.15 to 318.15) K. For pure DTAB and drug-DTAB systems, three critical micelle concentrations were obtained. The third critical micelle concentration (c ∗ 3 ) indicates that the spherical micelle turns into rod shape that is sphere to rod transition. The c ∗ values of DTAB are changed due to the addition of cephalosporin drugs. In addition, the change of the values of c ∗ 1 , c ∗ 2 and c ∗ 3 with increase of the concentration of drugs indicate the presence of interaction between drug and DTAB. The c ∗ values indicate that micellization for the cephalosporins-surfactant systems in water follow the order: CFM-surfactant ∗ values for the cephalosporins - DTAB systems in aqueous K 2 SO 4 are lower in magnitude than those in pure water and the values decrease with increase of the concentrations of K 2 SO 4 at a particular temperature. A significant decrease of c ∗ values in the presence of K 2 SO 4 for cephalosporins-DTAB systems indicates that drug supported ionic micelle formation is much favoured in aqueous K 2 SO 4 solution compared to that in pure water. For cephalosporin-DTAB systems, ΔG 0 m values are negative which indicate that the drugs mediated ionic micelle formation processes are

  8. MES lead bismuth forced circulation loop and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Mikinori; Mine, Tatsuya; Kitano, Teruaki; Kamata, Kin-ya

    2003-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth is a promising material as future reactor coolant or intensive neutron source material for accelerator driven system (ADS). Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) completed lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) forced circulation loop in May 2001 and acquired engineering data on economizer, electro magnetic pump, electro magnetic flow meter and so on. For quality control of LBC, oxygen sensor and filtering element are developing using some hydrogen and moisture mixed gases. Structural materials corrosion test for accelerator driver system (ADS) will start soon. And thermal hydraulic test for ADS will start in tree years. (author)

  9. Thermodynamics of the interactions of some amino acids and peptides with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talele, Paurnima; Kishore, Nand

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of amino acids and peptides were studied with two cationic surfactants. • Partial molar properties and hydration numbers did not change significantly. • Measured properties indicate balance of polar and non-polar interactions. • Peptide bonds did not strengthen the extent of polar interactions with surfactant. • Results provide quantitative fine details of cationic surfactant–amino acids/peptides interactions. -- Abstract: The values of apparent molar volume V 2,ϕ and apparent molar adiabatic compressibility K S,2,ϕ of amino acids glycine, L-alanine, DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, L-valine, L-leucine and peptides glycyl-glycine, glycyl-glycyl-glycine and glycyl-leucine have been determined in aqueous solutions of cationic surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) by means of density and sound velocity measurements. The heat evolved or absorbed (q) during the course of interactions of amino acids and peptides with the aqueous solutions of surfactants were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The values of standard partial molar volume V 2,m 0 and standard partial molar adiabatic compressibility K s,2,m 0 at infinite dilution were calculated from the values of V 2,ϕ and K S,2,ϕ . Similarly the values of limiting enthalpies of dilution (Δ dil H 0 ) of the amino acids/peptides were calculated from heat evolved or absorbed during calorimetric experiments. The standard partial molar quantities of transfer from water to aqueous surfactant solutions have been used to identify the interactions of amino acids and peptides with surfactants in terms of ionic–ionic, ionic–hydrophobic and hydrophobic–hydrophobic group interactions

  10. Hydrolysis studies on bismuth nitrate: synthesis and crystallization of four novel polynuclear basic bismuth nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miersch, L; Rüffer, T; Schlesinger, M; Lang, H; Mehring, M

    2012-09-03

    Hydrolysis of Bi(NO(3))(3) in aqueous solution gave crystals of the novel compounds [Bi(6)O(4)(OH)(4)(NO(3))(5)(H(2)O)](NO(3)) (1) and [Bi(6)O(4)(OH)(4)(NO(3))(6)(H(2)O)(2)]·H(2)O (2) among the series of hexanuclear bismuth oxido nitrates. Compounds 1 and 2 both crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n but show significant differences in their lattice parameters: 1, a = 9.2516(6) Å, b = 13.4298(9) Å, c = 17.8471(14) Å, β = 94.531(6)°, V = 2210.5(3) Å(3); 2, a = 9.0149(3) Å, b = 16.9298(4) Å, c = 15.6864(4) Å, β = 90.129(3)°, V = 2394.06(12) Å(3). Variation of the conditions for partial hydrolysis of Bi(NO(3))(3) gave bismuth oxido nitrates of even higher nuclearity, [{Bi(38)O(45)(NO(3))(24)(DMSO)(26)}·4DMSO][{Bi(38)O(45)(NO(3))(24)(DMSO)(24)}·4DMSO] (3) and [{Bi(38)O(45)(NO(3))(24)(DMSO)(26)}·2DMSO][{Bi(38)O(45)(NO(3))(24)(DMSO)(24)}·0.5DMSO] (5), upon crystallization from DMSO. Bismuth oxido clusters 3 and 5 crystallize in the triclinic space group P1 both with two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The following lattice parameters are observed: 3, a = 20.3804(10) Å, b = 20.3871(9) Å, c = 34.9715(15) Å, α = 76.657(4)°, β = 73.479(4)°, γ = 60.228(5)°, V = 12021.7(9) Å(3); 5, a = 20.0329(4) Å, b = 20.0601(4) Å, c = 34.3532(6) Å, α = 90.196(1)°, β = 91.344(2)°, γ = 119.370(2)°, V = 12025.8(4) Å(3). Differences in the number of DMSO molecules (coordinated and noncoordinated) and ligand (nitrate, DMSO) coordination modes are observed.

  11. PEG-phospholipid-encapsulated bismuth sulfide and CdSe/ZnS quantum dot core–shell nanoparticle and its computed tomography/fluorescence performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Qin, Meng-Yao; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Xuan, Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, polyethylene glycol-phospholipid structure is used to synthesize hybrid cluster of 40–50 nm diameter that contains hydrophobic bismuth sulfide nanoparticles and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The composite probe’s toxicity, CT imaging, and fluorescence imaging performance are also studied. Experimental results show that the nanocomposite hybrid cluster has obvious CT contrast enhancement and fluorescence imaging capability in vitro even after cellular uptake. It gives a CT number of 700 (Hounsfield units) at 15 mg/mL, higher than that of the current iobitridol CT contrast agent. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide experiment reveals that it has low cytotoxicity at concentration up to of 3.14 mg/mL of Bi, indicating the composite probe has potential ability for CT and fluorescence bimodal imaging

  12. Bismuth oxyfluoride @ CMK-3 nanocomposite as cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dan; Sun, Wang; Xie, Liqiang; Fan, Qinghua; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Kening

    2018-01-01

    Bismuth oxyfluoride impregnated CMK-3 nanocomposite is synthesized by a facile nanocasting approach. Mesoporous carbon CMK-3 can suppress the aggregation and growth of bismuth oxyfluoride particles and offer rapid electron and Li ion passageways. Bismuth oxyfluoride nanoparticles are embedded in the mesoporous channels with particle size less than 20 nm. The bismuth oxyfluoride@CMK-3 nanocomposite maintains 148 mA h g-1 after 40 cycles with the capacity from both the bismuth oxyfluoride and the functional groups on the mesoporous carbon. The hybrid with confined bismuth oxyfluoride nanoparticles, conductive carbon network, and oxygen functional groups on the carbon matrix exhibits higher capacity and cycling stability than bulk bismuth oxyfluoride particles when used as lithium ion batteries cathode.

  13. Temperature gradient compatibility tests of some refractory metals and alloys in bismuth and bismuth--lithium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Cavin, O.B.

    1976-11-01

    Quartz, T-111, and Mo thermal-convection loop tests were conducted at temperatures up to 700 0 C (100 0 C ΔT) to determine the compatibility of several refractory metals/alloys with bismuth and bismuth-lithium solutions for molten salt breeder reactor applications. Methods of evaluation included weight change measurements, metallographic examination, chemical and electron microprobe analysis, and mechanical properties tests. Molybdenum, T-111, and TA--10 percent W appear to be the most promising containment materials, while niobium and iron-based alloys are unacceptable

  14. Measured and evaluated neutron cross sections of elemental bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Smith, D.; Whalen, J.; Howerton, R.

    1980-04-01

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental bismuth are measured with broad resolution from 1.2 to 4.5 MeV to accuracies of approx. = 1%. Neutron-differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of bismuth are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident neutron energy intervals of approx.< 0.2 MeV over the scattered-neutron angular range approx. = 20 to 160 deg. Differential neutron cross sections for the excitation of observed states in bismuth at 895 +- 12, 1606 +- 14, 2590 +- 15, 2762 +- 29, 3022 +- 21, and 3144 +- 15 keV are determined at incident neutron energies up to 4.0 MeV. An optical-statistical model is deduced from the measured values. This model, the present experimental results, and information available elsewhere in the literature are used to construct a comprehensive evaluated nuclear data file for elemental bismuth in the ENDF format. The evaluated file is particularly suited to the neutronic needs of the fusion-fission hybrid designer. 87 references, 10 figures, 6 tables

  15. The reduction of background signal in bismuth germanate scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, T.A.

    1986-07-01

    Bismuth germanate (BGO) is one of several new scintillator materials developed in recent years. It has similar energy resolution (6-8%) to sodium iodide (NaI) but it is non-hygroscopic, has a much better Peak-to-Compton ratio and a stopping power about 2.3 times greater than NaI. For counting activated foils it represents an improvement on NaI for high efficiency counting where the resolution of a germanium spectrometer is not required. Two scintillators bought for this purpose were found to have a higher than expected background signal between 500 keV and 2 MeV which was traced to Bi207, an active isotope of bismuth with a 38 year half-life and not listed as occurring naturally. Reference to the manufacturer showed all crystals to be similarly contaminated. It is speculated that this active isotope arises from cosmic proton activation of associated lead in the ore from which the bismuth is extracted. Although not confirmed rigorously it has been shown that bismuth extracted from ore with a low lead content does not contain Bi207. Scintillators have been manufactured from uncontaminated material and reductions in the background signal of more than an order of magnitude have been achieved. This reduction will be of immediate benefit for monitoring nickel foils (fast flux monitors) activated in zero-energy reactors and should also permit the exploitation of other low probability reactions previously not thought to be feasible. (author)

  16. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martín Muñoz, F. J.; Gómez Briceño, D.

    2001-07-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400°C and 600°C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase.

  17. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martin Munoz, F.J.; Gomez Briceno, D.

    2001-01-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400 o C and 600 o C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase

  18. Pairing from dynamically screened Coulomb repulsion in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhman, Jonathan; Lee, Patrick A.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, Prakash et al. have discovered bulk superconductivity in single crystals of bismuth, which is a semimetal with extremely low carrier density. At such low density, we argue that conventional electron-phonon coupling is too weak to be responsible for the binding of electrons into Cooper pairs. We study a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction with effective attraction generated on the scale of the collective plasma modes. We model the electronic states in bismuth to include three Dirac pockets with high velocity and one hole pocket with a significantly smaller velocity. We find a weak-coupling instability, which is greatly enhanced by the presence of the hole pocket. Therefore we argue that bismuth is the first material to exhibit superconductivity driven by retardation effects of Coulomb repulsion alone. By using realistic parameters for bismuth we find that the acoustic plasma mode does not play the central role in pairing. We also discuss a matrix element effect, resulting from the Dirac nature of the conduction band, which may affect Tc in the s -wave channel without breaking time-reversal symmetry.

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of Ce-doped bismuth titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nikolina; Srdic, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    Ce-modified bismuth titanate nanopowders Bi 4-x Ce x Ti 3 O 12 (x ≤ 1) have been synthesized using a coprecipitation method. DTA/TG, FTIR, XRD, SEM/EDS and BET methods were used in order to investigate the effect of Ce-substitution on the structure, morphology and sinterability of the obtained powders. The phase structure investigation revealed that after calcinations at 600 deg. C powder without Ce addition exhibited pure bismuth titanate phase; however, powders with Ce (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) had bismuth titanate pyrochlore phase as the second phase. The strongest effect of Ce addition on the structure was noted for the powder with the highest amount of Ce (x = 1) having a cubic pyrochlore structure. The presence of pure pyrochlore phase was explained by its stabilization due to the incorporation of cerium ions in titanate structure. Ce-modified bismuth titanate ceramic had a density over 95% of theoretical density and the fracture in transgranular manner most probably due to preferable distribution of Ce in boundary region

  20. Void worths in subcritical cores cooled by lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne; Tucek, Kamil; Gudowski, Waclaw

    2001-01-01

    The introduction lead-bismuth coolant in accelerator driven transmutation systems (ADS) was: good neutron economy (higher source efficiency); natural circulation possible (decay heat removal); synergy with spallation target (simplified coolant management); high temperature of boiling (larger overpower margin); smaller void worths (operation at higher k-values). This paper deals with different aspects of the void worths in JAERI ADS

  1. Preparation of Ferroelectric Thin Films of Bismuth Layer Structured Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Mihara, Takashi; Yoshimori, Hiroyuki; Araujo, Carlos

    1995-09-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of bismuth layer structured compounds, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2Nb2O9, SrBi4Ti4O15 and their solid solutions, were formed onto a sputtered platinum layer on a silicon substrate using spin-on technique and metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and some electrical measurements were performed on the prepared thin films. XRD results of SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films (0≤x≤1) showed that niobium ions substitute for tantalum ions in an arbitrary ratio without any change of the layer structure and lattice constants. Furthermore, XRD results of SrBi2 xTa2O9 films (0≤x≤1.5) indicated that the formation of the bismuth layer structure does not always require an accurate bismuth content. The layer structure was formed above 50% of the stoichiometric bismuth content in the general formula. SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films with various Ta/Nb ratios have large enough remanent polarization for nonvolatile memory application and have shown high fatigue resistance against 1011 cycles of full switching of the remanent polarization. Mixture films of the three compounds were also investigated.

  2. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  3. Bismuth Ferrite for Active Control of Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and investigate several layouts of m etal-insulator-metal waveguide with active core which can be utilized for dynamic switching in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes i ts refractive index through...

  4. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  5. Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...

  6. Dendrimer-stabilized bismuth sulfide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and potential computed tomography imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Peng, Chen; Guo, Rui; Zheng, Linfeng; Qin, Jinbao; Zhou, Benqing; Shen, Mingwu; Lu, Xinwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2013-06-07

    We report here a general approach to synthesizing dendrimer-stabilized bismuth sulfide nanoparticles (Bi2S3 DSNPs) for potential computed tomography (CT) imaging applications. In this study, ethylenediamine core glycidol hydroxyl-terminated generation 4 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G4.NGlyOH) were used as stabilizers to first complex the Bi(III) ions, followed by reaction with hydrogen sulfide to generate Bi2S3 DSNPs. By varying the molar ratio of Bi atom to dendrimer, stable Bi2S3 DSNPs with an average size range of 5.2-5.7 nm were formed. The formed Bi2S3 DSNPs were characterized via different techniques. X-ray absorption coefficient measurements show that the attenuation of Bi2S3 DSNPs is much higher than that of iodine-based CT contrast agent at the same molar concentration of the active element (Bi versus iodine). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay and hemolysis assay reveal that the formed Bi2S3 DSNPs are noncytotoxic and have a negligible hemolysis effect in the studied concentration range. Furthermore, we show that cells incubated with the Bi2S3 DSNPs are able to be imaged using CT, a prominent enhancement at the point of rabbit injected subcutaneously with the Bi2S3 DSNPs is able to be visualized via CT scanning, and the mouse's pulmonary vein can be visualized via CT after intravenous injection of the Bi2S3 DSNPs. With the good biocompatibility, enhanced X-ray attenuation property, and tunable dendrimer chemistry, the designed Bi2S3 DSNPs should be able to be further functionalized, allowing them to be used as a highly efficient contrast agent for CT imaging of different biological systems.

  7. AB initio energetics of lanthanum substitution in ferroelectric bismuth titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory based electronic structure calculations play a vital role in understanding, controlling and optimizing physical properties of materials at microscopic level. In present study system of interest is bismuth titanate (Bi/sub 4/Ti/sub 3/O/sub 12/)/(BIT) which has wide range of applications such as a high temperature piezoelectric and one of the best material for memory devices. However, it also suffers from serious issues such as oxygen vacancies which degrade its performance as a memory element and piezoelectric material. In this context, the bulk and defect properties of orthorhombic bismuth titanate (Bi/sub 4/Ti/sub 3/O/sub 12/) and bismuth lanthanum titanate (Bi/sub 3.25/La/sub 0.75/Ti/sub 3/O/sub 12/)/(BLT, x=0.75) were investigated by using first principles calculations and atomistic thermodynamics. Heats of formation, valid chemical conditions for synthesis, lanthanum substitution energies and oxygen and bismuth vacancy formation energies were computed. The study improves understanding of how native point defects and substitutional impurities influence the ferroelectric properties of these layered perovskite materials. It was found that lanthanum incorporation could occur on either of the two distinct bismuth sites in the structure and that the effect of substitution is to increase the formation energy of nearby native oxygen vacancies. The results provide direct atomistic evidence over a range of chemical conditions for the suggestion that lanthanum incorporation reduces the oxygen vacancy concentration. Oxygen vacancies contribute to ferroelectric fatigue by interacting strongly with domain walls and therefore a decrease in their concentration is beneficial. (orig./A.B.)

  8. The physicochemical properties of the low-temperature ionic liquid silver bromide-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Ramenskaya, L. M.; Pimenova, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The physicochemical properties of the low-temperature ionic liquid based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMImBr) and silver bromide were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, densimetry, viscometry, and conductometry measurements were performed to determine the dependences of the parameters under study on the concentration of AgBr. It was shown that the temperature and concentration behavior of the physicochemical properties of BMImBr-AgBr melts characterized the interaction between the system components with the formation of complex particles.

  9. Efficient enhancement of bismuth NIR luminescence by aluminum and its mechanism in bismuth doped germanate laser glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.P.; Tan, L.L.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    As a new member of laser glass family, bismuth-doped glasses have received rising interests due to the application of fiber amplifiers and laser sources in the new spectral range for the next-generation optical communication system. For practical application of the glasses, it must be considered ...

  10. Formation of gas-phase π-allyl radicals from propylene over bismuth oxide and γ-bismuth molybdate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martir, W.; Lunsford, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Gas-phase π-allyl radicals were produced when propylene reacted over Bi 2 O 3 and γ-bismuth molybdate catalysts at 723 K. The pressure in the catalyst zone was varied between 5 x 10 -3 and 1 torr. The radicals were detected by EPR spectroscopy together with a matrix isolation technique in which argon was used as the diluent. The matrix was formed on a sapphire rod at 12 K which was located 33-cm downstream from the catalyst. Bismuth oxide was more effective in the production of gas-phase allyl radicals than γ-bismuth molybdate. By contrast α-bismuth molybdate was ineffective in forming allyl radicals and MoO 3 acted as a sink for radicals which were produced elsewhere in the system. Comparison of the π-allyl radical and the stable product concentrations over Bi 2 O 3 revealed that gas-phase radical recombination reactions served as a major pathway for the formation of 1,5-hexadiene. Addition of small amounts of gas-phase oxygen increased the concentration of allyl radicals, and at greater oxygen levels allyl peroxy radicals were detected. Because of the effect of temperature on the equilibrium between allyl and allyl peroxy radicals, the latter product must be formed in the cooler part of the system

  11. Analysis of infiltration through mill tailings using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.J.; Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration of precipitation into tailings impoundments as a means of recharge to underlying materials is often considered insignificant, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the behavior of infiltrated precipitation into tailing soils, by the use of a bromide tracer. A bromide tracer was applied to the surface of columns driven into the tailings to monitor downward advancement of tracer-laden water. Controlled laboratory experiments on the behavior of the bromide tracer under varying precipitation events and initial soil moisture contents were also conducted. Results indicate that a definite downward migration of infiltrated precipitation occurs, particularly with large magnitude precipitation events, and that, eventually, some fraction of the infiltrated precipitation may continue downward below the zone affected by evaporation. The use of an artificially applied bromide tracer to monitor depth of infiltration of precipitation is a simple, safe technique that can provide valuable information for long-term tailings management strategies at low cost

  12. Exposure to methyl bromide during greenhouse fumigation on Crete, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.A.F. de; Boeft, J. den; Hemmen, J.J. van

    1998-01-01

    In agricultural areas where greenhouses and dwellings are intermixed, the general population as well as the professional applicators may be exposed to pesticides. In a field study on Crete, exposure to methyl bromide during soil fumigation was assessed. Exposure of applicators (both contractors and

  13. Revisiting the Kinetics and Mechanism of Bromate-Bromide Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrtes Carlos Eduardo S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bromate-bromide reaction was investigated in an acidity range not studied yet. The reaction was followed at the Br2/Br3- isosbestic point (lambda = 446 nm. It was observed a first-order behavior for bromate and bromide ions and a second-order behavior for H+ ion that results in the rate law nu = k[BrO3-][Br- ][H+]². This rate law suggests a mechanism involving two successive protonation of bromate followed by the interaction of the intermediate species H2BrO3+ with bromide. These results disagree with the obtained by other authors who observed a second-order behavior for the bromide and first-order for H+, and have proposed intermediate species like H2Br2O3 and HBr2O3-. The second-order for [H+] observed in the range 0.005 <= [H+] <= 2.77 mol L-1 sets down that the pKa of bromic acid, HBrO3, must be lower than -0.5 (T = 25 °C, different from all other values for this pKa proposed in the literature.

  14. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-21

    Aug 21, 1990 ... Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide. (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (I) the conventional nebulisa- tion (15 children); and (iI) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant ...

  15. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (i) the conventional nebulisation (15 children); and (ii) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant and similar fall in ...

  16. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 40 or above 16 8 T408-g-1 Chamber 60 or above 10 24 60 or above 20 15.5 T408-g-2 Tarpaulin 60 or..., fumigation with methyl bromide for sapote fruit fly. Regulated citrus fruits originating inside an area quarantined for sapote fruit fly that are to be moved outside the quarantined area may be treated with methyl...

  17. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  18. Preparation of pyridostigmine bromide labeled with carbon-14 and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, J.A.; Twine, C.E.; Austin, R.D. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-08-01

    [2-[sup 14]C]Pyridostigmine bromide was prepared in 17.6% radiochemical yield with specific activity of 18 mCi/mmol. The reaction sequence involved preparation of 2-furan[[sup 14]C]carboxylic acid by carbonation of 2-lithiofuran, followed by conversion to 2-amino[[sup 14]C]methylfuran by lithium aluminium hydride reduction of its carboxamide. Oxidative rearrangement of 2-amino[[sup 14]C]methylfuran gave 3-hydroxy[2-[sup 14]C]pyridine which was converted to [2-[sup 14]C]pyridostigmine bromide by reaction with dimethylcarbamyl chloride and quarternization with bromomethane. Pyridostigmine bromide labeled in the methyl group of the carbamate function was prepared in 73% yield with specific activity of 37.6 mCi/mmol by reaction of bis-3-pyridyl carbonate with [[sup 14]C]dimethylamine followed by quarternization with bromomethane. [6-[sup 3]H]-Pyridostigmine bromide with specific activity of 22.5 mCi/mmol was prepared by catalytic halogen-tritium replacement of 2,6-dibromo-3-dimethylcarbamyloxypyridine followed by quarternization with bromomethane and back-exchanging the labile 2-tritium. (author).

  19. Preparation of pyridostigmine bromide labeled with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, J.A.; Twine, C.E.; Austin, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    [2- 14 C]Pyridostigmine bromide was prepared in 17.6% radiochemical yield with specific activity of 18 mCi/mmol. The reaction sequence involved preparation of 2-furan[ 14 C]carboxylic acid by carbonation of 2-lithiofuran, followed by conversion to 2-amino[ 14 C]methylfuran by lithium aluminium hydride reduction of its carboxamide. Oxidative rearrangement of 2-amino[ 14 C]methylfuran gave 3-hydroxy[2- 14 C]pyridine which was converted to [2- 14 C]pyridostigmine bromide by reaction with dimethylcarbamyl chloride and quarternization with bromomethane. Pyridostigmine bromide labeled in the methyl group of the carbamate function was prepared in 73% yield with specific activity of 37.6 mCi/mmol by reaction of bis-3-pyridyl carbonate with [ 14 C]dimethylamine followed by quarternization with bromomethane. [6- 3 H]-Pyridostigmine bromide with specific activity of 22.5 mCi/mmol was prepared by catalytic halogen-tritium replacement of 2,6-dibromo-3-dimethylcarbamyloxypyridine followed by quarternization with bromomethane and back-exchanging the labile 2-tritium. (author)

  20. Capacitive-discharge-pumped copper bromide vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F; Troitskii, V O; Gubarev, F A; Evtushenko, Gennadii S

    2007-01-01

    A copper bromide vapour laser pumped by a high-frequency capacitive discharge is developed. It is shown that, by using of a capacitive discharge, it is possible to built a sealed off metal halide vapour laser of a simple design allowing the addition of active impurities into the working medium. (letters)

  1. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Dalal, V.N

    Bromide was the subject of detailed investigation in the Mandovi Zuari river system and information was compiled on its spatial and temporal distribution. A simple mixture relation of Carpenter et. al. was applied and seawater percentage and bromide...

  2. Equilibrium evaporation test of lead-bismuth eutectic and of tellurium in lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shuji; Nishimura, Masahiro; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Miyahara, Shinya; Sasa, Toshinobu; Kurata, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    A series of equilibrium evaporation experiment was performed to acquire the essential and the fundamental knowledge about the transfer behavior of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and impurity tellurium in LBE from liquid to gas phase. The experiments were conducted using the transpiration method in which saturated vapor in an isothermal evaporation pot was transported by inert carrier gas and collected outside of the pot. The size of the used evaporation pot is 8 cm inner diameter and 15 cm length. The weight of the LBE pool in the pot is about 500 g. The investigated temperature range was 450degC to 750degC. From this experiment and discussion using the data in literature, we have obtained several instructive and useful data on the LBE evaporation behavior such as saturated vapor pressure of LBE, vapor concentration of Pb, Bi and Bi 2 in LBE saturated gas phase, and activity coefficient of Pb in the LBE. The LBE vapor pressure equation is represented as the sum of Pb, Bi and Bi 2 vapor in the temperature range between 550degC and 750degC as logP[Pa]=10.2-10100/T[k]. The gas-liquid equilibrium partition coefficient of tellurium in LBE is in the range of 10 to 100, with no remarkable temperature dependency between 450degC and 750degC. This research was founded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). (author)

  3. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  4. Rapid semi-quantitative determination of bismuth in minerals using ascending paper chromatography (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrinier, H.

    1961-01-01

    The bismuth is separated by a solvent made up of acetone, water, and hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids. The bismuth is developed with dimercapto-2.5 thio-diazole-1.3.4 and ammonium sulphide. The use of this method for the detection of bismuth in minerals makes it possible to determine the metal at a concentration of 5 x 10 -6 . (author) [fr

  5. Comparison and Analysis of Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers Using Plastic Heat Transfer Tubes and Traditional Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-dong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There are extensive applications of lithium bromide-water absorption chillers in industry, but the heat exchangers corrosion and refrigerating capacity loss are very difficult to be solved. In this paper, an experiment was conducted by using plastic heat transfer tubes instead of copper tubes. As an example, for a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller of refrigerating capacity of 35kW, the correlative performance of the lithium bromide-water absorption chiller using pl...

  6. Influence of bismuth on structural, elastic and spectroscopic properties of Nd{sup 3+} doped Zinc–Boro-Bismuthate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Sontakke, Atul D.; Karmakar, P.; Biswas, K.; Balaji, S.; Saha, R.; Sen, R.; Annapurna, K., E-mail: annapurnak@cgcri.res.in

    2014-05-01

    The present investigation reports, influence of bismuth addition on structural, elastic and spectral properties of [(99.5−x) {4ZnO−3B_2O_3}−0.5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}−x Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} where x=0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60] glasses. The measured FTIR reflectance spectra facilitated a thorough insight of methodical modifications that are arising in the glass structure from borate (build by BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units) to bismuthate (BiO{sub 3} and BiO{sub 6} units) network due to the increase of bismuth content ensuing with a steady decrease in host phonon energy (ν{sub ph}). The elastic properties estimated from measured longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities (U{sub L} and U{sub s}) demonstrated the reduction in network rigidity of glasses on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusion. The three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2,4,6}) were obtained from recorded absorption spectra of Nd{sup 3+} ions in these glasses and have been used to predict radiative properties as a function of variation in bismuth content. The reduced host phonon energy and high optical basicity effect due to Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} incorporation remarkably improved the Nd{sup 3+} luminescence properties such as emission intensity, quantum yield and emission cross-section. The quantum yield showed a strong increase from mere 16% in Zinc–Borate glass to almost 73% in 60 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing glass. Similarly, the emission cross-section for Nd{sup 3+4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} laser transition raised from 2.43×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} to 3.95×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} in studied concentration suggesting a strong improvement in Nd{sup 3+} laser spectroscopic properties in Zinc–Boro-Bismuthate glass. These materials may be promising for compact solid state infrared lasers. - Highlights: • Continuous structural changes associated with reduction in host phonon energy by Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusion. • Ultrasonic velocity study revealed reduced Debye

  7. Phase transition of solid bismuth under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hai-Yan; Xiang Shi-Kai; Yan Xiao-Zhen; Zhang Yi; Liu Sheng-Gang; Bi Yan; Zheng Li-Rong

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used pressure calibrator, the structural phase transitions of bismuth from phase I, to phase II, to phase III, and then to phase V with increasing pressure at 300 K have been widely confirmed. However, there are different structural versions for phase III, most of which are determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. Using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements combined with ab initio calculations, we show that the proposed incommensurate composite structure of bismuth of the three configurations is the best option. An abnormal continuous increase of the nearest-neighbor distance of phase III with elevated pressure is also observed. The electronic structure transformation from semimetal to metal is responsible for the complex behavior of structure transformation. (paper)

  8. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Beille, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Berling, D.; Loegel, B. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R. [EPM-MATFORMAG, Laboratoire dElaboration par Procede Magnetique, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  9. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe ac <100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL close-quote s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  10. Quantum nernst effect in a bismuth single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, M.; Endo, A.; Hatano, N.; Nakamura, H.; Shirasaki, R.; Sugihara, K.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate the phonon-drag contribution to the transverse (Nernst) thermoelectric power S yx in a bismuth single crystal subjected to a quantizing magnetic field. The calculated heights of the Nernst peaks originating from the hole Landau levels and their temperature dependence reproduce the right order of magnitude for those of the pronounced magneto-oscillations recently reported by Behnia et al. A striking experimental finding that S yx is much larger than the longitudinal (Seebeck) thermoelectric power S xx can be naturally explained as the effect of the phonon drag, combined with the well-known relation between the longitudinal and the Hall resistivity ρ xx >> |ρ yx | in a semi-metal bismuth. The calculation that includes the contribution of both holes and electrons suggests that some of the hitherto unexplained minor peaks located roughly at the fractional filling of the hole Landau levels are attributable to the electron Landau levels. (author)

  11. Nanophotonic Modulator with Bismuth Ferrite as Low-loss Switchable Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved.......We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved....

  12. Dose reduction using Bismuth protectors in chest computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    This monography is about the Dose reduction using Bismuth protectors in chest CT. The radiation protection of specific areas is necessary when the tissues or radiosensitive organs are near the path of light beam. The correct use of protection represents a challenge for the radiologist because of the time and materials required. The method used was a prospective investigatio in CHPR (TC service) and the doses was measured with TLD dosimeters. It is important to use these protectors in children hospitals.

  13. Oxide layer stability in lead-bismuth at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, F. J.; Soler, L.; Hernández, F.; Gómez-Briceño, D.

    2004-11-01

    Materials protection by 'in situ' oxidation has been studied in stagnant lead-bismuth, with different oxygen levels (H 2/H 2O ratios of 0.3 and 0.03), at temperatures from 535 °C to 600 °C and times from 100 to 3000 h. The materials tested were the martensitic steels F82Hmod, EM10 and T91 and the austenitic stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 304L. The results obtained point to the existence of an apparent threshold temperature above which corrosion occurs and the formation of a protective and stable oxide layer is not possible. This threshold temperature depends on material composition, oxygen concentration in the liquid lead-bismuth and time. The threshold temperature is higher for the austenitic steels, especially for the AISI 304L, and it increases with the oxygen concentration in the lead-bismuth. The oxide layer formed disappear with time and, after 3000 h all the materials, except AISI 304L, suffer corrosion, more severe for the martensitic steels and at the highest temperature tested.

  14. Theoretical study of bismuth-doped cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Proupin, E.; Rios-Gonzalez, J. A.; Pena, J. L.

    Cadmium telluride heavily doped with bismuth has been proposed as an absorber with an intermediate band for solar cells. Increase in the photocurrent has been shown recently, although the overall cell efficiency has not improved. In this work, we study the electronic structure and the formation energies of the defects associated to bismuth impurities. We have performed electronic structure calculations within generalized density functional theory, using the exchange-correlation functional HSE(w) , where the range-separation parameter w has been tuned to reproduce the CdTe bandgap. Improving upon previous reports, we have included the spin-orbit interaction, which modifies the structure of the valence band and the energy levels of bismuth. We have found that interstitial Bi (Bii) tends to occupy Cd vacancies, cadmium substitution (BiCd) creates single donor level, while tellurium substitution (BiTe) is a shallow single acceptor. We investigate the interaction between these point defects and how can they be combined to create a partially filled intermediate band. Supported by FONDECYT Grant 1130437, CONACYT-SENER SUSTENTABILIDAD ENERGETICA/project CeMIE-Sol PY-207450/25 and PY-207450/26. JARG acknowledges CONACYT fellowship for research visit. Powered@NLHPC (ECM-02).

  15. Study of barium bismuth titanate prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium-bismuth titanate, BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT, a member of Aurivillius bismuth-based layer-structure perovskites, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of barium titanate and bismuth titanate obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. The reaction mechanism of BaBi4Ti4O15 and the preparation and characteristics of BBT ceramic powders were studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, particle analysis and SEM. The Bi-layered perovskite structure of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramic forms at 1100 °C for 4 h without a pre-calcination step. The microstructure of BaBi4Ti4O15 exhibits plate-like grains typical for the Bi-layered structured material and spherical and polygonal grains. The Ba2+ addition leads to changes in the microstructure development, particularly in the change of the average grain size.

  16. Aerosol deposition of (Cu,Ti) substituted bismuth vanadate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, Jörg, E-mail: Functional.Materials@Uni-Bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Fuierer, Paul [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Moos, Ralf [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-12-31

    Bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11}, and related compounds with various metal (Me) substitutions, Bi{sub 4}(Me{sub x}V{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 11−δ}, show some of the highest ionic conductivities among the known solid oxide electrolytes. Films of Cu and Ti substituted bismuth vanadate were prepared by an aerosol deposition method, a spray coating process also described as room temperature impact consolidation. Resultant films, several microns in thickness, were dense with good adhesion to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and high temperature X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the effects of temperature on the structure and microstructure of the film. The particle size remained nano-scale while microstrain decreased rapidly up to 500 °C, above which coarsening and texturing increased rapidly. Impedance measurements of films deposited on inter-digital electrodes revealed an annealing effect on the ionic conductivity, with the conductivity exceeding that of a screen printed film, and approaching that of bulk ceramic. - Highlights: • Cu and Ti doped bismuth vanadate films were prepared by aerosol deposition (AD). • Dense 3–5 μm thick films were deposited on alumina, silicon and gold electrodes. • Annealing of the AD-layer increases the conductivity by 1.5 orders of magnitude. • Effect of temperature on structure and microstructure was investigated.

