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Sample records for biscuit cake chocolate

  1. The suitability of teff flour in bread, layer cakes, cookies and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer; Abaye, A O; Barbeau, William; Thomason, Wade

    2013-11-01

    A niche market in alternative foods has emerged in response to interest in a health conscientious diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baking characteristics of teff to determine whether teff could produce satisfactory baked products. Cakes, cookies, biscuits and bread were made in triplicate from composites of wheat flour with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100% teff flour. Objective tests on size, shape, color and texture were used to evaluate the quality of the baked products. Increases in percent teff resulted in decreases in bread and cake volume (p > 0.05). The fracture strength of the cookies were not significantly different (p > 0.05) but spread was significantly greater for cookies made with 40% and 100% teff flour (p ≤ 0.05). There was also significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in biscuit height and color among teff treatments. Overall, this study showed that teff flour is best suited for use in cookies and biscuits.

  2. Energy compensation in the real world. Good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Katherine; McKeown, P.P.; Woodside, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods with which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of ei...

  3. Heme Iron Concentrate and Iron Sulfate Added to Chocolate Biscuits: Effects on Hematological Indices of Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Gutiérrez, Adrián Guillermo; González-Rosendo, Guillermina; Pozo, Javier Polo; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Food fortification is one of the most effective strategies for increasing iron intake in the population. A simple blind trial was conducted to compare the effect of 2 forms of iron fortification and assess the changes in hemoglobin and iron status indices among preschool children from rural communities. Hemoglobin was evaluated in 47 children aged 3-6 years old. For 72 days (10-week period), children ate Nito biscuits. Thirteen pupils with elevated hemoglobin levels were assigned to the biscuit control group, and pupils with hemoglobin equal to 13.5 mg/dL or less were randomly allocated to consume fortified biscuits with a heme iron concentrate (n = 15) or iron sulfate (n = 19). Changes in hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, and other hematological indices were evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements. Except mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (+1.27 ± 2.25 g/dL), hematological indices increased significantly across the study: Mean corpuscular volume (+2.2 ± 1.0 f/dL), red blood cells (+0.30 ± 0.37 M/μL), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+1.8 ± 1.74 pg), hemoglobin (+1.68 ± 0.91 g/dL), hematocrit (+3.43% ± 3.03%), and plasma ferritin (+18.38 ± 22.1 μg/L) were all p effect of the iron-fortified chocolate biscuits in the hemoglobin levels was higher than the control group (+1.1 ± 0.2 g/dL) but no difference was found between consumers of fortified biscuits with heme iron concentrate or iron sulfate (+1.9 ± 0.2 g/dL and +2.0 ± 0.2 g/dL, respectively). Heme iron concentrate and iron sulfate were equally effective in increasing Hb levels and hematological indices. Processed foods were shown to be an effective, valuable, and admissible intervention to prevent anemia in preschool children.

  4. Sensory analysis of passion fruit cake with chocolate sauce for individuals with phenylketonuria

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    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a recipe of passion fruit cake with chocolate syrup for individuals who have phenylketonuria and evaluate its acceptance. The samples were served to 50 untrained tasters and evaluated by the acceptability test using the nine point hedonic scale. Flavor was the most appreciated attribute by 66% of tasters. The cake had a mean of 7,0 corresponding to "liked moderately" in the hedonic scale and 94% of purchase intent. Therefore, the cake was accepted and would be purchased by the majority of participants.

  5. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effect of isocaloric substitution of chocolate cake for potato in type I diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A L; Davidson, M B; Eisenberg, K

    1990-08-01

    Traditional dietary advice given to people with diabetes includes eliminating simple sugars (primarily sucrose) from the diet. Many people have difficulty following this recommendation. Because patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes do not need overall calorie restriction, there is no caloric reason to restrict sucrose. In this study, we looked at the effect of the isocaloric substitution of a piece of chocolate cake for a baked potato in a mixed meal to determine whether this would increase the blood glucose in patients with type I diabetes. The glucose response to a cake-added meal was significantly greater than to a standard meal. The glucose response was no different between a cake-substitution meal and a standard meal. The reproducibility studies showed no difference between repeated standard meals. The urinary glucose excretion was significantly greater after a cake-added meal but was no different with the other pairs. There were no significant differences in the counterregulatory hormone responses at baseline between any of the paired studies. In conclusion, patients with type I diabetes may substitute a sucrose-containing dessert for another carbohydrate in their diet without compromising their postprandial glucose response. These data suggest that a dessert exchange may be helpful and not harmful in the management of diabetic patients. There is an inherent variability (at least 16%) in an insulin-requiring patient's response to a meal, making self-monitoring of blood glucose and adjustment of insulin doses necessary to achieve near euglycemia.

  7. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perfil sensorial de bolos de chocolate formulados com farinha de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Sensorial profile of chocolate cakes formulated with yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o uso de farinha de yacon na formulação de bolos de chocolate para se verificar a influência deste constituinte sobre a qualidade sensorial e cromaticidade do produto. Foram analisadas amostras de bolos, formulados com farinha de yacon, denominadas: amostra P (bolo padrão, sem farinha de yacon, amostra A (bolo com 20% de farinha de yacon e amostra B (bolo com 40% de farinha de yacon. Para a avaliação sensorial, foi realizada a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, utilizando 15 provadores treinados, os quais definiram 9 atributos sensoriais (cor, estrutura do miolo, aroma, gosto doce, sabor de chocolate, sabor residual, umectância, maciez e qualidade global. A análise física dos bolos foi realizada através da caracterização cromática. Os dados sensoriais foram submetidos à análise de variância ANOVA, sendo realizado o teste de Duncan para comparação entre as médias de Duncan, ao nível de 5% de significância. Para verificar as correlações entre as amostras e os atributos, foi realizada a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Na ACP, a soma de componentes principais 1 e 2 foi de 83,3%, ou seja, a variabilidade entre as amostras foi explicada por estes dois componentes. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a adição de 40% de farinha de yacon resultou em maiores notas para o aroma (10,16, gosto doce (7,60, sabor de chocolate (10,52, maciez (11,44 e qualidade global (11,64. Com relação ao atributo estrutura não houve diferença significativa entre as notas dos bolos P, A e B. Independente da quantidade de farinha de yacon adicionada, o perfil sensorial dos bolos de chocolate foi influenciado e, em particular, o bolo com maior teor de farinha de yacon apresentou as melhores notas.This study evaluated the use of yacon flour in the formulation of chocolate cakes by investigating its influence on the sensory quality and chromaticity of the product. The following samples were prepared and

  9. Aceitabilidade de biscoitos e bolos à base de arroz com café extrusados Acceptability of biscuits and rice and extruded coffee-based cakes