  17. Soluble Lead and Bismuth Chalcogenidometallates: Versatile Solders for Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Department; Son, Jae Sung [Department; School; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S. [Department; Filatov, Alexander S. [Department; Hazarika, Abhijit [Department; Wang, Yuanyuan [Department; Hudson, Margaret H. [Department; Sun, Cheng-Jun [Advanced; Chattopadhyay, Soma [Physical; Talapin, Dmitri V. [Department; Center

    2017-07-27

    Here we report the syntheses of largely unexplored lead and bismuth chalcogenidometallates in the solution phase. Using N2H4 as the solvent, new compounds such as K6Pb3Te6·7N2H4 were obtained. These soluble molecular compounds underwent cation exchange processes using resin chemistry, replacing Na+ or K+ by decomposable N2H5+ or tetraethylammonium cations. They also transformed into stoichiometric lead and bismuth chalcogenide nanomaterials with the addition of metal salts. Such a versatile chemistry led to a variety of composition-matched solders to join lead and bismuth chalcogenides and tune their charge transport properties at the grain boundaries. Solution-processed thin films composed of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 microparticles soldered by (N2H5)6Bi0.5Sb1.5Te6 exhibited thermoelectric power factors (~28 μW/cm K2) comparable to those in vacuum-deposited Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films. The soldering effect can also be integrated with attractive fabrication techniques for thermoelectric modules, such as screen printing, suggesting the potential of these solders in the rational design of printable and moldable thermoelectrics.

  18. Shape-controlled solvothermal synthesis of bismuth subcarbonate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Gang; Yang Hanmin; Rong Kaifeng; Lu Zhong; Yu Xianglin; Chen Rong

    2010-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the synthesis of novel nanostructured materials because of their unique properties and potential applications. Bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO) 2 CO 3 ) is one of commonly used antibacterial agents against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Different (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures such as cube-like nanoparticles, nanobars and nanoplates, were fabricated from bismuth nitrate via a simple solvothermal method. The nanostructures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures. The possible formation mechanism of different (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures fabricated under different conditions was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Different bismuth subcarbonate ((BiO) 2 CO 3 ) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. It was found that the solvents and precursors have an influence on the morphologies of (BiO) 2 CO 3 nanostructures.

  19. Bismuth Oxysulfide and Its Polymer Nanocomposites for Efficient Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The danger of toxic organic pollutants in both aquatic and air environments calls for high-efficiency purification material. Herein, layered bismuth copper oxychalcogenides, BiCuSO, nanosheets of high photocatalytic activity were introduced to the PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride. The fibrous membranes provide an easy, efficient, and recyclable way to purify organic pollutant. The physical and photophysical properties of the BiCuSO and its polymer composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electron spin resonance (EPR. Photocatalysis of Congo Red reveals that the BiCuSO/PVDF shows a superior photocatalytic activity of a 55% degradation rate in 70 min at visible light. The high photocatalytic activity is attributed to the exposed active {101} facets and the triple vacant associates V B i ‴ V O • • V B i ‴ . By engineering the intrinsic defects on the surface of bismuth oxysulfide, high solar-driven photocatalytic activity can be approached. The successful fabrication of the bismuth oxysulfide and its polymer nanocomposites provides an easy and general approach for high-performance purification materials for various applications.

  20. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr–KBr–CsBr–AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr–KBr–CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  1. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  2. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislav Pavelka

    2012-01-01

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82 Br and 131 I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  3. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    demonstrates the energy security and cost benefits of implementing a Zn/Br Flow Battery-based ESS at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) located at...user will be realized through the system’s peak shaving mode. This benefit was also used to calculate the operational cost reductions when using the...EW-201242) Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power August 2017 This document has been cleared for public release

  4. Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas: Pain relief with pulsed hysocine butyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyadan Feroze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient department, complaining of multiple, raised skin lesions on the forehead and back, associated with intermittent pain, especially on exposure to cold. A diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma (type 2 segmental was made, which was confirmed by skin biopsy. The patient was started on a trial of pulsed Hyoscine Butyl bromide tablets, following which the patient had significant relief from pain associated with the lesions.

  5. On the existence of 'L-alanine cadmium bromide'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

    2013-12-01

    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. Joint research report in JFY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The evaluation of corrosion behaviors of core and structural materials in lead bismuth eutectic is one of the key issues for the utilization of lead bismuth eutectic as a coolant of the primary loops of lead bismuth cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and the intermediate heat transport media of new-type steam generators of the sodium cooled FBRs. The purpose of the present study is to establish corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. The techniques of steel corrosion test and oxygen control in flowing lead bismuth eutectic, and the technologies of a lead bismuth flow test at high temperature and high velocity were developed through corrosion test using a lead bismuth flow test loop of the Tokyo Institute of Technology in JFY2002. The major results are summarized as follows: (1) Techniques of fabrication, mount and rinse of corrosion specimens, measurement method of weight loss, and SEM/EDX analysis method have been established through lead bismuth corrosion test. (2) Weight losses were measured, corrosion and lead bismuth-adhered layers and eroded parts were observed in two 1000 hr-corrosion tests, and the results were compared with each other for twelve existing steels including ODS, F82H and SUH-3. (3) An oxygen sensor made of zirconia electrolyte structurally resistant to thermal stress and thermal shock was developed and tested in the lead bismuth flow loop. Good performance has been obtained. (4) An oxygen control method by injecting argon and hydrogen mixture gas containing steam into lead bismuth was applied to the lead bismuth flow loop, and technical issues for the development of the oxygen control method were extracted. (5) Technical measures for freezing and leakage of lead bismuth in the flow loop were accumulated. (6) Technical measures for flow rate decrease/blockage due to precipitation of oxide and corrosion products in a low temperature section of the lead bismuth flow loop were accumulated. (7) Electromagnetic flow meters with MI

  7. On the distribution of bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratios in the waters of the Arabian sea off central Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Water samples from surface to 2000 m depth at two stations in the Arabian Sea collected during the 82nd cruise of R V Gaveshani in November, 1980 were analysed for bromide. The average bromide concentration was 0.068 g/kg plus or minus 0...

  8. A single drug for Helicobacter pylori infection: first results with a new bismuth triple monocapsule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, W. A.; van Etten, R. J.; Schneeberger, P. M.; Tytgat, G. N.

    2000-01-01

    In this pilot study we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a new monocapsule that contains a bismuth compound, tetracycline, and metronidazole. If proven to be effective, this monotherapy would turn the well-accepted multidrug regimen of standard bismuth-based triple therapy into an easy

  9. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  10. Build-up enhancement of photoluminescence from phenylazomethine bismuth dendrimer using Bi(OTf)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Tetsuya; Imaoka, Shotaro; Imaoka, Takane; Yamamoto, Kimihisa

    2018-05-01

    Metal assembly to a dendrimer can provide various functionalities based on the branched structure. Here, we researched assembly phenomena of bismuth salts in the phenylazomethine dendrimer and achieved enhancement of emission intensity per metal unit by using Bi(OTf)3. This enhancement suggested increasing of Bi-N coordination bonds derived from the bismuth units in the dendrimer.

  11. Selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein by silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Duc Truong; Ha, Hanh Nguyen; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts have been prepared by impregnation, structurally characterized and examined as improved catalysts for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. Catalysts with a wide range of loadings (from 10 to 90 wt%) of beta bismuth molybdate (β-Bi2Mo2O9) w...

  12. Localization and Related Phenomena in Multiply Connected Nanostructured Inverse Opal Bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiweiss, Michael; Saygi, Salih; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Datta, Timir; Lungu, Anca; Yin, Ming; Palm, Eric; Brandt, Bruce; Iqbal, Zafar

    2001-03-01

    The nanostructures were fabricated by pressure infiltration of bismuth into porous artificial opal and were characterized using SEM, EDX and XRD. These structures form a regular three-dimensional network in which the bismuth regions percolate in all directions between the close packed spheres of SiO_2. The sizes of the conducting regions are of the order of tens of nanometers. The static magnetic properties of both bismuth inverse opal and bulk bismuth were studied using a SQUID magnetometer. Transport measurements, including Hall, were done using standard ac four and six probe techniques in fields up to 17 T* and temperatures between 4.2 and 150 K. The results of these measurements, including the observation of localization phenomena, will be discussed. Comparisons will be made with published results on bismuth nanowires. *Performed at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) FSU, Tallahassee, FL. Partially supported by a grant from NASA.

  13. Thermodynamics Calculation and Experimental Study on Separation of Bismuth from a Bismuth Glance Concentrate Through a Low-Temperature Molten Salt Smelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Guang; He, De-Wen; Tang, Chao-Bo; Chen, Yong-Ming; Sun, Ya-Hui; Tang, Mo-Tang

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize and separate bismuth from a bismuth glance concentrate through a low-temperature, sulfur-fixing smelting process. This article reports on a study conducted on the optimization of process parameters, such as Na2CO3 and zinc oxide wt pct in charging, smelting temperature, smelting duration on the bismuth yield, resultant crude bismuth grade, and sulfur-fixing rate. A maximum bismuth recovery of 97.31 pct, crude bismuth grade of 96.93 pct, and 98.23 pct sulfur-fixing rate are obtained when a charge (containing 63.50 wt pct of Na2CO3 and 22.50 wt pct of bismuth glance, as well as 5 pct in excess of the stoichiometric requirement of zinc oxide dosage) is smelted at 1000 K (727 °C) for 150 minutes. This smelting operation is free from atmospheric pollution because zinc oxide is used as the sulfur-fixing agent, which can capture sulfur from bismuth sulfide and form the more thermodynamic-stable compound, zinc sulfide. The solid residue is subjected to a mineral dressing operation to obtain suspension, which is filtered to produce a cake, representing the solid particles of zinc sulfide. Based on the results of the chemical content analysis of the as-resultant zinc sulfide, more than 93 pct zinc sulfide can be recovered, and the recovered zinc sulfide grade can reach 60.20 pct. This material can be sold as zinc sulfide concentrate or roasted to be regenerated as zinc oxide.

  14. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of bismuth citrate to earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to natural sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouri, Zohra; Hawari, Jalal; Fournier, Michel; Robidoux, Pierre Yves

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes bioavailability and chronic effects of bismuth to earthworms Eisenia andrei using OECD reproduction test. Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. Average total concentrations of bismuth in soil recovered by HNO 3 digestion ranged from 75 to 289mg/kg. Results indicate that bismuth decreased significantly all reproduction parameters of Eisenia andrei at concentrations ≥ 116mg/kg. However, number of hatched cocoons and number of juveniles seem to be more sensitive than total number of cocoons, as determined by IC 50 ; i.e., 182, 123 and > 289mg/kg, respectively. Bismuth did not affect Eisenia andrei growth and survival, and had little effect on phagocytic efficiency of coelomocytes. The low immunotoxicity effect might be explained by the involvement of other mechanisms i.e. bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO 3 aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. We presume that mucus and chelating agents produced by earthworms and by soil or/and earthworm gut microorganisms could explain this enhancement, as well as the role of dermal and ingestion routes of earthworms uptake to soil contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bismuth oxide nanotubes-graphene fiber-based flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Xu, Zhen; Zheng, Bingna; Huang, Tieqi; Kou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Chao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics.Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Equations and characterization. SEM images of GGO, XRD and XPS of Bi2O3 NTs, HRTEM images and EDX Spectra of Bi2O3 NT5-GF, CV curves of Bi2O3NT5-GF, Bi2O3 NTs and bismuth nitrate in three-electrode system (vs. Ag/AgCl). CV and GCD curves of Bi2O3 NT1-GF and Bi2O3 NT3-GF. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02615b

  16. Conduction mechanism in bismuth silicate glasses containing titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dult, Meenakshi; Kundu, R.S.; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2014-01-01

    Bismuth silicate glasses mixed with different concentrations of titanium dioxide having compositions xTiO 2 –(60−x)Bi 2 O 3 –40SiO 2 with x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 were prepared by the normal melt quench technique. The frequency dependence of the ac electrical conductivity of different compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glasses has been studied in the frequency range 10 −1 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range 623–703 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glass system. The dc conductivity (σ dc ), so called crossover frequency (ω H ), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (H f ) and enthalpy of migration (H m ) have also been estimated. The conductivity data have been analyzed in terms of different theoretical models to determine the possible conduction mechanism. Analysis of the conductivity data and the frequency exponent shows that the correlated barrier hopping of electrons between Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ ions in the glasses is the most favorable mechanism for ac conduction. The temperature dependent dc conductivity has been analyzed in the framework of theoretical variable range hopping model (VRH) proposed by Mott which describe the hopping conduction in disordered semiconducting systems. The various polaron hopping parameters have also been deduced. Mott's VRH model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data and the values of inverse localization length of s-like wave function (α) obtained by this model with modifications suggested by Punia et al. are close to the ones reported for a number of oxide glasses

  17. Yttrium bismuth titanate pyrochlore mixed oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merka, Oliver

    2012-10-18

    In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of new non-stoichiometric pyrochlore titanates and their application in photocatalytic hydrogen production is reported. Visible light response is achieved by introducing bismuth on the A site or by doping the B site by transition metal cations featuring partially filled d orbitals. This work clearly focusses on atomic scale structural changes induced by the systematical introduction of non-stoichiometry in pyrochlore mixed oxides and the resulting influence on the activity in photocatalytic hydrogen production. The materials were characterized in detail regarding their optical properties and their atomic structure. The pyrochlore structure tolerates tremendous stoichiometry variations. The non-stoichiometry in A{sub 2}O{sub 3} rich compositions is compensated by distortions in the cationic sub-lattice for the smaller Y{sup 3+} cation and by evolution of a secondary phase for the larger Bi{sup 3+} cation on the A site. For TiO{sub 2} rich compositions, the non-stoichiometry leads to a special vacancy formation in the A and optionally O' sites. It is shown that pyrochlore mixed oxides in the yttrium bismuth titanate system represent very active and promising materials for photocatalytic hydrogen production, if precisely and carefully tuned. Whereas Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} yields stable hydrogen production rates over time, the bismuth richer compounds of YBiTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} are found to be not stable under irradiation. This drawback is overcome by applying a special co-catalyst system consisting of a precious metal core and a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell on the photocatalysts.

  18. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYL BROMIDE SUPPOSITORY FOR POSTOPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya C. Alphonse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caesarean Section is on the rise all over the world. Women undergoing Caesarean section often wish to be awake post operatively and to avoid excessive medications affecting interactions with the new born infant. Multimodal pain therapy has been advocated for postoperative pain management after caesarean section. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a prospective randomized controlled study conducted at a tertiary care hospital to study the effect of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppositories for postoperative analgesia following elective repeat caesarean section. The study included sixty patients divided into two groups- Group1 (study group were given Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg along with Injection. Tramadol 50 mg IM and Group II (control group were given Injection Tramadol IM only at the end of surgery. Pain score of the patient assessed at 1 hr, 2 hrs, 6hrs and 24 hrs post operatively. The total no of doses of injection tramadol needed in 24 hrs and the interval between 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was also noted. The adverse effects of the drug and additional advantages of the drug if any were also assessed. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in pain score during the assessment intervals between the two groups. There was no difference in the number of doses of tramadol needed in the first 24 hrs. The mean interval between the 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was found to be 7.6538 hours for group 1 patients and 6.9130 for group patients which was found to be statistically significant. There was no statistically significant side effects/ additional advantages for the drugs. CONCLUSION Concurrent administration of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg and injection Tramadol 50 mg IM offers a longer postoperative analgesia without any increased adverse effects.

  19. Solution combustion synthesis and characterization of nanosized bismuth ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Kumar, V. Sesha; Rao, K. Venkateswara; Krishnaveni, T.; Kishore Goud, A. Shiva; Reddy, P. Ranjith

    2012-06-01

    The present paper describes a simple method of nanosized BiFeO3 by the solution combustion synthesis using bismuth and iron nitrates as oxidizers and the combination fuel of citric acid and ammonium hydroxide, with fuel to oxidizer ratio (Ψ = 1) one. The X-ray Diffraction results indicated rhombohedral phase (R3m) with JCPDS data card no: 72-2035. The ferroelectric transition of the sample at 8310C was detected by differential thermal analysis. Thermal analysis was done by Thermal gravimetric-Differential thermal analyzer and obtained results were presented in this paper.

  20. Methylation of food commodities during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starratt, A.N.; Bond, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sites of methylation in several commodities (wheat, oatmeal, peanuts, almonds, apples, oranges, maize, alfalfa and potatoes) during fumigation with 14 C-methyl bromide were studied. Differences were observed in levels of the major volatiles: methanol, dimethyl sulphide and methyl mercaptan, products of O- and S-methylation, resulting from treatment of the fumigated materials with 1N sodium hydroxide. In studies of maize and wheat, histidine was the amino acid which underwent the highest level of N-methylation. (author). 24 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Tiotropium Bromide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gonzalez, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including β2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists. Tiotropium bromide, a long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilator (LAMA), is a treatment choice for moderate-to-severe COPD; its efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in recent trials. Studies also point to a beneficial role of tiotropium in the treatment of difficult-to-control asthma and a potential function in the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Combination of different bronchodilator molecules and addition of inhaled corticosteroids are viable therapeutic alternatives. A condensation of the latest trials and the rationale behind these therapies will be presented in this article.

  2. Transient anisocoria in a patient treated with nebulized ipratropium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pejic

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Presence of anisocoria may be a concerning neurological sign. If there are no other neurological or ophthalmological signs and symptoms and a recent ipratropium bromide inhalation treatment exists in the patient's history, we should consider iatrogenic side-effect of drugs as a possible reason of anisocoria and possibly spare the patient extensive and invasive diagnostic procedures that can also raise costs of treatment significantly. Observing neurological status and testing with 1% pilocarpine solution may be necessary to determine the etiology of this condition.

  3. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of indium with chromazurol S and dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinska, G.; Buhl, F.

    1988-01-01

    The ternary system: indium-chromazurol S (CHAS)-dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide (ST) was applied for determination of microgramme amounts of indium. The addition of ST enhances the sensitivity of the method; at λ max =625 nm the molar absorptivity of In-CHAS-ST complex equals 1.74 x 10 5 . The system obeyes the Lambert-Beer law in the range of indium concentration from 0.04 to 0.48 ppm. The maximal absorbance was obtained at pH 6. The complex is formed immediately and is stable during 2 hours. 3 figs., 10 refs. (author)

  5. Power Plant Bromide Discharges and Downstream Drinking Water Systems in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-10-17

    Coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been implicated in increasing bromide levels and subsequent increases in disinfection byproducts at downstream drinking water plants. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and to assess the potential for bromide discharge effects. Twenty-two (22) public drinking water systems serving 2.5 million people were identified as being downstream of at least one wet FGD discharge. During mean August conditions (generally low-flow, minimal dilution) in receiving rivers, the median predicted bromide concentrations contributed by wet FGD at Pennsylvania intake locations ranged from 5.2 to 62 μg/L for the Base scenario (including only natural bromide in coal) and from 16 to 190 μg/L for the Bromide Addition scenario (natural plus added bromide for mercury control); ranges depend on bromide loads and receiving stream dilution capacity.

  6. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  7. Acute effect of methyl bromide on sleep-wakefulness and its

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Arito, H; Abuku, S; Imamiya, S

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the acute effects of methyl bromide on the central nervous system, abnormal electrocorticographic activity and changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms were investigated after a single injection of methyl bromide. The effects of possible hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, methanol and bromine ions on sleep and its rhythms were also examined. It was found that the hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, bromine ions and methanol exerted little effect on the amounts of wakefulness (W), non-REM sleep (NREMS) and REM sleep (REMS) at the same molar dose as 45 mg methyl bromide/kg. Thus, it can be concluded that the methyl bromide-induced changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms are due to methyl bromide and not to the hydrolyzed products. It was also found that amounts of W, NREMS and REMS were changed dose-dependently after a single injection of methyl bromide and that methyl bromide significantly disrupted the circadian REMS rhythm. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  8. Investigation of corrosion, water reaction, polonium evaporation and bismuth resource in liquid metal lead-bismuth technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideki; Takizuka, Takakazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitano, Teruaki [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Lead-bismuth is the first candidate material for liquid metal target find coolant of fueled blanket system in accelerator-driven system (ADS) studied at JAERI. Advantages of the lead-bismuth utilization are non-active material, very low capture cross section, low melting point of 125degC and high boiling point of 1670degC, and beside coolant void reactivity become negative. But problems are due to the high corrosivity to most of the structural materials and the corrosive data are scarcity. In this report, corrosivity, reaction with water, thermal-hydraulics, chemical toxicity etc. are studied by investigating some facilities utilized and researched really for lead or lead-bismuth. And, furthermore, polonium evaporation rate and bismuth resource are investigated. Main results obtained are as follows: (1) In a refinery, there are enough employment experience for liquid Pb-Bi in period of about 17 years and not corrosion for the thermal conductive materials (1Cr-0.5Mo steel) used under the condition of natural convection with temperature around 400degC. (2) In Russia, extensive experience in the use as Russian submarines and in R and D during about 50 years are available. And as a result, it will be able to lead approximately zero corrosion for Cr-Si materials by adjusting oxygen film with oxygen concentration control between 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5}% mass. However, the corrosion data are not enough systematically collected involving them in radiation dose field. (3) In liquid-dropping experiment, it is shown that interaction between water and high temperature liquid Pb-Bi is reduced steeply with rising of atmosphere pressure. But, in order to design the second circuit removal model of ADS, the interaction should be evaluated by water continuous injection experiment. (4) Polonium forms PbPo in Pb-Bi, and the evaporation rate become less three factor than that of Po, and furthermore, the rate decreases in the atmosphere. The effects of Po on employee and environment

  9. Bismuth Silver Oxysulfide for Photoconversion Applications: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Baqais, Amal Ali Abdulallh; Curutchet, Antton; Ziani, Ahmed; Ait Ahsaine, Hassan; Sautet, Philippe; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Le Bahers, Tangui

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase bismuth silver oxysulfide, BiAgOS, was prepared by a hydrothermal method. Its structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties were investigated and compared with bismuth copper oxysulfide (BiCuOS). Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the BiAgOS and BiCuOS crystals have the same structure as ZrSiCuAs: the tetragonal space group P4/nmm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed that the BiAgOS has a high purity, in contrast with BiCuOS, which tends to have Cu vacancies. The Ag has a monovalent oxidation state, whereas Cu is present in the oxidation states of +1 and +2 in the BiCuOS system. Combined with experimental measurements, density functional theory calculations employing the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional with spin-orbit coupling quantitatively elucidated photophysical properties such as ab-sorption coefficients, effective masses and dielectric constants. BiCuOS and BiAgOS were found to have indirect bandgaps of 1.1 and 1.5 eV, respectively. Both possess high dielectric constants and low electron and hole effective masses. Therefore, these materials are expected to have high exciton dissociation capabilities and excellent carrier diffusion properties. This study reveals that BiAgOS is a promising candidate for photoconversion applications.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth alkaline titanate powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atorresh@ipn.mx [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Hernandez-Perez, M.A. [ESIQIE, Metalurgia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F (Mexico); Garcia-Zaleta, D.S. [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Brachetti-Sibaja, S.B. [CICATA-Altamira, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico Puerto Industrial Altamira, Altamira, Tamps. 89600 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo esq. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n Col. Los Mangos C.P.89440 Cd. Madero Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    In this work, samples of bismuth alkaline titanate, (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub (2-x/2)}Bi{sub (x/6)}TiO{sub 3}, (x = 0.05-0.75) have been prepared by conventional ceramic technique and molten salts. Metal oxides or carbonates powders were used as starting raw materials. The crystalline phase of the synthesized powders was identified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solid state reaction method was unsuccessful to obtain pellets. From XRD results, a rhombohedral structure was detected and the parameter lattice were estimated to be a = 5.5478 A and {alpha} = 59.48{sup o}. These parameters were used to refine the structure by Rietveld analysis. SEM results showed several morphologies. Apparently, bismuth is promoting the grain growth whose sizes vary from 30 nm to 180 nm It is expected that these materials can be utilized in practical applications as substitutes for lead zirconatetitanate (PZT)-based ceramics.

  11. Angle Dependence of the Orbital Magnetoresistance in Bismuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Collaudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an extensive study of angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance in bismuth, with a magnetic field perpendicular to the applied electric current and rotating in three distinct crystallographic planes. The observed angular oscillations are confronted with the expectations of semiclassic transport theory for a multivalley system with anisotropic mobility and the agreement allows us to quantify the components of the mobility tensor for both electrons and holes. A quadratic temperature dependence is resolved. As Hartman argued long ago, this indicates that inelastic resistivity in bismuth is dominated by carrier-carrier scattering. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the threefold symmetry of the lattice is suddenly lost. Specifically, a 2π/3 rotation of magnetic field around the trigonal axis modifies the amplitude of the magnetoresistance below a field-dependent temperature. By following the evolution of this anomaly as a function of temperature and magnetic field, we map the boundary in the (field, temperature plane separating two electronic states. In the less symmetric state, confined to low temperature and high magnetic field, the three Dirac valleys cease to be rotationally invariant. We discuss the possible origins of this spontaneous valley polarization, including a valley-nematic scenario.

  12. Bismuth Silver Oxysulfide for Photoconversion Applications: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Baqais, Amal Ali Abdulallh

    2017-09-18

    Single-phase bismuth silver oxysulfide, BiAgOS, was prepared by a hydrothermal method. Its structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties were investigated and compared with bismuth copper oxysulfide (BiCuOS). Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the BiAgOS and BiCuOS crystals have the same structure as ZrSiCuAs: the tetragonal space group P4/nmm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed that the BiAgOS has a high purity, in contrast with BiCuOS, which tends to have Cu vacancies. The Ag has a monovalent oxidation state, whereas Cu is present in the oxidation states of +1 and +2 in the BiCuOS system. Combined with experimental measurements, density functional theory calculations employing the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional with spin-orbit coupling quantitatively elucidated photophysical properties such as ab-sorption coefficients, effective masses and dielectric constants. BiCuOS and BiAgOS were found to have indirect bandgaps of 1.1 and 1.5 eV, respectively. Both possess high dielectric constants and low electron and hole effective masses. Therefore, these materials are expected to have high exciton dissociation capabilities and excellent carrier diffusion properties. This study reveals that BiAgOS is a promising candidate for photoconversion applications.

  13. Magneto-photoconductivity of three dimensional topological insulator bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bingchen; Eginligil, Mustafa; Yu, Ting

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic field dependence of the photocurrent in a 3D topological insulator is studied. Among the 3D topological insulators bismuth telluride has unique hexagonal warping and spin texture which has been studied by photoemission, scanning tunnelling microscopy and transport. Here, we report on low temperature magneto-photoconductivity, up to 7 T, of two metallic bismuth telluride topological insulator samples with 68 and 110 nm thicknesses excited by 2.33 eV photon energy along the magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane. At 4 K, both samples exhibit negative magneto-photoconductance below 4 T, which is as a result of weak-antilocalization of Dirac fermions similar to the previous observations in electrical transport. However the thinner sample shows positive magneto-photoconductance above 4 T. This can be attributed to the coupling of surface states. On the other hand, the thicker sample shows no positive magneto-photoconductance up to 7 T since there is only one surface state at play. By fitting the magneto-photoconductivity data of the thicker sample to the localization formula, we obtain weak antilocalization behaviour at 4, 10, and 20 K, as expected; however, weak localization behaviour at 30 K, which is a sign of surface states masked by bulk states. Also, from the temperature dependence of phase coherence length bulk carrier-carrier interaction is identified separately from the surface states. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish surface states by magneto-photoconductivity at low temperature, even in metallic samples.

  14. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  15. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed

  16. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  17. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Pinzón, Zaahel; Valladares, Ariel A; Valladares, Renela M; Valladares, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216) was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively) show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi) as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan's formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy.

  18. System design study of small lead-bismuth cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Hori, Toru; Konomura, Mamoru

    2003-07-01

    In phase II of the feasibility study of JNC, we will make a concept of a dispersion power source reactor with various requirements, such as economical competitiveness and safety. In the study of a small lead-bismuth cooled reactor, a concept whose features are long life core, inherent safety, natural convection of cooling system and steam generators in the reactor vessel has been designed since 2000. The investigations which have been done in 2002 are shown as follows; Safety analysis of UTOP considering uncertainty of reactivity. Possibility of reduction of number of control rods. Estimation of construction cost. Transient analyses of UTOP have been done in considering uncertainty of reactivity in order to show the inherent safety in the probabilistic method. And the inherent safety in UTOP is realized under the condition of considering uncertainty. Transient analyses of UTOP with various numbers of control rods have been done and it is suggested that there is possibility of reduction of the number of control rods considering accident managements. The method of cost estimation is a little modified. The cost of reactor vessel is estimated from that of medium sized lead-bismuth cooled reactor and the estimation of a purity control system is by coolant volume flow rate. The construction cost is estimated 850,000yen/kWe. (author)

  19. Electrodeposition of bismuth alloys by the controlled potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Alvarez, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    We worked with the electrodeposition of three bismuth alloys, the composition of the first electrolyte was: 0.3 g/l. Bi; 20 g/l. Ni; and the conditions were pH = 5.2 - 5.6; T = 25 Centigrade degrees; current density 0.3 A / dm 2 - 6.6 A / dm 2 . Following alloy was between Bi - Pb, composition of the electrolyte was 3.18 g/l. Bi (metallic); 31.81 g/l. Pb (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1; T = 20 Centigrade degrees; current density 10.20 A/dm 2 . The third electrolyte was Bi-Cu, its composition was: 20.89 g/l. Bi; (metallic) 63.54 g/l Cu (Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1.5 - 1.8; T = 25-30 Centigrade degrees; current density 1-2 A/dm 2 . The best results were obtained with the third electrolyte. The purpose of this work was to experiment with different parameters like temperature, pH and the electrolyte concentration to obtain a bismuth alloy. (Author)

  20. Helicobacter pylori second-line rescue therapy with levofloxacin- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy, after failure of standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, J P; Romano, M; Gravina, A G; Solís-Muñoz, P; Bermejo, F; Molina-Infante, J; Castro-Fernández, M; Ortuño, J; Lucendo, A J; Herranz, M; Modolell, I; Del Castillo, F; Gómez, J; Barrio, J; Velayos, B; Gómez, B; Domínguez, J L; Miranda, A; Martorano, M; Algaba, A; Pabón, M; Angueira, T; Fernández-Salazar, L; Federico, A; Marín, A C; McNicholl, A G

    2015-04-01

    The most commonly used second-line Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens are bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy, both offering suboptimal results. Combining bismuth and levofloxacin may enhance the efficacy of rescue eradication regimens. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line quadruple regimen containing levofloxacin and bismuth in patients whose previous H. pylori eradication treatment failed. This was a prospective multicenter study including patients in whom a standard triple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin) or a non-bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin-metronidazole, either sequential or concomitant) had failed. Esomeprazole (40 mg b.d.), amoxicillin (1 g b.d.), levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) and bismuth (240 mg b.d.) was prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by (13) C-urea breath test. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by questionnaires. 200 patients were included consecutively (mean age 47 years, 67% women, 13% ulcer). Previous failed therapy included: standard clarithromycin triple therapy (131 patients), sequential (32) and concomitant (37). A total of 96% took all medications correctly. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.1% (95%CI = 87-95%) and 90% (95%CI = 86-94%). Cure rates were similar regardless of previous (failed) treatment or country of origin. Adverse effects were reported in 46% of patients, most commonly nausea (17%) and diarrhoea (16%); 3% were intense but none was serious. Fourteen-day bismuth- and levofloxacin-containing quadruple therapy is an effective (≥90% cure rate), simple and safe second-line strategy in patients whose previous standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple (sequential or concomitant) therapies have failed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Complexometric consequent titration of bismuth-titanium mixtures in the μg-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the determination of microquantities of bismuth and titanium. Both metals are determined complexometrically with EDTA and potentiometric equivalence point indication using a Cu-ion sensitive electrode in a consequent titration. The analysis is conducted as back-titration with standard Cu-solution. The relative error of the determination is 0.8% for bismuth (50-100 μg) and for titanium (10-30 μg) at 1.0%. Under the chosen conditions, it is possible to determine as little as 15 μg bismuth and 5 μg titanium by means of this procedure. (author)

  2. Specificities of reactor coolant pumps units with lead and lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Anotonenkov, M.A.; Bokov, P.A.; Baranova, V.S.; Kustov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis results of impact of lead and lead-bismuth coolants specific properties on the coolants flow features in flow channels of the main and auxiliary circulating pumps are presented. Impossibility of cavitation initiation in flow channels of vane pumps pumping lead and lead-bismuth coolants was demonstrated. The experimental research results of discontinuity of heavy liquid metal coolant column were presented and conditions of gas cavitation initiation in coolant flow were discussed. Invalidity of traditional calculation methods of water and sodium coolants circulation pumps calculations for lead and lead-bismuth coolants circulation pumps was substantiated [ru

  3. Topological Insulator State in Thin Bismuth Films Subjected to Plane Tensile Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, E. V.; Grabov, V. M.; Komarov, V. A.; Kablukova, N. S.; Krushel'nitskii, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The results of experimental examination of galvanomagnetic properties of thin bismuth films subjected to plane tensile strain resulting from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate material and bismuth are presented. The resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient were studied at temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K in magnetic fields as strong as 0.65 T. Carrier densities were calculated. A considerable increase in carrier density in films thinner than 30 nm was observed. This suggests that surface states are more prominent in thin bismuth films on mica substrates, while the films themselves may exhibit the properties of a topological insulator.

  4. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Antonio de; Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH 3 COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH 3 CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH 3 COOK) or (LiBr + CH 3 CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H 2 O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion

  5. Chemical structure of bismuth compounds determines their gastric ulcer healing efficacy and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandha, G S; LeBlanc, R; Van Zanten, S J; Sitland, T D; Agocs, L; Burford, N; Best, L; Mahoney, D; Hoffman, P; Leddin, D J

    1998-12-01

    The recognition of the role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease has led to renewed interest in bismuth pharmacology since bismuth compounds have both anti-Helicobacter pylori and ulcer healing properties. The precise chemical structure of current bismuth compounds is not known. This has hindered the development of new and potentially more efficacious formulations. We have created two new compounds, 2-chloro-1,3-dithia-2-bismolane (CDTB) and 1,2-[bis(1,3-dithia-2-bismolane)thio]ethane (BTBT), with known structure. In a rat model of gastric ulceration, BTBT was comparable to, and CDTB was significantly less effective than colloidal bismuth subcitrate in healing cryoprobe-induced ulcers. However, both BTBT and CDTB inhibited H. pylori growth in vitro at concentrations <1/10 that of colloidal bismuth subcitrate. The effects on ulcer healing are not mediated by suppression of acid secretion, pepsin inhibition, or prostaglandin production. Since all treated animals received the same amount of elemental bismuth, it appears that the efficacy of bismuth compounds varies with compound structure and is not simply dependent on the delivery of bismuth ion. Because the structure of the novel compounds is known, our understanding of the relationship of bismuth compound structure and to biologic activity will increase. In the future it may be possible to design other novel bismuth compounds with more potent anti-H. pylori and ulcer healing effects.

  6. Field-scale transport of water and bromide in a cracking clay soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, R.F.A.; Hamminga, W.; Oostindie, K.; Bronswijk, J.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of a bromide tracer was studied in a cracking heavy clay soil. The soil was sampled six times and the groundwater and drain discharge were sampled frequently. Samples were analysed for bromide content. Solutes were transported in three domains: macropores, such as large continuous

  7. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... treatment schedule for blueberries at a temperature of 60[emsp14][deg]F at a dosage rate of 2 lbs gas/1,000...] Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries... and Quarantine Treatment Manual an additional treatment schedule for methyl bromide fumigation of...

  8. Thermochromatic investigation of some bromides and comparison with the corresponding chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim U Zin; Timokhin, S.N.; Zvara, I.

    1988-01-01

    The thermochromatographic behaviour of chlorides and bromides of La, Tb, Ag, Mn, Cs, Zn, Au, Zr, Hf, Nb ('carrier-free' nuclides) in quartz column was studied. From the experimental data a correlation was observed between the deposition temperature on the column and the enthalpy of sublimation of the chlorides and bromides. The enthalpy of adsortion of the halides were also evaluated. (author)

  9. Pancreatitis associated with potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy in epileptic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskill, C L; Cribb, A E

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study, at least 10% of dogs receiving potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy, compared with 0.3% of dogs receiving phenobarbital monotherapy, had probable pancreatitis. Pancreatitis may be a more frequent and more serious adverse effect of potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy than has been reported previously.

  10. Theoretical Investigation of Bismuth-Based Semiconductors for Photocatalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Laradhi, Shaikhah

    2017-11-01

    Converting solar energy to clean fuel has gained remarkable attention as an emerged renewable energy resource but optimum efficiency in photocatalytic applications has not yet been reached. One of the dominant factors is designing efficient photocatalytic semiconductors. The research reveals a theoretical investigation of optoelectronic properties of bismuth-based metal oxide and oxysulfide semiconductors using highly accurate first-principles quantum method based on density functional theory along with the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional. First, bismuth titanate compounds including Bi12TiO20, Bi4Ti3O12, and Bi2Ti2O7 were studied in a combined experimental and theoretical approach to prove its photocatalytic activity under UV light. They have unique bismuth layered structure, tunable electronic properties, high dielectric constant and low electron and effective masses in one crystallographic direction allowing for good charge separation and carrier diffusion properties. The accuracy of the investigation was determined by the good agreement between experimental and theoretical values. Next, BiVO4 with the highest efficiency for oxygen evolution was investigated. A discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical bandgap was reported and inspired a systematic study of all intrinsic defects of the material and the corresponding effect on the optical and transport properties. A candidate defective structure was proposed for an efficient photocatalytic performance. To overcome the carrier transport limitation, a mild hydrogen treatment was also introduced. Carrier lifetime was enhanced due to a significant reduction of trap-assisted recombination, either via passivation of deep trap states or reduction of trap state density. Finally, an accurate theoretical approach to design a new family of semiconductors with enhanced optoelectronic properties for water splitting was proposed. We simulated the solid solutions Bi1−xRExCuOS (RE = Y, La

  11. Rejection of Bromide and Bromate Ions by a Ceramic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammadreza; Davies, Simon H; Masten, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Effects of pH and the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on bromate (BrO(3) (-)) and bromide (Br(-)) rejection by a ceramic membrane were investigated. Rejection of both ions increased with pH. At pH 8, the rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) was 68% and 63%, respectively. Donnan exclusion appears to play an important role in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). In the presence of CaCl(2), rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) ions was greatly reduced, confirming the importance of electrostatic interactions in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). The effect of Ca(2+) is so pronounced that in most natural waters, rejection of both BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) by the membrane would be extremely small.

  12. Hyoscine-N-Butyl-Bromide-Induced Hypotension and Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Liang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyoscine N-butyl bromide, also known as scopolamine, is a type of antimuscarinic agent. This drug is associated with numerous common side effects, including abdominal fullness, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, skin flushing, tachycardia, decreased sweating, and salivation. The most unfavorable side effect is hemodynamic instability. In the present case, hypotension and acute myocardial infarction developed after intravenous hyoscine injection as a premedication therapy for colonoscopy. It was difficult to differentiate the cause-effect relationship between myocardial infarction and hypotension. Because both conditions were present under drug effects, we considered 2 possible diagnoses. One was coronary spasm with cardiogenic shock, and the other was myocardial ischemic sequela due to shock status. The latter diagnosis was confirmed after a series of examinations.

  13. Irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide: the Australian situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heather, N W [Gatton College, University of Queensland, Queensland (Australia)

    1999-05-01

    International agreement to phase out the fumigant Methyl bromide (MeBr) will have serious implications for pest and disease control in Australia, particularly grain pest control, quarantine usage on fresh horticultural produce and control of soil pathogens or nematodes. Irradiation is a practical alternative but is not currently approved for use in Australia. Other options are available but none of the viable methods except irradiation have the short application time needed for treatment of grams found to be infested during loading at export. This usage is vital, as Australian grain is exported at very high standards of freedom from insects, assured by Government regulatory requirements. Irradiation is contrasted against other alternatives including heat and cold, especially for fresh horticultural produce. (author) 4 refs, 5 tabs

  14. Irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide: the Australian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.

    1999-01-01

    International agreement to phase out the fumigant Methyl bromide (MeBr) will have serious implications for pest and disease control in Australia, particularly grain pest control, quarantine usage on fresh horticultural produce and control of soil pathogens or nematodes. Irradiation is a practical alternative but is not currently approved for use in Australia. Other options are available but none of the viable methods except irradiation have the short application time needed for treatment of grams found to be infested during loading at export. This usage is vital, as Australian grain is exported at very high standards of freedom from insects, assured by Government regulatory requirements. Irradiation is contrasted against other alternatives including heat and cold, especially for fresh horticultural produce. (author)

  15. Status and future application of pilot lead-bismuth target circuit TC-1 for ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, S.; Leonchuk, M.; Orlov, Y.; Pankratov, D.; Reshetnikova, O.; Suvorov, G.; Zabudko, A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, V.; Klimov, N. [Experimental and Design Organization, Gidropress, Podolsk (Russian Federation); Hechanova, A.; Ma, J. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Li, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gudowski, W. [International Science and Technology Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    A complicated evolution, status and future application of the pilot molten lead-bismuth target circuit of 1 MW proton beam power (TC-1) as an important part of a target-blanket accelerator driven system (ADS), that has been developed, created and twice tested under the auspice of the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), is analyzed. The target complex TC-1 is a circulation lead-bismuth loop whose beam window is made of ferritic steel EP-823 (this steel was used in the past as material of fuel rods cladding in reactors cooled with lead-bismuth). At present TC-1 is operating at coolant temperature up to 300 C degrees and will be used to study different issues linked to the use of lead-bismuth: -) interaction with air, water and hydrogen, -) different regimes of flow, -) corrosion, -) filtering, or -) slag formation.

  16. Shielding property of bismuth glass based on MCNP 5 and WINXCOM simulated calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhicheng; Zhang Jinzhao; Liu Ze; Lu Chunhai; Chen Min

    2013-01-01

    Background: Currently, lead glass is widely used as observation window, while lead is toxic heavy metal. Purpose: Non-toxic materials and their shielding effects are researched in order to find a new material to replace lead containing material. Methods: The mass attenuation coefficients of bismuth silicate glass were investigated with gamma-ray's energy at 0.662 MeV, 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV, respectively, by MCNP 5 (Monte Carlo) and WINXCOM program, and compared with those of the lead glass. Results: With attenuation factor K, shielding and mechanical properties taken into consideration bismuth glass containing 50% bismuth oxide might be selected as the right material. Dose rate distributions of water phantom were calculated with 2-cm and 10-cm thick glass, respectively, irradiated by 137 Cs and 60 Co in turn. Conclusion: Results show that the bismuth glass may replace lead glass for radiation shielding with appropriate energy. (authors)

  17. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  18. On the origin of near-IR luminescence in SiO{sub 2} glass with bismuth as the single dopant. Formation of the photoluminescent univalent bismuth silanolate by SiO{sub 2} surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, A.N., E-mail: alexey.romanov@list.ru; Haula, E.V.; Shashkin, D.P.; Vtyurina, D.N.; Korchak, V.N.

    2017-03-15

    Near infrared photoluminescent bismuth(I) silanolate centers ((≡Si-O){sub 3}Si–O-Bi) were prepared on the surface of SiO{sub 2} xerogel, by the treatment in the vapors of bismuth(I) chloride. The optical properties of these groups are almost identical to that of photoluminescent centers in the bulk SiO{sub 2} glasses with bismuth as the single dopant. - Highlights: • univalent bismuth silanolate can be prepared on SiO{sub 2} surface by treatment in BiCl vapors. • univalent bismuth silanolate is responsible for NIR photoluminescence in Bi-doped SiO{sub 2} glass. • univalent bismuth silanolate is the active center in laser, operating on Bi-doped SiO{sub 2} fiber.

  19. Study of irradiation defects in bismuth by electric transport measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, M.

    1984-01-01

    Pure monocrystalline bismuth is irradiated near 4K by electrons of different energies. Irradiation effects are measured by galvanomagnetic properties at low temperature. Frenkel pairs created during irradiation have a strong effect on carrier mobilities. The data are quantitatively analyzed assuming a rigid band model. After irradiation with 1 MeV electrons, each Frankel pair created corresponds to a total charge of 0.14 electrons. This result obtained by magnetoresistance and Hall effect is confirmed by Shubnikov-de Haas experiments. There is a linear variation between the excess carrier density (p-n) and the Frenkel pair concentration. The more important step of annealing is observed around 40-50 K. This step is attributed to interstitial migration. Resistivity presents a minimum at low temperature after irradiation with electrons of energy over 1.3 MeV. This is explained by virtual bound levels near the Fermi level. The Kondo effect bound to magnetic defects is discussed [fr

  20. Ni-rich precipitates in a lead bismuth eutectic loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Saito, S.; Hamaguchi, D.; Tezuka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Solidified LBE was sampled from the specimens, electro-magnetic pump, filter, drain valve and oxygen sensor at the JAEA Lead Bismuth Loop-1 (JLBL-1) where the structural material was made of SS316. The concentration of Ni, Fe and Cr in LBE were analyzed by the Inductive Coupled Plasma atomic emission spectrometer. It was concluded that the solution of Ni into LBE was not saturated although the concentration of Fe and Cr almost achieved to the values in the literature. A needle-type structure appeared on the surface of solidified LBE inside the tube specimens. It was found to be Ni-rich precipitates by X-ray analyses (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, FE-SEM). LBE samples collected from a circulating loop after discharging did not show the amount of impurities equivalent to the LBE bulk property.

  1. Ni-rich precipitates in a lead bismuth eutectic loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K., E-mail: kikuchik@mx.ibaraki.ac.j [Ibaraki University, IQBRC, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Saito, S.; Hamaguchi, D.; Tezuka, M. [J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Solidified LBE was sampled from the specimens, electro-magnetic pump, filter, drain valve and oxygen sensor at the JAEA Lead Bismuth Loop-1 (JLBL-1) where the structural material was made of SS316. The concentration of Ni, Fe and Cr in LBE were analyzed by the Inductive Coupled Plasma atomic emission spectrometer. It was concluded that the solution of Ni into LBE was not saturated although the concentration of Fe and Cr almost achieved to the values in the literature. A needle-type structure appeared on the surface of solidified LBE inside the tube specimens. It was found to be Ni-rich precipitates by X-ray analyses (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, FE-SEM). LBE samples collected from a circulating loop after discharging did not show the amount of impurities equivalent to the LBE bulk property.

  2. Ni-rich precipitates in a lead bismuth eutectic loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K.; Saito, S.; Hamaguchi, D.; Tezuka, M.

    2010-03-01

    Solidified LBE was sampled from the specimens, electro-magnetic pump, filter, drain valve and oxygen sensor at the JAEA Lead Bismuth Loop-1 (JLBL-1) where the structural material was made of SS316. The concentration of Ni, Fe and Cr in LBE were analyzed by the Inductive Coupled Plasma atomic emission spectrometer. It was concluded that the solution of Ni into LBE was not saturated although the concentration of Fe and Cr almost achieved to the values in the literature. A needle-type structure appeared on the surface of solidified LBE inside the tube specimens. It was found to be Ni-rich precipitates by X-ray analyses (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, FE-SEM). LBE samples collected from a circulating loop after discharging did not show the amount of impurities equivalent to the LBE bulk property.

  3. Coolant Chemistry Control: Oxygen Mass Transport in Lead Bismuth Eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisenburger, A.; Mueller, G.; Bruzzese, C.; Glass, A.

    2015-01-01

    In lead-bismuth cooled transmutation systems, oxygen, dissolved in the coolant at defined quantities, is required for stable long-term operation by assuring the formation of protective oxide scales on structural steel surfaces. Extracted oxygen must be permanently delivered to the system and distributed in the entire core. Therefore, coolant chemistry control involves detailed knowledge on oxygen mass transport. Beside the different flow regimes a core might have stagnant areas at which oxygen delivery can only be realised by diffusion. The difference between oxygen transport in flow paths and in stagnant zones is one of the targets of such experiments. To investigate oxygen mass transport in flowing and stagnant conditions, a dedicated facility was designed based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD also was applied to define the position of oxygen sensors and ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry transducers for flow measurements. This contribution will present the test facility, design relevant CFD calculations and results of first tests performed. (authors)

  4. Bismuth Sodium Titanate Based Materials for Piezoelectric Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Klaus; Feteira, Antonio; Li, Ming

    2015-12-04

    The ban of lead in many electronic products and the expectation that, sooner or later, this ban will include the currently exempt piezoelectric ceramics based on Lead-Zirconate-Titanate has motivated many research groups to look for lead-free substitutes. After a short overview on different classes of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with large strain, this review will focus on Bismuth-Sodium-Titanate and its solid solutions. These compounds exhibit extraordinarily high strain, due to a field induced phase transition, which makes them attractive for actuator applications. The structural features of these materials and the origin of the field-induced strain will be revised. Technologies for texturing, which increases the useable strain, will be introduced. Finally, the features that are relevant for the application of these materials in a multilayer design will be summarized.

  5. Lead-Bismuth technology ; corrosion resistance of structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Park, Won Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Lead-Bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic alloy was determined as a coolant material for the HYPER system being studied by KAERI. The Pb-Bi alloy as a coolant, has a number of the favorable thermo-physical and technological properties, while it is comparatively corrosive to the structural materials. It is necessary to solve this problem for providing a long failure-proof operation of the facilities with Pb-Bi coolant. It seems to be possible to maintain corrosion resistance on structural material up to 600 deg C by using of various technologies, but it needs more studies for application to large-scale NPPs. 22 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  6. Stimulated Raman scattering of sub-millimeter waves in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K.

    2007-12-01

    A high-power sub-millimeter wave propagating through bismuth, a semimetal with non-spherical energy surfaces, parametrically excites a space-charge mode and a back-scattered electromagnetic wave. The free carrier density perturbation associated with the space-charge wave couples with the oscillatory velocity due to the pump to derive the scattered wave. The scattered and pump waves exert a pondermotive force on electrons and holes, driving the space-charge wave. The collisional damping of the decay waves determines the threshold for the parametric instability. The threshold intensity for 20 μm wavelength pump turns out to be ˜2×1012 W/cm2. Above the threshold, the growth rate scales increase with ωo, attain a maximum around ωo=6.5ωp, and, after this, falls off.

  7. Radiopacity and histological assessment of Portland cement plus bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Filho, Tauby; De-Deus, Gustavo; Klein, Leila; Manera, Gisele; Peixoto, Carla; Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions and the radiopacity of MTA, Portland cement (PC), and Portland cement plus bismuth oxide (BO). Forty rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 per group): A1: Control (empty capsule); A2: Pro-Root MTA; A3: PC; A4: PC + BO 1:1; and A5: PC + BO 2:1. Polyethylene tubes were filled with the test materials and standardized radiographic images were taken. Histological evaluation was done after 7 and 60 days. Student t test and Fisher's test were used in the statistical analysis (P A4 > A5 > A3. No differences were found for the tissue response in the 2 experimental periods. A positive correlation between BO concentration and radiopacity of PC was determined. The histological evaluation suggests that all studied materials were biocompatible at 7 and 60 days.

  8. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3 exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure δ-Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3/YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value of the pure δ-Bi2O3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk.

  9. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3) exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure -Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made...... of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3=YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C) and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value...... of the pure δ-Bi2O3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk....

  10. Study of bismuth minerals belonging to the mineralogical collection from the National Museum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, A.; Baptista, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    With the purpose of searching the presence of Tellurium minerals in the Ouro Preto-Mariana country, Minas Gerais State, and considering the existence of a great number of minerals in which this element come across allied with Bismuth, samples of the mineralogical collection of the Museu Nacional, proceeding that region and classified as Bismuth minerals were studied by X-ray fluorescence analysis and diffractometric analysis. In this report the results of this research are presented. (Author)

  11. About thermo-electric properties of bismuth telluride doped by gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akperov, M.M.; Ismailov, Sh.S.; Shukyurova, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of study of the Gd impurities effect on the bismuth telluride thermo-electric properties are presented. The experiment was carried out within the temperature range T=300-700 K. It is determined, that at temperature increase the energy level is appreciably closing up to bismuth telluride forbidden zone which makes up 0.16-0.24 eV. Such anomalous energy properties of gadolinium in telluride affect on material thermoelectric properties

  12. An acclerator-based installation of small power with the lead-bismuth coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, V.T.; Yefimov, E.I.; Novikova, N.N. [Research and Development Bereau, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The structure of the accelerator-based installation is described that includes the subcritical reactor-blanket with power 15 MW(h) cooled with lead-bismuth, the lead-bismuth flow target where a beam of {alpha}-particle is injected, the equipment of a primary and secondary curcuits. Some results of calculations and estimations are discussed that have been carried out to justify the target and blanket constructions. Some main characteristics of the installation are presented.

  13. Bismuth oxide nanorods based immunosensor for mycotoxin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, Pratima R., E-mail: pratimarsolanki@gmail.com [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, Jay [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Department of Applied Chemistry and Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Rupavali, Bharti [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, Sachchidanand [Special Centre for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Malhotra, Bansi D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [DST Centre for Biomolecular Electronics, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India); Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2017-01-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor based on bismuth oxide nanorods (nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}), electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. This immunosensor was fabricated by immobilization of anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibodies (Ab-AFB1) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for aflatoxin B1 detection. The structural and morphological studies of n-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been carried out by XRD, UV–vis spectrophotometer; SEM, AFM and FTIR. It was found that the nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3} provided improved sensing characteristics to the electrode interface in terms of electroactive surface area, diffusion coefficient, charge transfer rate constant and electron transfer kinetics. The results of electrochemical response studies of this BSA/Ab-AFB1/nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ITO immunosensor revealed good linearity in the range of 1–70 ng dL{sup −1} with low detection limit of 8.715 ng/dL, improved sensitivity of 1.132 μA/(ng/dL cm{sup −2}), regression coefficient R{sup 2} of 0.918 and reproducibility of > 11 times. The association constant for the BSA/Ab-AFB1/nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ITO immunosensor was determined as 7.318 ng/dL. - Highlights: • Use of Bismuth oxide nanorods for aflatoxin B1 detection. • It improved the electrochemical properties. • First report on nBi{sub 2}O{sub 3} for mycotoxin detection.

  14. Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Şarlı, Numan, E-mail: numansarli82@gmail.com

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • We model and investigate the magnetic properties of the Ni/Bi alloy within the EFT. • Magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc. • Magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant T < Tc. • Total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to those of Ni at T < Tc. • Hysteresis curves are overlap at T < 0.1 and they behave separately at T > 0.1. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy (Ni/Bi) are investigated within the effective field theory. The Ni/Bi alloy has been modeled that the rhombohedral Bi lattice is surrounded by the hexagonal Ni lattice. According to lattice locations, Bi atoms have two different magnetic properties. Bi1 atoms are in the center of the hexagonal Ni atoms (Ni/Bi1 single layer) and Bi2 atoms are between two Ni/Bi1 bilayers. The Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi undergo a second-order phase transition from the ferromagnetic phase to paramagnetic phase at Tc = 1.14. The magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc; hence the magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant. However, the total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to magnetization of the Ni at T < Tc. The corcivities of the Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi alloy are the same with each others, but the remanence magnetizations are different. Our theoretical results of M(T) and M(H) of the Ni/Bi alloy are in quantitatively good agreement with the some experimental results of binary Nickel/Bismuth systems.

  15. Studies of corrosion resistance of Japanese steels in liquid lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kin-ya; Ono, Hiroshi; Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori

    2003-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth has attractive characteristics as a coolant in future fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Systems (ADS) applications. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in lead-bismuth eutectic is one of key problems in developing nuclear power plants and installations using lead-bismuth coolant. Our experiences with heat exchangers using liquid lead-bismuth and the results of corrosion tests of Japanese steels are reported in this paper. A series of corrosion tests was carried out in collaboration with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). Test specimens of various Japanese steels were exposed in a non-isothermal forced circulation loop. The influence of maximum temperature and oxygen content in lead bismuth were chosen for study as the primary causes of corrosion in Japanese steels. After the corrosion tests, corrosion behavior was analyzed by visual inspection, measurement of weight loss and metallurgical examination of the microstructure of the corroded zone. The corrosion mechanism in liquid lead bismuth is discussed on the basis of the metallurgical examination of the corroded zone. (author)

  16. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdale, Pravin, E-mail: pravin.jagdale@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Marrec, Françoise [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), Amiens 80039 (France); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexicom (UNAM), Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tagliaferro, Alberto [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl{sub 3}) in acetone (CH{sub 3}-CO-CH{sub 3}). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  17. Evaluation of the strength and radiopacity of Portland cement with varying additions of bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, E; Abbassi-Ghadi, S; Vowles, R; Camilleri, J; Hooper, S; Camilleri, J

    2009-04-01

    To study the effect of addition of various proportions of bismuth oxide on compressive strength and radiopacity of Portland cement. The compressive strength of white Portland cement and cement replaced with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% bismuth oxide was evaluated by testing cylinders 6 mm in diameter and 12 mm high. Twelve cylinders were tested for each material under study. The radiopacity of the cements tested was evaluated using an aluminium step-wedge and densitometer. The optical density was compared with the relevant thickness of aluminium (Al). Statistical analysis was performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with P = 0.05 and Tukey test to perform multiple comparison tests. Various additions of bismuth oxide had no significant effect on the strength of the material when compared with the unmodified Portland cement (P > 0.05). The radiopacity of the cements tested ranged from 2.02 mm Al for Portland cement to 9.79 mm Al for the highest bismuth replacement. Addition of bismuth oxide did not affect the compressive strength of Portland cement. All the bismuth oxide cement mixtures had radio-opacities higher than 3 mm thickness of aluminium.

  18. Extreme Pressure Synergistic Mechanism of Bismuth Naphthenate and Sulfurized Isobutene Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Hu, Jianqiang; Yang, Shizhao; Xie, Feng; Guo, Li

    A four-ball tester was used to evaluate the tribological performances of bismuth naphthenate (BiNap), sulfurized isobutene (VSB), and their combinations. The results show that the antiwear properties of BiNap and VSB are not very visible, but they possess good extreme pressure (EP) properties, particularly sulfur containing bismuth additives. Synergistic EP properties of BiNap with various sulfur-containing additives were investigated. The results indicate that BiNap exhibits good EP synergism with sulfur-containing additives. The surface analytical tools, such as X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), were used to investigate the topography, composition contents, and depth profile of some typical elements on the rubbing surface. Smooth topography of wear scar further confirms that the additive showed good EP capacities, and XPS and EDX analyzes indicate that tribochemical mixed protective films composed of bismuth, bismuth oxides, sulfides, and sulfates are formed on the rubbing surface, which improves the tribological properties of lubricants. In particular, a large number of bismuth atoms and bismuth sulfides play an important role in improving the EP properties of oils.

  19. Intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films: effect of vapour chopping and air ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R B; Puri, R K; Puri, V

    2008-01-01

    Bismuth oxide thin films of thickness 1000 A 0 have been prepared by thermal oxidation (in air) of vacuum evaporated bismuth thin films (on glass substrate) at different oxidation temperatures and duration. Both the vapour chopped and nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films showed polycrystalline and polymorphic structure. The monoclinic bismuth oxide was found to be predominant in both the cases. The effect of vapour chopping and air exposure for 40 days on the intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films has been studied. The vapour chopped films showed low (3.92 - 4.80 x 10 9 N/m 2 ) intrinsic stress than those of nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films (5.77 - 6.74 x 10 9 N/m 2 ). Intrinsic stress was found to increase due to air ageing. The effect of air ageing on the vapour chopped films was found low. The vapour chopped films showed higher packing density. Higher the packing density, lower the film will age. The process of chopping vapour flow creates films with less inhomogenety i.e. a low concentration of flaws and non-planar defects which results in lower intrinsic stress

  20. Extraction of lanthanide elements and bismuth in molten lithium chloride-liquid bismuth-lithium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Makoto; Adachi, Motonari; Kai, Yuichi; Koike, Kenichi

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium distributions of neodymium and samarium between molten LiCl and liquid Bi-Li alloy were measured in a wide range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li . These lanthanide elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high X Li range, X Li > 0.03, the distributions of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase increased markedly. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprized of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The reaction processes in samarium and neodymium were very fast and the extraction rates are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solutes and metallic lithium. (author)

  1. Effects of simvastain and enamel matrix derivative on Portland cement with bismuth oxide-induced growth and odontoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Youn; Min, Kyung-San; Choi, Gi-Woon; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2012-03-01

    We previously reported that bismuth oxide containing Portland cement (BPC) showed similar biocompatibility to Portland cement (PC) in periodontal ligament cells. However, the bioactivity of simvastatin and Emdogain (Biora AB, Malmö, Sweden) on BPC was not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin and Emdogain on BPC compared with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Cell growth was determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. Differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The cell growth of HDPCs exposed to Emdogain and simvastatin plus BPC was superior to those administered BPC alone and similar to those that received MTA for 14 days. The simvastatin and Emdogain groups increased the odontogenic potential of the BPC group with respect to ALP activity, mineralization nodules, messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, Runx2, and osterix. These results suggest that simvastatin and Emdogain improved cell growth and the differentiation of the BPC group in HDPCs and may be useful ingredients in BPC as pulp-capping material. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutron activation determination of impurities in high-purity bismuth with separation of matrix in form of hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyukhin, P.I.; Shavinskij, B.M.; Mityakin, Yu.L.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation determination of 15 impurity elements (Au, Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Hg, K, Na, Ni, Se, Sr, Te, Zn) in high-purity bismuth (impurity content is approximately 10 -6 -10 -10 %) is presented. Bismuth hydroxide precipitation by ammonia from nitric acid solutions was used to separate bismuth from alkali, alkaline earth metals and elements forming stable ammines. Gold, selenium and tellurium are isolated in the form of metals at reduction by muriatic hydrazine. Results of analyzing two samples of special purity bismuth are presented. Neutron flux comprised 0.8-1x10 13 n/cm 2 xs. Radiation time was equal to 90 hours

  3. Corrosion behavior of Si-enriched steels for nuclear applications in liquid lead–bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Yuji, E-mail: kurata.yuji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► The corrosion behavior of Si-enriched steels in liquid lead–bismuth was studied. ► The corrosion tests were conducted at the two controlled oxygen levels. ► The Si addition reduces the scale thickness under the high oxygen condition. ► The Si addition has no significant effect under the low oxygen condition. -- Abstract: The corrosion behavior of Si-enriched steels in liquid lead–bismuth was studied in order to develop accelerator driven systems for transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes and lead–bismuth cooled fast reactors. The corrosion tests of 316SS, Si-enriched 316SS, Mod.9Cr–1Mo steel (T91) and Si-enriched T91 were conducted at 550 °C in liquid lead–bismuth at the two controlled oxygen levels. Both the additions of 2.5 wt.% Si to 316SS and 1.5 wt.% Si to T91 had the effect of reducing the thickness of oxide layer in liquid lead–bismuth at the high oxygen concentration (2.5 × 10{sup −5} wt.%). Although the Si addition to 316SS reduced the depth of ferritization caused by Ni dissolution in liquid lead–bismuth at the low oxygen concentration (4.4 × 10{sup −8} wt.%), it could not suppress the ferritization and the penetration of Pb and Bi completely. The Si addition to T91 did not have the effect of preventing the penetration of Pb and Bi in the liquid lead–bismuth at the low oxygen concentration. The oxide scales formed on both Si-enriched steels did not have sufficient corrosion resistance under the low oxygen condition.

  4. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  5. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo,1 Donaji Velasco-Arias,3 Juan Jose Martinez-Sanmiguel,2 David Diaz,3 Inti Zumeta-Dube,3 Katiushka Arevalo-Niño,1 Claudio Cabral-Romero2 1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Mexico; 2Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, México; 3Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Distrito Federal, México Abstract: Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85% and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized

  6. Sulfate-reducing bacteria slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, N L; Lin, D M; Wilson, M R; Barton, L L; Lin, H C

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) serves as a mammalian cell-derived gaseous neurotransmitter. The intestines are exposed to a second source of this gas by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Bismuth subsalicylate binds H 2 S rendering it insoluble. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that SRB may slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion. Eighty mice were randomized to five groups consisting of Live SRB, Killed SRB, SRB+Bismuth, Bismuth, and Saline. Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a common strain of SRB, was administered by gavage at the dose of 1.0 × 10 9 cells along with rhodamine, a fluorescent dye. Intestinal transit was measured 50 minutes after gavage by euthanizing the animals, removing the small intestine between the pyloric sphincter and the ileocecal valve and visualizing the distribution of rhodamine across the intestine using an imaging system (IVIS, Perkin-Elmer). Intestinal transit (n=50) was compared using geometric center (1=minimal movement, 100=maximal movement). H 2 S concentration (n=30) was also measured when small intestinal luminal content was allowed to generate this gas. The Live SRB group had slower intestinal transit as represented by a geometric center score of 40.2 ± 5.7 when compared to Saline: 73.6 ± 5.7, Killed SRB: 77.9 ± 6.9, SRB+Bismuth: 81.0 ± 2.0, and Bismuth: 73.3 ± 4.2 (Pfashion in mice. Our results demonstrate that intestinal transit is slowed by SRB and this effect could be abolished by H 2 S-binding bismuth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of alkali bromide salts for potential pyrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, P.K.; Gutknecht, T.Y.; Herrmann, S.D.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Lister, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr 3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973 K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673 K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electro-deposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures. (authors)

  8. IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE FOR ACUTE ASTHMA IN CHILDREN: A RETROSPECTIVE TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Osamu; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Ihara, Takateru; Inoue, Nobuaki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Akasawa, Akira

    Inhaled anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (IB), when administered with β2-agonists, are effective in reducing hospital admissions of children presenting to the emergency department with moderate to severe asthma. However, treatment of acute asthma with IB is still uncommon in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of IB for the treatment of pediatric acute asthma. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the admission rate of patients who received IB with those who did not. Patients aged 4 years or older with a history of moderate to severe attacks were included. For analysis, propensity score matching was used to adjust the confounding factors related to IB use. Patients received IB by metered-dose inhaler (40μg per dose) with a spacer three times at 20-min intervals. Among 175 patients included in the analysis, 102 patients were treated with IB (IB group) and 73 patients were treated without IB (Non-IB group). A propensity score matching analysis extracted 63 patients from each group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of admission rate (IB group 12.7% vs Non-IB group 9.5%; p=0.78). One patient (1.0%) treated with IB experienced dryness of the mouth, which resolved spontaneously. The admission rate did not decline with IB use. Several confounding factors could have influenced and limited our results. A prospective study is needed to investigate the effectiveness of IB in Japan.

  9. Agricultural soil fumigation as a source of atmospheric methyl bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, K; Williams, J; Wang, N Y; Cicerone, R J

    1993-09-15

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is used increasingly as a biocidal fumigant, primarily in agricultural soils prior to planting of crops. This usage carries potential for stratospheric ozone reduction due to Br atom catalysis, depending on how much MeBr escapes from fumigated soils to the atmosphere and on details of atmospheric chemical reactions. We present direct field measurements of MeBr escape; 87% of the applied MeBr was emitted within 7 days after a commercial fumigation. Covering the field with plastic sheets retarded MeBr escape somewhat but first-day losses were still 40%; thicker sections of sheets were relatively more effective than thin sections. We also measured gaseous MeBr concentrations versus depth in the soil column; these profiles display diffusion-like evolution. In soil, MeBr is partitioned among gas, liquid, and adsorbed solid phases. Calculated soil inventories agreed only roughly with applied amounts, probably due to nonequilibrium partitioning (during the first 30 min) and to uncertainties in partitioning coefficients. Fumigated fields may release less MeBr if they are covered by more gas-tight plastic films, if injection techniques are improved and injection is deeper, and if soil moistures, organic amounts, and densities are greater than in the soil studied here.

  10. Factors affecting a cyanogen bromide-based assay of thiamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, D T; Lee, M; Hillman, R E

    1989-11-01

    We analyzed extensively a modified thiochrome method for thiamin analysis. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from potato was superior to either alpha-amylase or acid phosphatase from wheat germ as a dephosphorylating agent. Timing of cyanogen bromide exposure was important, but the assay had good precision and accuracy. The standard curve was linear from 10 to 3000 nmol/L. The within-run and between-run coefficients of variation for total thiamin in whole blood were 3.6% and 7.4%, respectively. Analytical recoveries for low, intermediate, and high additions of thiamin to whole blood were 93-109%. Sample yield was increased by 41% (+/- 29% SD) with pre-assay freezing. Samples were stable for two days at room temperature, for seven days when refrigerated, and for two years when frozen. Previously unreported interference was seen with penicillin derivatives, and with several commonly used diuretic and antiepileptic medications. This assay may be suitable for population screening; 200 samples could be analyzed weekly at a cost of +0.20 per sample.

  11. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  12. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guozhen; Sheng Guogang; Bansal, Pradeep Kumar; Li, Guang

    2008-01-01

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure

  13. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar

    2018-02-01

    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  14. Improved spectrometric characteristics of thallium bromide nuclear radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y

    1999-01-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with a high atomic number and wide band gap. In this study, nuclear radiation detectors have been fabricated from the TlBr crystals. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using the materials purified by many pass zone refining. The crystals were characterized by measuring the resistivity, the mobility-lifetime (mu tau) product and the energy required to create an electron-hole pair (the epsilon value). Improved energy resolution has been obtained by the TlBr radiation detectors. At room temperature the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the 59.5, 122 and 662 keV gamma-ray photo peak obtained from the detectors were 3.3, 8.8 and 29.5 keV, respectively. By comparing the saturated peak position of the TlBr detector with that of the CdTe detector, the epsilon value has been estimated to be about 5.85 eV for the TlBr crystal.

  15. Fabrication of double-sided thallium bromide strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Keitaro, E-mail: keitaro.hitomi@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nagano, Nobumichi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Onodera, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Ito, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided strip detectors were fabricated from thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals grown by the traveling-molten zone method using zone-purified materials. The detectors had three 3.4-mm-long strips with 1-mm widths and a surrounding electrode placed orthogonally on opposite surfaces of the crystals at approximately 6.5×6.5 mm{sup 2} in area and 5 mm in thickness. Excellent charge transport properties for both electrons and holes were observed from the TlBr crystals. The mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in the detector were measured to be ~3×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V and ~1×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V, respectively. The {sup 137}Cs spectra corresponding to the gamma-ray interaction position were obtained from the detector. An energy resolution of 3.4% of full width at half maximum for 662-keV gamma rays was obtained from one “pixel” (an intersection of the strips) of the detector at room temperature.

  16. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  17. Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Bismuth Thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Korpol, Bhoom Reddy; Chellam, Shankararaman; Gassman, Paul L.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lea, Alan S.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2008-10-21

    Free and capsular EPS produced by Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens were characterized in detail using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Total EPS production decreased upon treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of lipophilic bismuth thiols (bismuth dimercaptopropanol, BisBAL; bismuth ethanedithiol, BisEDT; and bismuth pyrithione, BisPYR), BisBAL being most effective. Bismuth thiols also influenced acetylation and carboxylation of polysaccharides in EPS from S. marcescens. Extensive homology between EPS samples in the presence and absence of bismuth was observed with proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids varying predominantly only in the total amount expressed. Second derivative analysis of the amide I region of FTIR spectra revealed decreases in protein secondary structures in the presence of bismuth thiols. Hence, anti-fouling properties of bismuth thiols appear to originate in their ability to suppress O-acetylation and protein secondary structures in addition to total EPS secretion.

  18. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  19. CHLORPYRIFOS TRANSFORMATION BY AQUEOUS CHLORINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BROMIDE AND NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aqueous chlorination of chlorpyrifos (CP) was investigated in the presence of bromide and natural organic matter (NOM), which were identified as naturally occurring aqueous constituents that could impact CP transformation rates to the toxic product chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO). Br...

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles for enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T. [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Tosheva, Lubomira; Edge, Michele [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth tungstate coatings were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • Oscillating bowl was introduced to the system to enable coating of nanopartulates. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} enhanced visible light activity of titania nanoparticles. • The best results were obtained for coating with Bi:W ratio of approximately 2:1. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} onto TiO{sub 2} resulted in more efficient electron-hole separation. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide − bismuth tungstate composite materials were prepared by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering of bismuth and tungsten metallic targets in argon/oxygen atmosphere onto anatase and rutile titania nanoparticles. The use of an oscillating bowl placed beneath the two magnetrons arranged in a co-planar closed field configuration enabled the deposition of bismuth tungstate onto loose powders, rather than a solid substrate. The atomic ratio of the bismuth/tungsten coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The effect of the bismuth tungstate coatings on the phase, optical and photocatalytic properties of titania was investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an acetone degradation test. The latter involved measurements of the rate of CO{sub 2} evolution under visible light irradiation of the photocatalysts, which indicated that the deposition of bismuth tungstate resulted in a significant enhancement of visible light activity, for both anatase and rutile titania particles. The best results were achieved for coatings with a bismuth to tungsten atomic ratio of 2:1. In addition, the mechanism by which the photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was enhanced by compounding it with bismuth tungstate was studied by microwave cavity perturbation. The results of these

  3. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  4. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  5. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  6. Stabilized thallium bromide radiation detectors and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Cedric Rocha; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    According to one embodiment, a crystal includes thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants. According to another embodiment, a system includes a monolithic crystal including thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants; and a detector configured to detect a signal response of the crystal.