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    Reginaldo Ferreira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a granulometria de farinha do trigo e de farinhas pré-cozidas por extrusão obtidas da mistura de arroz com pó de café (15 e 20%, bem como a aceitabilidade de biscoitos e bolos elaborados a partir da adição de 20 e 30% da farinha pré-cozida na mistura da massa (trigo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as farinhas extrusadas apresentaram maior granulometria que a farinha de trigo; à medida que se aumentou o percentual de farinha pré-cozida na mistura com o trigo, também aumentou a granulometria. Não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras tratadas com 15 e 20% de farinha pré-cozida quanto à preferência sensorial de aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global avaliados em bolos. Entretanto, os biscoitos elaborados com a farinha pré-cozida com 15% de pó de café na mistura com arroz apresentaram maior preferência para aroma e textura ao serem comparados com aqueles com 20%; a farinha pré-cozida de pó de café com arroz pode ser utilizada como ingrediente na mistura de bolos, biscoitos e outros produtos alimentícios em até 30%.The objective of this study was to evaluate the granulometry of wheat flour and flour precooked by extrusion obtained from the mixture of rice and coffee (15 and 20%, as well as the acceptability of biscuits and cakes prepared with 20 and 30% of precooked flour in the mixture of the dough (wheat. The results obtained show that the extruded flours presented thicker granulometry than the wheat flour. Granulometry increased with the increase of the content of precooked flour in the mixture with wheat. There were no significant differences among the samples treated with 15 and 20% of precooked flour as to the sensorial preference of aroma, texture, flavor, and global impression. However, the biscuits made with precooked flour with 15% of coffee in the mixture with rice presented greater preference of aroma and texture if compared with those with 20%. It can be said

  10. Farinha de yacon e inulina como ingredientes na formulação de bolo de chocolate Yacon meal and inulin such as ingredients in chocolate cake preparation

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    Janaína Andréa Moscatto

    2004-12-01

    preparing chocolate cakes with inulin and or yacon meal and comparing theirs chemical and physical properties, preference and shelf stability with a standard chocolate cake formulation (P. The formulations with the wheat flour substituted in 20% for yacon meal and without inulin (formulation A, with the wheat flour substituted 40% for yacon meal and 6% substituted for inulin (formulation B and standard formulation were compared. The formulations A and B showed comparable chemical properties, preference and shelf stability to standard formulation showing advantages such as smaller hardness values, greater content of total alimentary fiber which were 12.35%, 23.6% and 9.02%, respectively, similar caloric value 2.09kcal (formulation A and smaller 1.62kcal (formulation B than the standard formulation (2.13kcal, besides have inulin and fructooligosaccharides. Consequently, inulin and yacon meal can be used as ingredients in chocolate cake preparations presenting characteristics which meet the consumer's requirements for a functional food.

  11. Bolo de "chocolate" produzido com pó de cupuaçu e kefir "Chocolate" pound cake with cupuassu and kefir

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    Mauricio Sergio Esteller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos vem ocorrendo a valorização dos recursos e produtos naturais. Cresce em todo o mundo a preocupação com a conservação do meio ambiente e a valorização dos recursos da flora e fauna. É forte a demanda por tecnologias de processo, de produto e de aplicação. Neste estudo foi utilizada formulação padronizada para bolo tipo inglês, substituindo cacau em pó por cupuaçu em pó e com adição de kefir, mantendo-se o total de sólidos. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 50 minutos e 180 ºC. Foram avaliados a porosidade do miolo, o perfil de textura, cor, umidade, volume específico e densidade da massa. Os resultados mostraram que a adição de pó de cupuaçu não altera as características do bolo padrão elaborado com cacau e que a adição de kefir modifica a textura e a porosidade do miolo.In the last years, natural resources and products have gained the attention of consumers. The concern with the conservation of the environment and the importance of the flora and fauna increases in the whole world. The demand for application, product, and process technologies is strong. In this study, a control chocolate pound cake formula was used changing cocoa powder from the original formula to cupuassu powder and adding kefir, keeping the amounts of total solids. The time and temperature were fixed in 50 minutes and 180 ºC. Crumb porosity, texture profile analysis (TPA, color, moisture, specific volume, and dough density were evaluated. The results showed that cupuassu powder can be used as a cocoa replacer in "chocolate" cake production and that kefir changed the texture and crumb porosity of the cake.

  12. Application of multi-block analysis and mixture design with process variable for development of chocolate cake containing yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormena, Marcela Marta Lazaretti; de Medeiros, Luana Tabalipa; de Lima, Patrícia Casarin; Possebon, Gabriela; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bona, Evandro

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours, and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using k-means. After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group; R 2 adjusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2 were obtained. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.37 kg yacon kg -1 total flour , 0.14 kg maca kg -1 total flour and 140.0 mL of water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.65 kg yacon kg -1 total flour and 120.0 mL of water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kg maca kg -1 total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data were evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA). It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified brownness and burnt aroma and taste, whereas a larger proportion of yacon produced a better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Aceitabilidade de Bolo de Chocolate Enriquecido com Fígado Bovino por Crianças com Idades entre 6 e 10 Anos/ Acceptability of Chocolate Cake Enriched with Beef Liver for Children Aged from 6 to 10 Years Old

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    Andréa Tiengo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a composição química do bolo de chocolate elaborado com fígado bovino e verificar sua aceitação por alunos em escolas municipais na cidade de Cambuí – MG. Materiais e Métodos: A receita do bolo foi obtida a partir de uma pesquisa realizada no interior do Paraná em 2010, com modificações. O bolo desenvolvido foi submetido à avaliação físico-química através da análise de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos em quadruplicata, ferro e vitamina A em duplicata, além da análise sensorial feita por 185 alunos através de teste de aceitação por escala. Resultados e discussão: As análises físico-químicas, revelaram 20,6% de umidade, 2,5% de cinzas, 7,1% de lipídeos, 55,4% de carboidratos, 14,5% de proteínas, 4,1 mg de ferro e 10227 µg de vitamina A que atendem à 68,2% da recomendação do Programa Nacional Alimentação Escolar para carboidratos, 92,8% para proteína, 25,3% para lipídeos, 200% de ferro e 6818 vezes a quantidade recomendada para vitamina A. A análise sensorial obteve 79% de aprovação, 12% de rejeição enquanto 9% ficaram indiferentes, tornando o resultado satisfatório uma vez que muitas crianças conheciam o conteúdo do bolo, sendo recomendado que o teste de aceitação tivesse sido cego. O custo do bolo foi de R$ 0,34 ficando pouco acima do valor disponibilizado pelo Programa Nacional Alimentação Escolar. Conclusão: É possível fortificar alimentos conservando suas características organolépticas, prevenindo doenças garantindo desenvolvimento infantil. ABSTRACTObjective: to evaluate the chemical composition of chocolate cake madewith beef liver and verify its acceptance by students in municipal schools in the city of Cambuí - MG. Materials and Methods: The cake recipe was obtained from a survey conducted in the state of Paraná in 2010 , with modifications. The cake was sent to physical chemical evaluation through the analysis of moisture, ash, protein, lipid

  14. Effect of Oven Types on the Characteristics of Biscuits Made from Refrigerated and Frozen Doughs

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    Ismail Sait Dogan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of sugar snap and chocolate chip cookies, and hazelnut biscuits made from refrigerated and frozen dough were studied. Doughs were stored at 4 °C for 6 weeks and at –18 °C for 6 months, respectively. Physical characteristics of the biscuit samples such as spread, baking loss, surface colour and density were determined. Dough colour was not affected by storage time and temperatures. Biscuit characteristics did not change significantly during storage. Spread ratio was significantly lower for the biscuits baked in the gas oven than for the biscuits baked in the electric oven. Biscuit dough can be refrigerated for 6 weeks, and frozen for 6 months. Results also suggest that unique quality differences exist between the two ovens. For sugar snap cookies and hazelnut biscuits the electric oven without air circulation was better, while for chocolate chip cookies gas oven with air circulation was more suitable.