  7. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Castañeda, M., E-mail: mar.floc@hotmail.com [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camps, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camacho-López, M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigación en Materiales (UNAM), Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 México, D.F., México (Mexico); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used.

  8. Photoinduced switchable wettability of bismuth coating with hierarchical dendritic structure between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chunping; Lu, Zhong; Zhao, Huiping; Yang, Hao, E-mail: hyangwit@hotmail.com; Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical bismuth nanostructures were synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction. • The bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity after being modified by stearic acid. • Wetting transition could be realized by alternation of irradiation and modification. - Abstract: Special wettability such as superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity has aroused considerable attention in recent years, especially for the surface that can be switched between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. In this work, hierarchical bismuth nanostructures with hyperbranched dendritic architectures were synthesized via the galvanic replacement reaction between zinc plate and BiCl{sub 3} in ethylene glycol solution, which was composed of a trunk, branches (secondary branch), and leaves (tertiary branch). After being modified by stearic acid, the as-prepared bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity with a high water contact angle of 164.8° and a low sliding angle of 3°. More importantly, a remarkable surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity could be easily realized by the alternation of UV–vis irradiation and modification with stearic acid. The tunable wetting behavior of bismuth coating could be used as smart materials to make a great application in practice.

  9. Electronic Properties of Tin and Bismuth from Angular Correlation of Annihilation Photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.E.; Trumpy, Georg

    1969-01-01

    ) deformed bismuth. For both metals, the single-crystal angular-correlation curves lie near to the free-electron parabola. The tin curves show more anisotropy than the bismuth curves. An important result is the clear anisotropy found in the high-momentum part of the curves—the tails—for both metals. Little......A linear slit setup has been used to obtain results of angular-correlation measurements in (a) tin single crystals in three orientations: [001], [100], and [110], (b) bismuth single crystals in four orientations: [111], [100], [1¯10], and [2¯1¯1], (c) solid and liquid tin and bismuth, and (d...... of the liquid-metal curves are smaller and of another form than the tails of polycrystalline curves; no Gaussian with only one adjustable constant factor can give a fit to both tails. No useful method for interpreting liquid-metal angular-correlation curves seems to exist. Two deformed bismuth samples gave...

  10. Characterization and re-activation of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Abe, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Control of oxygen concentration in liquid lead-bismuth is one of the most important tasks to develop accelerator driven systems. In order to improve the reliability of oxygen sensors, re-activation treatments were investigated as well as characterization of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth. The oxygen sensor with a solid electrolyte of yttria-stabilized zirconia and a Pt/gas reference electrode showed almost the same electromotive force values in gas and liquid lead-bismuth, respectively, as the theoretical ones at temperatures above 400 deg. C or 450 deg. C. After long-term use of 6500 h, the outputs of the sensor became incorrect in liquid lead-bismuth. The state of the sensor that indicated incorrect outputs could not be recovered by cleaning with a nitric acid. However, it was found that the oxygen sensor became a correct sensor indicating theoretical values in liquid lead-bismuth after re-activation by the Pt-treatment of the outer surface of the sensor.

  11. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Castañeda, M.; Camps, E.; Camacho-López, M.; Muhl, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used

  12. Facile solvothermal synthesis of a graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite and its electrochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huanwen [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Hu Zhongai, E-mail: zhongai@nwnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Chang Yanqin; Chen Yanli; Lei Ziqiang; Zhang Ziyu; Yang Yuying [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2010-12-01

    This work demonstrates a novel and facile route for preparing graphene-based composites comprising of metal oxide nanoparticles and graphene. A graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite as electrode materials of supercapacitors was firstly synthesized by thermally treating the graphene-bismuth composite, which was obtained through simultaneous solvothermal reduction of the colloidal dispersions of negatively charged graphene oxide sheets in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution of bismuth cations at 180 {sup o}C. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the composites together with pure graphite oxide, and graphene were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG). The electrochemical behaviors were measured by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 255 F g{sup -1} (based on composite) is obtained at a specific current of 1 A g{sup -1} as compared with 71 F g{sup -1} for pure graphene. The loaded-bismuth oxide achieves a specific capacitance as high as 757 F g{sup -1} even at 10 A g{sup -1}. In addition, the graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite electrode exhibits the excellent rate capability and well reversibility.

  13. Facile solvothermal synthesis of a graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite and its electrochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanwen; Hu Zhongai; Chang Yanqin; Chen Yanli; Lei Ziqiang; Zhang Ziyu; Yang Yuying

    2010-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel and facile route for preparing graphene-based composites comprising of metal oxide nanoparticles and graphene. A graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite as electrode materials of supercapacitors was firstly synthesized by thermally treating the graphene-bismuth composite, which was obtained through simultaneous solvothermal reduction of the colloidal dispersions of negatively charged graphene oxide sheets in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution of bismuth cations at 180 o C. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the composites together with pure graphite oxide, and graphene were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG). The electrochemical behaviors were measured by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 255 F g -1 (based on composite) is obtained at a specific current of 1 A g -1 as compared with 71 F g -1 for pure graphene. The loaded-bismuth oxide achieves a specific capacitance as high as 757 F g -1 even at 10 A g -1 . In addition, the graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite electrode exhibits the excellent rate capability and well reversibility.

  14. Bismuth Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes for the Determination of Selected Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Rodić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two types of bismuth modified electrodes, a bismuth-film modified glassy carbon (BiF-GCE and a bismuth bulk modified carbon paste, were applied for the determination of selected nitroguanidine neonicotinoid insecticides. The method based on an ex situ prepared BiF-GCE operated in the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV mode was applied to determine clothianidin in the concentration range from 2.5 to 23 μg cm−3 with a relative standard deviation (RSD not exceeding 1.5%. The tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrodes (TCP-CPEs, bulk modified with 5 and 20 w/w% of bismuth, showed a different analytical performance in the determination of imidacloprid, regarding the peak shape, potential window, and noise level. The TCP-CPE with 5% Bi was advantageous, and the developed DPV method based on it allowed the determination in the concentration range from 1.7 to 60 μg cm−3 with an RSD of 2.4%. To get a deeper insight into the morphology of the bismuth-based sensor surfaces, scanning electron microscopic measurements were performed of both the surface film and the bulk modified electrodes.

  15. Electrochemical study on determination of diffusivity, activity and solubility of oxygen in liquid bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Rajesh [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Gnanasekaran, T. [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: gnani@igcar.ernet.in; Srinivasa, Raman S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Diffusivity of oxygen in liquid bismuth was measured by potentiostatic method and is given bylg(D{sub O}{sup Bi}/cm{sup 2}.s{sup -1})(+/-0.042)=-3.706-1377/(TK{sup -1})(804bismuth was determined by coulometric titrations and using the measured data standard free energy of dissolution of oxygen in liquid bismuth was derived for the reaction:1/2O{sub 2}(g)=[O]{sub Bi}(at.%)and is given by{delta}G{sub O(Bi)}{sup o}/(J.g-atomO{sup -1})(+/-720)=-108784+20.356TK{sup -1}(753bismuth was derived as a function of temperature and is given by the following expressions:lg(S/at%O)(+/-0.05)=-4476/TK{sup -1}+4.05(753bismuth is compared with the literature data.

  16. Crystallinity and electrical properties of neodymium-substituted bismuth titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hsiung, C.-P.; Chen, C.-Y.; Gan, J.-Y.; Sun, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 (BNdT) thin films for ferroelectric non-volatile memory applications. The Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films fabricated by modified chemical solution deposition technique showed much improved properties compared to pure bismuth titanate. A pyrochlore free crystalline phase was obtained at a low annealing temperature of 640 deg. C and grain size was found to be considerably increased as the annealing temperature increased. The film properties were found to be strongly dependent on the Nd content and annealing temperatures. The measured dielectric constant of BNdT thin films was in the range 172-130 for Bi 4-x Nd x Ti 3 O 12 with x 0.0-0.75. Ferroelectric properties of Nd-substituted bismuth titanate thin films were significantly improved compared to pure bismuth titanate. For example, the observed 2P r and E c for Bi 3.25 Nd 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 , annealed at 680 deg. C, were 38 μC/cm 2 and 98 kV/cm, respectively. The improved microstructural and ferroelectric properties of BNdT thin films suggest their suitability for high density ferroelectric random access memory applications

  17. Emulsion liquid membrane for selective extraction of bismuth from nitrate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra

    2013-01-01

    The novelty of this work is the selective extraction of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used as extractant of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane, and Triton X-100 was used as the biodegradable surfactant in n-pentanol n-pentanol bulk membrane. The extraction of bismuth ions was evaluated by the yield of extraction. The experimental parameters were evaluated and were optimized. They included the ratio of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration to the concentration of /Triton X-100 concentration (1.0 : 0.5% w/w), nature of diluents (n-pentanol), nature and concentration of the stripping solution (sulfuric acid, 0.5M), stirring speed (1,800 rpm) and equilibrium time of extraction (20min), initial feed solution of bismuth (350 ppm) and the volume ratio of the internal stripping phase to the membrane phase (14 times). The experimental parameters of kinetic extraction revealed that the bismuth ions were extracted at 100% 97%

  18. Emulsion liquid membrane for selective extraction of bismuth from nitrate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra [Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The novelty of this work is the selective extraction of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used as extractant of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane, and Triton X-100 was used as the biodegradable surfactant in n-pentanol n-pentanol bulk membrane. The extraction of bismuth ions was evaluated by the yield of extraction. The experimental parameters were evaluated and were optimized. They included the ratio of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration to the concentration of /Triton X-100 concentration (1.0 : 0.5% w/w), nature of diluents (n-pentanol), nature and concentration of the stripping solution (sulfuric acid, 0.5M), stirring speed (1,800 rpm) and equilibrium time of extraction (20min), initial feed solution of bismuth (350 ppm) and the volume ratio of the internal stripping phase to the membrane phase (14 times). The experimental parameters of kinetic extraction revealed that the bismuth ions were extracted at 100% 97%.

  19. How reliable are environmental data on 'orphan' elements? The case of bismuth concentrations in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Like all elements of the periodic table, bismuth is ubiquitously distributed throughout the environment as a result of natural processes and human activities. It is present as Bi(III) in environmental, biological and geochemical samples. Although bismuth and its compounds are considered to be non-toxic to humans, its increasing use as a replacement for lead has highlighted how little is known about its environmental and ecotoxicological behaviour. In this first critical review paper on the existing information on bismuth occurrence in natural waters, 125 papers on fresh and marine waters have been collated. Although the initial objective of this study was to establish the range of the typical concentrations of total dissolved bismuth in natural waters, this proved impossible to achieve due to the wide, and hitherto unexplained, dispersion of published data. Since analytical limitations might be one of the reasons underlying value dispersion, new analytical methods published since 2000--intended to be applied to natural waters--have also been reviewed. Disappointingly, the detection limits of the bulk of them are well above those required; they are thus of limited usefulness. Analysis of the existing information on bismuth in secondary references (i.e., books, review chapters) and on its chemical speciation in seawater revealed that the uncritical reproduction of old data is a widespread practice.

  20. Recent Advances in Bismuth-Based Nanomaterials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Swetha S M; Jang, Ho Won

    2017-08-10

    In recent years, bismuth-based nanomaterials have drawn considerable interest as potential candidates for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting owing to their narrow band gaps, nontoxicity, and low costs. The unique electronic structure of bismuth-based materials with a well-dispersed valence band comprising Bi 6s and O 2p orbitals offers a suitable band gap to harvest visible light. This Review presents significant advancements in exploiting bismuth-based nanomaterials for solar water splitting. An overview of the different strategies employed and the new ideas adopted to improve the PEC performance of bismuth-based nanomaterials are discussed. Morphology control, the construction of heterojunctions, doping, and co-catalyst loading are several approaches that are implemented to improve the efficiency of solar water splitting. Key issues are identified and guidelines are suggested to rationalize the design of efficient bismuth-based materials for sunlight-driven water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Comparison of Second-Line Quadruple Therapies with or without Bismuth for Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hong Jheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bismuth-based quadruple regimen has been applied in Helicobacter pylori rescue therapy worldwide. The non-bismuth-based quadruple therapy or “concomitant therapy” is an alternative option in first-line eradication but has not been used in second-line therapy. Discovering a valid regimen for rescue therapy in bismuth-unavailable countries is important. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacies of the standard quadruple therapy and a modified concomitant regimen. One hundred and twenty-four patients were randomly assigned into two groups: RBTM (rabeprozole 20 mg bid., bismuth subcitrate 120 mg qid, tetracycline 500 mg qid, and metronidazole 250 mg qid and RATM (rabeprozole 20 mg bid., amoxicillin 1 g bid., tetracycline 500 mg qid, and metronidazole 250 mg qid for 10 days. The eradication rate of the RBTM and RATM regimen was 92.1% and 90.2%, respectively, in intention-to-treat analysis. Patients in both groups had good compliance (~96%. The overall incidence of adverse events was higher in the RATM group (42.6% versus 22.2%, P=0.02, but only seven patients (11.5% experienced grades 2-3 events. In conclusion, both regimens had good efficacy, compliance, and acceptable side effects. The 10-day RATM treatment could be an alternative rescue therapy in bismuth-unavailable countries.

  2. Evaluation on the characteristics of tin-silver-bismuth solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z.; Shi, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2002-02-01

    Tin-silver-bismuth solder is characterized by its lower melting point, good wetting behavior, and good mechanical property for which it is expected to be a new lead-free solder to replace tin-lead solder. In this article, Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder was investigated concerning its physical, spreading, and mechanical properties under specific conditions. Cooling curves and DSC results showed that it was close to eutectic composition (m.p. 210° 212 °C). Coefficiency of thermal expansion (CTE) of this solder, between that of PCBs and copper substrates, was beneficial to alleviate the thermal mismatch of the substrates. It was also a good electrical and thermal conductor. Using a rosin-based, mildly activated (RMA) flux, a spreading test indicated that SnAgBi solder paste had good solderability. Meanwhile, the solder had high tensile strength and fracture energy. Its fracture mechanism was a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture morphology. The metallographic and EDAX analyses indicated that it was composed of a tin-based solid solution and some intermetallic compound (IMC) that could strengthen the substrate. However, these large needle-like IMCs would cut the substrate and this resulted in the decreasing of the toughness of the solder.

  3. Ballistic edge states in Bismuth nanowires revealed by SQUID interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murani, Anil; Kasumov, Alik; Sengupta, Shamashis; Kasumov, Yu A; Volkov, V T; Khodos, I I; Brisset, F; Delagrange, Raphaëlle; Chepelianskii, Alexei; Deblock, Richard; Bouchiat, Hélène; Guéron, Sophie

    2017-07-05

    The protection against backscattering provided by topology is a striking property. In two-dimensional insulators, a consequence of this topological protection is the ballistic nature of the one-dimensional helical edge states. One demonstration of ballisticity is the quantized Hall conductance. Here we provide another demonstration of ballistic transport, in the way the edge states carry a supercurrent. The system we have investigated is a micrometre-long monocrystalline bismuth nanowire with topological surfaces, that we connect to two superconducting electrodes. We have measured the relation between the Josephson current flowing through the nanowire and the superconducting phase difference at its ends, the current-phase relation. The sharp sawtooth-shaped phase-modulated current-phase relation we find demonstrates that transport occurs selectively along two ballistic edges of the nanowire. In addition, we show that a magnetic field induces 0-π transitions and ϕ 0 -junction behaviour, providing a way to manipulate the phase of the supercurrent-carrying edge states and generate spin supercurrents.

  4. On the use of bismuth as a neutron filter

    CERN Document Server

    Adib, M

    2003-01-01

    A formula is given which, for neutron energies in the range 10 sup - sup 4 bismuth temperature and crystalline form. Computer programs have been developed which allow calculations for the Bi rhombohedral structure in its poly-crystalline form and its equivalent hexagonal close-packed structure. The calculated total neutron cross-sections for poly-crystalline Bi at different temperatures were compared with the measured values. An overall agreement is indicated between the formula fits and experimental data. Agreement was also obtained for values of Bi-single crystals, at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. A feasibility study for use of Bi in powdered form, as a cold neutron filter, is detailed in terms of the optimum Bi-single crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons, and also for rejection of the accom...

  5. On the use of bismuth as a neutron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M.

    2003-02-01

    A formula is given which, for neutron energies in the range 10 -4< E<10 eV, permits calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections as a function of bismuth temperature and crystalline form. Computer programs have been developed which allow calculations for the Bi rhombohedral structure in its poly-crystalline form and its equivalent hexagonal close-packed structure. The calculated total neutron cross-sections for poly-crystalline Bi at different temperatures were compared with the measured values. An overall agreement is indicated between the formula fits and experimental data. Agreement was also obtained for values of Bi-single crystals, at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. A feasibility study for use of Bi in powdered form, as a cold neutron filter, is detailed in terms of the optimum Bi-single crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons, and also for rejection of the accompanying fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  6. On the use of bismuth as a neutron filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M. E-mail: kilany11@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    A formula is given which, for neutron energies in the range 10{sup -4}bismuth temperature and crystalline form. Computer programs have been developed which allow calculations for the Bi rhombohedral structure in its poly-crystalline form and its equivalent hexagonal close-packed structure. The calculated total neutron cross-sections for poly-crystalline Bi at different temperatures were compared with the measured values. An overall agreement is indicated between the formula fits and experimental data. Agreement was also obtained for values of Bi-single crystals, at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. A feasibility study for use of Bi in powdered form, as a cold neutron filter, is detailed in terms of the optimum Bi-single crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons, and also for rejection of the accompanying fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  7. On the use of bismuth as a neutron filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M.

    2003-01-01

    A formula is given which, for neutron energies in the range 10 -4 < E<10 eV, permits calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections as a function of bismuth temperature and crystalline form. Computer programs have been developed which allow calculations for the Bi rhombohedral structure in its poly-crystalline form and its equivalent hexagonal close-packed structure. The calculated total neutron cross-sections for poly-crystalline Bi at different temperatures were compared with the measured values. An overall agreement is indicated between the formula fits and experimental data. Agreement was also obtained for values of Bi-single crystals, at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. A feasibility study for use of Bi in powdered form, as a cold neutron filter, is detailed in terms of the optimum Bi-single crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons, and also for rejection of the accompanying fast neutrons and gamma rays

  8. Natural convection in enclosures containing lead-bismuth and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzodzo, M.; Cuckovic-Dzodzo, D.

    2001-01-01

    The design of liquid metal reactors such as Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) which are based predominantly on the flow generated by natural convection effects demands knowledge of velocity and temperature fields, distribution of the local Nusselt numbers and values of the average Nusselt numbers for small coolant velocity regimes. Laminar natural convection in rectangular enclosures with different aspect ratios, containing lead-bismuth and lead is studied numerically in this paper. The numerical model takes into account variable properties of the liquid metals. The developed correlation for average Nusselt numbers is presented. It is concluded that average Nusselt numbers are lower than in 'normal' fluids (air, water and glycerol) for the same values of Rayleigh numbers. However, the heat flux, which can be achieved, is greater due to the high thermal conductivity of liquid metals. Some specific features of the flow fields generated by natural convection in liquid metals are presented. Their consequences on the design of heat exchangers for liquid metals are discussed. An application of the obtained results to the design of a new type of steam generator, which integrates the intermediate heat exchanger and secondary pool functions of the ENHS reactor, is presented. (authors)

  9. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela; Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Berea, Edgardo; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area

  10. Possible superconductivity in the Bismuth IV solid phase under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ariel A; Rodríguez, Isaías; Hinojosa-Romero, David; Valladares, Alexander; Valladares, Renela M

    2018-04-13

    The first successful theory of superconductivity was the one proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer in 1957. This breakthrough fostered a remarkable growth of the field that propitiated progress and questionings, generating alternative theories to explain specific phenomena. For example, it has been argued that Bismuth, being a semimetal with a low number of carriers, does not comply with the basic hypotheses underlying BCS and therefore a different approach should be considered. Nevertheless, in 2016 based on BCS we put forth a prediction that Bi at ambient pressure becomes a superconductor at 1.3 mK. A year later an experimental group corroborated that in fact Bi is a superconductor with a transition temperature of 0.53 mK, a result that eluded previous work. So, since Bi is superconductive in almost all the different structures and phases, the question is why Bi-IV has been elusive and has not been found yet to superconduct? Here we present a study of the electronic and vibrational properties of Bi-IV and infer its possible superconductivity using a BCS approach. We predict that if the Bi-IV phase structure were cooled down to liquid helium temperatures it would also superconduct at a T c of 4.25 K.

  11. Optical bleaching of bismuth implanted silica glass: A threshold effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Magruder, R.H. III; Weeks, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The near surface regions of high purity silica glass discs, Spectrosil A, were modified by implantation with bismuth ions at 160 key and room temperature. The glasses implanted with a nominal dose of 6x10 16 Bi/cm 2 at ∼5 μA/cm 2 were subsequently bleached with a 5.0 eV KrF pulsed excimer laser. The laser had an average pulse duration of ∼20 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. It was found that the bleaching was dependent upon the power density of the laser for a constant total integrated energy. Ion backscattering and optical absorption measurements were made before and after laser irradiation. Large changes in optical density and depth distribution of the implanted ions were observed at power densities of ≥45 mJ/cm 2 -pulse. Onset of threshold for bleaching of silica glass implanted with 6x10 16 Bi/cm 2 at 160 key and at room temperature is between 30 and 45 mJ/cm 2 -pulse

  12. Bismuth alloying properties in GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, PO Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, PO Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Cao, Huawei; Cai, Ningning; Yu, Zhongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, PO Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, Tao [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of bismuth alloying in GaAs nanowires. A typical model of Ga{sub 31}As{sub 31} nanowires is introduced for its reasonable band gap. The band gap of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} shrinks clearly with the increasing Bi concentration and the band edge shifts when spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is considered. The insertion of Bi atom leads to hybridization of Ga/As/Bi p states which contributes a lot around Fermi level. Scissor effect is involved. The optical properties are presented, including dielectric function, optical absorption spectra and reflectivity, which are also varied with the increasing of Bi concentrations. - Graphical abstract: Top view of Bi-doped GaAs nanowires. Ga, As, and Bi atoms are denoted with grey, purple and red balls, respectively. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A typical model of Ga{sub 31}As{sub 31} nanowires is introduced for its reasonable band gap. • The band gap of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} shrinks clearly with the increasing Bi concentration. • The band edge shifts when spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is considered. • The insertion of Bi atom leads to hybridization of Ga/As/Bi p states.

  13. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela; Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Berea, Edgardo; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlore nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Zanetti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlores Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (alpha-BZN, and Bi2(Zn1/3Nb2/32O 7 (beta-BZN have been synthesized by chemical method based on the polymeric precursors. The pyrochlore phase was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and X ray diffraction. Powder and sintered pellets morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The study of alpha-BZN phase formation reveals that, at 500 °C, the pyrochlore phase was already present while a single-phased nanopowder was obtained after calcination at 700 °C. The crystallization mechanism of the beta-BZN is quite different, occurring through the crystallization of alpha-BZN and BiNbO4 intermediary phases. Both compositions yielded soft agglomerated powders. alpha-BZN pellets, sintered at 800 °C for 2 hours, presented a relative density of 97.3% while those of beta-BZN, sintered at 900 °C for 2 hours, reached only 91.8%. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss, measured at 1 MHz, were 150 and 4 x/10-4 for a-BZN, and 97 and 8 x 10-4 for beta-BZN.

  15. Structure, spectra and stability of solid bismuth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Peter; Sunder, S.; Lopata, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    A previously unreported basic bismuth carbonate, (BiO)sub(4)(OH)sub(2)COsub(3), has been identified as an intermediate product in the interconversion of α-Bisub(2)Osub(3) and synthetic bismutite, (BiO)sub(2)COsub(3), in aqueous carbonate solutions. It has a narrow stability field between COsub(2) partial pressures of 10sup(-5.5+-1.0) Pa, in the presence of dilute aqueous solution at 25 degrees C. Gibbs energies of formation, calculated from these partial pressures, are Δsub(f)Gsup(0)((BiO)sub(4)(OH)sub(2)COsub(3),s,298.15 K)-1678 +- 9 kJ molsup(-1) and Δsub(f)Gsup(0)((BiO)sub(2)COsub(3),s,298.15 K)=-945 +- 7 kJ molsup(-1). The two carbonates have been compared by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray powder diffractometry, and infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The unit cell of (BiO)sub(4)(OH)sub(2)COsub(3) is dimensionally orthorhombic, with a=10.772(1), b=5.4898(5), c=14.757(1)angstrom,Z=4, but its true symmetry is probably triclinic. A structural model for (BiO)sub(4)(OH)sub(2)COsub(3), and two modified models for (BiO)sub(2)COsub(3), are proposed. The possible natural occurrence of (BiO)sub(4)(OH)sub(2)COsub(3) is discussed

  16. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Petrochenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing mode. The reactor is distinct in that it has a high level of self-protection and passive safety, it is factory manufactured and the assembled reactor can be transported by railway. Multipurpose application of the reactor is presumed, primarily, it can be used for regional power to produce electricity, heat and for water desalination. The Project is being realized within the framework of state-private partnership with joint venture OJSC “AKME-Engineering” established on a parity basis by the State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” and the Limited Liability Company “EuroSibEnergo”.

  17. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L., E-mail: argelia.almaguer@mac.com; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Odontología, DEPeI, I (Mexico); Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa (Mexico); Berea, Edgardo [FarmaQuimia SA de CV. (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  18. Superconductivity in the unconventional high pressure phase bismuth-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semeniuk, Konstantin; Brown, Philip; Vasiljkovic, Aleksandar; Grosche, Malte [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    One of the most surprising developments in high pressure research was the realisation that many elements assume very unexpected high pressure structures, described in terms of extremely large or even infinite unit cells. Elemental bismuth, which has been known to undergo a series of pressure induced structural transitions between 25 kbar and 80 kbar, is an interesting example: the intermediate pressure Bi-III phase has a complex 'host-guest' structure consisting of two incommensurate sublattices. Since the unit cell is infinitely large, the description of electronic and lattice excitations is problematic. Apart from its metallic character and the observation of superconductivity at low temperature, little is known about the electronic structure in this phase. We investigate the electrical resistivity within the metallic Bi-III phase under high hydrostatic pressure and in applied magnetic field using a piston cylinder cell. Superconductivity is observed below 7.1 K, and we extract the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, which exceeds 2 T at low temperature. The normal state resistivity exhibits an approximately linear temperature dependence. This could be attributed to strong scattering from low-lying excitations, as caused by an unusually soft phonon spectrum. The results suggest that strong coupling superconductivity arises within the host-guest structure of Bi-III out of an unusual electronic state.

  19. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.

    1976-12-15

    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  20. Monitoring of water movement in paddy field's soil using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Kouichi Yuita

    1994-01-01

    Water movement in soils at the lower course and the middle course of Sakawa River's paddy field was monitored over an 8 week period using a bromide tracer. The water of soil samples taken one day after bromide application contained high concentrations of bromide at 50 to 60 cm soil depth at lower course. The bromide was concentrated promarily within 20 to 80 cm depth. No downward movement below 80 cm depth was detected six weeks afetr the application. This might indicate the high water table of this area. On the other hand, bromide concentrations were high at 50 cm depth in water of the soils sample taken one day after application from the middle course of Sakawa River plot. However, the concentrations were nearly at background level in all samples taken from the middle course of sakawa River 3 weeks after application. The evidence from bromide's movement shows that water readily penetrate the soils at the middle course of Sakawa River. The downward movement was faster compared to that at lower course

  1. Partial molar volume and isentropic compressibility of symmetrical and asymmetrical quaternary ammonium bromides in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nicolás; Buchner, Richard; Vargas, Edgar F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural effects of the cations on surrounding water molecules are discussed. • Alkyl-chain geometry determines the hydration of Bu 4 N + isomers. • The “compactness” in the hydration shells varies significantly among the isomers. - Abstract: Values of apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility of symmetric and asymmetric isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide, namely tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, tetra-iso-butylammonium bromide, tetra-sec-butylammonium bromide, di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide and di-n-butyl-di-sec-butylammonium bromide, in aqueous solution were determined from density and speed of sound measurements. These properties were obtained as a function of molal concentration within the range of 0.01 < m/mol · kg −1 < 0.1 covering temperatures from 278.15 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 293.15. The partial molar volumes and the apparent isentropic molar compressibility at infinite dilution were calculated and their dependence on temperature examined. The results show that cations with sec-butyl chains have larger structural volumes compared to those with iso-butyl chains. In addition, cations with sec-butyl chains induce smaller structural changes in their hydration shell than the others

  2. MEXICO loop provides essential technology for MYRRHA. SCK•CEN investigates the chemistry of lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In the MYRRHA facility, Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) alloy will act as the primary coolant. There are different experimental lead-bismuth loops in the world. Most have been designed to study steel corrosion in LBE or the thermohydraulics of LBE. The article discusses the MEXICO test loop, which has been developed by SCK-CEN to investigate the chemistry of leadbismuth.

  3. The safety and efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate in combination with antibiotics for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyeth, J. W.; Pounder, R. E.; Duggan, A. E.; O'Morain, C. A.; Schaufelberger, H. D.; de Koster, E. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Gilvarry, J.; Buckley, M. J.; Gummett, P. A.; Logan, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate is a novel salt of ranitidine and a bismuth citrate complex. It has intrinsic antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, but monotherapy rarely eradicates H. pylori infection in man. A pilot study to investigate rates of H. pylori eradication achieved by

  4. The influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Van Zwet, AA; Kooy, A; Kleibeuker, JH

    Aim: To assess the influence of metronidazole resistance on the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy regimens in two consecutive studies. Methods: In the first study, patients with a culture-proven Helicobacter pylori infection were treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate 400

  5. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  6. Inhalable Ipratropium Bromide Particle Engineering with Multicriteria Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjamuri, Bhavani Prasad; Haware, Rahul V; Stagner, William C

    2017-08-01

    Spray-dried ipratropium bromide (IPB) microspheres for oral inhalation were engineered using Quality by Design. The interrogation of material properties, process parameters, and critical product quality attributes interplay enabled rational product design. A 2 7-3 screening design exhibited the Maillard reaction between L-leucine (LL) and lactose at studied outlet temperatures (OT) >130°C. A response surface custom design was used in conjunction with multicriteria optimization to determine the operating design space to achieve inhalable microparticles. Statistically significant predictive models were developed for volume median diameter (p = 0.0001, adjusted R 2   = 0.9938), span (p = 0.0278, adjusted R 2   = 0.7912), yield (p = 0.0020, adjusted R 2   = 0.9320), and OT (p = 0.0082, adjusted R 2   = 0.8768). An independent verification batch confirmed the model's predictive capability. The prediction and actual values were in good agreement. Particle size and span were 3.32 ± 0.09 μm and 1.71 ± 0.18, which were 4.7 and 5.3% higher than the predicted values. The process yield was 50.3%, compared to the predicted value of 65.3%. The OT was 100°C versus the predicted value of 105°C. The label strength of IPB microparticles was 99.0 to 105.9% w/w suggesting that enrichment occurred during the spray-drying process. The present study can be utilized to initiate the design of the first commercial IPB dry powder inhaler.

  7. Membrane electrodes for the determination of pyridostigmine bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Salem, Maissa Y; El-Bardicy, Mohamed G; Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K

    2009-01-01

    Two pyridostigmine bromide (PB) selective electrodes were investigated with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as a plasticizer in a polymeric matrix of carboxylated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH), based on the interaction between the drug solution and the dissociated COOH groups in the PVC-COOH. One of the sensors was fabricated by using PVC-COOH only as anionic site without incorporation of an ionophore (sensor 1). The second sensor was constructed by using 2-hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin as an ionophore (sensor 2). Linear responses of PB within a concentration range of 10(-3)-10(-2) and 10(-5)-10(-2) M, with slopes of 51.9 +/- 0.31 and 56.7 +/- 0.40 mV/decade over pH range of 5-10 were obtained using sensors 2 and 1, respectively. The proposed method displayed useful analytical characteristics for determination of PB in tablets with average recoveries of 100.22 +/- 0.62, and 100.15 +/- 0.72, and in plasma with average recoveries of 99.14 +/- 1.19 and 99.79 +/- 0.72, for sensors 2 and 1, respectively. The utility of 2-hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin as an ionophore has a significant influence on increasing both membrane sensitivity and selectivity of sensor 2 in comparison with sensor 1. The methods were also used to determine the intact drug in the presence of its degradate, and thus could be used as stability-indicating methods. The results obtained by the proposed procedures were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by the U.S. Pharmacopeia method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  8. Fluorescence Decay Dynamics of Ethidium Bromide in Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Ah Young; Min Yung

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescence lifetimes of EB in five polymers covering LDPE, HDPE, PC, PS, and PAA were measured by picosecond time-correlated single photon counting. The lifetime change of EB has been previously described by hydrogen bonding ability. In this work, we have observed that the lifetime of EB depends strongly on the Young's modulus of medium. Thus, it is possible that the fluorescence decay dynamics of EB could be influenced by medium rigidity rather than hydrogen bonding ability in polymer. The medium influence on the fluorescence decay dynamics of ethidium bromide (EB) has been investigated in various environments. For example, Ohmstead and Kearns related the fluorescence lifetime of EB to the excited-state proton transfer process. In addition, they reported that the solvent viscosity plays a minor role in the excited state decay process of EB. Chirico et al. measured the fluorescence decay of EB as 1.7 ns in water and 6.5 ns in ethanol and concluded that hydrogen bonding ability is a key factor for the nonradiative relaxation. Pal et al. measured the fluorescence decay time of EB in acetone, acetonitrile, and their mixtures. They observed that the fluorescence decay processes were independent on the solvent polarity. These results show that the EB lifetime does not depend much on polarity or viscosity, but is mainly influenced by hydrogen bonding. Overall, EB is one of most widely used dyes for probing DNA. When EB is intercalated into the helical structure of DNA, a large increase in the fluorescence lifetime has been observed in comparison with water environment, and the fluorescence enhancement was attributed to the blocking of the excited-state proton transfer

  9. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar

    2017-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  10. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 °C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1–4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h

  11. Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants. Membrane perturbation and skin irritation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A S Almeida

    Full Text Available Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line, frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of ³¹P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by ³¹P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism.

  12. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  13. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail: fganji@modares.ac.ir; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  14. Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Furushima, Ryoichi; Uematsu, Keizo; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Doshida, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a- and b-axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 deg. C.

  15. Overview of the use of ATHENA for thermal-hydraulic analysis of systems with lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.B.; Shieh, A. S.

    2000-01-01

    The INEEL and MIT are investigating the suitability of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. This paper is concerned with the general area of thermal-hydraulics of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code is being used in the thermal-hydraulic design and analysis of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code was reviewed to determine its applicability for simulating lead-bismuth cooled reactors. Two modifications were made to the code as a result of this review. Specifically, a correlation to represent heat transfer from rod bundles to a liquid metal and a void correlation based on data taken in a mixture of lead-bismuth and steam were added the code. The paper also summarizes the analytical work that is being performed with the code and plans for future analytical work

  16. Overview of the Use of ATHENA for Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Systems with Lead-Bismuth Coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cliff Bybee; Shieh, Arthur Shan Luk

    2000-04-01

    The INEEL and MIT are investigating the suitability of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. This paper is concerned with the general area of thermal-hydraulics of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code is being used in the thermal-hydraulic design and analysis of lead-bismuth cooled reactors. The ATHENA code was reviewed to determine its applicability for simulating lead-bismuth cooled reactors. Two modifications were made to the code as a result of this review. Specifically, a correlation to represent heat transfer from rod bundles to a liquid metal and a void correlation based on data taken in a mixture of lead-bismuth and steam were added the code. The paper also summarizes the analytical work that is being performed with the code and plans for future analytical work.