  15. A influência de coberturas comestíveis na aceitação sensorial e intenção de compra de bolos de chocolate The influence of edible coatings on sensory acceptance and purchase intention of chocolate cakes

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    Eduardo Henrique Miranda Walter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a influência da aplicação de coberturas comestíveis na aceitação sensorial e na intenção de compra de bolos de chocolate. Os tratamentos estudados foram: sem cobertura e sem embalagem; embalados em sacos de polipropileno; revestidos com coberturas à base de 10% de gelatina, 10% de gelatina com 10% de ácido esteárico, 10% de amido modificado, 18% de cera de carnaúba e fondant. Nos dias 1 e 3 de estocagem, os bolos com e sem coberturas foram avaliados quanto à aceitação da cor, aroma, sabor, textura e aceitação global, além da intenção de compra. Os bolos recobertos com fondant foram os mais bem aceitos nos atributos avaliados, apresentando elevada intenção de compra. Os bolos com as demais coberturas apresentaram uma aceitação similar aos bolos controle não recobertos, com e sem embalagem. No entanto, sua intenção de compra ficou abaixo do desejável. As coberturas eram perceptíveis sensorialmente e não conferiram características próximas às do fondant, provavelmente frustrando os provadores, que esperavam bolos com coberturas/recheios mais ricos. Apesar disto, todas as coberturas avaliadas apresentaram desempenho similar à embalagem na manutenção da textura dos bolos.This study evaluated the influence of the application of edible coatings in the sensory acceptance and purchase intention of chocolate cakes. The treatments studied were: without coating or packaging; packed in polyethylene bags; covered with coatings based on 10% gelatin, 10% gelatin with 10% stearic acid, 10% modified starch, 18% "carnaúba" wax, and fondant. On days 1 and 3 of storage, the cakes with and without coatings were evaluated in terms of color, aroma, flavor, texture and global acceptance, as well as purchase intention. The cakes covered with fondant presented the greatest acceptance for the attributes evaluated and a high purchase intention. The cakes with the other coatings presented a similar acceptance to the

  16. Avaliação físico-química de bolo de chocolate com coberturas comestíveis à base de gelatina, ácido esteárico, amido modificado ou cera de carnaúba Physical and chemical evaluation of chocolate cake covered with gelatin, stearic acid, modified starch or "carnaúba" wax edible icing

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    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Coberturas comestíveis biodegradáveis são uma alternativa às embalagens sintéticas, que causam preocupações ambientais. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes tipos de coberturas sobre propriedades físico-químicas de bolo de chocolate durante a estocagem, em comparação com bolo sem cobertura (CO e bolo sem cobertura embalado em polipropileno (EMB. As seguintes coberturas foram aplicadas sobre os bolos: 10% gelatina (GE, 10% gelatina com 10% ácido esteárico (GE + AE, 18% cera de carnaúba (CE, 10% amido modificado (AM e fondant (FO. Os bolos foram avaliados durante 10 dias de estocagem. FO e EMB apresentaram menor perda de massa, enquanto todos os demais tratamentos apresentaram valores superiores a CO. GE, GE + AE e EMB apresentaram a menor redução da atividade de água, enquanto CE e CO apresentaram a maior redução. As superfícies dos bolos recobertos estavam mais duras que as de CO e EMB. Os maiores valores para dureza e mastigabilidade foram encontrados para CE e CO e os menores, para EMB, GE e GE + AE. Em relação à cor, GE + AE foi diferente dos demais tratamentos, devido à presença do ácido esteárico. Os resultados indicam que a perda de massa dos bolos pode ser atribuída também à perda de água das coberturas.Biodegradable edible icing or frosting is an alternative to synthetic packaging that causes environmental concerns. This work evaluated the effect of different types of frosting on the physical-chemical properties of chocolate cake during storage in comparison to cakes without icing or frosting (C and cakes without frosting packed in polypropylene (CP. The following frostings were applied to the cakes: 10% gelatin (GE, 10% gelatin with 10% stearic acid (GE+SA, 18% "carnaúba" wax (CW, 10% modified starch (MS, and fondant (FO. The cakes were analyzed during 10 days of storage. FO and CP presented the lowest mass loss while all other treatments presented higher values than C. GE, GE+SA, and CP presented

  17. Biscuit-making potential of millet/pigeon pea flour blends.

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    Eneche, E H

    1999-01-01

    Biscuits were produced from millet flour (MF) and pigeon pea flour (PPF) blends. The various ratios of MF to PPF used were 100:0, 75:25, 65:35, and 50:50. The biscuits were analyzed for their nutritional composition. They all contained high proportions of protein (7.5-15.2%), fat (17.1-18.1%) and digestible carbohydrate (60.2-66.5%). The moisture content was in the range 5.0 to 6.6%, ash 1.5-2.3% and crude fiber 0-0.1%. Sensory evaluation results indicated that all the biscuits had high sensory ratings for all the selected attributes evaluated. The recipe with the 65% MF/35% PPF blend resulted in the highest scores for flavor, texture and general acceptability. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between all the biscuits and the familiar Nasco short cake biscuit (reference) in flavor, color, texture and general acceptability.

  18. Celebratory Cakes

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    Mahoney, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Cakes are no longer the simple desserts they once were. The cake has evolved into an elaborate, sculptural form that represents a special occasion. Sculptural cake forms have become expressive designs using three-dimensional shapes, an array of surface textures, and a range of colors. The use of cakes in the artwork of David Gilhooly, Wayne…

  19. Elaboração de biscoitos de chocolate com substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja Chocolate biscuits preparation with partial substitution of wheat flour by fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour

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    Aline Alves Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores estão cada vez mais exigentes e preocupados com a saúde e, por consequência, exigindo produtos naturais que deverão ser seguros e promover qualidade de vida. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver biscoitos com farinhas mistas de polvilho azedo e farinha de albedo de laranja, utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: concentração de polvilho azedo, açúcar e farinha de albedo de laranja, e variáveis respostas: as características sensoriais: aparência, aroma, textura e sabor, além da impressão global, utilizando escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. Os biscoitos foram avaliados também quanto às características físico-químicas. As médias obtidas para as características sensoriais estiveram na faixa que vai de cinco (não gostei nem desgostei até sete (gostei moderadamente, não apresentando diferença significativa (P≤0,05 para todas as características sensoriais avaliadas. Dessa maneira, foi possível escolher a formulação ideal obtida de acordo com os parâmetros nutricionais, por não existir diferença sensorial significativa, que foi 35% de polvilho azedo, 100% de açúcar e 7,5% de farinha de albedo de laranja. No teste sensorial comparativo com os biscoitos comercial, padrão e otimizado, as características sensoriais aparência, sabor e textura apresentaram diferença significativa (P≤0,05. As características físico-químicas apresentaram resultados correspondentes aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e o teor de fibra bruta do biscoito otimizado foi de 3,08%, assim, pode ser classificado como biscoito "fonte de fibras".The consumers are increasingly demanding and worried about health and, consequently, requiring natural products that should be safe and that promote life quality. The present research had the objective to develop biscuits with mixed flour of fermented cassava starch and orange albedo flour, using a 2³ factorial

  20. Making chocolate from beans: what’s involved?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Manez, Angel; Coutel, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk and sugar.