  17. 2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel(II) Bromide and 2,6-Bis(ketimine)phenylnickel(II) Bromide: Synthesis, Structural Features, and Redox Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, M.; Snelders, D.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836257; Godbole, M.D.; Havenith, R.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205279546; Haddleton, D.M.; Clarkson, G.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Spek, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156517566; van Klink, G.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/170637964; van Koten, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073839191

    2007-01-01

    2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel bromide complexes [NiBr(R,R'-Phebox)] (2) were synthesized via two synthetic routes (A and B). In route A, selective bis-ortho lithiation of [R,R'-PheboxBr], followed by a transmetalation reaction with [NiBr2(PEt3)2], yielded not only complexes 2 with an

  18. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yong; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi 2 CdO 4 phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  19. Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.; Suzuki, T.; Ohishi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We fabricated a series of glasses with the composition 94.7-χGeO 2 -5Al 2 O 3 -0.3Bi 2 O 3 -χPbO (χ=0-24 mol. %). Characteristic absorption bands of bismuth centered at 500, 700, 800, and 1000 nm were observed. Adding PbO was found to decrease the strength of bismuth absorption. The addition of 3%-4% PbO resulted in a 50% increase in lifetime, a 20-fold increase in quantum efficiency, and a 28-fold increase in the product of emission cross section and lifetime on the 0% PbO composition. We propose that the 800 nm absorption band relates a different bismuth center than the other absorption bands

  20. Potentiation of the action of metronidazole on Helicobacter pylori by omeprazole and bismuth subcitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L P; Colding, H; Kristiansen, J E

    2000-01-01

    test (Etest). With 0.5 MIC of either of the two drugs, the susceptibility of all H. pylori4 mg/l) reverted to being metronidazole sensitive. These results suggested that either bismuth salts or proton pump inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of some infections with metronidazole-resistant H...... to regimens that include proton pump inhibitors. In the present study, the synergistic effect of subinhibitory concentrations (0.25-0.5 MIC) of either bismuth subcitrate or omeprazole with metronidazole on the susceptibility of 42 H. pylori strains was investigated by agar dilution method and the Epsilometer......Treatment failures using triple therapy that include metronidazole, are common in patients infected with metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. Higher eradication rates in such patients have been described when treatment regimens include bismuth salts compared...

  1. Characteristics of polonium contamination from neutral irradiated lead-bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, T.; Obara, T.; Sekimoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    After neutron capture, bismuth-209 changes to polonium-210 that emits α-particles. Lead-Bismuth eutectic (LBE) in reactor system contaminates the system by polonium. We analyzed adsorbed materials from melted LBE on quartz glass plate. Lead, bismuth and their oxides were confirmed in adsorbed materials. And, we evaluated the baking method in vacuum for removal of polonium and adsorbed materials on quartz glass plate. It was evaluated that it is possible to remove almost all the polonium from the quartz glass plate by baking at temperature more than 300 C. degrees. Unfolding method was applied to calculate polonium distribution in LBE ingot. From measured α-particle pulse height distribution, the polonium distribution in depth of LBE ingot was calculated using quadratic programming code, where response functions are calculated by Monte Carlo method. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of Bismuth Stannate Nanoparticles with High Photocatalytic Activity under the Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gnanamoorthy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malachite Green is one of the most important organic dye, it contains triphenylmethane groups and it has been widely used for many industries. The hazardous dyes were rapidly act on immune and reproductive systems with carcinogenic effect of human health. Different methods were used for the hazardous removal in various industries, such as photocatalysis, biological treatment and adsorption process. The bismuth stannate nanoparticles have special properties of the hydrogen storage, biomolecule detection, gas sensors and catalysis. The bismuth stannate nanoparticles can be used for the degradation of organic pollutants and bismuth stannate is an important ternary oxide semiconductor with a wide band gap material. The composites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method, the obtained product was characterized by XRD, Raman, the morphology structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and optical properties were carried out by DRS-UV-Vis spectroscopy. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the catalyst was evaluated by malachite green under the visible light.

  3. Synthesis of binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods with sensitive electrochemical sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yong [Xinjiang Univ., Xinjiang (China). School of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Pei, Lizhai; Wei, Tian [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Anhui (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-07-15

    Binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process without templates and additives. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanorods possess single crystalline tetragonal Bi{sub 2}CdO{sub 4} phase. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show that the length and diameter of the nanorods are 20-300 nm and 5-10 μm, respectively. The formation of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods is closely related to the hydrothermal parameters. The electrochemical sensing performance of the binary bismuth-cadmium oxide nanorods has been investigated using the nanorods as glassy carbon electrode modifiers. The detection limit is 0.19 μM with a linear range of 0.0005-2 mM. The nanorod-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity toward L-cysteine and great application potential for electrochemical sensors.

  4. Bismuth- and lithium-loaded plastic scintillators for gamma and neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Sanner, Robert D.; Beck, Patrick R.; Swanberg, Erik L.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Payne, Stephen A.; Hurlbut, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators based on polyvinyltoluene (PVT) have been fabricated with high loading of bismuth carboxylates for gamma spectroscopy, and with lithium carboxylates for neutron detection. When activated with a combination of standard fluors, 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and tetraphenylbutadiene (TPB), gamma light yields with 15 wt% bismuth tripivalate of 5000 Ph/MeV are measured. A PVT plastic formulation including 30 wt% lithium pivalate and 30 wt% PPO offers both pulse shape discrimination, and a neutron capture peak at ~400 keVee. In another configuration, a bismuth-loaded PVT plastic is coated with ZnS( 6 Li) paint, permitting simultaneous gamma and neutron detection via pulse shape discrimination with a figure-of-merit of 3.8, while offering gamma spectroscopy with energy resolution of R(662 keV)=15%

  5. Study of magnesium bismuth alloys with a composition close to Mg3Bi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournier, Jean

    1964-01-01

    The author reports the study of magnesium-bismuth alloys with a high bismuth content. These alloys were aimed to be irradiated in a pile at a temperature of about 300 C, and thus had specific requirements regarding their bismuth content, a high density, a high fusion point with also a pressure strength constraint. The author first reports the determination of an alloy grade which could meet these requirements, and then reports issues related to their elaboration by performing optical micrography and X ray analysis in order to investigate their homogeneity. Then, the alloy hot compression strength has been assessed under significantly higher constraining conditions. Fusion point and density have also been measured. As a fast alloy degradation has been noticed, brief corrosion tests have been performed

  6. Optical properties of thermally reduced bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.H.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Heat-treatment of multivalent ion containing glasses in a hydrogen atmosphere may cause both reduction of the multivalent ions and ionic inward diffusion, resulting in improved glass properties. Bismuth-doped glasses are also interesting objects not only concerning the reduction induced diffusion...... pressure of hydrogen. Here, we present results on the effect of the heat-treatment on the optical properties of bismuth-doped sodium aluminosilicate glasses.......Heat-treatment of multivalent ion containing glasses in a hydrogen atmosphere may cause both reduction of the multivalent ions and ionic inward diffusion, resulting in improved glass properties. Bismuth-doped glasses are also interesting objects not only concerning the reduction induced diffusion...

  7. Peculiarities of the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Sokolova, E.A.; Makovej, Z.I.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of fusible metal alloys interaction with ammonium halogenides in vertical reactor are considered using indium-tin and indium-bismuth binary alloys. It is shown that at the end of the process the composition of metal and salt phases is determined by the equilibrium type and constant characteristic of the given salt-metal system. As a result the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium which may be used in the processes of separation or purification. A model is suggested to calculate the final concentration of salt and metal phase components

  8. Evaluation of the gamma radiation shielding parameters of bismuth modified quaternary glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Parminder; Singh, K. J.; Thakur, Sonika

    2018-05-01

    Glasses modified with heavy metal oxides (HMO) are an interesting area of research in the field of gamma-ray shielding. Bismuth modified lithium-zinc-borate glasses have been studied whereby bismuth oxide is added from 0 to 50 mol%. The gamma ray shielding properties of the glasses were evaluated at photon energy 662 keV with the help of XMuDat computer program by using the Hubbell and Seltzer database. Various gamma ray shielding parameters such as attenuation coefficient, shield thickness in terms of half and tenth value layer, effective atomic number have been studied in this work. A useful comparison of this glass system has been made with standard radiation shielding concretes viz. ordinary, barite and iron concrete. The glass samples containing 20 to 50 mol% bismuth oxide have shown better gamma ray shielding properties and hence have the potential to become good radiation absorbers.

  9. Bismuth Passivation Technique for High-Resolution X-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Hess, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Athena-plus team requires X-ray sensors with energy resolution of better than one part in 3,000 at 6 keV X-rays. While bismuth is an excellent material for high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity (for large signal when an X-ray is stopped by the absorber), oxidation of the bismuth surface can lead to electron traps and other effects that degrade the energy resolution. Bismuth oxide reduction and nitride passivation techniques analogous to those used in indium passivation are being applied in a new technique. The technique will enable improved energy resolution and resistance to aging in bismuth-absorber-coupled X-ray sensors. Elemental bismuth is lithographically integrated into X-ray detector circuits. It encounters several steps where the Bi oxidizes. The technology discussed here will remove oxide from the surface of the Bi and replace it with nitridized surface. Removal of the native oxide and passivating to prevent the growth of the oxide will improve detector performance and insulate the detector against future degradation from oxide growth. Placing the Bi coated sensor in a vacuum system, a reduction chemistry in a plasma (nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) + argon) is used to remove the oxide and promote nitridization of the cleaned Bi surface. Once passivated, the Bi will perform as a better X-ray thermalizer since energy will not be trapped in the bismuth oxides on the surface. A simple additional step, which can be added at various stages of the current fabrication process, can then be applied to encapsulate the Bi film. After plasma passivation, the Bi can be capped with a non-diffusive layer of metal or dielectric. A non-superconducting layer is required such as tungsten or tungsten nitride (WNx).

  10. Synthesis and characterization of titanium oxide/bismuth sulfide nanorods for solar cells applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, M.; Rincon, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work is showed the synthesis and characterization of titanium oxide/bismuth sulfide nanowires hetero-junctions for solar cells applications. Conductive glass substrates (Corning 25 x 75 mm) were coated with a thin layer of sol-gel TiO2 and used as substrates for the subsequent deposition of bismuth sulfide nanorods (BN). TiO2 films (∼400 nm) were deposited with a semiautomatic immersion system with controlled immersion/withdraw velocity, using titanium isopropoxide as the titania precursor [1]. For BN synthesis and deposition, the solvo-thermal method was used, introducing air annealed TiO2-substrates in the autoclave. The typical bilayer TiO2/BN hetero-junction was 600 nm thick. The synthesized materials (powders and films) were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Anatase was the crystalline phase of TiO2, while bismuth sulfide nanotubes show a diffraction pattern characteristic of bismuthinite distorted by the preferential growth of some planes [2-4]. The optoelectronic characterization of TiO2/NB hetero-junctions was compared with hetero-junctions obtained by sensitizing TiO2 with chemically deposited bismuth sulfide films. Bismuth sulfide nanowires are 2µm long and 70nm wide (aspect ratio L/D = 43), while chemically deposited bismuth sulfide have L/D = 1, therefore the effect of particle size evaluation and geometry in the photosensitization phenomena will be discussed in the context of new materials for solar-cells applications. (Full text)

  11. Basic principles of lead and lead-bismuth eutectic application in blanket of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Pinaev, S.S.; Muraviev, E.V.; Romanov, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    High magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop is an important issue for liquid metal blanket concepts. To decrease magnetohydrodynamic resistance authors propose to form insulating coatings on internal surface of blanket ducts at any moment of fusion reactor exploitation. It may be achieved easily if lead or lead-bismuth eutectic is used and technology of oxidative potential handling is applied. A number of experiments carried out in NNSTU show the availability of the proposed technology. It bases on formation of the insulating coatings that consist of the oxides of components of the structural materials and of the coolant components. In-situ value of the insulating coatings characteristics ρδ is ∼ 10 -5 Ohm·m 2 for steels and 5,0x10 -6 - 5,0x10 -5 Ohm·m 2 for vanadium alloys. Thermal cycling is possible during exploitation of a blanket. The experimental research of the insulating coatings properties during thermal cycling have shown that the coatings formed into the lead and lead-bismuth coolants save there insulating properties. Experience of many years is an undoubted advantage of the lead-bismuth coolant and less of the lead coolant in comparison with lithium. Russian Federation possesses of experience of exploitation of the research and industrial facilities, of experience of creation of the pumps, steamgenerators and equipment with heavy liquid metal coolants. The unique experience of designing, assembling and exploitation of the fission reactors with lead-bismuth coolant is also available. The problem of technology of lead and lead-bismuth coolants for power high temperature radioactive facilities has been solved. Accidents, emergency situations such as leakage of steamgenerators or depressurization of gas system in facilities with lead and lead-bismuth coolants have been explored and suppressed. (author)

  12. Growth morphology and structure of bismuth thin films on GaSb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemmeren, T. van; Lottermoser, L.; Falkenberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the growth of thin layers of bismuth on GaSb(110). At submonolayer coverages, growth of two-dimensional islands occurs. A uniform (1 x I)-reconstructio...... that the (1 x 1)-phases formed by antimony and bismuth adsorbates on (110) surfaces of other III-V compound semiconductors are also described by the epitaxial continued layer model. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Evaluation of gamma-ray attenuation properties of bismuth borate glass systems using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D.A.; Gurler, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi 2 O 3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented. - Highlights: • Radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass systems have been reported. • Mass attenuation coefficients increase linearly with increase in Bi concentration. • Half-value layer decreases with increasing concentration of Bi. • Half-value layer decreases with the increase in the sample density.

  14. Neutron scattering differential cross sections of carbon and bismuth at 37 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zuying; Tang Hongqing; Qi Bujia; Zhou Chenwei; Du Yanfeng; Xia Haihong; Walter, R.L.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.; Braun, R.; Roper, C.; Chen Zemin; Chen Zhengpeng; Chen Yingtang

    1997-01-01

    Elastic differential cross sections of 37 MeV neutrons scattered from carbon and bismuth were measured in the angular range 11 to 160 degrees by means of the multi-detector TOF facility. The 37 MeV neutrons were produced via the T(d,n) 4 He reaction in a tritium gas target. The pulsed 20 MeV deuteron beam was provided by the HI-13 tandem accelerator. The angular distribution of scattered neutrons from carbon and bismuth were measured in the angular range 11 degree to 145 degree and 11 degree to 160 degree respectively in steps of about 3 degree

  15. Bismuth germanate's role in the new revolution in gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.R.; Baktash, C.; Lee, I.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the considerations on how to effectively incorporate bismuth germanate into complex detection systems are covered, and some of these new systems now in operation or under construction are discussed. Significant achievements in gamma ray spectroscopy are reviewed as well as some recent results based on data taken with coincidence arrays of germanium detectors and Compton-suppression spectrometers. Then the first impact of bismuth germanate detectors on our understanding of the properties of nuclei that have high energy and very high angular momentum states are addressed

  16. Residential proximity to methyl bromide use and birth outcomes in an agricultural population in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmill, Alison; Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim G

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide, a fungicide often used in strawberry cultivation, is of concern for residents who live near agricultural applications because of its toxicity and potential for drift. Little is known about the effects of methyl bromide exposure during pregnancy. We investigated the relationship between residential proximity to methyl bromide use and birth outcomes. Participants were from the CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) study (n = 442), a longitudinal cohort study examining the health effects of environmental exposures on pregnant women and their children in an agricultural community in northern California. Using data from the California Pesticide Use Reporting system, we employed a geographic information system to estimate the amount of methyl bromide applied within 5 km of a woman's residence during pregnancy. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate associations between trimester-specific proximity to use and birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. High methyl bromide use (vs. no use) within 5 km of the home during the second trimester was negatively associated with birth weight (β = -113.1 g; CI: -218.1, -8.1), birth length (β = -0.85 cm; CI: -1.44, -0.27), and head circumference (β = -0.33 cm; CI: -0.67, 0.01). These outcomes were also associated with moderate methyl bromide use during the second trimester. Negative associations with fetal growth parameters were stronger when larger (5 km and 8 km) versus smaller (1 km and 3 km) buffer zones were used to estimate exposure. Residential proximity to methyl bromide use during the second trimester was associated with markers of restricted fetal growth in our study.

  17. Formic acid oxidation at platinum-bismuth catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ksenija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of heterogeneous catalysis, specifically catalysis on bimetallic surfaces, has seen many advances over the past few decades. Bimetallic catalysts, which often show electronic and chemical properties that are distinct from those of their parent metals, offer the opportunity to obtain new catalysts with enhanced selectivity, activity, and stability. The oxidation of formic acid is of permanent interest as a model reaction for the mechanistic understanding of the electrooxidation of small organic molecules and because of its technical relevance for fuel cell applications. Platinum is one of the most commonly used catalysts for this reaction, despite the fact that it shows a few significant disadvantages: high cost and extreme susceptibility to poisoning by CO. To solve this problem, several approaches have been used, but generally, they all consist in the modification of platinum with a second element. Especially, bismuth has received significant attention as Pt modifier. According to the results presented in this survey dealing with the effects influencing the formic acid oxidation it was found that two types of Pt-Bi bimetallic catalysts (bulk and low loading deposits on GC showed superior catalytic activity in terms of the lower onset potential and oxidation current density, as well as exceptional stability compared to Pt. The findings in this report are important for the understanding of mechanism of formic acid electrooxidation on a bulk alloy and decorated surface, for the development of advanced anode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells, as well as for the synthesis of novel low-loading bimetallic catalysts. The use of bimetallic compounds as the anode catalysts is an effective solution to overcoming the problems of the formic acid oxidation current stability for long term applications. In the future, the tolerance of both CO poisoning and electrochemical leaching should be considered as the key factors in the development

  18. Bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles with anaerobic antibacterial activity for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Jiménez, A. L.; Almaguer-Flores, A.; Flores-Castañeda, M.; Camps, E.; Uribe-Ramírez, M.; Aztatzi-Aguilar, O. G.; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, nanomaterials have been used in the medical-dental field as new alternative antimicrobial agents. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) has been used as an antimicrobial agent, but the effect of BSS in the form of nanoparticles (BSS-nano) as a potential antimicrobial agent has not been tested, in specific against bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of BSS-nano against oral anaerobic bacteria and to assess the safety of BSS-nano by evaluating their cytotoxicity in human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) cells. BSS-nano were synthesized by laser ablation and were previously physico-chemically characterized using in vitro assays. The antibacterial activity was measured using the tetrazolium-based XTT assay, and cytotoxicity was determined using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and MTS assays in HGF-1 cells. Transmission electron microscopy of HGF-1 exposed to BSS-nano was also performed. BSS-nano was shown to have a primary size of 4-22 nm and a polygonal shape. Among the tested bacterial strains, those with a greater sensitivity to BSS-nano (highest concentration of 21.7 μg ml-1) were A. actinomycetemcomitans, C. gingivalis, and P. gingivalis. BSS-nano at a concentration of 60 μg ml-1 showed low cytotoxicity (6%) in HFG-1 cells and was mainly localized intracellularly in acidic vesicles. Our results indicate that the concentration of BSS-nano used as an effective antibacterial agent does not induce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells; thus, BSS-nano can be applied as an antibacterial agent in dental materials or antiseptic solutions.

  19. Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic Spallation Neutron Source for Nuclear Transmuter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Herceg, J.; Krajtl, L.; Micklich, B.; Pointer, D.; Saiveau, J.; Sofu, T.; Finck, P.

    2002-01-01

    A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target design concept has been developed for the subcritical multiplier (SCM) design of the accelerator-driven test facility (ADTF). The design is based on a coaxial geometrical configuration, which has been carefully analyzed and designed to achieve an optimum performance. The target design description, the results from the parametric studies, and the design analyses including neutronics, heat transfer, and hydraulics analyses are given in this paper. A detailed MCNPX geometrical model for the target has been developed to generate heating rates and nuclear responses in the structural material for the design process. The beam has a uniform distribution of 600 MeV protons and 5-MW total power. A small LBE buffer is optimized to reduce the irradiation damage in the SCM fuel elements from the scatter protons and the high-energy neutrons, to maximize the neutron yield to the SCM operation, and to provide inlet and outlet manifolds for the LBE coolant. A special attention has been given to the target window design to enhance its lifetime. The window volumetric heating is 766 W/cm 3 relative to 750 W/cm 3 in LBE for a 40-μA/cm 2 current density. The results show that the nuclear heating from the proton beam diminishes at about 32 cm along the beam axis in the LBE target material. The neutron contribution to the atomic displacement is in the range of 94 to ∼100% for the structure material outside the proton beam path. In the beam window, the neutron contribution is ∼74% and the proton beam is responsible for more than 95% of the total gas production. The proton contribution to the gas production vanishes outside the beam path. The LBE average velocity is ∼2 m/s. The heat transfer and the hydraulics analyses have been iterated to reduce the maximum temperature and the thermal stress level in the target window to enhance its operating life. (authors)

  20. Fluorometric determination of ethidium bromide efflux kinetics in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Gabriel A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efflux pump activity has been associated with multidrug resistance phenotypes in bacteria, compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The development of methods for the early detection and quantification of drug transport across the bacterial cell wall is a tool essential to understand and overcome this type of drug resistance mechanism. This approach was developed to study the transport of the efflux pump substrate ethidium bromide (EtBr across the cell envelope of Escherichia coli K-12 and derivatives, differing in the expression of their efflux systems. Results EtBr transport across the cell envelope of E. coli K-12 and derivatives was analysed by a semi-automated fluorometric method. Accumulation and efflux of EtBr was studied under limiting energy supply (absence of glucose and low temperature and in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, chlorpromazine. The bulk fluorescence variations were also observed by single-cell flow cytometry analysis, revealing that once inside the cells, leakage of EtBr does not occur and that efflux is mediated by active transport. The importance of AcrAB-TolC, the main efflux system of E. coli, in the extrusion of EtBr was evidenced by comparing strains with different levels of AcrAB expression. An experimental model was developed to describe the transport kinetics in the three strains. The model integrates passive entry (influx and active efflux of EtBr, and discriminates different degrees of efflux between the studied strains that vary in the activity of their efflux systems, as evident from the calculated efflux rates: = 0.0173 ± 0.0057 min-1; = 0.0106 ± 0.0033 min-1; and = 0.0230 ± 0.0075 min-1. Conclusion The combined use of a semi-automated fluorometric method and an experimental model allowed quantifying EtBr transport in E. coli strains that differ in their overall efflux activity. This methodology can be used for the early detection of differences in

  1. Activity of aminotransferases in organs of rats during hypoxia of enclosed space of the action of thiamine bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сніжана Сергіївна Чернадчук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied an aminotransferase activity during injection of thiamin bromide in rat tissues in normal and hypoxic enclosed space. After injection of thiamine bromide we have set reduction of AST and ALT activity, relative to control, except by the brain tissue, where there was an increase of investigated indicators. The decrease of activity of the investigated elements is occurred in animals which before hypoxia were injection of thiamine bromide

  2. Ethidium bromide resistance of L929 cells is accompanied by regular changes in karotype structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinchuk, T.M.; Novikova, I.Yu.; Sorokina, E.A.; Sal'nikov, K.V.

    1988-01-01

    Using the method of differential staining of chromosomes for G-bands a comparative karyological analysis of line L 929 mouse cells has been conducted, after the L 929 cells had been sequentially selected for resistance to ethidium bromide at concentrations of 1, 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml and had retained these levels of resistance for a number of cell generations. It was found that the resistant variants exhibited certain karyotypic changes. Only thirteen of the thirty six marker chromosomes typical of the original ethidium bromide-sensitive cells were preserved. Sixteen of the markers were specific for the resistant variants. The changes detected arose at the initial selection stage and were preserved unaltered as the concentration of the toxin was raised. The detection of similar karyotypic changes in cells of clone L 929 of independent origin selected for resistance of 3 μg/ml of ethidium bromide and also in cells of the clone selected for resistance to 25 μg/ml of ethidium bromide and studied previously by the present authors suggests that these changes are universal for L 929 cells resistant to ethidium bromide

  3. Profile of aclidinium bromide in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims MW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael W Sims, Reynold A Panettieri, Jr. Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, Airways Biology Initiative, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Bronchodilators provide the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular, appear to be the most effective. There are currently two anticholinergic agents available in the US for the treatment of COPD (ipratropium bromide and tiotropium bromide, but several others are in various stages of development. Aclidinium bromide, a novel, long-acting, anticholinergic bronchodilator, is currently in Phase III trials for the management of COPD. Available evidence suggests that aclidinium is a safe and well tolerated drug with a relatively rapid onset and a sufficient duration of action to provide once-daily dosing. This article will provide a pharmacologic profile of aclidinium bromide and review the preclinical and clinical studies evaluating its safety and efficacy in the treatment of COPD. Keywords: aclidinium bromide, bronchodilators, pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, muscarinic antagonists, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology

  4. Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Rocuronium Bromide between Patients from the Plateau Area and from the Plain Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Huang, Jianxin; Li, Peng; Ou, Zhiyan; Hou, Jing

    2016-06-23

    We aimed to conduct a pharmacodynamic comparison of rocuronium bromide between patients from the plateau area and from the plain area. A total of 104 patients who received laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital and Aba Autonomous Prefecture People's Hospital from October 2015 to December 2015 were included in this study. Among them, 46 patients were from the plateau area and 58 were from the plain area. Both groups received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with a dose of 0.6mg/kg rocuronium bromide during induction. In the meantime, neuromuscular block was monitored using a train-of-four (TOF) stimulation mode. The onset time (time to achieve the lowest TOF value after the injection of rocuronium bromide), duration of maximal neuromuscular block (duration of lowest T1 value), time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery, recovery index (time from 25% recovery to 75% recovery), time to extubation, length of stay in Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and muscle strength upon PACU discharge were all recorded. The onset time, time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery and time to extubation were all significantly prolonged in patients from the plateau area after receiving one single dose of rocuronium bromide (P0.05). Compared to patients from the plain area, patients from the plateau area showed prolonged onset time of rocuronium bromide, reduced metabolic capabilities and longer duration of muscular relaxation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  6. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in soils containing macropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in the spatially highly resolved model domain. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide and Isoproturon (IPU) for the 13 spatial model setups, which performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of IPU, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  7. Rocuronium Bromide Inhibits Inflammation and Pain by Suppressing Nitric Oxide Production and Enhancing Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sang Bin; Shin, Mal Soon; Han, Jin Hee; Moon, Sang Woong; Chang, Boksoon; Jeon, Jung Won; Yi, Jae Woo; Chung, Jun Young

    2016-12-01

    Rocuronium bromide is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug and has been used as an adjunct for relaxation or paralysis of the skeletal muscles, facilitation of endotracheal intubation, and improving surgical conditions during general anesthesia. However, intravenous injection of rocuronium bromide induces injection pain or withdrawal movement. The exact mechanism of rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement is not yet understood. We investigated whether rocuronium bromide treatment is involved in the induction of inflammation and pain in vascular endothelial cells. For this study, calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells were used, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Western blot, nitric oxide detection, and prostaglandin E 2 immunoassay were conducted. Rocuronium bromide treatment inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase and suppressed nitric oxide production in CPAE cells. Rocuronium bromide activated cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and increased prostaglandin E 2 synthesis in CPAE cells. Rocuronium bromide induced inflammation and pain in CPAE cells. Suppressing nitric oxide production and enhancing prostaglandin E 2 synthesis might be associated with rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement.

  8. Adsorption of volatile polonium and bismuth species on metals in various gas atmospheres. Pt. I. Adsorption of volatile polonium and bismuth on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Neuhausen, Joerg; Dressler, Rugard; Piguet, David; Voegele, Alexander; Schumann, Dorothea [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Radiochemistry; Eichler, Robert [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Radiochemistry; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. for Chemistry and Biochemistry; Rijpstra, Kim [Ghent Univ., Zwijnaarde (Belgium). Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM); Cottenier, Stefaan [Ghent Univ., Zwijnaarde (Belgium). Center for Molecular Modeling (CMM); Ghent Univ., Zwijnaarde (Belgium). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-07-01

    Polonium isotopes are considered the most hazardous radionuclides produced during the operation of accelerator driven systems (ADS) when lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is used as the reactor coolant and as the spallation target material. In this work the use of gold surfaces for capturing polonium from the cover gas of the ADS reactor was studied by thermochromatography. The results show that gaseous monoatomic polonium, formed in dry hydrogen, is adsorbed on gold at 1058 K. Its adsorption enthalpy was calculated as -250±7 kJ mol{sup -1}, using a Monte Carlo simulation code. Highly volatile polonium species that were observed in similar experiments in fused silica columns in the presence of moisture in both inert and reducing gas were not detected in the experiments studying adsorption on gold surfaces. PoO{sub 2} is formed in both dry and moist oxygen, and its interaction with gold is characterized by transport reactions. The interaction of bismuth, present in large amounts in the atmosphere of the ADS, with gold was also evaluated. It was found that bismuth has a higher affinity for gold, compared to polonium, in an inert, reducing, and oxidizing atmosphere. This fact must be considered when using gold as a material for filtering polonium in the cover gas of ADS.

  9. Effects of crystallite structure and interface band alignment on the photocatalytic property of bismuth ferrite/ (N-doped) graphene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pai; Chen, Qiang; Lin, Yinyin; Chang, Gang; He, Yunbin

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth ferrite/graphene (N-doped graphene) photocatalysts are successfully prepared by a facile and effective two-step hydrothermal method. Bismuth ferrite/graphene shows superior photocatalytic activity compared with bismuth ferrite/N-doped graphene and pure BiFeO 3 . X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses indicate that Bi 25 FeO 40 crystalline phase is obtained with the addition of graphene, while BiFeO 3 is formed under the same hydrothermal conditions in the presence of N-doped graphene. Core-level and valence-band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses reveal a downward band bending of bismuth ferrite (∼0.5 eV) at the interface of the bismuth ferrite/(N-doped) graphene composites, which facilitates the electron transfer from bismuth ferrite to (N-doped) graphene and suppresses the recombination of photo-generated electron–hole pairs. This downward bending band alignment at the interface supposes to be the main mechanism underlying the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the bismuth ferrite/graphene composites that are currently of great interest in the photocatalysis field. - Highlights: • Bismuth ferrite/(N-doped) graphene composites were prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Bi 25 FeO 40 and BiFeO 3 were obtained with presence of graphene and N-graphene, respectively. • Bi 25 FeO 40 /graphene shows superior photocatalytic activity over BiFeO 3 and BiFeO 3 /N-graphene. • A downward band bending (∼0.5 eV) of bismuth ferrite exists at the composites interface. • The downward band bending supposes to be the mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  10. Ultrathin bismuth nanosheets from in situ topotactic transformation for selective electrocatalytic CO2 reduction to formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Wang, Yu; Yang, Hui; Deng, Jun; Wu, Jinghua; Li, Yafei; Li, Yanguang

    2018-04-03

    Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction to formate is desirable but challenging. Current attention is mostly focused on tin-based materials, which, unfortunately, often suffer from limited Faradaic efficiency. The potential of bismuth in carbon dioxide reduction has been suggested but remained understudied. Here, we report that ultrathin bismuth nanosheets are prepared from the in situ topotactic transformation of bismuth oxyiodide nanosheets. They process single crystallinity and enlarged surface areas. Such an advantageous nanostructure affords the material with excellent electrocatalytic performance for carbon dioxide reduction to formate. High selectivity (~100%) and large current density are measured over a broad potential, as well as excellent durability for >10 h. Its selectivity for formate is also understood by density functional theory calculations. In addition, bismuth nanosheets were coupled with an iridium-based oxygen evolution electrocatalyst to achieve efficient full-cell electrolysis. When powered by two AA-size alkaline batteries, the full cell exhibits impressive Faradaic efficiency and electricity-to-formate conversion efficiency.

  11. Study of bismuth oxide compounds as cathodic materials in lithium accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, R.D.; Shembel', E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two groups of bismuth oxide base compounds: rare earth bismuthides - SmBiO 3 and EuBiO 3 , as well as the Aurivillius phase - Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , were synthesized and electrochemically studied as novel cathodic materials for high-energy lithium current sources [ru

  12. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 [Docket No... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College... results from a 90-day oral toxicity study on bismuth citrate in rats, genotoxicity studies, dermal...

  13. Sensing characteristics of nanocrystalline bismuth oxide clad-modified fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, M.; Karthikeyan, B.; Sastikumar, D.

    2017-08-01

    Gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline bismuth oxide clad - modified fiber optic sensor is reported for ammonia, ethanol, methanol and acetone gasses at room temperature. The output of sensor increases or decreases for certain gasses when the concentration of the gas is increased. The sensor exhibits high response and good selectivity to methanol gas. Time response characteristics of the sensor are also reported.

  14. The design of the data acquisition system for a very large bismuth germanate calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, J.; Isaila, M.; Piroue, P.; Stickland, D.; Sumner, R.

    1984-02-01

    LEPC, the Large Electron Positron Collider being built at CERN, will be ready for experiments in 1988. A large array of bismuth germanate crystals will be part of one of the first experiments to be installed. Particles (including photons) resulting from the collisions will be identified and measured in the surrounding detector. At the center of this composite detector is a tracking device to observe the trajectories of all particles. Beyond this is the bismuth germanate array; it will measure the energy of electrons and photons from a few MeV to 100 GeV. This is surrounded by the hadron calorimeter. The bismuth germanate calorimeter will consist of about 12,000 individual bismuth germanate crystals. Each crystal will have an independent readout system. This system uses silicon photodiodes, each with its own ADC, to measure the scintillation light from each crystal. The ADC is implemented in software in a single chip microcomputer, using a modification of successive approximation, which produces a very wide dynamic range. The microcomputer also provides data buffering and several other housekeeping functions. The initial design of the readout system, presented in this paper, evolved from an attempt to minimize the size requirements and the number of cables needed, and to meet the dynamic range requirement in a practical way.

  15. The design of the data acquisition system for a very large bismuth germanate calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.; Isaila, M.; Piroue, P.; Stickland, D.; Sumner, R.

    1984-01-01

    LEPC, the Large Electron Positron Collider being built at CERN, will be ready for experiments in 1988. A large array of bismuth germanate crystals will be part of one of the first experiments to be installed. Particles (including photons) resulting from the collisions will be identified and measured in the surrounding detector. At the center of this composite detector is a tracking device to observe the trajectories of all particles. Beyond this is the bismuth germanate array; it will measure the energy of electrons and photons from a few MeV to 100 GeV. This is surrounded by the hadron calorimeter. The bismuth germanate calorimeter will consist of about 12,000 individual bismuth germanate crystals. Each crystal will have an independent readout system. This system uses silicon photodiodes, each with its own ADC, to measure the scintillation light from each crystal. The ADC is implemented in software in a single chip microcomputer, using a modification of successive approximation, which produces a very wide dynamic range. The microcomputer also provides data buffering and several other housekeeping functions. The initial design of the readout system, presented in this paper, evolved from an attempt to minimize the size requirements and the number of cables needed, and to meet the dynamic range requirement in a practical way

  16. Fridel-Crafts acylation using bismuth triflate in [BMI][PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Duus, Fritz; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate was found to be a good catalyst for the Friedel–Craftsacylation. Bismuthtriflate immobilized in an ionic liquid was the most efficient catalytic system. Bismuthtriflate in [BMI][PF6] catalyzes this reaction under microwave irradiation allowing the rapid synthesis...

  17. Studying Impact of Different Precipitating Agents on Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayuk Astuti

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Astuti, Y., Arnelli, Pardoyo, Fauziyah, A., Nurhayati, S., Wulansari, A.D., Andianingrum, R., Widiyandari, H., Bhaduri, G.A. (2017. Studying Impact of Different Precipitating Agents on Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Oxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 478-484 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.1144.478-484

  18. Microwave-assisted facile and rapid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of arenes catalysed by bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phoung Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pham, Thuy Than

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activity of metal triflates was investigated in Friedel–Crafts benzoylation under microwave irradiation. Friedel–Crafts benzoylation with benzoyl chloride of a variety of arenes containing electron-rich and electron-poor rings using bismuth triflate under microwave irradiation is de...