  1. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  2. Preliminary design and thermal analysis of device for finish cooling Jaffa biscuits in a.d. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper preliminary design of device for finish cooling chocolate topping of biscuits in A.D. 'Jaffa'- Crvenka was done. The proposed preliminary design followed by the required technological process of finish cooling biscuits and required parameters of process which was supposed to get and which represented part of project task. Thermal analysis was made and obtained percentage error between surface contact of the air and chocolate topping, obtained from heat balance and geometrical over proposed preliminary design, wasn't more than 0.67%. This is a preliminary design completely justified because using required length of belt conveyor receive required temperature of chocolate topping at the end of the cooling process.

  3. Chocolate Maths!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret; Underwood, Val

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a varied day of stimulating mathematics with key stage 2 learners--all revolving around chocolate. They used a variety of stimuli organized around the chocolate theme. A whole day was spent on using and applying mathematics, and the exercise proved to be enjoyable for both staff and pupils. The children…

  4. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  5. Chocolate rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vidal Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. Consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. Chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. A good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. In the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. The rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. Foods are generally in a metastable state. Their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. Molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Chocolate rheology is extensively studied, and it is known that chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals

  6. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  7. Conching Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L.; Chaikin, Paul; Blanco, Elena; Poon, Wilson

    2014-03-01

    ``Conching'' is an intermediate step in the processing of chocolate where hydrophilic solid particles, such as sugar and milk proteins, are aggressively mixed into a fatty, fluid phase containing emulsifier, e.g. molten cocoa butter with lecithin. During conching, the system evolves from a fine powder to a coarser granulated material and ultimately into a thick cohesive paste. Our goal is to better understand the evolution of chocolate during conching and the transition from an effectively dry to a wet or immersed granular material. In particular, we focus on how mixing times change in response to variations in solid particle volume fractions and emulsifier concentration. As a function of volume fraction, mixing times are well-described by a conventional form that diverges at a finite volume fraction. Furthermore, mixing times can be collapsed onto a universal curve as a function of mixing speed and emulsifier concentration.

  8. Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    , liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated...... was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology......The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs...

  9. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  10. Chocolate: food for moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S Y; Lua, P L

    2011-08-01

    Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related. We reviewed chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its mood altering propensities. The relationship between chocolate and mood are highly complex, combining psychopharmacological components, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the food. Individual and situational differences on chocolate consumption may also exert influence on mood and the mixed results in previous research indicate that the direction of the association remains unclear. The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity.

  11. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  12. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  13. Chocolate: food or drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, K; Taren, D L

    1999-10-01

    Although addictive behavior is generally associated with drug and alcohol abuse or compulsive sexual activity, chocolate may evoke similar psychopharmacologic and behavioral reactions in susceptible persons. A review of the literature on chocolate cravings indicates that the hedonic appeal of chocolate (fat, sugar, texture, and aroma) is likely to be a predominant factor in such cravings. Other characteristics of chocolate, however, may be equally as important contributors to the phenomena of chocolate cravings. Chocolate may be used by some as a form of self-medication for dietary deficiencies (eg, magnesium) or to balance low levels of neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of mood, food intake, and compulsive behaviors (eg, serotonin and dopamine). Chocolate cravings are often episodic and fluctuate with hormonal changes just before and during the menses, which suggests a hormonal link and confirms the assumed gender-specific nature of chocolate cravings. Chocolate contains several biologically active constituents (methylxanthines, biogenic amines, and cannabinoid-like fatty acids), all of which potentially cause abnormal behaviors and psychological sensations that parallel those of other addictive substances. Most likely, a combination of chocolate's sensory characteristics, nutrient composition, and psychoactive ingredients, compounded with monthly hormonal fluctuations and mood swings among women, will ultimately form the model of chocolate cravings. Dietetics professionals must be aware that chocolate cravings are real. The psychopharmacologic and chemosensory effects of chocolate must be considered when formulating recommendations for overall healthful eating and for treatment of nutritionally related health issues.

  14. Shocking chocolate into shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Wouldn't you love chocolate to have less fat but all the taste? Stephen Ornes discovers how the study of electrorheological fluids has led one physicist to a develop a new way to trim the fat from chocolate

  15. Effects of chocolate-based products intake on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels and on satiety in young people: a cross-over experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Long, Wei-Qing; Ye, Yan-Bin; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhang, Nai-Qi; Xu, Ming; Huang, Jing; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2018-02-19

    This cross-over experimental study aimed to examine the effects of filled chocolate consumption on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels in 20 volunteers. After a one-week run-in period, study participants consumed two chocolate-based products, the tested biscuit or water for 21 days as a morning snack. After a two-week wash-out period, participants consumed another tested food for another 21 days. Each participant consumed all four test foods within an 18-week period. The participants' blood insulin increased slowly after two chocolate-based products intakes on the first day and satiety levels after eating chocolate-based products and the tested biscuit were the same. Chocolate consumption for three weeks had no adverse effects on blood glucose, insulin or ghrelin levels. In conclusion, compared to eating the tested biscuit, 21-day consumption of the tested chocolate-based products had no adverse effects on the blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels. This trial is registered with chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-IOR-16009525.

  16. Effect of different fibers on dough properties and biscuit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Canalis, María S; Steffolani, María E; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-03-01

    This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high-fat, high-sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological and structural properties involved in fiber-enriched biscuit dough. High-amylose corn starch (RSII), chemically modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) in dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied via dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was assessed by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. OF reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked IN-incorporated biscuits as much as control biscuits. The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Fungi in cake production chain: Occurrence and evaluation of growth potential in different cake formulations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Letícia L P; Bernardi, Angélica O; Amaral, Alexandra L P M; Chaves, Rafael D; Santos, Juliana L P; Copetti, Marina V; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and populations of fungi in cake production chain. Besides, the growth potential of twelve fungal strains in different cake formulations was evaluated. Raw materials from two different batches (n=143), chocolate cakes (n=30), orange cakes (n=20), and processing environment air samples (n=147) were analyzed. Among the raw materials, wheat flour (3.2±0.3 log CFU per g) and corn meal (3.8±0.8 log CFU per g) belonging to batch #1 showed significant higher fungal counts (pcakes were Aspergillus flavus (28.15%), Penicillium citrinum (18.45%), Penicillium paxilli (14.56%), and Aspergillus niger (6.8%), which were also detected in the raw materials and processing environment air. Only Penicillium glabrum and Penicillium citrinum showed visible mycelium (>3mm) in the free of preservative cake formulation at 19th and 44th days of storage at 25°C, respectively. Revealing the biodiversity of fungi in ingredients, air and final products, as well as challenging final products with representative fungal strains may assist to implement effective controlling measures as well as to gather data for the development of more robust cake formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  19. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  20. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  1. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied.

  2. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G.; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  3. Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2011-12-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.T.; Fels, van der Ine; Boekel, van Tiny

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after

  6. Better chocolate through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the cacao or chocolate tree, is a tropical understory tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate. And like any important crop, cacao is the subject of much research. On September 15, 2010, scientists publicly released a preliminary sequence of the cacao genome--which contains all o...

  7. Let them eat cake!

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Audrey; Gallardo, Francisco; FRAUD, -

    2017-01-01

    Let them eat cake!' is a food-led event serving an edible imaginary of a Facebook profile. In early 2012, Facebook conducted massive scale emotional contagion by manipulating the emotional expressions in the News Feeds of 689,003 users. This exemplifies how the governability and the biopolitics of everyday life flow through the many layers of shared images, liked videos, protocols, and hyperlinks, all orchestrated by the Facebook News Feed algorithm. 'Let them eat cake!' proposes a gustatory ...

  8. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Impartial Triangular Chocolate Bar Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miyadera, Ryohei; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Fukui, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate bar games are variants of the game of Nim in which the goal is to leave your opponent with the single bitter part of the chocolate bar. The rectangular chocolate bar game is a thinly disguised form of classical multi-heap Nim. In this work, we investigate the mathematical structure of triangular chocolate bar games in which the triangular chocolate bar can be cut in three directions. In the triangular chocolate bar game, a position is a $\\mathcal{P}$-position if and only if $x \\oplu...

  10. Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some heavy metal contaminants in biscuits, fruit drinks, concentrates, ... effect in human due to continual consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals gotten from raw materials, manufacturing and packaging processes.

  11. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  12. Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Gluten-Free Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aglutenics biscuits are intended to those persons who are suffering due to gluten intolerance, also named celiac disease. The fabrication technologies of the aglutenics products can be developed in on two ways: by separating the gluten from the grain or by replacing the grain flour with other types of gluten less flour, in case of bakery and pastry products. In this experiment, the gluten-free biscuits were obtained from the following flours mixture: maize flour (MF, rice flour (RF and soybeans flour (SF. Other raw materials were used, such as: palmtree oil, honey, maize starch, eggs, sugar powdered, vanilla essence and sodium bicarbonate. Four experimental variants (gluten-free biscuits were obtained by varying the proportion of flours ; these variants were coded as follows T1, T2 T3 and T4. The optimization of the aglutenics biscuits manufacture recipe was realized through sensory analyze, using the hedonic test (9 point scale. Samples of biscuits was subjected to the following physico-chemical analysis: moisture content, alkalinity, total carbohydrate content, total fat and protein content. Also the physical properties (length, width, thickness, weight and spread ratio were determined in order to asses the blending influence on the biscuits quality. The blend with flour levels 30:30:40 (MF:RF:SF led to the highest acceptability.

  13. Optimization of composite flour biscuits by mixture response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    Biscuits were produced from blends of pigeon pea, sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out using mixture response surface methodology as the optimization technique. Using the simplex centroid design, 10 formulations were obtained. Protein and sensory quality of the biscuits were analyzed. The sensory attributes studied were appearance, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability, while the protein quality indices were biological value and net protein utilization. The results showed that while the addition of pigeon pea improved the protein quality, its addition resulted in reduced sensory ratings for all the sensory attributes with the exception of appearance. Some of the biscuits had sensory ratings, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from biscuits made with wheat. Rat feeding experiments indicated that the biological value and net protein utilization values obtained for most of the biscuits were above minimum recommended values. Optimization suggested biscuits containing 75.30% sorghum, 0% pigeon pea and 24.70% cocoyam flours as the best proportion of these components. This sample received good scores for the sensory attributes.

  14. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  15. Chocolate--A Sweet Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a brief history of manufacturing chocolate and an outline of production methods. Describes laboratory techniques used to monitor liquid chocolate viscosity. Discusses a simple experiment which can be performed in the classroom. (Author/CW)

  16. Chocolate as a Revolutionary Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...

  17. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa products and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehí, Josep

    2004-10-06

    In this work, the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 170 samples of cocoa products of different geographical origins was studied. An immunoaffinity column with HPLC separation was developed to quantify low levels of OTA in cocoa bean, cocoa cake, cocoa mass, cocoa nib, cocoa powder, cocoa shell, cocoa butter, chocolate, and chocolate cream with >80% recoveries. The method was validated by performing replicate analyses of uncontaminated cocoa material spiked at three different levels of OTA (1, 2, and 5 microg/kg). The data obtained were related on the acceptable safe daily exposure for OTA. The highest levels of OTA were detected in roasted cocoa shell and cocoa cake (0.1-23.1 microg/kg) and only at minor levels in the other cocoa products. Twenty-six cocoa and chocolate samples were free from detectable OTA (cocoa powder 38.7% of the samples analyzed contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.1 to 2 microg/kg, and 54.8% was contaminated at >2 microg/kg (and 12 samples at >3 microg/kg). Ochratoxin A was detected in cocoa bean at levels from 0.1 to 3.5 microg/kg, the mean concentration being 0.45 microg/kg; only one sample exceeded 2 microg/kg (4.7%). In contrast, 51.2% of cocoa cake samples contained OTA at levels > or =2 microg/kg, among which 16 exceeded 5 microg/kg (range of 5-9 microg/kg). These results indicate that roasted cocoa powder is not a major source of OTA in the diet.

  18. How dark chocolate is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  19. Acceptability of biscuits containing 10% cricket (Acheta domesticus) compared to milk biscuits among 5-10-year-old Kenyan schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homann, A M; Ayieko, M A; Konyole, S O

    2017-01-01

    of the study was to develop a recipe for cricket biscuits suitable for school feeding programmes and test acceptability of the biscuits in Kenyan schoolchildren, in comparison with a similar biscuit with milk. The study was randomised and parallel. Fifty-four children aged 5-10 years were served 100 g (range...... 98-102 g) biscuits containing either 10% cricket powder or 10% milk powder during school days for four weeks. At baseline anthropometry (weight, height, mid upper arm circumference) was measured and information on insect consumption and allergies collected. Daily, weight of biscuits eaten...

  20. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli ...

  1. Prebiotic attributes of inulin enriched biscuits: sensory and nutritional aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihing, C.; Mageshwari, S. U.

    2018-03-01

    The study aims to develop an enriched functional biscuit with prebiotic inulin and to understand the impact of addition of different levels of inulin on sensory and nutritional properties of the biscuits. A standard biscuit and three variations namely P1, P2 and P3 were formulated and standardized through test and trial method to get consistent final products. Inulin was added replacing fat in the standard-0%, P1- 100% P2-62% and P3-37%. The biscuits were evaluated by 15 panel members for sensory attributes i.e. appearance, colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Nutrients analysis for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre, free fatty acid and total antioxidant activity were done using standard procedures. Addition of inulin can give rise to products with different rheological behaviour and sensory characteristics. P2 (62% fat replaced) was acceptable with a high score for overall acceptability (7.45±0.39). Fat content was found to be highest in P3 (25.88gm). The inulin content in P1, P2 and P3 was 25.7gm, 34.5gm and 19.1 gm respectively. Antioxidant activity was also observed in all the biscuits and activity was highest in P2 (229.54μg). The partial replacement of fat by inulin in the production of biscuits was effective in reducing the fat content in the final product. A significant difference in taste (p=0.004) and texture (p=0.048) and was observed among the biscuit variations. The formulation P2, with 62 % fat replacement by inulin, presented similar results to the standard product, being the formulation with the greatest sensory acceptance and physical characteristics.