  19. Mucosa protectives: sucralfate and colloidal bismuth subcitrate in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Nio, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Mucosa protective drugs are thought to have an important role in the treatment of both duodenal (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) disease by means of correcting the disturbed defensive factors. Sucralfate as well as colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) form a layer on the ulcer base and in this way protect

  20. Dynamic spatial structure of spontaneous beams in photorefractive bismuth sillicon oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Lyuksyutov, S.; Vasnetsov, M.

    1996-01-01

    We report the domain structure of spontaneously occurring beams (subharmonics) in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide with an applied electric field from 1 to 6 kV/cm and a running grating. The subharmonic beams are generated in a pattern of domains that evolve dynamically as they move through ...

  1. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi 2 Te 3 and (Bi 0,5 Sb 1,5 )Te 3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  2. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed

  3. Structure-Composition-Property Relationships of Complex Bismuth Oxide Based Photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Thomas [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2014-01-08

    Development of a new family of up- and down-conversion materials based on oxtfluorides that can potentially increase photocatalytic activities of photocatalysts such as bismuth oxides and can also be used as phosphors in Al1-xGaxN-based devices and solar devices.

  4. Nanodomains and nanometer-scale disorder in multiferroic bismuth ferrite single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jia, C.L.; Jin, L.; Wang, D.; Mi, S.B.; Alexe, M.; Hesse, D.; Reichlová, Helena; Martí, Xavier; Bellaiche, L.; Urban, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 82, Jan (2015), s. 356-368 ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : bismuth ferrite * crystal growth * high-resolution electron microscopy * atomic structure * first-principles calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.058, year: 2015

  5. Study of inclusive proton spectra from 20 MeV deuteron breakup by bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiger, N.M.; Hallur, B.R.; Madhusoodhanan, T.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Darshan, V.P.; Sharma, H.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    The breakup of deuteron into proton and neutron has been studied earlier to understand the breakup mechanism. Inclusive measurements show the expected broad bumps near the beam velocity. In the present experiment, the breakup of 20 MeV deuterons by bismuth target has been investigated

  6. A sensitive fluorescence quenching method for determination of bismuth with tiron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taher, Mohammad Ali; Rahimi, Mina [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelirad, Hamid, E-mail: hamidfazelirad@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers Society, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, P.O. Box 76175-133, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    We describe a fluorescence quenching method for determination of bismuth with tiron. The method is based on the reaction of tiron by bismuth(III) in acidic media. The influence of variables such as the pH, type of buffer, tiron concentration, reaction time and temperature were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the fluorescence quenching extent is proportional to the concentration of bismuth for Bi–tiron system at the range 0.13–2.09 μg mL{sup −1} and the detection limit is 0.05 μg mL{sup −1}. The proposed sensor presented good repeatability, evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation (R.S.D.=±0.498%) for 11 replicates. This sensitive, rapid and accurate method has been successfully applied to the determination of trace bismuth(III) in water and hair samples and certified reference materials. -- Highlights: • No previous paper report on use of fluorescence quenching for determination of Bi. • Fluorescence quenching of trion is a sensitive method for determination of Bi(III). • Under the optimum conditions the detection limit is very low (0.05 μg mL{sup −1}). • The procedure is simple and safe and has high tolerance limit to interferences.

  7. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  8. Influence of bismuth on properties and microstructures of Sr0⋅ 5Ba0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 5. Influence of bismuth on properties and microstructures of Sr0.5Ba0.5–Bi TiO3 thin films. Tao Wenhong Wang Yin Fu Xinghua Wei Qihong. Thin Films Volume 29 Issue 5 October 2006 pp 523-527 ...

  9. Bismuth knowledge during the Renaissance strengthened by its use in Italian lustres production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    The knowledge of bismuth during the XV and XVI centuries represents an open question since, according to some authors, this element was confused with lead, tin and silver. On the contrary, G. Agricola (1494-1555), the pioneer of mineralogical science in Europe, in his two works (De Natura Fossilium, Lib X, 1546 and Bermannus Sive De Re Metallica Dialogus, 1528) asserts that bismuth was considered as an element distinct from the other metals at that time. This question gave rise to some interest, and von Lippmann in 1930 wrote a treatise dealing with the history of bismuth between 1400 and 1800. In this work we present the results obtained on Italian and Hispano-Moresque shards studied by means of X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomisation, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. It seems that our work could provide a new and important contribution to this debate, because we found bismuth in lustre composition of Renaissance shards produced in central Italy. Furthermore, we found that it could also be considered as a discriminating element between Italian and Hispano-Moresque productions, useful to assess their origin.

  10. Radioprotection to the Gonads in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography: Effectiveness of Developed Bismuth Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use and effectiveness of traditional lead gonad shields in pediatric pelvic radiography has been challenged by several literatures over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to develop a new radioprotective gonad shields to be use in pediatric pelvic radiography. Materials and Methods: The commercially available 0.06 mm lead equivalent bismuth garment has cropped squarely and used as ovarian shield to cover the entire region of pelvis. In order to prevent deterioration of image quality due to beam hardening artifacts, a 1-cm foam as spacer was located between the shield and patients pelvis. Moreover, we added a lead piece at the cranial position of the bismuth garment to absorb the scatter radiations to the radiosensitive organs. In girls, 49 radiographs with shield and 46 radiographs without shield was taken. The radiation dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs. Image quality assessments were performed using the European guidelines. For boys, the lead testicular shields was developed using 2 cm bismuth garment, added to the sides. The prevalence and efficacy of testicular shields was assessed in clinical practice fromFebruary 2016 to June 2016. Results: Without increasing the dose to the breast, thyroid and the lens of the eyes, the use of bismuth shield has reduced the entrance skin dose(ESD of the pelvis and radiation dose to the ovaries by 62.2% and 61.7%, respectively (P

  11. Bismuth oxide based ceramics with improved electrical and mechanical properties: Part II. Structural and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; van de Velde, G.M.H.; de Vries, K.J.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Coprecipitation as a method of preparation for bismuth oxides based ceramics yields relatively strong and machineable materials in comparison with the solid state reaction. Compositions within the system (1−x)Bi2O3|xEr2O3 containing up to twenty five mole percent of erbium oxide show a slow

  12. Solution processed bismuth sulfide nanowire array core/silver shuffle shell solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.; Bernechea, M.; Maclachlan, A.; Zardetto, V.; Creatore, M.; Haque, S.A.; Konstantatos, G.

    2015-01-01

    Low bandgap inorganic semiconductor nanowires have served as building blocks in solution processed solar cells to improve their power conversion capacity and reduce fabrication cost. In this work, we first reported bismuth sulfide nanowire arrays grown from colloidal seeds on a transparent

  13. Bio-assisted synthesis and characterization of nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide using Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaraj, Sathish Kumar; Venkatachalam, Ganesh; Arumugam, Palaniappan; Berchmans, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured bismuth (III) sulphide is synthesized at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely Clostridium acetobutylicum. On contrary to chemical routes involving both the high and room temperature methods, the present experimental procedure involves a bio-assisted approach. This method is free from the usage of toxic and hazardous chemicals making it an environment friendly route. The synthesized bismuth sulphide is characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). From our experiments we find that bismuth sulphide produced using this bio-assisted approach exhibits a hexagonal shaped plate-like structures and is stabilized by the extracellular proteins present in the culture medium. - Graphical abstract: A green chemistry approach towards the synthesis of bismuth (III) sulphide nanostructures at room temperature using a hydrogen sulphide producing microorganism namely, Clostridium acetobutylicum is demonstrated. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign (greener) route towards synthesis of Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures. • Bio-assisted synthesis of Bi 2 S 3 at room temperature using Clostridium acetobutylicum. • Extracellular proteins in H 2 S producing microorganism as stabilizer for Bi 2 S 3 NPs. • Hexagonal platelets of Bi 2 S 3 possessing an orthorhombic crystalline structure

  14. Dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium in a Spanish population (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, Dailos; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; González, Gara Luis; Caballero Mesa, José María; Revert Gironés, Consuelo; Burgos Ojeda, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium contents in food and beverages consumed by the population of the Canary Islands (Spain) as well as determine dietary intake of these metals in the archipelago as a whole and in its individual islands. To this end, 440 samples were analyzed by ICP-OES and GFAAS. Barium concentrations ranged from 5.210 ± 2.117 mg/kg in nuts to 0.035 ± 0.043 mg/L in water. Viscera exhibited the highest levels of bismuth (38.07 ± 36.80 mg/kg). The cold meat and sausages group stood out for its high chromium concentrations (0.494 ± 0.257 mg/kg). The highest concentration of lithium and strontium came out in nuts (8.761 ± 5.368 mg/kg and 9.759 ± 5.181 mg/kg, respectively). The total intakes of barium, bismuth, chromium, lithium, and strontium were 0.685, 1.274, 0.087, 3.674, and 1.923 mg/day, respectively. Cereals turned out to contribute most to the dietary intake of barium, bismuth, chromium, and lithium in the Canary Islands, while fruit contributes most to the strontium intake. We also performed a metal intake study by age and sex of the population and compared the outcome with data from other regions, both national and international.

  15. First heats of cerium solution in liquid aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, L.F.; Lebedev, V.A.; Nichkov, I.F.; Raspopin, S.P.; Shein, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerium solution heats in liquid alluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth are determined in high temperature mixing calorimeter with an isothermal shell. The statistical analysis carried out proves that values of cerium solution heat in fusible metals obtained by the methods of electric motive forces and calorimety give a satisfactory agreement

  16. Evaluation of gamma-ray attenuation properties of bismuth borate glass systems using Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D. A.; Gurler, Orhan

    2017-11-01

    A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi2O3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented.

  17. Light-Induced Surface Reactions at the Bismuth Vanadate/Potassium Phosphate Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Marco; Abdi, Fatwa F; Lamers, Marlene; Crumlin, Ethan J; Liu, Zhi; van de Krol, Roel; Starr, David E

    2018-01-18

    Bismuth vanadate has recently drawn significant research attention as a light-absorbing photoanode due to its performance for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this study, we use in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with "tender" X-rays (4.0 keV) to investigate a polycrystalline bismuth vanadate (BiVO 4 ) electrode in contact with an aqueous potassium phosphate (KPi) solution at open circuit potential under both dark and light conditions. This is facilitated by the creation of a 25 to 30 nm thick electrolyte layer using the "dip-and-pull" method. We observe that under illumination bismuth phosphate forms on the BiVO 4 surface leading to an increase of the surface negative charge. The bismuth phosphate layer may act to passivate surface states observed in photoelectrochemical measurements. The repulsive interaction between the negatively charged surface under illumination and the phosphate ions in solution causes a shift in the distribution of ions in the thin aqueous electrolyte film, which is observed as an increase in their photoelectron signals. Interestingly, we find that such changes at the BiVO 4 /KPi electrolyte interface are reversible upon returning to dark conditions. By measuring the oxygen 1s photoelectron peak intensities from the phosphate ions and liquid water as a function of time under dark and light conditions, we determine the time scales for the forward and reverse reactions. Our results provide direct evidence for light-induced chemical modification of the BiVO 4 /KPi electrolyte interface.

  18. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  19. Effects of caffeine on cleavage delay of sea urchin eggs induced by ethidium bromide or puromycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The mitotic delay was induced when sea urchin eggs were treated with either ethidium bromide or puromycin, as observed with eggs fertilized with x- or UV-irradiated sperm. Treatment of these eggs with caffeine during the period of early prophase block resulted in the reduction of the mitotic delay. Protein synthesis of these eggs was not affected by x-irradiation but inhibited by ethidium bromide or puromycin. Caffeine was almost ineffective in changing the protein synthesis of eggs inseminated with x-irradiated sperm or treated with ethidium bromide. These facts mean that additive synthesis of protein is not required for the reduction by caffeine of the mitotic delay. Some role of protein synthesis in the reduction by caffeine of the cleavage delay is not excluded for puromycin treated eggs, since caffeine counteracted the inhibitory effect of puromycin on protein synthesis. (author)

  20. Temporary diplopia upon hyoscine-N-butyl bromide administration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migliorini R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available R Migliorini, R Malagola, M Mafrici, R Spena, L ArricoDepartment of Sense Organs, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, ItalyAbstract: Hyoscine-N-butyl bromide is a widely used antispasmodic belonging to the belladonna alkaloid class of semisynthetic quaternary ammonium compounds. These compounds exert a spasmolytic action on the smooth muscles of the bile-gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, salivary glands (xerostomia, and also on the visual apparatus – in particular, the irido-ciliary complex. As a consequence, they provoke collateral effects such as mydriasis and accommodation disturbances. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who complained of not only "dry mouth" but also "cloudy vision" and a "diplopia", both of temporary type, 2 hours after oral administration of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide.Keywords: hyoscine-N-butyl bromide, accommodation disorders, temporary diplopia, fusion alteration, vertical strabismus

  1. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  2. Improvements to a Flow Sensor for Liquid Bismuth-Fed Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Kevin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest in using bismuth metal as a propellant in Hall Thrusters [1, 2]. Bismuth offers some considerable cost, weight, and space savings over the traditional propellant--xenon. Quantifying the performance of liquid metal-fed Hall thrusters requires a very precise measure of the low propellant flow rates [1, 2]. The low flow rates (10 mg/sec) and the temperature at which free flowing liquid bismuth exists (above 300 C) preclude the use of off-the-shelf flow sensing equipment [3]. Therefore a new type of sensor is required. The hotspot bismuth flow sensor, described in Refs. [1-5] is designed to perform a flow rate measurement by measuring the velocity at which a thermal feature moves through a flow chamber. The mass flow rate can be determined from the time of flight of the thermal peak, [4, 5]. Previous research and testing has been concerned mainly with the generation of the thermal peak and it's subsequent detection. In this paper, we present design improvements to the sensor concept; and the results of testing conducted to verify the functionality of these improvements. A ceramic material is required for the sensor body (see Fig. 1), which must allow for active heating of the bismuth flow channel to keep the propellant in a liquid state. The material must be compatible with bismuth and must be bonded to conductive elements to allow for conduction of current into the liquid metal and measurement of the temperature in the flow. The new sensor requires fabrication techniques that will allow for a very small diameter flow chamber, which is required to produce useful measurements. Testing of various materials has revealed several that are potentially compatible with liquid bismuth. Of primary concern in the fabrication and testing of a robust, working prototype, is the compatibility of the selected materials with one another. Specifically, the thermal expansion rates of the materials relative to the ceramic body cannot expand so

  3. The synthesis, structure and reactivity of iron-bismuth complexes : Potential Molecular Precursors for Multiferroic BiFeO3

    OpenAIRE

    Wójcik, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The thesis presented here is focused on the synthesis of iron-bismuth alkoxides and siloxides as precursors for multiferroic BiFeO3 systems. Spectrum of novel cyclopentadienyl substituted iron-bismuth complexes of the general type [{Cpy(CO)2Fe}BiX2], as potential precursors for cyclopentadienyl iron-bismuth alkoxides or siloxides [{Cpy(CO)2Fe}Bi(OR)2] (R-OtBu, OSiMe2tBu), were obtained and characterised. The use of wide range of cyclopentadienyl rings in the iron carbonyl compounds allowed fo...

  4. Iodate and iodo-trihalomethane formation during chlorination of iodide-containing waters: role of bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Allard, Sebastien; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; von Gunten, Urs

    2012-07-03

    The kinetics of iodate formation is a critical factor in mitigation of the formation of potentially toxic and off flavor causing iodoorganic compounds during chlorination. This study demonstrates that the formation of bromine through the oxidation of bromide by chlorine significantly enhances the oxidation of iodide to iodate in a bromide-catalyzed process. The pH-dependent kinetics revealed species specific rate constants of k(HOBr + IO(-)) = 1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), k(BrO(-) + IO(-)) = 1.8 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), and k(HOBr + HOI) < 1 M(-1) s(-1). The kinetics and the yield of iodate formation in natural waters depend mainly on the naturally occurring bromide and the type and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The process of free chlorine exposure followed by ammonia addition revealed that the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), especially iodoform, was greatly reduced by an increase of free chlorine exposure and an increase of the Br(-)/I(-) ratio. In water from the Great Southern River (with a bromide concentration of 200 μg/L), the relative I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 18 to 2% when the free chlorine contact time was increased from 2 to 20 min (chlorine dose of 1 mg Cl(2)/L). This observation is inversely correlated with the conversion of iodide to iodate, which increased from 10 to nearly 90%. Increasing bromide concentration also increased the conversion of iodide to iodate: from 45 to nearly 90% with a bromide concentration of 40 and 200 μg/L, respectively, and a prechlorination time of 20 min, while the I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 10 to 2%.

  5. Irradiation as a disinfestation method - update on methyl bromide phase out, regulatory action and emerging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotte, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr), is the most widely used agricultural fumigant in the world for the control of pests and plant diseases. It is used to control pests and diseases in food, agricultural and forestry commodities after harvest, before or during storage or transportation and/or at time of import to control quarantine or storage pests. Knowing MeBr will be phased out has spurred a search for alternative treatments and products, and has placed pressure on regulatory authorities to approve alternatives. Some of methyl bromide use could be replaced with irradiation. Methyl bromide is also used for soil and structural fumigation, and although there is some use of irradiation for packaged soil or greenhouse products, in general, these uses can not be replaced by irradiation. Some radiation processing facilities have either seen increased business to disinfest commodities, or have experienced more inquiries for service. There are many other processes and products competing for this market and irradiation will not win its share of the business without an improved regulatory picture, improved marketing to methyl bromide users and improved information to answer questions from commodity sectors. The United Nations Environment Program - Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee (MBTOC) provides a venue for the publication or information about the use and availability of irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide. It provides the technical base to the Montreal Protocol contributing to the setting of phase out dates; this committee is actively researching and assessing all alternatives and needs information about irradiation. The author is a member of the MBTOC committee

  6. Bismuth silicate glass containing heavy metal oxide as a promising radiation shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalaily, Nagia A.; Abou-Hussien, Eman M.; Saad, Ebtisam A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical and FTIR spectroscopic measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties have been utilized to investigate and characterize the given compositions of binary bismuth silicate glasses. In this work, it is aimed to study the possibility of using the prepared bismuth silicate glasses as a good shielding material for γ-rays in which adding bismuth oxide to silicate glasses causes distinguish increase in its density by an order of magnitude ranging from one to two more than mono divalent oxides. The good thermal stability and high density of the bismuth-based silicate glass encourage many studies to be undertaken to understand its radiation shielding efficiency. For this purpose a glass containing 20% bismuth oxide and 80% SiO2 was prepared using the melting-annealing technique. In addition the effects of adding some alkali heavy metal oxides to this glass, such as PbO, BaO or SrO, were also studied. EPR measurements show that the prepared glasses have good stability when exposed to γ-irradiation. The changes in the FTIR spectra due to the presence of metal oxides were referred to the different housing positions and physical properties of the respective divalent Sr2+, Ba2+ and Pb2+ ions. Calculations of optical band gap energies were presented for some selected glasses from the UV data to support the probability of using these glasses as a gamma radiation shielding material. The results showed stability of both optical and magnetic spectra of the studied glasses toward gamma irradiation, which validates their irradiation shielding behavior and suitability as the radiation shielding candidate materials.

  7. Halide-mediated regioselective 6-O-glycosylation of unprotected hexopyranosides with perbenzylated glycosyl bromide donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The regio- and stereoselective glycosylation at the 6-position in 2,3,4,6-unprotected hexopyranosides has been investigated with dibutyltin oxide as the directing agent. Perbenzylated hexopyranosyl bromides were employed as the donors and the glycosylations were promoted by tetrabutylammonium...... bromide. The couplings were completely selective for both glucose and galactose donors and acceptors as long as the stannylene acetal of the acceptor was soluble in dichloromethane. This gave rise to a number of 1,2-cis-linked disaccharides in reasonable yields. Mannose donors and acceptors, on the other...

  8. Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by cerium (IV) in aqueous sulphuric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.; Sah, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by Ce IV in aqueous sulphuric acid medium show first order dependence each in dextrose and cerium(IV). The reaction rate decreases on increasing the concentration of hydrogen ion. The increase in [HSO 4 - ] or [SO 4 2- ] decreases the rate. The bromide ion shows positive catalytic effect on the reaction rate. The value of activation energy has been calculated and a suitable mechanism confirming to the kinetic data is proposed. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  10. COMPARISON OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE AND SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE FOR USE DURING RAPID SEQUENCE INTUBATION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Penchalaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of rapid sequence intubation is to secure the patients airway smoothly and quickly, minimizing the chances of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Traditionally succinylcholine chloride has been the neuromuscular blocking drug of choi ce for use in rapid sequence intubation because of its rapid onset of action and profound relaxation. Succinylcholine chloride remains unsurpassed in providing ideal intubating conditions. However the use of succinylcholine chloride is associated with many side effects like muscle pain, bradycardia, hyperkalaemia and rise in intragastric and intraocular pressure. Rocuronium bromide is the only drug currently available which has the rapidity of onset of action like succinylcholine chloride. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare rocuronium bromide with succinylcholine chloride for use during rapid sequence intubation in adult patients. METHODOLOGY : The study population consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 - 60 years posted for various elective su rgeries requiring general anaesthesia . S tudy population was randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 patients in each sub group. 1. Group I : Intubated with 1 mg kg - 1 of succinylcholine chloride (n=30 . 2. Grou p II : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . 3. Group III : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 seconds based on the scale adopted by Toni Magorian et al. 1993. The haemodynamic para meters in the present study were compared using p - value obtained from student t - test . RESULTS : It was noted that succinylcholine chloride 1 mg kg - 1 body weight produced excellent intubating conditions in all patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 body we ight produced excellent intubating conditions in 53.33% of patients but produced good to excellent intubating conditions in 96.67% of patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1

  11. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  12. Alkali metal bismuth(III) chloride double salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Andrew W. [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Nicholas, Aaron; Ahern, John C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Chan, Benny [Department of Chemistry, College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States); Patterson, Howard H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Pike, Robert D., E-mail: rdpike@wm.edu [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    near 295, 340, and 380 nm and a broad emission near 440 nm. - Graphical abstract: The double salts Na2BiCl5·5H2O, K7Bi3Cl16, Rb3BiCl6·0.5H2O, Cs3BiCl6, and Cs3Bi2Cl9 were formed by co-crystallization of MCl (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) with BiOCl in aqueous HCl. The crystal structures and solid state luminescence are reported. - Highlights: • New double salt phases are reported for NaCl/BiCl{sub 3}, KCl/BiCl{sub 3}, RbCl/BiCl{sub 3}, and CsCl/BiCl{sub 3}. • A variety of alkali chloride:bismuth chloride ratios are reported. • Chloride bridging produces oligomeric and/or polymeric bismuth chloride chains in several cases. • Convenient bulk synthesis from BiOCl is reported. • Four of the five reported double salts exhibit photoluminescence as a result of charge transfer.

  13. Visible-Light-Initiated Na2-Eosin Y Catalyzed Highly Regio- and Stereoselective Difunctionalization of Alkynes with Alkyl Bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuai; Meng, Ling-Guo; Wang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    A highly regioselective and stereoselective addition of alkyl bromides (amino-brominated aromatic β,β-dicyanoalkenes) to arylacetylenes by photoredox catalysis was developed. This difunctionalization of arylacetylenes was accomplished under ambient and metal-free conditions to produce alkenyl bromides in high efficiency with a wide range of group tolerance.

  14. Synthesis of electrophilic 11C-synthons: 11C-cyanogen bromide and some 11C-cyano reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, G.; Malmborg, P.; Langstroem, B.

    1990-01-01

    A fast, simple, and reliable method has been developed for the synthesis of carbon-11 labelled cyanogen bromide and several of its stabilized amine salts or cyanates. Preparation of cyanogen bromide is by bromination (bromine gas) of carbon-11 labelled hydrocyanic acid, followed by reaction with a tertiary amine or a phenol to yield the ammonium salts or cyanates

  15. Determination of zinc and cadmium with characterized Electrodes of carbon and polyurethane modified by a bismuth film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossy Karla Brasil Bernardelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use electrodes modified with bismuth films for the determination of zinc and cadmium. The film was electrodeposited ex situ on a composite carbon electrode with polyurethane and 2% metallic bismuth (2BiE and on a carbon bar electrode (CBE. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, the electrodes 2BiE and CBE containing bismuth films showed a limit of detection (LOD of 5.56 × 10-5 and 3.07 × 10-5 g.L-1 for cadmium and 1.24 × 10-4 and 1.53 × 10-4 g.L-1 for zinc, respectively. The presence of a bismuth film increased the sensitivity of both electrodes.

  16. Determination of Lung-to-Blood Absorption Rates for Lead and Bismuth which are Appropriate for Radon Progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.

    1999-01-01

    The ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the gastrointestinal tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommends default absorption rates for lead and bismuth in ICRP Publication 71 but states that the values are not appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes an evaluation of published data from volunteer experiments to estimate the absorption half-times of lead and bismuth that are appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. The absorption half-time for lead was determined to be 10±2 h, based on 212 Pb lung and blood retention data from several studies. The absorption half-time for bismuth was estimated to be about 13 h, based on 212 Bi urinary excretion data from one experiment and the ICRP biokinetic model for bismuth as a decay product of lead. (author)

  17. Correlation between near infrared emission and bismuth radical species of Bi2O3-containing aluminoborate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2009-01-01

    A strong correlation between bismuth radical species and emission in the near infrared (NIR) region of SnO-doped bismuth-containing aluminoborate glass, (CaO-B 2 O 3 -Bi 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ) (CaBBAT), was observed. Since the activation energy of the NIR emission was similar to that of electron spin resonance signal, it is expected that bismuth radical species in the CaBBAT glass is an origin of the NIR emission. Compared to the observed emission spectra with energy diagram of previous data, we have confirmed that bismuth ion possessing low valence is the origin of broad emission in the NIR region.

  18. Features of an emergency heat-conducting path in reactors about lead-bismuth and lead heat-carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Bokova, T.A.; Molodtsov, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The reactor emergency heat removal systems should transfer heat from the surface of reactor core fuel element claddings to the primary circuit followed by heat transfer to the environment. One suggests three design approaches for emergency heat removal systems in lead-bismuth and lead cooled reactor circuits that take account of the peculiar nature of their features. Application of the discussed systems for emergency heat removal improves safety of lead-bismuth and lead cooled reactor plants [ru

  19. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the

  20. Application of vacuum membrane distillation to lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zanshe; Feng, Shiyu; Li, Yun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Gu, Zhaolin [School of Human Settlement and Civil Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Conventional generator in lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system is too bulky and heavy to be fitted into small scale device, and the temperature of the driving heater in the generator seems much higher than low grade energy such as regenerative energy or waste heat energy. In this paper, desorption of aqueous lithium bromide solution by vacuum membrane distillation process was presented. Hollow fiber membrane module made by polyvinylidene fluoride was used as desorption device of aqueous lithium bromide solution. Influencing factors of feed flux, feed temperature in lumen side and vacuum pressure in shell side were tested and analyzed with orthogonal test. The results showed that permeation flux of water vapor increased with the feed temperature increasing and the feed flux increasing in lumen side, and the permeation flux also went up along with absolute pressure drop in shell side. Feasibility and potential application analysis shows that the temperature of the driving heat was low and the volume and weight of the desorption device was light. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation to the lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system has proved to be an efficient and cheap desorption mode. (author)

  1. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel...... long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with COPD....

  2. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion...... photoionization processes and to describe molecular electronic structure. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data....

  3. Methyl bromide fumigation and delayed mortality: safe trade of live pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C B; Iline, I I; Novoselov, M; McNeill, M R; Richards, N K; van Koten, C; Stephenson, B P

    Live organisms intercepted from treated commodities during phytosanitary inspections usually arouse suspicions of treatment failure, sub-standard treatment application, or post-treatment infestation. The additional possibility that some treatments could kill slowly, meaning commodities might be inspected before pests have succumbed, is seldom considered for treatments other than irradiation. We used a novel biochemical viability assay to measure delays between methyl bromide fumigation and mortality of dipteran eggs, and evaluated the correspondence between egg viability and egg morphological features. Our experimental conditions simulated shipping of rock melons from Australia to New Zealand by sea and air. No eggs survived fumigation, but they took 3-20 days to die, whereas phytosanitary inspections of rock melons occur within 2-7 days. Delays were not influenced by methyl bromide concentration, but were significantly lengthened by cooler storage temperatures. Methyl bromide's preservative effects delayed degradation of egg morphology, so the biochemical assay detected mortality long before morphological signs of egg death appeared. The results show that commodities subjected to effective methyl bromide treatments are at risk of being inspected before all pests have either died, or started to exhibit morphological signs of death. This could cause commodities to be unnecessarily rejected by quarantine authorities. Better methods than inspection for live pests are needed to assist authorities to gain assurance that treated commodities have been effectively disinfested. These could be developed by exploiting biochemical responses of pests and commodities to treatments.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked

  5. Unilateral mydriasis secondary to ipratropium bromide in a critically ill patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Santana-Cabrera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral dilated pupil in a critical patient under sedation is an important clinical sign that requires prompt evaluation. An exhaustive assessment must be performed, including neurological examination and imaging tests, and pharmacological causes must be ruled out. We describe a case of unilateral fixed dilated pupil secondary to the administration of a nebulized cholinergic antagonist, ipratropium bromide, in an unconscious patient.

  6. Microwave-Enhanced Cross-Coupling Reactions Involving Alkynyltrifluoroborates with Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Kabalka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed alkynylation has emerged as one of the most reliable methods for the synthesis of alkynes which are often used in natural product syntheses and material science. An efficient method for coupling alkynyltrifluoroborates with various aryl bromides in the presence of a palladium catalyst has been developed using microwave irradiation. The microwave reactions are rapid and efficient.

  7. Gold micro- and nano-particles for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of pyridostigmine bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Fesenko, Olena; Kavelin, Vladyslav

    2017-01-01

    Triangular gold microprisms and spherical silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands were examined as an active nanostructures for the surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These particles were probed for the detection of pyridostigmine bromide as a safe analog of military c...

  8. SYBR safeTM efficiently replaces ethidium bromide in Aspergillus fumigatus gene disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, H M S; Takami, L A; Ferreira, M E S

    2017-02-08

    Invasive aspergillosis is a disease responsible for high mortality rates, caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus. The available drugs are limited and this disease continues to occur at an unacceptable frequency. Gene disruption is essential in the search for new drug targets. An efficient protocol for A. fumigatus gene disruption was described but it requires ethidium bromide, a genotoxic agent, for DNA staining. Therefore, the present study tested SYBR safe TM , a non-genotoxic DNA stain, in A. fumigatus gene disruption protocol. The chosen gene was cipC, which has already been disrupted successfully in our laboratory. A deletion cassette was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used in A. fumigatus transformation. There was no statistical difference between the tested DNA stains. The success rate of S. cerevisiae transformation was 63.3% for ethidium bromide and 70% for SYBR safe TM . For A. fumigatus gene disruption, the success rate for ethidium bromide was 100 and 97% for SYBR safe TM . In conclusion, SYBR safe TM efficiently replaced ethidium bromide, making this dye a safe and efficient alternative for DNA staining in A. fumigatus gene disruption.

  9. PHARMACOKINETICS OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE IN PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT RENAL-FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COOPER, RA; MIRAKHUR, RK; WIERDA, JMKH; MADDINENI, VR

    We studied the onset and duration of action and pharmacokinetics of rocuronium bromide during anaesthesia with nitrous oxide, fentanyl and isoflurane after a single bolus dose of rocuronium (0.6 mg kg(-1)) in nine patients with chronic renal failure requiring regular haemodialysis, and in nine

  10. Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bromide is commonly used to simulate the movement of nitrate fertilisers through the soil profile. However, there exists no comparative evaluation of the leaching properties of Br- and NO3-_N under local soil and rainfall conditions at Bloemfontein. The purpose of this work was to conduct a field experiment to evaluate the ...

  11. First Stabilization and Disposal of Radioactive Zinc Bromide at the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Facilities Disposition Projects (FDP) personnel at Savannah River Site (SRS) implement the Inactive Facility Risk Management Program to drive down risk and costs in SRS inactive facilities. The program includes cost-effective techniques to identify and dispose of hazardous chemicals and radioactive waste from inactive facilities, thereby ensuring adequate protection of the public, workers and the environment. In June 1998, FDP conducted an assessment of the inactive C-Reactor Facility to assure that chemical and radiological hazards had been identified and were being safely managed. The walkdown identified the need to mitigate a significant hazard associated with storing approximately 13,400 gallons of liquid radioactive Zinc Bromide in three aging railcar tankers outside of the facility. No preventive maintenance was being performed on the rusting tankers and a leak could send radioactive Zinc Bromide into an outfall and offsite to the Savannah River. In 2001, DOE-Savannah River (DOE- SR) funded the FDP to eliminate the identified hazard by disposing of the radioactive Zinc Bromide solution and the three contaminated railcar tankers. This paper describes the innovative, cost-effective approaches and technology used to perform the first stabilization and disposal of radioactive Zinc Bromide at SRS

  12. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  13. Use of Br-82 and I-131 radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 2 (2012), s. 379-383 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * goitrogenic effect * iodine radionuclides * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  14. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...: The amount of fumigant gas used (both methyl bromide and alternatives), price per pound of the... practices organic producers are using for their commodity. Structures and Facilities (Flour Mills, Rice... methods. For the economic assessment applicants must provide the following: Price per pound of fumigant...

  15. Optical and structural characterization of KBr crystals doped cadmium bromide (CdBr2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensouici, A.; Plaza, J.L.; Dieguez, E.; Halimi, O.; Guerbous, L.; Sebais, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of CdBr 2 and cadmium aggregates in KBr matrix during Czochralski growth of KBr crystals. The chemical decomposition of CdBr 2 due to high temperature of crystallisation and reformation of cadmium bromide seems to be responsible for this effect.

  16. Optical and structural characterization of KBr crystals doped cadmium bromide (CdBr{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensouici, A., E-mail: bensouicia@yahoo.f [Laboratory of Crystallography (Saint Lucia), Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine (Algeria); Plaza, J.L., E-mail: joseluis.plaza@uam.e [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dieguez, E. [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Halimi, O. [Laboratory of Crystallography (Saint Lucia), Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine (Algeria); Guerbous, L. [Centre de recherche nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Sebais, M. [Laboratory of Crystallography (Saint Lucia), Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine (Algeria)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of CdBr{sub 2} and cadmium aggregates in KBr matrix during Czochralski growth of KBr crystals. The chemical decomposition of CdBr{sub 2} due to high temperature of crystallisation and reformation of cadmium bromide seems to be responsible for this effect.

  17. Bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites through ball milling and liquid crystal synthetic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Timothy Michael

    Three methods were developed for the synthesis of bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites, which are of interest due to possible use as thermoelectric materials. In the first synthetic method, high energy ball milling of bismuth metal with either MgO or SiO2 was found to produce nanostructured bismuth dispersed on a ceramic material. The morphology of the resulting bismuth depended on its wetting behavior with respect to the ceramic: the metal wet the MgO, but did not wet on the SiO2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements on these composites revealed unusual thermal stability, with nanostructure retained after multiple cycles of heating and cooling through the metal's melting point. The second synthesis methodology was based on the use of lyotropic liquid crystals. These mixtures of water and amphiphilic molecules self-assemble to form periodic structures with nanometer-scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. A novel shear mixing methodology was developed for bringing together reactants which were added to the liquid crystals as dissolved salts. The liquid crystals served to mediate synthesis by acting as nanoreactors to confine chemical reactions within the nanoscale domains of the mesophase, and resulted in the production of nanoparticles. By synthesizing lead sulfide (PbS) and bismuth (Bi) particles as proof-of-concept, it was shown that nanoparticle size could be controlled by controlling the dimensionality of the nanoreactors through control of the liquid crystalline phase. Particle size was shown to decrease upon going from three-dimensionally percolating nanoreactors, to two dimensional sheet-like nanoreactors, to one dimensional rod-like nanoreactors. Additionally, particle size could be controlled by varying the precursor salt concentration. Since the nanoparticles did not agglomerate in the liquid crystal immediately after synthesis, bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites could be prepared by synthesizing Bi nanoparticles and mixing in SiO2 particles which

  18. Separation of bismuth from gram amounts of thallium and silver by cation-exchange chromatography in nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjies, E; Strelow, F W; Victor, A H

    1987-04-01

    Traces and small amounts of bismuth can be separated from gram amounts of thallium and silver by successively eluting these elements with 0.3M and 0.6M nitric acid from a column containing 13 ml (3 g) of AG50W-X4, a cation-exchanger (100-200 mesh particle size) with low cross-linking. Bismuth is retained and can be eluted with 0.2M hydrobromic acid containing 20% v/v acetone, leaving many other trace elements absorbed. Elution of thallium is quite sharp, but silver shows a small amount of tailing (less than 1 gmg/ml silver in the eluate) when gram amounts are present, between 20 and 80 mug of silver appearing in the bismuth fraction. Relevant elution curves and results for the analysis of synthetic mixtures containing between 50 mug and 10 mg of bismuth and up to more than 1 g of thallium and silver are presented, as well as results for bismuth in a sample of thallium metal and in Merck thallium(I) carbonate. As little as 0.01 ppm of bismuth can be determined when the separation is combined with electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometry.