  2. Developing consumer acceptable biscuits enriched with Psyllium fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradinho, Patricia; Nunes, M Cristiana; Raymundo, Anabela

    2015-08-01

    Consumer's demand for functional food is a trend of the last decades. Nowadays, the attention is focused on the development of products with health claims on the label, which can result in value-added products for the producers companies. Cookies are popular staple foods in the human diet in many countries and are generally well accepted by consumers due to their sensory attributes, long shelf life and convenience. The incorporation of solid components on the biscuit dough, such as dietary fibre, could have serious implications on its structure and perceived texture which explains the technological limitations for the fibre incorporation. The aim of this work is to develop an enriched functional biscuit with Psyllium fibre and understand the impact of the new ingredient on physicochemical and sensorial properties of the dough and biscuits. The optimum biscuit's formulation was determined using the response surface methodology (RSM). Effects of wheat flour (48-52 %) and Psyllium (3-9 %) contents on the dimensional features (spread ratio, expansion factor), water activity, colour parameters (L*, a*, b*), texture characteristics (firmness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness) and sensory properties (colour, flavour, texture, overall acceptability) of dough and biscuits were investigated. The most representative parameters evaluated were used to develop biscuits with similar features to commercial references. An optimum formulation was obtained by incorporating 6 % Psyllium and 50 % flour. This biscuit has the enough amount of Psyllium soluble fibre recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent the risk of coronary heart disease and to bear a health claim on the label.

  3. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  5. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  6. Biochemical Studies for Producing Biscuits from Irradiated Tomato Processed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to produce biscuits as therapeutic diets. Raw materials of tomato processed waste (TPW) were used as a source of some amino acids and elements, (phosphorus, potassium and magnesium), besides amino acids (Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acids while lysine was the second limiting one). It was present about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processed wastes remain un-utilized and they not only add to the disposal problem but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato processed wastes were irradiated at two doses (1.5 and 2.5 kGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% (TPW). All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated (TPW). The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined, besides the internal organs. The results obtained showed that 15% (TPW) biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was significant changes were recorded irradiation treatment on the rats internal organs

  7. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  8. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  9. Chocolate equals stop. Chocolate-specific inhibition training reduces chocolate intake and go associations with chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that food-specific inhibition training wherein food cues are repeatedly and consistently mapped onto stop signals decreases food intake and bodyweight. The mechanisms underlying these training effects, however, remain unclear. It has been suggested that consistently pairing stimuli with stop signals induces automatic stop associations with those stimuli, thereby facilitating automatic, bottom-up inhibition. This study examined this hypothesis with respect to food-inhibition training. Participants performed a training that consistently paired chocolate with no go cues (chocolate/no-go) or with go cues (chocolate/go). Following training, we measured automatic associations between chocolate and stop versus go, as well as food intake and desire to eat. As expected, food that was consistently mapped onto stopping was indeed more associated with stopping versus going afterwards. In replication of previous results, participants in the no-go condition also showed less desire to eat and reduced food intake relative to the go condition. Together these findings support the idea that food-specific inhibition training prompts the development of automatic inhibition associations, which subsequently facilitate inhibitory control over unwanted food-related urges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning (EC procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50% and negative stimuli (50%. Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  11. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%). Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  12. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    G. Diukareva; A. Pak; A. Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of stud...

  13. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  14. [Sexuality, heart and chocolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Sekoranja, L; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2013-03-20

    All along the history, many kinds of magic and aphrodisiac properties were attributed to the chocolate. Because of the presence of certain active substances, cacao and chocolate are supposed to have some potentially beneficial effects on human health, particularly on cardiovascular system. Containing flavoniods, cacao and its products have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects, as well as influence on insulin sensitivity, vascular endothelial function, and activation of nitric oxide. Other molecules, like methyxantin, biogenic amines and cannabinoid-like fatty acids, may have a psychoactive action. Synergic effect of all these substances could have a positive direct and indirect influence on sexual health and function. Nevertheless, randomized studies are needed to confirm these hypotheses and to elaborate recommendations about cacao consumption.

  15. Psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and desire for more chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Jennifer A; Bradley, Lauren E; Leitzsch, Jessica B; Chohan, Omar; Fasulo, Kristy; Haller, Josie; Jaeger, Kristin; Szulanczyk, Benjamin; Del Parigi, Angelo

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and to evaluate the contribution of the main chocolate components to the desire to consume more of it. A total of 280 participants, (F-155; M=125) ranging in age from 18-65, completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to taste 12.5 g of either white chocolate ("control") or one of four chocolate ("cocoa") samples varying in sugar, fat and percent cocoa content, then answered the question: "Do you want more of this chocolate?" and "If yes, how many more pieces of this chocolate would you like to eat?" They completed pre- and post-consumption surveys, consisting of 30 questions derived from the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) subscales, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG), Morphine (M) and Excitement (E). Significant decreases in post-pre consumption changes in MBG subscale were observed between the control sample and the 70% cocoa (p=0.046) or the 85% cocoa sample (p=0.0194). Proportionally more men than women wanted more of the tasted chocolate (p=0.035). Participants were more likely to want more of the tasted chocolate if they displayed a greater change in the MBG scale, and if their chocolate sample had high sugar and cocoa content, as assessed by multiple logistic regression. Our results suggest that multiple characteristics of chocolate, including sugar, cocoa and the drug-like effects experienced, play a role in the desire to consume chocolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development, characterization and evaluation of high energy biscuits for combating malnourishment among children in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseem, K.; Bibi, N.; Raza, S.; Mumtaz, A.; Siddiqui, N.R.; Bibi, A.; Ashan, M

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to prepare supplemented biscuits which could be used as nutritive snacks for malnourished children. Biscuits were prepared by supplementing chickpea and oat in patent flour (fine flour) with different ratio (5%, 10%, 15% and 20 %). Biscuits with no supplementation were kept as control treatment. Chemical and sensory evaluation of supplemented biscuits was carried out. An increase in nutritive values have been observed with an increase in supplementation level. Proximate analysis shows that T/sub 7/ and T/sub 8/ get the highest values for protein, zinc and iron. Results of all treatments were in acceptable range regarding sensory evaluation. These results indicate that biscuits can be successfully supplemented with chickpea and oat. According to sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 20% chickpea and 15% oat were found to be the best among all treatments and could be a potential composition for preparing high energy biscuits for malnourished areas of Pakistan. (author)

  17. Properties of short-dough biscuits in relation to structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.; Jurgens, A.; Vliet, T. van

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties of short-dough biscuits of various composition were determined in three-point bending tests. The temperature during dough preparation and the dough water content affected the air volume fraction and the mechanical properties to an extent which depended on the fat content.

  18. Soft wheat quality characteristics required for making baking powder biscuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen soft wheat varieties were evaluated for their grain, milling, flour and dough mixing characteristics, as well as their solvent retention capacities (SRCs), pasting properties and suitability for making baking powder biscuits, to identify wheat quality characteristics required for making bisc...

  19. Organisation Development through Management Development: The United Biscuits Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrew; Winterburn, Den

    1988-01-01

    The success of the strategic management program developed by United Biscuits (United Kingdom) for senior managers resulted from (1) tailoring the program to organizational and individual needs; (2) using company-specific material; (3) involving top management; and (4) using a follow-up program. (JOW)

  20. Production And Evaluation Of Doughnuts And Biscuits From Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour blends of maize and pigeon pea were composite at replacement levels of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%. The nutrient contents of the flour blends were determined using standard methods. The various flour blends were used for the preparation of doughnuts and biscuits. These products were ...