  19. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595–1609 revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  20. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-07-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595-1609) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  1. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups - bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2) - are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467

  2. Bismuth adjuvant ameliorates adverse effects of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Boye; Penkowa, Milena

    2017-01-01

    show for the first time that bismuth significantly reduces grade 2 stomatitis, febrile neutropenia and infections caused by melphalan in multiple myeloma, where adverse effects also were significantly linked to gender. In lymphoma patients, bismuth significantly reduces diarrhoea relative to placebo......PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey...

  3. Spectral investigation of highly ionized bismuth plasmas produced by subnanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2016-02-01

    The unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) emitted from laser produced bismuth (Bi) plasma sources show potential for single-shot live cell imaging. We have measured extreme ultraviolet spectra from bismuth laser produced plasmas in the 1-7 nm region using a λ = 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 150 ps. Comparison of spectra obtained under different laser power densities with calculations using the Hartree-Fock with configuration interaction Cowan suite of codes and the UTA formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, are employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Bi XXIII to Bi XLVII. The results show that Δn = 0, n = 4-4 emission from highly charged ions merges to form intense UTAs in the 4 nm region and Δn = 1, n = 4-5 resonance transitions UTAs dominate the 1-3 nm region of the Bi spectrum.

  4. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 ). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals

  5. Evaluation of bismuth shielding effectiveness in reducing breast absorbed dose during thoracic CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Santana, P. C.; Silva, T. A. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Program of Nuclear Science and Techniques, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Computed Tomography (CT) is an essential method for tracking neoplasia and efficiently diagnosing a wide variety of thoracic diseases. CT is generally considered the most accurate choice for lung examination. Due to the growing use of CT, breast and other superficial and radiosensitive organs are unnecessarily irradiated during radiological procedures, thus requiring the development of strategies appropriate to optimize and, if possible, to reduce the radiation dose. The use of bismuth shielding to reduce radiation dose absorbed by breast during thoracic CT examinations has been the subject of many studies recently published by Brazilian and foreign authors of various fields. The purpose of this paper is both to accurately determine the glandular dose when breast is exposed to radiation and to assess the reduction in absorbed dose during thoracic CT examinations, using a set of Thermoluminescent Dosimeters, an anthropomorphic phantom and bismuth shielding. (Author)

  6. The Role of Bismuth in the Treatment of Gastroduodenal Pathology (Literature Review and Own Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the history of colloidal bismuth subcitrate and considers the basic mechanisms of its effects on the gastric mucosa, both cytoprotective and anti-helicobacter. The recent data of the worldwide researches are given on the use of the bismuth subcitrate as a component of antibacterial therapy in order to improve the effectiveness of the eradication, especially under the resistance to the basic drugs. The results of own researches are also shown, they are dedicated to the dynamics of structural adjustment of the gastric mucosa in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis for 3 years after the eradication of H.pylori. The use of first-line therapy with the addition of the drug De-Nol allowed to achieve eradication in 94.3 % of patients and positive microstructural changes of the gastric mucosa.

  7. Conceptual design of module fast reactor of ultimate safety cooled by lead-bismuth alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnikov, V.O.; Stekolnikov, V.V.; Stepanov, V.S.; Gorshkov, V.T.; Kulikov, M.L.; Shulyndin, V.A.; Gromov, B.F.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Pashkin, Yu.G.

    1993-01-01

    During past time all basic problems arisen during working-out of NPP with lead-bismuth coolant were solved: physics and thermal physics of the cores, heat transfer and hydrodynamics, corrosion resistance of the structural materials and coolant technology, radiation and nuclear safety, investigations of emergency situations, development of fuel elements and absorbing elements of the reactor, equipment of the primary circuit and other circuits. A powerful experimental base equpped by unique rigs is made. A series of ship and test NPP has been constructed whereat repair of the plants and reactor refuelling are developed. Highly-skilled groups of investigators, designers and operation personnel capable of performing the development of the reactor plant with MFR within short terms have been formed. In this case MFR with lead-bismuth coolant may become the initial step in development of large-scale nuclear power engineering with fast reactors cooled by liquid lead

  8. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Kong, Yongfa, E-mail: kongyf@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); R and D Center, Taishan Sports Industry Group, Leling 253600 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Shiguo [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Xu, Jingjun [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm{sup 2}). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals.

  9. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wenqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen, Zhi, E-mail: zchen0@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhu, Yuxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China); Qin, Laishun, E-mail: qinlaishun@yeah.net [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, 258 Xueyuan Street, Xiasha Higher Education District, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO{sub 3} could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO{sub 3} by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  10. Spectral investigation of highly ionized bismuth plasmas produced by subnanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O’Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O’Sullivan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    The unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) emitted from laser produced bismuth (Bi) plasma sources show potential for single-shot live cell imaging. We have measured extreme ultraviolet spectra from bismuth laser produced plasmas in the 1–7 nm region using a λ = 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 150 ps. Comparison of spectra obtained under different laser power densities with calculations using the Hartree–Fock with configuration interaction Cowan suite of codes and the UTA formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, are employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Bi XXIII to Bi XLVII. The results show that Δn = 0, n = 4–4 emission from highly charged ions merges to form intense UTAs in the 4 nm region and Δn = 1, n = 4–5 resonance transitions UTAs dominate the 1–3 nm region of the Bi spectrum. (paper)

  11. High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2017-05-16

    Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.

  12. Bismuth Basic Nitrate as a Novel Adsorbent for Azo Dye Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth basic nitrate (BBN and its TiO2-Ag modified sorbent, PTBA were successfully synthesized via a precipitation method. The structural characteristics of prepared sorbents were determined through different analytical techniques. The potential use of prepared sorbents for organic compounds' removal was evaluated using Methyl Orange and Sunset Yellow dyes as model pollutants in aqueous solutions. The experimental results showed that the presence of TiO2 and Ag particles during the crystal growth of bismuth basic nitrate has an effect on the crystal structure, point of zero charge (pHpzc, pore volume and diameter. The lower binding energy of Ti 2p core level peak indicates the octahedral coordination of TiO2 particles on the PTBA surface. The alteration of hydrophilic-hydrophobic characteristics of sorbent's surface improves the adsorptive performance of the modified sorbent and provides an efficient route for organic contaminants' removal from aqueous solutions.

  13. Evaluation of bismuth shielding effectiveness in reducing breast absorbed dose during thoracic CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Santana, P. C.; Silva, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is an essential method for tracking neoplasia and efficiently diagnosing a wide variety of thoracic diseases. CT is generally considered the most accurate choice for lung examination. Due to the growing use of CT, breast and other superficial and radiosensitive organs are unnecessarily irradiated during radiological procedures, thus requiring the development of strategies appropriate to optimize and, if possible, to reduce the radiation dose. The use of bismuth shielding to reduce radiation dose absorbed by breast during thoracic CT examinations has been the subject of many studies recently published by Brazilian and foreign authors of various fields. The purpose of this paper is both to accurately determine the glandular dose when breast is exposed to radiation and to assess the reduction in absorbed dose during thoracic CT examinations, using a set of Thermoluminescent Dosimeters, an anthropomorphic phantom and bismuth shielding. (Author)

  14. Analysis of lenses absorbed dose in head CT scan with the use of bismuth shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.S.; Santana, P.C., E-mail: fernanda.stephaniebh@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Mourão, A.P. [Centro de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has become an important tool to diagnose cancer and to obtain additional information for different clinical questions. However, CT scan usually requires a higher radiation exposure than a conventional radiography examination. Head CT scans are used for diagnosis of traumatic head injuries, infections and other diseases with instability. Based on this information, it was studied the dose variation deposited in the lenses and in nearby organs, such as: pharynx, hypophysis and salivary gland with and without the use of bismuth shield. In this study a head CT scan was performed on anthropomorphic male phantom using a GE scanner. Dose measurements have been performed by using radiochromic film strips to register the individual doses in the organs of interest. The results show that the lenses had a reduction of 26% of the dose with the use of the bismuth shield. (author)

  15. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenqian; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Laishun; Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO_3 could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO_3 by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  16. Formation of planar waveguides in bismuth germanate by 4He+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, S.M.; Chandler, P.J.; Townsend, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Planar optical waveguides have been formed in crystalline bismuth germanate (BGO) Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 , by He + ion implantation. The refractive index profiles have been determined using a dark-mode technique at 0.6328 and 0.488 micrometres. In the region of the electronic and nuclear stopping power of the ion beam in bismuth germanate there is an index enhancement, which forms an optical 'well', This is stable up to ∼ 200 0 C, but then there is a gradual recovery of index up to 400 0 C. Between 425 and 450 0 C, for heavily implanted samples (≥4 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 ), the well rapidly disappears, and is replaced by a sharp 'barrier' of reduced index. For lower dose implants ( 16 ion/cm 2 ) at 450 0 C many of the modes disappear without being replaced by a sharp barrier. (author)

  17. The study of the sample size on the transverse magnetoresistance of bismuth nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, M.; Layeghnejad, R.; Sadeghi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sample size on the galvanomagnetice properties of semimetal nanowires are theoretically investigated. Transverse magnetoresistance (TMR) ratios have been calculated within a Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) approach by specular reflection approximation. Temperature and radius dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance of cylindrical Bismuth nanowires are given. The obtained values are in good agreement with the experimental results, reported by Heremans et al. - Highlights: ► In this study effects of sample size on the galvanomagnetic properties of Bi. ► Nanowires were explained by Parrott theorem by solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation. ► Transverse magnetoresistance (TMR) ratios have been measured by specular reflection approximation. ► Temperature and radius dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance of cylindrical Bismuth nanowires are given. ► The obtained values are in good agreement with the experimental results, reported by Heremans et al.

  18. Role of Bismuth in the Electrokinetics of Silicon Photocathodes for Solar Rechargeable Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flox, Cristina; Murcia-López, Sebastián; Carretero, Nina M; Ros, Carles; Morante, Juan R; Andreu, Teresa

    2018-01-10

    The ability of crystalline silicon to photoassist the V 3+ /V 2+ cathodic reaction under simulated solar irradiation, combined with the effect of bismuth have led to important electrochemical improvements. Besides the photovoltage supplied by the photovoltaics, additional decrease in the onset potentials, high reversibility of the V 3+ /V 2+ redox pair, and improvement in the electrokinetics were attained thanks to the addition of bismuth. In fact, Bi 0 deposition has shown to slightly decrease the photocurrent, but the significant enhancement in the charge transfer, reflected in the overall electrochemical performance clearly justifies its use as additive in a photoassisted system for maximizing the efficiency of solar charge to battery. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, David J; González, Zoraida; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Santamaría, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    A graphite felt decorated with bismuth nanoparticles was studied as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The results confirm the excellent electrochemical performance of the bismuth modified electrode in terms of the reversibility of the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reactions and its long-term cycling performance. Moreover a mechanism that explains the role that Bi nanoparticles play in the redox reactions in this negative half-cell is proposed. Bi nanoparticles favor the formation of BiHx , an intermediate that reduces V(3+) to V(2+) and, therefore, inhibits the competitive irreversible reaction of hydrogen formation (responsible for the commonly observed loss of Coulombic efficiency of VRFBs). Thus, the total charge consumed during the cathodic sweep in this electrode is used to reduce V(3+) to V(2+) , resulting in a highly reversible and efficient process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Interlayer interactions in absorption and reflection spectra of bismuth HTSC crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchinin, S.P.; Yaremko, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The HTSC reflection and absorption optic spectra peculiarities are analysed in the paper on the basis of bismuth and thallium. The approach suggested takes into account the complex character of crystals structure, possible localization of excitations in the isolated layers and further excitations exchange due to the interlayer interaction between cuprate (Cu O) and quasi-degenerate bismuth layers (Bi O/3pO). The expressions for the excitation and intensity energies of the corresponding transitions are obtained. It is shown that only part of excitations whose number is determined by the number of layers in the unit cell will be manifest in optical reflection and absorption spectra. The experimental results on spectral dependence of crystal reflection coefficients are analysed

  1. Evidence for a temperature-driven structural transformation in liquid bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Y.; Dariel, M.P.; Greenberg, Y.; Yahel, E.; Caspi, E.N.; Makov, G.; Benmore, C.; Beuneu, B.

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of liquid bismuth have been explored from the melting point to 1100 C degrees by high-resolution measurements of the density, the heat capacity and the static structure factor. These physical properties display a number of anomalies. In particular, we have observed evidence for the presence of a temperature-driven liquid-liquid structural transformation that takes place at ambient pressure. The latter is characterized by a density discontinuity that occurs at 740 C degrees. Differential thermal analysis measurements revealed the endo-thermal nature of this transformation. A rearrangement of liquid bismuth structure was found by neutron diffraction measurements, supporting the existence of a liquid-liquid transformation far above the liquidus. (authors)

  2. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  3. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  4. Report - Melter Testing of New High Bismuth HLW Formulations VSL-13R2770-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The primary objective of the work described was to test two glasses formulated for a high bismuth waste stream on the DM100 melter system. Testing was designed to determine processing characteristics and production rates, assess the tendency for foaming, and confirm glass properties. The glass compositions tested were previously developed to maintain high waste loadings and processing rates while suppressing the foaming observed in previous tests

  5. A circulating loop tester for liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori; Kamata, Kinya

    2002-01-01

    Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) had focused to merits of this lead-bismuth alloy, to actively carry out many works on this field such as an experience of development of heat exchanger at industrial level of intercourse with IPPE (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering) in Russia with an experience of using results for 80 years on coolant for nuclear reactor. Before about 20 years, MES developed a heat exchanger for installation at a lead-zinc separation process in a refinery in Japan under cooperation of the Mitsui Metal and Mine Co., Ltd., to deliver it for a power generation system at the Hachinohe refinery. As the heat exchanger aims at control of cooling in the separation process, it also contributes to power generation of about 4,300 kW, and now it continues to separate and contribute to self-power generation in the refinery. The heat exchanger is filled with the liquid alloyed metal of lead-bismuth for an intermediate thermal medium in its casing. The metal has some merits such as inactivity to air and water, high boiling point (1,700 centigrade), almost no volume change at its coagulation, and its minus reactivity coefficient. However, the metal has some problems to be solved, such as its steel corrosion, its purification, and control technology. To grow up lead-bismuth technology to a nuclear energy technology in Japan, the lead-bismuth circulating loop tester was produced on May, 2001, to establish application technology on this system to nuclear energy technology in Japan. (G.K.)

  6. Effect of bismuth addition to the triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezel Taşdemir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Success rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton-pump inhibitor therapy in the Helicobacter pylori (Hp eradication have been decreasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bismuth subcitrate addition to triple therapy.Materials and methods: 148 patients diagnosed Hp infection with both histology and Hp stool antigen (HpSA tests were examined retrospectively. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the eradication therapy. The first group received triple therapy with claritromycine 2x 500 mg, amoxicilline 2x1 g and PPI 2x1 for 14 days (n=40. The second group had bismuth subcitrate 4x120 mg with triple therapy for 14 days (n=73. The third group received 14 days pretreatment with bismuth subcitrate 4x1 together with PPI 2x1 then had triple therapy for 14 days (n=35. (14C urea breath and HpSA tests were used to detect posttreatment H.pylori status.Results: There were no statistical difference between the groups in terms of gender and age (p > 0.05. In group one 12 patients, in group two 20 patients and in group three 10 patients were identified as Hp positive after treatment. Eradication rates were 70% for group one, 72.6% for group two and 71.4% for group three respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups in terms of eradication rates of treatment (p > 0.05.Conclusions: The addition of bismuth to conventional triple therapy did not affect treatment success rates.

  7. Study of some health physics parameters of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag shielding concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeep0078monu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala (India); Singh, Sukhpal, E-mail: sukhpal-78@rediffmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Bismuth-ground granulated blastfurnace slang (Bi-GGBFS) concrete samples were prepared. The weight percentage of different elements present in Bi-GGBFS Shielding concretewas evaluated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The exposure rate and absorbed dose rate characteristics were calculated theoretically for radioactive sources namely {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs. Our calculations reveal that the Bi-GGBFS concretes are effective in shielding material for gamma radiations.

  8. Study of some health physics parameters of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag shielding concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2016-05-01

    The Bismuth-ground granulated blastfurnace slang (Bi-GGBFS) concrete samples were prepared. The weight percentage of different elements present inBi-GGBFS Shielding concretewas evaluated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The exposure rate and absorbed dose rate characteristics were calculated theoretically for radioactive sources namely 241Am and 137Cs. Our calculations reveal that the Bi-GGBFS concretes are effective in shielding material for gamma radiations.

  9. Determination of the two-loop Lamb shift in lithiumlike bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapirstein, J.; Cheng, K. T.

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of lithiumlike bismuth are shown to be accurately described in a representation-independent manner when all diagrams involving one and two photons, with the exception of the two-loop Lamb shift, are evaluated. Comparison with the experimental value of the 2p 3/2 -2s 1/2 splitting then shows that, assuming three-photon effects are negligible, the contribution of the two-loop Lamb shift is 0.175(39) eV

  10. Bismuth Infusion of ABS Enables Additive Manufacturing of Complex Radiological Phantoms and Shielding Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ceh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiopacity is a critical property of materials that are used for a range of radiological applications, including the development of phantom devices that emulate the radiodensity of native tissues and the production of protective equipment for personnel handling radioactive materials. Three-dimensional (3D printing is a fabrication platform that is well suited to creating complex anatomical replicas or custom labware to accomplish these radiological purposes. We created and tested multiple ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene filaments infused with varied concentrations of bismuth (1.2–2.7 g/cm3, a radiopaque metal that is compatible with plastic infusion, to address the poor gamma radiation attenuation of many mainstream 3D printing materials. X-ray computed tomography (CT experiments of these filaments indicated that a density of 1.2 g/cm3 of bismuth-infused ABS emulates bone radiopacity during X-ray CT imaging on preclinical and clinical scanners. ABS-bismuth filaments along with ABS were 3D printed to create an embedded human nasocranial anatomical phantom that mimicked radiological properties of native bone and soft tissue. Increasing the bismuth content in the filaments to 2.7 g/cm3 created a stable material that could attenuate 50% of 99mTechnetium gamma emission when printed with a 2.0 mm wall thickness. A shielded test tube rack was printed to attenuate source radiation as a protective measure for lab personnel. We demonstrated the utility of novel filaments to serve multiple radiological purposes, including the creation of anthropomorphic phantoms and safety labware, by tuning the level of radiation attenuation through material customization.

  11. Donor impurity self-compensation by neutral complexes in bismuth doped lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravich, Yu.I.; Nemov, S.A.; Proshin, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Self-compensation is calculated of impurity doping action in semiconductors of the A 4 B 6 type by neutral complexes, consisting of a vacancy and two impurity atoms. Complexes entropy is estimated and the thermodynamic potential is minimized in the concentration of single two-charge vacancies and complexes. Calculation results are compared with experimental data, obtained when lead telluride doping by bismuth. Account for complex formation improves agreement theory with experiment. 4 refs., 1 fig

  12. Ultrasonic and Thermal Properties of Borate and Phosphate Glasses Containing Bismuth and Lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Sidek Hj. Abd.; Ahmad, Hamezan; Wahab, Zaidan A.; Sulaiman, Zainal Abidin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Shaari, A. Halim; Senin, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic series of (B2O3,P2O5)-Bi2O3-PbO glasses have been successfully prepared by using the rapid quenching technique in which each oxide content changes for every series on the basis of its weight percentage. Their amorphous natures were confirmed earlier by the x-ray diffraction technique. The experimental results show that the density of both glasses, determined by using the Archimedes principle, increases with the glass modifier content. This is due to the replacement of Bi2O3 and PbO in the borate and phosphate glassy networks. The molar volume for borate glass increases with the addition of bismuth and lead oxides, but a reverse trend occurs for the phosphate glass. The longitudinal and shear ultrasound velocities, determined by the MBS 8000 system, of both lead bismuth borate and phosphate glasses show a decreasing trend as more PbO and Bi2O3 are added to the glass system. The increase in PbO/Bi2O3 content was probably related to the progressive increase in the concentration of non-bridging oxygen (NBOs). Thermal studies of the glass, using the Labsys DTA-Setaram machine, show that the value of the glass transition temperature (Tg) is closely related to the chemical bond in the system. In lead bismuth borate glasses, the addition of more Pb2+ and Bi3+ results in a more dominant ionic bond character in the system and hence decreases Tg of the sample. However, in lead bismuth phosphate glasses, the addition of Pb2+ and Bi3+ not only failed to weaken the covalent character in P-O-P bonds, but strengthened it further, leading to an increment in the values of Tg

  13. Systematics of c-axis phonons in the thallium- and bismuth-based cuprate superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A.A.; Dulic, Diana; Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Kaljushnaia, G.A.; Gorina, J.I.; Senturina, N.N.; Kolesnikov, N.N.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Menovsky, A.A.; Palstra, T.T.M.

    1999-01-01

    We present grazing incidence reflectivity measurements in the far-infrared region at temperatures above and below Tc for a series of thallium- (Tl2Ba2CuO6, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8) and bismuth- (Bi2Sr2CuO6, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8, and Bi2-xPbxSr2CaCu2O8) based cuprate superconductors. From the spectra, which are

  14. Eye-lens bismuth shielding in paediatric head CT: artefact evaluation and reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, Maria; Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    CT scans of the brain, sinuses and petrous bones performed as the initial imaging test for a variety of indications have the potential to expose the eye-lens, considered among the most radiosensitive human tissues, to a radiation dose. There are several studies in adults discussing the reduction of orbital dose resulting from the use of commercially available bismuth-impregnated latex shields during CT examinations of the head. To evaluate bismuth shielding-induced artefacts and to provide suggestions for optimal eye-lens shielding in paediatric head CT. A bismuth shield was placed over the eyelids of 60 consecutive children undergoing head CT. Images were assessed for the presence and severity of artefacts with regard to eye-shield distance and shield wrinkling. An anthropomorphic paediatric phantom and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) were used to study the effect of eye lens-to-shield distance on shielding efficiency. Shields were tolerated by 56/60 children. Artefacts were absent in 45% of scans. Artefacts on orbits, not affecting and affecting orbit evaluation were noted in 39% and 14% of scans, respectively. Diagnostically insignificant artefacts on intracranial structures were noted in 1 case (2%) with shield misplacement. Mean eye-lens-to-shield distance was 8.8 mm in scans without artefacts, and 4.3 mm and 2.2 mm in scans with unimportant and diagnostically important artefacts, respectively. Artefacts occurred in 8 out of 9 cases with shield wrinkling. Dose reduction remained unchanged for different shield-to-eye distances. Bismuth shielding-related artefacts occurring in paediatric head CT are frequent, superficial and diagnostically insignificant when brain pathology is assessed. Shields should be placed 1 cm above the eyes when orbital pathology is addressed. Shield wrinkling should be avoided. (orig.)

  15. Radioprotection to the Gonads in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography: Effectiveness of Developed Bismuth Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Karami; Mansour Zabihzadeh; Nasim Shams; Mehrdad Golami

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use and effectiveness of traditional lead gonad shields in pediatric pelvic radiography has been challenged by several literatures over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to develop a new radioprotective gonad shields to be use in pediatric pelvic radiography. Materials and Methods: The commercially available 0.06 mm lead equivalent bismuth garment has cropped squarely and used as ovarian shield to cover the entire region of pelvis. In order to prevent deteriorati...

  16. Study of some health physics parameters of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag shielding concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2016-01-01

    The Bismuth-ground granulated blastfurnace slang (Bi-GGBFS) concrete samples were prepared. The weight percentage of different elements present in Bi-GGBFS Shielding concretewas evaluated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The exposure rate and absorbed dose rate characteristics were calculated theoretically for radioactive sources namely "2"4"1Am and "1"3"7Cs. Our calculations reveal that the Bi-GGBFS concretes are effective in shielding material for gamma radiations.

  17. Technical tutorial: How to pack a nose with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste gauze safely and effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, F; Pace-Balzan, A

    2009-01-01

    The current primary treatment for epistaxis in accident and emergency departments is the insertion of Merocel packs. If these are properly inserted, but fail to control bleeding, it is necessary to insert a bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) pack. A BIPP pack, when properly inserted, has the potential to stop most bleeds, but books and journals suggest a method of insertion that limits its effectiveness. A safer and more effective way of packing a nose with BIPP than the traditional method is described.

  18. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Some Properties of Bismuth Silicate Glasses and Their Glass Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo Hussein, E.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Glasses containing bismuth oxide have attracted considerable attention, although it is non-conventional glass forming oxide, but it has wide applications. In this work, it is aimed to prove that bismuth silicate glass can act as a good shielding material for γ- rays. For this purpose glass containing 20% bismuth oxide and 80% SiO_2 was prepared using melting-annealing technique. Also effects of adding some alkali heavy metal oxides to this glass such as PbO, BaO or SrO were also studied. The formed glasses were also heat treated at 450 degree C for 4 hours to give the corresponding heat treated glasses. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements show that the prepared glasses and heat treated glasses have very good stability when exposed to γ- irradiation, which encourage the assumption of using these glasses as gamma ray shielding materials. Many properties have been investigated, such as density to understand the structural properties, also mechanical properties were verified by measuring microhardness, while the chemical resistance was identified by testing their durability in both acidic and basic solutions. The EPR results were supported by measuring electrical conductivity of the glass and heat treated glass samples at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 553 K, which proved that these glasses have very low conductivity even at high temperature. The formed phases of heat treated glass or glass ceramic samples were demonstrated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also studying the structure of glasses and heat treated glasses before and after irradiation was investigated by the Infrared transmitting spectra. Calculations of optical band gap energies were demonstrated for some selected glasses and heat treated glasses from the data of UV optical absorption spectra to support the probability of using these bismuth silicate glasses for gamma radiation shielding processing.

  19. Ease of intubation: A randomized, double-blind study to compare two doses of rocuronium bromide for endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Aparna; Misra, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical need for a nondepolarizing agent with a rapid onset time and a brief duration of action has led to the development of rocuronium bromide. The aim of this study was to evaluate optimal dose of rocuronium bromide for intubation and to compare the onset time, duration of action, intubating conditions, and hemodynamic effects of two doses of rocuronium bromide. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. All the patients were divided in a randomized, double-blind fashion into two groups of twenty patients each. Group I patients received rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg intravenously and intubated at 60 s, Group II patients received rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg/kg and intubated at 60 s. The neuromuscular block was assessed using single twitch stimulation of 0.1 Hz at adductor pollicis muscle of hand at every 10 s. The results were compiled and analyzed statistically using Chi-square test for qualitative data and Student's t -test for quantitative data. Time of onset was significantly shorter ( P Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg/kg is a safer alternative to rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg for endotracheal intubation with shorter time of onset and better intubating conditions.

  20. Analysis of the color alteration and radiopacity promoted by bismuth oxide in calcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Estrela, Carlos; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide is related to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cement. Calcium silicate cement (CSC) was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO), determined by weight. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was the control group. The radiopacity test was performed according to ISO 6876/2001. The color was evaluated using the CIE system. The assessments were performed after 24 hours, 7 and 30 days of setting time, using a spectrophotometer to obtain the ΔE, Δa, Δb and ΔL values. The statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests (poxide was added showed radiopacity corresponding to the ISO recommendations (>3 mm equivalent of Al). The MTA group was statistically similar to the CSC/30% BO group (p>0.05). In regard to color, the increase of bismuth oxide resulted in a decrease in the ΔE value of the calcium silicate cement. The CSC group presented statistically higher ΔE values than the CSC/50% BO group (poxide has no relation to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cements.

  1. Performance of solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor in flowing lead bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    A solid electrolyte type oxygen sensor for liquid 45%lead-55%bismuth (Pb-Bi) was developed. The performance of the oxygen sensor in the flowing lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) was investigated. The initial performance of the sensor was not reliable, since the reference fluid of the oxygen saturated bismuth in the sensor cell was not compact initially. The electromotive force (EMF) obtained from the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cell was the same as that from the magnesia stabilized zirconia (MSZ) cell in the flowing Pb-Bi. The EMF of the sensor in the flowing Pb-Bi was lower than that in the stagnant Pb-Bi. However, the difference was small. The sensor showed repeatability after the long term interruption and the Pb-Bi drain/charge operation. After the performance tests, the corrosion of the sensor cells were investigated metallurgically. The YSZ cell was eroded around the free surface of the flowing Pb-Bi after 3500 hour-exposure in the flowing Pb-Bi. The MSZ cell showed smooth surface without the erosion. Although the YSZ cell worked more stably than the MSZ cell, the mechanical strength of the YSZ cell is weaker than that of the MSZ cell. (author)

  2. Behaviour of F82H mod. stainless steel in lead-bismuth under temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Briceño, D.; Martín Muñoz, F. J.; Soler Crespo, L.; Esteban, F.; Torres, C.

    2001-07-01

    Austenitic steels can be used in a hybrid system in contact with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic if the region of operating temperatures is not beyond 400°C. For higher temperatures, martensitic steels are recommended. However, at long times, the interaction between the structural material and the eutectic leads to the dissolution of some elements of the steel (Ni, Cr and Fe, mainly) in the liquid metal. In a non-isothermal lead-bismuth loop, the material dissolution takes place at the hot leg of the circuit and, due to the mass transfer, deposition occurs at the cold leg. One of the possible ways to improve the performance of structural materials in lead-bismuth is the creation of an oxide layer. Tests have been performed in a small natural convection loop built of austenitic steel (316L) that has been operating for 3000 h. This loop contains a test area in which several samples of F82Hmod. martensitic steel have been tested at different times. A gas with an oxygen content of 10 ppm was bubbled in the hot area of the circuit during the operation time. The obtained results show that an oxide layer is formed on the samples introduced in the loop at the beginning of the operation and this layer increases with time. However, the samples introduced at different times during the loop operation, are not protected by oxide layers and present material dissolution in some cases.

  3. Behaviour of F82H mod. stainless steel in lead-bismuth under temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Martin Munoz, F.J.; Soler Crespo, L.; Esteban, F.; Torres, C.

    2001-01-01

    Austenitic steels can be used in a hybrid system in contact with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic if the region of operating temperatures is not beyond 400 deg. C. For higher temperatures, martensitic steels are recommended. However, at long times, the interaction between the structural material and the eutectic leads to the dissolution of some elements of the steel (Ni, Cr and Fe, mainly) in the liquid metal. In a non-isothermal lead-bismuth loop, the material dissolution takes place at the hot leg of the circuit and, due to the mass transfer, deposition occurs at the cold leg. One of the possible ways to improve the performance of structural materials in lead-bismuth is the creation of an oxide layer. Tests have been performed in a small natural convection loop built of austenitic steel (316L) that has been operating for 3000 h. This loop contains a test area in which several samples of F82Hmod. martensitic steel have been tested at different times. A gas with an oxygen content of 10 ppm was bubbled in the hot area of the circuit during the operation time. The obtained results show that an oxide layer is formed on the samples introduced in the loop at the beginning of the operation and this layer increases with time. However, the samples introduced at different times during the loop operation, are not protected by oxide layers and present material dissolution in some cases

  4. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of amine-templated open-framework bismuth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, Subba R.; Behera, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates of the compositions, [C 6 N 2 H 14 ] [Bi(SO 4 ) 2 (NO 3 )], (1) and [C 4 N 2 H 12 ] 4 [Bi 4 (SO 4 ) 10 (H 2 O) 4 ], (2), with open architecture have been synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 has a corrugated layered structure with 8-membered aperture wherein the SO 4 tetrahedra and the BiO 8 polyhedra join together to form (4, 4) net sheets of the metal centers while 2 has a three-dimensional structure possessing 8- and 12-membered channels. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Time-resolved fluorescence behavior of 1 and 2 shows mean fluorescence life time of 0.9 and 1.0 ns, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two open-framework bismuth sulfates with the layered and three-dimensional structures have been synthesized and characterized. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates with open architecture have been synthesized and characterized. • One has a corrugated layered structure while the other one has a three-dimensional structure possessing channels. • They are novel in that open-framework three-dimensional main group metal sulfates are first to be reported. • They show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence

  5. The fabrication and thermal properties of bismuth-aluminum oxide nanothermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiu-Yen; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tsai, Ping-Hsin; Chiou, Chung-Han; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2017-01-27

    Bismuth (Bi) nanowires, well controlled in length and diameter, were prepared by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted molding injection process with a high cooling rate. A high performance atomic layer deposition (ALD)-capped bismuth-aluminum oxide (Bi-Al 2 O 3 ) nanothermometer is demonstrated that was fabricated via a facile, low-cost and low-temperature method, including AAO templated-assisted molding injection and low-temperature ALD-capped processes. The thermal behaviors of Bi nanowires and Bi-Al 2 O 3 nanocables were studied by in situ heating transmission electron microscopy. Linear thermal expansion of liquid Bi within native bismuth oxide nanotubes and ALD-capped Bi-Al 2 O 3 nanocables were evaluated from 275 °C to 700 °C and 300 °C to 1000 °C, respectively. The results showed that the ALD-capped Bi-Al 2 O 3 nanocable possesses the highest working temperature, 1000 °C, and the broadest operation window, 300 °C-1000 °C, of a thermal-expanding type nanothermometer. Our innovative approach provides another way of fabricating core-shell nanocables and to further achieve sensing local temperature under an extreme high vacuum environment.

  6. Determination of bismuth and cadmium after solid-phase extraction with chromosorb-107 in a syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokman, Nilgun; Akman, Suleyman

    2004-01-01

    The determination of bismuth and cadmium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Chromosorb-107 filled in a syringe was described. To retain the analytes, the sample solution treated with and without ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was drawn into the syringe filled with Chromosorb-107 and discharged back manually. Bismuth and cadmium were quantitatively sorbed at pH ≥ 6 irrespective of whether the analyte was complexed with APDC prior to passing through the Chromosorb-107. Analyte elements sorbed on the resin were quantitatively eluted with 3.0 M of HNO 3 again drawing and discharging the eluent into the syringe and ejected it back. Optimum flow rates of sample or eluent for sorption and elution processes were 20 ml min -1 for drawing and 20 ml min -1 for discharging in all cases. Bismuth and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The elements could be concentrated by drawing and discharging several portions of sample successively but eluting only one time. The validity of the proposed method was checked with standard reference materials (NIST SRM 1515 Apple-Leaves, CWW-TM-E Waste Water and CRM-SW Sea Water). The analyte elements were quantitatively (>95%) recovered from different matrices irrespective of treated samples with APDC. Detection limits (δ) were 0.8 and 1.2 μg l -1 for Bi and Cd, respectively. The method can be characterized with fastness, simplicity, quantitative recovery and high reproducibility

  7. Opto-electronic properties of bismuth oxide films presenting different crystallographic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Celia L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, UNAM, Unidad de Posgrado, Edificio C, Piso 1, Zona Cultural de CU, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Depablos-Rivera, Osmary, E-mail: osmarydep@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, UNAM, Unidad de Posgrado, Edificio C, Piso 1, Zona Cultural de CU, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Calz. México Xochimilco No. 289 Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, C.P.14389, Ciudad de México, D.F. (Mexico); Muhl, Stephen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Zeinert, Andreas; Lejeune, Michael; Charvet, Stephane; Barroy, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Camps, Enrique [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, kilómetro 36.5. La Marquesa, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, CP 52750, Estado de México (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-03-02

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of bismuth oxide thin films deposited by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering were studied. The Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates under different power and substrate temperatures in an oxygen-enriched plasma leading to films with different crystalline phase as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were measured using ellipsometric spectroscopy and optical transmission spectra. In order to parameterize the optical dispersion functions (n, k) of the films, the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion model was used. The optical bandgap was then assessed by different methods and the results are compared to the thermal variations of the electrical resistivity of the films. It was found that the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical gap strongly depend on the deposition conditions and the crystalline phase; the fluorite defect cubic δ-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase showed the lowest optical gap and lower resistivity. - Highlights: • Different bismuth oxide phases were obtained by sputtering. • The power and substrate temperature were the two key parameters. • Room temperature delta-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were obtained. • The optical bandgap was around 1.5 and 2.2 eV, depending on the phase. • The bismuth oxide films presented activation energies around 1 eV.