  1. Learning Biochemistry by Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Guedes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Both sensations and biochemical reactions taken place or promoted during ingestion of chocolate were the motivation for  investigating  the  organic  compounds  present  in  this  source.  Cocoa  and  chocolate  are  composed  by  several substances , among them, aminoacids and alkaloids.The objective of this investigation was to purpose a contextured approach  of  biochemistry  through  the  sensations  and  reactions  involving  aminoacids,  theobromine  and  hormones. Methodology: 1. Theoretical part:  constituted  by theoretical  and tutorial classes  about aminoacids, theobromine and hormones  involved  at  the  metabolism;  2.  Questionary:  ten  questions  based  upon  theoretical  classes,  personal sensations  and  general  aspects  of chocolate;  3.Lecture:  Cientific  articles  searched  in  periodics  by  own  students  as well  as  newspaper  reports;  4.  Experimental:  Laboratory  experiments  including  extraction,  characterization, spectrometric quantification  after  specific reactions  and identification by  Rf  comparison with  standards  on TLC  from cocoa  almonds  and  both  powder  cocoa  and  chocolate.  The  study  was  applied  in  30  students  from  a  chemistry college. Results: The results pointed out to a higher frequency of the students and to a increased interest  from them by   biochemistry  issues  and  cientific  lectures,  as  well  as  a  satisfactory  acquirement  of  theoretical  and  practice knowledge of aminoacids and hormones, spectrometry and chromatography. Conclusion: A contextured approach is quite positive for learning biochemistry to chemists.

  2. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  3. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  4. Content of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in biscuits for kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švecová Blanka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF is a thermal decomposition product of saccharides. There are two main ways for the formation of 5-HMF. First, 5-HMF is forming during Maillard reaction and second, during thermic dehydration of saccharides under acid conditions. Significant parameters of 5-HMF formation are temperature, time, pH, water activity, type of saccharide and amino acids. It is suspected that 5-HMF has genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. This chemical can be found in many food sources, e.g. honey, dried fruits, fruit juice and concentrates, alcoholic beverages, bakery products, roasted nuts and seeds, brown sugar, and milk. The present study aimed to determine the amount of 5-HMF in children's biscuits. The examined samples were divided into three groups. The first group of biscuits claimed availability for children older than six months, the second for children older than one year. The third group did not give a determined age range.

  5. Effect of inulin on dough and biscuit quality produced from different flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Blanco Canalis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of improving the nutritional profile of baked-goods is the incorporation of dietary fibre (DF to the formulation. However, DF retains more water than wheat flour, which affects dough rheological properties and thus the final product quality. Flour is the main ingredient in biscuits and contributes to the baked texture and shape of biscuits. There are large differences in quality among the flours from wheat cultivars and among non-wheat flours used for biscuit production. In previous works, different dietary fibres were tested and inulin was found to have a positive quality  effect on biscuits made from an all-purpose wheat flour without the need of introducing significant changes in dough properties. To know whether these results are extended to different types of flours that can be used for biscuit production, this paper aimed to analyse the effects of different levels of inulin incorporation on dough and biscuits quality made from three different wheat flours and one triticale flour. Chemical and physic-chemical characterization of the flour samples was performed and compared (moisture, ashes, gluten, solvent retention capacity (SRC and protein content. Inulin was incorporated to biscuits formulation in two levels: 6 and 12% (wheat replacement. Dough and biscuits quality was measured by spread rate during baking and biscuit factor, texture and surface colour. Inulin incorporation increased dough spreading and biscuit factor and decreased biscuit hardness. The enhancing effect of inulin was observed in all flour. The results confirmed the effect of inulin on biscuits obtained with all flour assayed, despite the differences in flour quality that was tested.

  6. Determination and modeling of desorption isotherms of Maria biscuits from different brands

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, DFC; Correia, PMR; Guiné, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Biscuits (sweet, strongly sweet, semi-sweet biscuits, crackers, wafers) are characterized by a low moisture content in the final product and high levels of fat and sugar [1]. Dehydrated foods, such as biscuits, are very sensitive to gain moisture from the surrounding atmosphere, resulting in a consequent deterioration. When, at constant temperature, the product's moisture increases from the atmosphere, is obtained the adsorption isotherm and when it loses moisture is obtained the desorption i...

  7. Sensory evaluation of biscuits enriched with artichoke fiber-rich powders (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, Francisco J; Collado-Fernández, Montserrat; López, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    The artichoke by-products from the canning industry are mainly used for silage, being minimally revaluated. The ways of extraction of by-products of artichoke into fiber-rich powders modify their industrial applications in biscuits, as the sensory evaluation may change compared with the reference fiber (Pea fiber, P) used with commercial biscuit. In this sensory study biscuits enriched with fiber-rich powders of artichoke (W, Ca) are compared with biscuits with the same percentage of the reference fiber (P) and control biscuits without fiber (B). For most of the sensory attributes of the biscuits enriched with artichoke fiber-rich powders were perceived similar to the biscuits with the commercial reference fiber (P). The good sensory behavior of the biscuits with artichoke fiber-rich powders during two storage conditions applied may confirm that the artichoke by-products would be a suitable substitute for pea fiber in oven-baked products, like wholemeal biscuits with high-fiber content.

  8. Optimization of a process for high fibre and high protein biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parul; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Rasane, Prasad; Gautam, Anuj Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Biscuits are popular and convenient food products due to their ready to eat nature. Biscuits were prepared from sorghum and whole wheat flour with the addition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) powder to produce high fibre and high protein biscuit. Levels of ingredients in biscuits such as spirulina powder, sorghum flour and guar gum were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for its sensory, textural and antioxidant attributes. Sensory attributes as colour intensity (R2 = 0.89, P powder and sorghum flour was found to have significant effect on the responses.

  9. Biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil: characteristics and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics and storage stability of biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO) were determined. The addition of MSO increased spread ratio, whilst decreased the thickness of biscuit. The highest hardness of biscuit was obtained with addition of 9 or 12% MSO. Biscuit surface showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated ( p  < 0.05). The addition of MSO up to 6% had no adverse effect on biscuit quality and acceptability. When biscuits added with 6% MSO were stored under different illumination conditions (light and dark), lipid oxidation in all samples increased throughout the storage of 12 days. Light accelerated lipid oxidation of biscuits as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values and abundance of volatile compounds. No marked change in EPA, DHA and astaxanthin contents were noticeable in biscuit fortified with MSO after 12 days of storage. Therefore, the biscuit could be fortified with MSO up to 6% and must be stored in dark to assure its oxidative stability.

  10. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  11. The hot chocolate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  12. Cardiovascular Benefits of Dark Chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Erin; Taub, Pam R

    2015-12-01

    The use of cacao for health benefits dates back at least 3000 years. Our understanding of cacao has evolved with modern science. It is now felt based on extensive research the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin. Thus, most of the current research studies are focused on dark chocolate. Both epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on blood pressure, lipids, and inflammation. Proposed mechanisms underlying these benefits include enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability and improved mitochondrial structure/function. Ultimately, further studies of this promising compound are needed to elucidate its potential for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as other diseases that have underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and nitric oxide deficiency.

  13. Label-free biochips for rapid detection of soybean allergen GlymBd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detection. Keywords: Soybean Allergen, Gly mBd 30K, Biochip, Detection, Foods ... methods of choice by food industries and food .... shrimp, fish, peanut, wheat, and graham bread served as negative controls. Manufactured foods such as cream cake, cereal bar, chocolate biscuits, and pineapple cake were screened for.

  14. The influence of fermented deffated flaxseed with difference lactic acid bacteria's on asparagine and acrylamide content in biscuits.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukauskienė, Gintarė

    2016-01-01

    It was evaluated the influence of solid state (SSF) and traditional (TF) fermentation with different lactobacillus (LAB) defatted flaxseeds on asparagine and acrylamide content in biscuits, and analysed correlation between fermented supplements physico chemical indicators and biscuits color and their sensory properties on acrylamide and asparagine content in biscuits. Correliations betweem acrylamide and asparagine content in biscuits and fermented supplements acidity parameters (pH, total t...

  15. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.H.; Fels, van der H.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Boekel, van T.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200 °C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and

  16. Use of Coffee Silverskin and Stevia to Improve the Formulation of Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Serna Esther

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the amount of sugar added to biscuits is a good strategy to obtain a healthy product. However, a reduction in the quantity of sugar may affect its nutritional value and quality. The feasibility of the combined use of stevia and coffee silverskin for achieving healthier, nutritious and good quality biscuits has been investigated. Ten wheat four biscuit formulations were designed. Sucrose, maltitol and stevia were used as sweeteners and coffee silverskin was used as a natural colouring and as a source of dietary fbre. The quality of the biscuits was evaluated by measuring their moisture, thickness, breaking force and colour. Acrylamide (ACR and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF contents were also determined in the interest of food safety. The quality and safety of the innovative biscuits was obtained by an analysis of the sugars, proteins, free amino acids, chlorogenic acid, overall antioxidant capacity and acrylamide after in vitro digestion. Only the stevia biscuits and those added with coffee silverskin extract and the solid residue recovered from the extraction process, were selected for that study. A comparison of the stevia formulated biscuits, with the stevia formula added with silverskin, showed that the added biscuits had a good nutritional quality and improved texture and colour.

  17. Impact of consumption of oligosaccharide-containing biscuits on the fecal microbiota of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tannock, G.W.; Munro, K.; Bibiloni, R.; Simon, M.A.; Hargreaves, P.; Gopal, P.; Harmsen, H.J.M.; Welling, Gjalt

    Human subjects consumed biscuits containing either galacto-oligosaccharides or fructo-oligosaccharides in a double-blinded, crossover study. The impact of supplementing the diet with three biscuits per day on the fecal microbiota was evaluated by selective culture of particular bacterial groups,

  18. Stability of vitamin E content of {gamma}-irradiated biscuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br; magtaipina@ig.com.br; Lamardo, Leda C.A. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Quimica Biologica]. E-mail: llamardo@ial.sp.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The technology of food irradiation is seen by the industry as a means of ensuring food safety, since it exposes foods to ionizing radiation that kills insects, moulds and bacteria. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from read-to-eat food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and quality must also been determined. Vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol) is one of the most potent natural lipophilic antioxidants commonly present in the human diet. As it is considered a free radical scavenger there is a growing concern that irradiation might reduce the vitamin E content of food products prepared with ingredients rich in any of the dietary source of the vitamin. This work describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the vitamin E content of some biscuits commercially found in the market. Three lots of biscuits were used. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 source, dose rate of about 3.5 kGy/h at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. For vitamin E determination samples were saponified with ethanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of pyrogallol, and the tocopherols were extracted with petroleum ether. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm. From the obtained results it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the biscuits submitted to gamma-irradiation at the assayed doses. (author)

  19. Stability of vitamin E content of γ-irradiated biscuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Lamardo, Leda C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The technology of food irradiation is seen by the industry as a means of ensuring food safety, since it exposes foods to ionizing radiation that kills insects, moulds and bacteria. The need to eliminate bacterial pathogens from read-to-eat food products must always be balanced with the maintenance of product quality. In addition to determining the effective ionizing radiation doses required for pathogen elimination the effects of irradiation on product chemistry, nutritional value and quality must also been determined. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is one of the most potent natural lipophilic antioxidants commonly present in the human diet. As it is considered a free radical scavenger there is a growing concern that irradiation might reduce the vitamin E content of food products prepared with ingredients rich in any of the dietary source of the vitamin. This work describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the vitamin E content of some biscuits commercially found in the market. Three lots of biscuits were used. Irradiation was performed in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 source, dose rate of about 3.5 kGy/h at doses of 1 kGy and 3 kGy. For vitamin E determination samples were saponified with ethanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of pyrogallol, and the tocopherols were extracted with petroleum ether. The absorbance was measured at 520 nm. From the obtained results it is possible to conclude that there was a notorious stability of the vitamin content of the biscuits submitted to gamma-irradiation at the assayed doses. (author)

  20. Tea and cake [second edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa; MacLellan, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Tea & Cake is an edited version of the original book produced by Philippa Wood in 2007. The book takes a nostalgic look at childhood memories of ‘baking with mother’ or special tea-time treats. The book combines ink-jet printing with typewritten text and rubber stamps; doilly end-papers and embroidered traycloth covers.

  1. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.

    2004-01-01

    differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep......Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... recovery parameters. Sedimentation value was the only physiochernical flour characteristic with considerable influence on the model. Validation of the partial least squares-model including all samples from the 3 years gave only a weak correlation (r = 0.58), whereas when each single year was evaluated...

  2. Serum Cholesterol Reduction Efficacy of Biscuits with Added Plant Stanol Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantanee Kriengsinyos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c- lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, 119 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomized to plant stanol or control groups. Subjects were comparable in age, gender, lipid profiles, and body mass index. They consumed a control biscuit once a day for a two-week period, followed by a four-week intervention period that either had a plant stanol ester biscuit or a control. During the habitual diet, one biscuit per day was consumed at any time that subjects wished. Serum lipid profiles were measured at the first day of run-in, at baseline, and at the study’s end. Compared to the control, the total cholesterol (TC, LDL-c, and the LDL-to-high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL ratio had serum reductions of 4.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, respectively, and were observed after 4 weeks of biscuit consumption with added plant stanols (P < 0.05. A significantly higher reduction in LDL-c (8.9% and LDL/HDL ratio (11.4% was measured in those taking a plant stanol biscuit with a meal compared to those who consumed a plant stanol biscuit without other food. In conclusion, incorporating plant stanols into a biscuit is an attractive, convenient, and acceptable way to modestly lower elevated cholesterol concentrations. For optimal efficacy, biscuits should be consumed with a meal as part of a healthy diet.

  3. Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.

  4. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  5. Attention bias for chocolate increases chocolate consumption--an attention bias modification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Field, Matt; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined experimentally whether a manipulated attention bias for food cues increases craving, chocolate intake and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. To test the effect of attention for food on subsequent chocolate intake, attention for chocolate was experimentally modified by instructing participants to look at chocolate stimuli ("attend chocolate" group) or at non-food stimuli ("attend shoes" group) during a novel attention bias modification task (antisaccade task). Chocolate consumption