  8. Effect of bismuth ion substitution on structural properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraavula Suresh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth doped nano zinc ferrite particles having the general formula ZnFe2-xBixO4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 were synthesized by sol-gel combustion method. The effect of bismuth doping on structural properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD spectra confirm the single phase cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite sizes of all the samples were determined by Debye-Scherrer equation and are in the range 16–20 nm. The lattice parameter increases with the increase of bismuth ion concentration. This is due to the larger ionic radius of Bi3+ ions substituting smaller Fe3+ ions at octahedral sites (B-sites. The surface morphology of all compounds was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The microstructure analysis and the particle size were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM. The compositional stoichiometry of these samples was verified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis.

  9. Selective resputtering of bismuth in sputtered Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J. M.; McDonald, D. B.; Reiten, M. T.; Olson, J.; Kampwirth, R. T.; Gray, K. E.

    1991-10-01

    We present studies using a dc magnetron in an on-axis configuration to sputter Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films from a composite target. These studies show that bismuth can be preferentially resputtered. The influence of ozone, molecular oxygen, and total pressure on the resputtering of bismuth is investigated and discussed. Ozone, in low concentrations, can dramatically affect the degree of resputtering. By comparing the effects of molecular oxygen and ozone, some insight is gained regarding the possible mechanisms of negative ion formation in the magnetron environment. Based on our results we suggest that molecular oxygen can bring about resputtering primarily by forming O+2, which collides with the target to produce energetic negative oxygen ions. In contrast, ozone may form negative ions by electron impact in the dark space above the target, giving rise to lower-energy negative ions, which can traverse the plasma unneutralized and can be stopped with an applied bias on the sample block. With no added oxidant, negative oxygen ions from the target oxygen may dominate the background resputtering. Similarity is found between our results and those for similar studies on Y-Ba-Cu-O by other workers. Bismuth in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O behaves as barium in Y-Ba-Cu-O with regards to preferential resputtering; furthermore, the response of strontium, calcium, and copper to oxygen in sputtered Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is similar to what is observed for copper in Y-Ba-Cu-O.

  10. Selective resputtering of bismuth in sputtered Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, J.M.; McDonald, D.B.; Reiten, M.T.; Olson, J.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Gray, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    We present studies using a dc magnetron in an on-axis configuration to sputter Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films from a composite target. These studies show that bismuth can be preferentially resputtered. The influence of ozone, molecular oxygen, and total pressure on the resputtering of bismuth is investigated and discussed. Ozone, in low concentrations, can dramatically affect the degree of resputtering. By comparing the effects of molecular oxygen and ozone, some insight is gained regarding the possible mechanisms of negative ion formation in the magnetron environment. Based on our results we suggest that molecular oxygen can bring about resputtering primarily by forming O + 2 , which collides with the target to produce energetic negative oxygen ions. In contrast, ozone may form negative ions by electron impact in the dark space above the target, giving rise to lower-energy negative ions, which can traverse the plasma unneutralized and can be stopped with an applied bias on the sample block. With no added oxidant, negative oxygen ions from the target oxygen may dominate the background resputtering. Similarity is found between our results and those for similar studies on Y-Ba-Cu-O by other workers. Bismuth in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O behaves as barium in Y-Ba-Cu-O with regards to preferential resputtering; furthermore, the response of strontium, calcium, and copper to oxygen in sputtered Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O is similar to what is observed for copper in Y-Ba-Cu-O

  11. Performance comparison of metallic, actinide burning fuel in lead-bismuth and sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.D.; Herring, J.S.; Macdonald, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed to ''incinerate'' or ''transmute'' the current inventory of transuranic waste (TRU) that exits in spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel, and weapons plutonium. These methods include both critical (e.g., fast reactors) and non-critical (e.g., accelerator transmutation) systems. The work discussed here is part of a larger effort at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to investigate the suitability of lead and lead-alloy cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The neutronics of non fertile fuel loaded with 20 or 30-wt% light water reactor (LWR) plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from -1.02 to -1.16 g/MWd, compared to a typical LWR actinide generation rate of 0.303 g/MWd. However, when using the same parameters, the sodium-cooled case went subcritical after 0.2 to 0.8 effective full power years, and the lead-bismuth cooled case ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 effective full power years. (author)

  12. Red light emission from europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinod; Viswanath, C. S. Dwaraka; Upadhyaya, Vyasa; Mahato, K. K.; Kamath, Sudha D.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc sodium bismuth borate (ZNBB) glasses doped with different concentrations of europium were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and characterized through the measurements of density, refractive index, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, optical absorption, luminescence and radiative lifetimes. FTIR spectra showed seven characteristic peaks of bismuth and borate functional groups in the range of 400-1600 cm-1. The optical band gap and bonding parameters have been calculated from absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra recorded in the visible region with 394 nm excitation are used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2 and Ω4). The JO intensity parameters have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as branching ratio (β), stimulated emission cross-section (σse), transition probability (A) for the fluorescent level of 5D0→7F2. Decay rates through single exponential are used to calculate the lifetime (τm) of the meta-stable state 5D0 of (Eu3+ ion) these glasses. The radiative parameters measured for all these glasses show 0.7 mol% europium doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glass 5D0→7F2 transition has the potential for red laser applications. The quality of the colour emitted by the present glasses are estimated quantitatively by CIE chromaticity coordinates, which confirms the suitability of these glasses as a red emitting material for field emission technologies and LEDs.

  13. Use of a Soluble Anode in Electrodeposition of Thick Bismuth Telluride Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M.; Diliberto, S.; de Vaulx, C.; Azzouz, K.; Boulanger, C.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of thermoelectric devices within an automotive heat exchanger could enable conversion of lost heat into electrical energy, contributing to improved total output from the engine. For this purpose, synthesis of thick bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) films is required. Bismuth telluride has been produced by an electrochemical method in nitric acid with a sacrificial bismuth telluride anode as the source of cations. The binary layer grows on the working electrode while the counter-electrode, a Bi2Te3 disk obtained by high frequency melting, is oxidized to BiIII and TeIV. This process leads to auto-regeneration of the solution without modification of its composition. The thickness of films deposited by use of the Bi2Te3 anode was approximately 10 times that without. To demonstrate the utility of a soluble anode in electrochemical deposition, we report characterization of the composition and morphology of the films obtained under different experimental conditions. Perfectly dense and regular Bi2Te3 films (˜400 μm) with low internal stress and uniform composition across the cross-section were prepared. Their thermoelectric properties were assessed.

  14. Opto-electronic properties of bismuth oxide films presenting different crystallographic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Celia L.; Depablos-Rivera, Osmary; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Muhl, Stephen; Zeinert, Andreas; Lejeune, Michael; Charvet, Stephane; Barroy, Pierre; Camps, Enrique; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-01-01

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of bismuth oxide thin films deposited by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering were studied. The Bi 2 O 3 thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates under different power and substrate temperatures in an oxygen-enriched plasma leading to films with different crystalline phase as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were measured using ellipsometric spectroscopy and optical transmission spectra. In order to parameterize the optical dispersion functions (n, k) of the films, the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion model was used. The optical bandgap was then assessed by different methods and the results are compared to the thermal variations of the electrical resistivity of the films. It was found that the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical gap strongly depend on the deposition conditions and the crystalline phase; the fluorite defect cubic δ-Bi 2 O 3 phase showed the lowest optical gap and lower resistivity. - Highlights: • Different bismuth oxide phases were obtained by sputtering. • The power and substrate temperature were the two key parameters. • Room temperature delta-Bi 2 O 3 thin films were obtained. • The optical bandgap was around 1.5 and 2.2 eV, depending on the phase. • The bismuth oxide films presented activation energies around 1 eV

  15. Study on the extraction of rare earth elements in liquid bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M.; Adachi, M.; Kai, Y.; Koike, K.

    1987-01-01

    Three factors, which are important for the extraction of rare earth elements in liquid bismuth - molten salt system, were studied, i. e., the equilibrium distribution of neodymium, samarium and bismuth between molten LiCl - liquid Bi-Li alloys, the extraction rate of rare earths, and the characteristics of the extractor with drop dispersion. The rare earth elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li , the distribution of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase markedly increased as X Li increased. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprised of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The redox reaction processes were very fast and the extraction rates for rare earths are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solute and the metallic lithium. The process for the formation of liquid metal drops in the continuous phase is predictable from semiempirical correlations reported for aqueous solution - organic solvent systems. The height of droplet bed being accumulated on drop settling portion is predictable from the coalescence time of single drop to a flat metal interface. The coalescence of metal drop to clean interface was very fast. The extractor type of liquid metal dispersion in molten salt is suitable for the extraction process in the fuel reprocessing of MSR or MSBR. (author)

  16. Glass composite waste forms for iodine confined in bismuth-embedded SBA-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to stabilize bismuth-embedded SBA-15 that captured iodine gas by fabrication of monolithic waste forms. The iodine containing waste was mixed with Bi2O3 (a stabilizing additive) and low-temperature sintering glass followed by pelletizing and the sintering process to produce glass composite materials. Iodine volatility during the sintering process was significantly affected by the ratio of Bi2O3 and the glass composition. It was confirmed that BiI3, the main iodine phase within bismuth-embedded SBA-15, was effectively transformed to the mixed phases of Bi5O7I and BiOI. The initial leaching rates of iodine from the glass composite waste forms ranged 10-3-10-2 g/m2 day, showing the stability of the iodine phases encapsulated by the glassy networks. It was also observed that common groundwater anions (e.g., chloride, carbonate, sulfite, and fluoride) elevated the iodine leaching rate by anion exchange reactions. The present results suggest that the glass composite waste form of bismuth-embedded SBA-15 could be a candidate material for stable storage of 129I.

  17. Comparison of phenobarbital with bromide as a first-choice antiepileptic drug for treatment of epilepsy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Dawn Merton; Dewey, Curtis; Carpenter, David Mark

    2012-05-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of treatment with phenobarbital or bromide as the first-choice antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs. Double-blinded, randomized, parallel, clinical trial. 46 AED-naïve dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy. Study inclusion was based on age, history, findings on physical and neurologic examinations, and clinicopathologic test results. For either phenobarbital treatment (21 dogs) or bromide treatment (25), a 7-day loading dose period was initiated along with a maintenance dose, which was adjusted on the basis of monthly monitoring. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared between times (baseline and study end [generally 6 months]) and between drugs. Phenobarbital treatment resulted in eradication of seizures (17/20 [85%]) significantly more often than did bromide (12/23 [52%]); phenobarbital treatment also resulted in a greater percentage decrease in seizure duration (88 ± 34%), compared with bromide (49 ± 75%). Seizure activity worsened in 3 bromide-treated dogs only. In dogs with seizure eradication, mean ± SD serum phenobarbital concentration was 25 ± 6 μg/mL (phenobarbital dosage, 4.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg [1.9 ± 0.5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h) and mean serum bromide concentration was 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/mL (bromide dosage, 31 ± 11 mg/kg [14 ± 5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h). Ataxia, lethargy, and polydipsia were greater at 1 month for phenobarbital-treated dogs; vomiting was greater for bromide-treated dogs at 1 month and study end. Both phenobarbital and bromide were reasonable first-choice AEDs for dogs, but phenobarbital was more effective and better tolerated during the first 6 months of treatment.

  18. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  19. Evaluation of the influence of base and alkyl bromide on synthesis of pyrazinoic acid esters through factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao Paulo dos Santos; Felli, Veni Maria Andres

    2009-01-01

    Pyrazinoic acid esters have been synthesized as prodrugs of pyrazinoic acid. In the literature, its preparation is reported through the reaction of pyrazinoyl chloride with alcohols and the reaction with DCC/DMAP. In this work, it is reported a 22 factorial design to evaluate the preparation of these esters through the substitution of alkyl bromides with carboxylate anion. The controlled factors were alkyl chain length of bromides (ethyl and hexyl) and the used base (triethylamine and DBU). Results revealed that the used base used has significant effect on yield, and alkyl bromide used has neither significant influence, nor its interaction effect with base. (author)

  20. Atmospheric volatilization of methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, and propargyl bromide through two plastic films: transfer coefficient and temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yates, S. R.; Gan, J.; Knuteson, J. A.

    Atmospheric emission of methyl bromide (MeBr) and its potential alternative chemicals such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and propargyl bromide (PrBr) can contribute to air pollution and ozone depletion (for MeBr). One of the main sources of these chemicals is from agricultural soil fumigation. To understand the volatilization dynamics, emission of MeBr, 1,3-D, and PrBr through a polyethylene-based high-barrier film (HBF) and a virtually impermeable film (VIF) was measured using an air flow and sampling system that produced >90% mass balance. The experiment was conducted outdoors and was subjected to ambient daily temperature variations. The HBF film was found to be very permeable to 1,3-D and PrBr, but somewhat less permeable to MeBr. The VIF film was very impermeable to 1,3-D, PrBr, or MeBr. Measured volatilization flux, in general, exhibited strong diurnal variations which were controlled by film temperature. Unlike the HBF film, a time lag (˜12 h) was observed between high-temperatures and high-emission flux values for the VIF film. An impermeable film may be used as an effective means of controlling the atmospheric emission of MeBr and its alternative chemicals.

  1. Effect of cadmium doping on some properties of glass-insulated bismuth-based microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meglei, D.; Dyntu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: According to the literature, semiconductor converters based on films and wire crystals are widely used in present-day microelectronics. However, the production of efficient semiconductor converters requires crystals of high structural perfection with a given composition and desired electrical and mechanical properties. In this work, we describe the study of the perfection of the microstructure and mechanical properties of glass-insulated microwires based on Bi doped with cadmium (Cd) and the technique of preparation of micro resistors suitable for instrumentation applications. Microscopic studies of ground, polished, and chemically etched microwires doped with cadmium showed that they have smooth cylindrical surfaces in the entire range of diameters. Sizes of defects in the form of micropores, microcracks, dislocations, and twins on their surface are much smaller than those of pure bismuth microwire. It is also found that the tendency to twinning and the number and size of surface defects decrease with decreasing diameters; at the same time, their homogeneity increases. The tensile strength of the studied microwires with glass insulation is high for all tested diameters and ranges within 33.274.1 kg/mm with respect to internal diameters of 5.6 21.2 m; in addition, they withstand a breaking force up to 130 g and more, whereas the samples of pure bismuth microwires withstood a force up to 80 g. It is also found that the tensile strength of cadmium doped microwires is significantly higher than that of undoped samples. The bending strength as a measure of elasticity was determined using a special installation according to the critical bending radius of the sample at which the sample integrity is violated. The results of bending tests showed that, with increasing diameter of the doped samples, the critical radius linearly increases; that is, in this case, the elasticity increases with decreasing diameter. Metallographic analysis revealed that cadmium in the

  2. Bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin as first-line Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Shudong; Graham, David Y; Lu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of replacing tetracycline with amoxicillin in bismuth quadruple therapy. Subjects who were infected with Helicobacter pylori and naïve to treatment were randomly (1:1) assigned to receive a 14-day modified bismuth quadruple therapy: lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg (elemental bismuth), twice a day with metronidazole 400 mg four times a day (metronidazole group) or clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day (clarithromycin group). Six weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the twofold agar dilution method. This was a non-inferiority trial. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were randomised. Metronidazole and clarithromycin containing regimens achieved high cure rates: 94 of 97 (96.9%, 95% CI 93.5% to 100%) and 93 of 98 (94.9%, 95% CI 90.5% to 99.3%) by per-protocol and 88.9% (95% CI 83.0% to 94.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI 82.8% to 94.8%) by intention-to-treat, respectively. Amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 1.5%, 45.5% and 26.5%, respectively. Only clarithromycin resistance reduced treatment success (e.g., susceptible 98.6%, resistant 76.9%, p=0.001). Adverse events were more common in the metronidazole group. These results suggest that amoxicillin can substitute for tetracycline in modified 14 day bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatment and still overcome metronidazole resistance in areas with high prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance. Using clarithromycin instead of metronidazole was only effective in the presence of susceptible strains. NCT02175901. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II) using potassium bromide as selective masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, N.V.; Nazareth, R.A.; Narayana, B.; Hegde, P.; Manjunatha, B.R.

    2002-01-01

    A complexometric method for the determination of mercury in presence of other metal ions based on the selective masking ability of potassium bromide towards mercury is described. Mercury(II) present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated against zinc sulfate solution at pH 5-6 using xylenol orange as the indicator. A known excess of 10 % solution of potassium bromide is then added and the EDTA released from Hg-EDTA complex is titrated against standard zinc sulfate solution. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 8 mg to 250 mg of mercury(II) with a relative error ±0.28 % and standard deviations /leg 0.5 mg. The interference of various ions is studied. This method was applied to the determination of mercury(II) in its alloys. (author)

  4. Temporary arrest of fetal movement with pancuronium bromide to enable antenatal magnetic resonance imaging of holoprosencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, L; Seeds, J W

    1989-10-01

    The well-known ability of real-time ultrasound to detect congenital abnormalities is often limited by acoustic artifact or fetal position or both. Magnetic resonance imaging can provide superior soft tissue resolution but is vulnerable to maternal and fetal motion artifact. Described and illustrated here is a case of fetal holoprosencephaly that was not of diagnostic clarity on ultrasound. The fetus was paralyzed with an intramuscular injection of pancuronium bromide before a resonance imaging study. Successful fetal paralysis with pancuronium bromide has been reported prior to a variety of fetal interventions for the temporary arrest of fetal movement. The resonance study illustrated here was of significantly superior clarity and improved the accuracy of prognosis and management counseling. It is concluded that in selected cases where ultrasound is not of diagnostic clarity due to acoustic artifact, fetal paralysis and magnetic resonance imaging may be considered.

  5. Apparent molal volumes of symmetrical and asymmetrical isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nicolás; Malagón, Andrés; Buchner, Richard; Vargas, Edgar F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Apparent molal volumes of five isomers of Bu 4 NBr in water have been measured. • The structural effect of branched and linear chains is discussed. • The structural contributions to the ionic volume were calculated. -- Abstract: Apparent molal volumes of a series of differently substituted quaternary ammonium bromides, namely tetra-iso-butyl-, tetra-sec-butyl-, tetra-n-butyl-, di-n-butyl-di-sec-butyl- and di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide have been determined as a function of molal concentration at (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution and ionic molar volumes of these quaternary ammonium cations were determined. Structural volume contributions to the ionic molar volume were also calculated. The symmetric and asymmetric quaternary ammonium cations are “structure making” ions. The contribution of the branched butyl chains predominates over the linear butyl chains in the asymmetric cations

  6. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Shinomura, Hisashi

    2013-02-01

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr42- layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation.

  7. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC 50 values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds

  8. Bromidotetra?kis?(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-?N 3)copper(II) bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Do??ga, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  9. Bromide (Br) - Based Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes with High-Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of metal nanoparticles greatly affects the properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controllable geometry has thus attracted extensive attentions. In this work, we report a modified polyol synthesis approach of silver (Ag) nanocubes through tuning the concentration of bromide ions (Br? ions). We have systematically investigated the effect of Br? ions in the polyol process, and find that ...

  10. Chemical effects of radiative thermal neutron capture. Part 5.- Potassium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddock, A. G.; Val Cob, M. del

    1961-01-01

    By the use of the bromine atom exchanging reagent CHBr: CHBr, it has been shown that the specific activity of the atomic bromine in pile-irradiated potassium bromide is greater than that of the total bromine. This result suggests that the inactive radiolytic bromine atoms and the ejected radioactive atoms occupy different defect sites, the latter most likely finding interstitial positrons. (Author) 6 refs

  11. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  12. Chemical effects of radiative thermal neutron capture. Part 5.- Potassium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddock, A G; Val Cob, M del

    1961-07-01

    By the use of the bromine atom exchanging reagent CHBr: CHBr, it has been shown that the specific activity of the atomic bromine in pile-irradiated potassium bromide is greater than that of the total bromine. This result suggests that the inactive radiolytic bromine atoms and the ejected radioactive atoms occupy different defect sites, the latter most likely finding interstitial positrons. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  14. The discovery and development of aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Mario; Radaeli, Alessandro; Santini, Giuseppe; Morjaria, Jaymin; Mores, Nadia; Mondino, Chiara; Macis, Giuseppe; Montuschi, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Bronchodilators, including long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs), are a mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LAMAs act as bronchodilators principally by antagonizing airway smooth muscle cells M 3 muscarinic receptors. Aclidinium bromide is a twice-daily LAMA which was developed to improve on the efficacy and/or safety of previous LAMAs. Area covered: Herein, the authors present the pharmacotherapeutic role of aclidinium in COPD and point out unmet need in this research area. The following aspects are covered: a) the discovery and medicinal chemistry of aclidinium bromide; b) an overview of the market; c) its mechanism of action; d) its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile derived from pre-clinical studies; e) the clinical studies which led to its licensing; f) the evidence from meta-analyses; g) the aclidinium/formoterol fixed dose combination for COPD and h) priorities in this area of research. Expert opinion: Aclidinium bromide has the pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy profile and inhaler characteristics which makes it a valuable therapeutic option for pharmacological management of patients with COPD. Due to its rapid biotransformation into inactive metabolites, aclidinium is potentially one of the safest LAMAs. Further head-to-head randomized clinical trials are required to define efficacy and safety of aclidinium when compared to once-daily LAMAs. The clinical relevance of airway anti-remodeling effects of aclidinium has to be defined.

  15. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, Ryo; Shinomura, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr 4 2− layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: For the first time, we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. Highlights: ► PbBr-based layered perovskite with azobenezene derivatives could be synthesized by a homogeneous precipitation method. ► Azobenzene derivatives incorporated the present hybrid that exhibited reversible photoisomerization under UV and/or visible light irradiation. ► PL property of the present hybrid could also be varied by photoisomerization.

  16. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  17. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian, Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  18. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  19. Electrolytic coloration and spectral properties of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lan; Song, Cuiying; Gu, Hongen

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals are colored electrolytically at various temperatures and voltages by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode. The characteristic OH − spectral band is observed in absorption spectrum of uncolored single crystal. The characteristic O − , OH − , U, V 2 , O 2− −V a + , M L1 , F and M spectral bands are observed simultaneously in absorption spectra of colored single crystals. Current–time curve for electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration processes are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained. - Highlights: ► We expanded the traditional electrolysis method. ► Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide crystals were colored electrolytically for the first time. ► Useful V, F and F-aggregate color centers were produced in colored crystals. ► V color centers were produced directly and F as well as F-aggregate color centers indirectly.

  20. Trends in bromide wet deposition concentrations in the contiguous United States, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A; Lehmann, Christopher M B; Kerschner, Brian M; Ludtke, Amy S; Green, Lee A; Rhodes, Mark F

    2018-02-01

    Bromide (Br - ) and other solute concentration data from wet deposition samples collected and analyzed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) from 2001 to 2016, were statistically analyzed for trends both geographically and temporally by precipitation type. Analysis was limited to NADP sites in the contiguous 48 United States. The Br - concentrations for this time period had a high number of values censored at the detection limits with greater than 86 percent of sample concentrations below analytical detection. Bromide was more frequently detected at NADP sites in coastal regions. Analysis using specialized statistical techniques for censored data revealed that Br - concentrations varied by precipitation type with higher concentrations usually observed in liquid versus precipitation containing snow. Negative temporal trends in Br - wet deposition concentrations were observed at a majority of NADP sites; approximately 25 percent of these trend values were statistically significant at less than 0.05 to 0.10 significance levels. Potential causes for the negative trends were explored, including annual and seasonal changes in precipitation depth, reduced emissions of methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) from coastal wetlands, and declining industrial use of bromine compounds. The results indicate that Br - in non-coastal wet-deposition comes mainly from long-range transport, not local sources. Correlations between Br - , chloride, and nitrate concentrations also were evaluated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 304 SS and 316 SS Alloys in Aqueous Chloride and Bromide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Kareem Shakir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present work falls on the pitting corrosion behavior investigation of 304 SS and 316 SS alloys in 3.5 wt% of aqueous solution bearing with chloride and bromide anion at different solutions temperature range starting from (20-50oC due to the pitting corrosion tremendous effect on the economic, safety and materials loss due to leakage. The impact of solution temperatures on the pitting corrosion resistance at 3.5wt% (NaCl and NaBr solutions for the 304 SS and 316 SS has been investigated utilizing the cyclic polarization techniques at the potential range -400 to1000 mV vs. SCE at 40 mV/sec scan rate followed by the surface characterization employing Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that a significant decline in the pitting corrosion potential Ep values of both stainless steel alloys in chloride and bromide solution during temperature increase attributed to the pitting corrosion potential decreased arises from the modification of the passive film properties. The surface examination using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope prove the occurring of higher pitting density over 304 SS in chloride solution than that observed in bromide solution with a non-circular lacy cover pitfall out at the center and falls inside the pits hall in comparison to the isolated circular lacy cover pit formed on 316 SS in 3.5wt% NaBr solution at 50 oC.

  2. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler(®)) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The choice of optimal bronchodilator therapy for COPD is increasingly difficult for clinicians as new treatments are marketed. AREAS COVERED: Inhaled...... glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler®) is a well-tolerated long-acting anti-muscarinic agent (LAMA) with a fast onset of action. In patients with moderate to severe COPD, glycopyrronium bromide has clinically important effects on level of FEV1, use of relief medication, day-time dyspnea scores, and probably...... also on health status. Furthermore, glycopyrronium bromide also has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and, probably by that, exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, although as a secondary outcome...

  3. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  4. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  5. Comparative study on bromide and iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Dole, M.H.; Singare, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reaction was studied using industrial grade ion exchange resin Duolite A-113. The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 26.0degC to 43.0degC and the concentration of external ionic solution varying from 0.005 M to 0.100 M. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the calculated values of specific reaction rate, initial rate of bromide ion exchange, and amount of bromide ions exchanged were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (author)

  6. GREEN CHEMISTRY APPLICATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF (1-N-4’-METHOXYBENZYL-1,10-PHENANTHROLINIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidan Firdaus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%. Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline in acetone at reflux for 12 h to give the phenanthrolinium salt target in 68% yield.   Keywords: green chemistry, p-anisaldehyde, (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide

  7. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  8. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  10. Growth of Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods and its electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yong; Pei, Li-zhai; Wei, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods have been prepared using sodium bismuthate and Li acetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the nanorods are composed of monoclinic Bi_2O_4 and cubic LiBi_1_2O_1_8_._5_0 phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation shows that the nanorods have the length and diameter of 1-5 μm and 50-350 nm, respectively. The formation of the Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods is closely relative to the hydrothermal conditions. The electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine based on a Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been developed. The CV peak current increases obviously and linearly with increasing the scan rate. Under the optimal conditions, Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified GCE exhibits good analytical performance with good reproducibility and stability. The linear range of L-cysteine is 0.0001-2 mM and the detection limit is 0.36 μM and 0.17 μM for cvp1 and cvp2, respectively. (author)

  11. Growth of Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods and its electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yong, E-mail: yongwen1982@163.com [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Xinjiang University (China); Pei, Li-zhai; Wei, Tian [chool of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology (China)

    2017-05-15

    Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods have been prepared using sodium bismuthate and Li acetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the nanorods are composed of monoclinic Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} and cubic LiBi{sub 12}O{sub 18.50} phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation shows that the nanorods have the length and diameter of 1-5 μm and 50-350 nm, respectively. The formation of the Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods is closely relative to the hydrothermal conditions. The electrochemical performance for the determination of L-cysteine based on a Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been developed. The CV peak current increases obviously and linearly with increasing the scan rate. Under the optimal conditions, Li doped bismuth oxide nanorods modified GCE exhibits good analytical performance with good reproducibility and stability. The linear range of L-cysteine is 0.0001-2 mM and the detection limit is 0.36 μM and 0.17 μM for cvp1 and cvp2, respectively. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo simulations for dose enhancement in cancer treatment using bismuth oxide nanoparticles implanted in brain soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Eslam; Djouider, Fathi; Banoqitah, Essam

    2018-03-26

    The objective of this work is to study the dosimetric performances of bismuth oxide nanoparticles implanted in tumors in cancer radiotherapy. GEANT4 based Monte Carlo numerical simulations were performed to assess dose enhancement distributions in and around a 1 × 1 × 1 cm 3 tumor implanted with different concentrations of bismuth oxide and irradiated with low energies 125 I, 131 Cs, and 103 Pd radioactive sources. Dose contributions were considered from photoelectrons, Auger electrons, and characteristic X-rays. Our results show the dose enhancement increased with increasing both bismuth oxide concentration in the target and photon energy. A dose enhancement factor up to 18.55 was obtained for a concentration of 70 mg/g of bismuth oxide in the tumor when irradiated with 131 Cs source. This study showed that bismuth oxide nanoparticles are innovative agents that could be potentially applicable to in vivo cancer radiotherapy due to the fact that they induce a highly localized energy deposition within the tumor.

  13. Study of the bismuth oxide concentration required to provide Portland cement with adequate radiopacity for endodontic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Zeferino, Eduardo Gregatto; Manhães, Luiz Roberto Coutinho; Rocha, Daniel Guimarães Pedro; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ideal concentration of bismuth oxide in white Portland cement to provide it with sufficient radiopacity for use as an endodontic material (ADA specification #57). 2-mm thick standardized test specimens of white MTA and of white Portland cement, as controls, and of white Portland cement with the experimental addition of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% or 30% of bismuth oxide were radiographed and compared with various thicknesses of pure aluminum, using optic density to determine the observed grayscale levels of radiopacity in a scale ranging from 0 to 255. The data was submitted to ANOVA (pcement with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of bismuth oxide presented mean readings of 63.3, 95.7, 110.7, 142.7, 151.3, 161.0 and 180.0 respectively. MTA presented a mean reading of 157.3. The readings of MTA and white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide did not differ significantly from the reading observed for a thickness of 4 mm of aluminum (145.3), which is considered ideal for a test specimen by ADA specification #57 (2 mm above the thickness of the test specimen). White MTA and white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide presented the radiopacity required for an endodontic cement.

  14. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  15. Greener Friedel-Crafts Acylation using Microwave-enhanced reactivity of Bismuth Triflate in the Friedel-Crafts Benzoylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzoic Anhydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    An efficient and facile bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed benzoylation of aromatic compounds using benzoic anhydride under solvent-free microwave irradiation has been developed. The microwave-assisted Friedel-Crafts benzoylation results in good yields within short reaction times. Bismuth...

  16. The cytotoxicity of organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom in the molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kumiko; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Fujie, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules, which are composed of an organic structure and metal(s), are indispensable for synthetic chemical reactions; however, their toxicity has been incompletely understood. In the present study, we discovered two cytotoxic organobismuth compounds whose cytotoxicity diminished upon replacement of the intramolecular bismuth atom with an antimony atom. The intracellular accumulation of the organobismuth compounds was much higher than that of the organoantimony compounds with the corresponding organic structures. We also showed that both the organic structure and bismuth atom are required for certain organobismuth compounds to exert their cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of such a compound is a result of an interaction between the organic structure and the bismuth atom. The present data suggest that organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures exhibit cytotoxicity via an interaction between the molecular structure and the bismuth atom, and this cytotoxicity can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom, resulting in lower intracellular accumulation.

  17. Screen-printed electrodes made of a bismuth nanoparticle porous carbon nanocomposite applied to the determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Pengfei; Gich, Martí; Roig, Anna; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Navarro- Hernández, Carla; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the simplified fabrication and on the characterization of bismuth-based screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for use in heavy metal detection. A nanocomposite consisting of bismuth nanoparticles and amorphous carbon was synthesized by a combined one-step sol-gel and pyrolysis process and milled down to a specific particle size distribution as required for the preparation of an ink formulation to be used in screen printing. The resulting electrochemical devices were applied to the detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions in water samples. The porous structure of carbon and the high surface area of the bismuth nanoparticles allow for the detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II) at concentration levels below 4 ppb. The application of the SPEs was demonstrated by quantifying these ions in tap drinking water and wastewater collected from an influent of an urban wastewater treatment plant. (author)

  18. The application of three-phase liquid-liquid extraction to the analysis of bismuth and tellurium in sulphide concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction system consisting of one aqueous and two organic phases is described. Diantipyrylmethane (DAM) is used as the extractant for bismuth and tellurium, which are extracted into the smaller of the two organic phases from nitric acid and perchloric acid respectively. The extraction efficiency is in the range of 90 to 95 per cent, compensation for incomplete extraction being made by the technique of standard addition. Copper, lead, and zinc are not extracted in either procedure. When the solutions contain high concentrations of iron, thioglycolic acid is used as a masking agent for iron in the extraction of bismuth. Atomic-absorption spectrophotometry is used for the analysis of the third phase after it has been diluted with methanol. The precision for bismuth and tellurium is in the range of 3 to 4 per cent. The accuracy, as ascertained from comparative analyses of sulphide concentrates, is good

  19. Feasibility of preparing patterned molybdenum coatings on bismuth telluride thermoelectric modules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Miller, Stephen Samuel; Knight, Marlene E.; LePage, William S.; Sobczak, Catherine Elizabeth.; Wesolowski, Daniel Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molybdenum electrical interconnects for thermoelectric modules were produced by air plasma spraying a 30%CE%BCm size molybdenum powder through a laser-cut Kapton tape mask. Initial feasibility demonstrations showed that the molybdenum coating exhibited excellent feature and spacing retention (~170%CE%BCm), adhered to bismuth-telluride, and exhibited electrical conductivity appropriate for use as a thermoelectric module interconnect. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize air plasma spray process conditions to produce a molybdenum coating with low electrical resistivity. Finally, a molybdenum coating was successfully produced on a fullscale thermoelectric module. After the addition of a final titanium/gold layer deposited on top of the molybdenum coating, the full scale module exhibited an electrical resistivity of 128%CE%A9, approaching the theoretical resistivity value for the 6mm module leg of 112%CE%A9. Importantly, air plasma sprayed molybdenum did not show significant chemical reaction with bismuth-telluride substrate at the coating/substrate interface. The molybdenum coating microstructure consisted of lamellar splats containing columnar grains. Air plasma sprayed molybdenum embedded deeply (several microns) into the bismuth-telluride substrate, leading to good adhesion between the coating and the substrate. Clusters of round pores (and cracks radiating from the pores) were found immediately beneath the molybdenum coating. These pores are believed to result from tellurium vaporization during the spray process where the molten molybdenum droplets (2623%C2%B0C) transferred their heat of solidification to the substrate at the moment of impact. Substrate cooling during the molybdenum deposition process was recommended to mitigate tellurium vaporization in future studies.

  20. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of amine-templated open-framework bismuth sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marri, Subba R.; Behera, J.N., E-mail: jnbehera@niser.ac.in

    2014-02-15

    Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates of the compositions, [C{sub 6}N{sub 2}H{sub 14}] [Bi(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3})], (1) and [C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}]{sub 4}[Bi{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 10}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}], (2), with open architecture have been synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 has a corrugated layered structure with 8-membered aperture wherein the SO{sub 4} tetrahedra and the BiO{sub 8} polyhedra join together to form (4, 4) net sheets of the metal centers while 2 has a three-dimensional structure possessing 8- and 12-membered channels. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Time-resolved fluorescence behavior of 1 and 2 shows mean fluorescence life time of 0.9 and 1.0 ns, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two open-framework bismuth sulfates with the layered and three-dimensional structures have been synthesized and characterized. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates with open architecture have been synthesized and characterized. • One has a corrugated layered structure while the other one has a three-dimensional structure possessing channels. • They are novel in that open-framework three-dimensional main group metal sulfates are first to be reported. • They show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence.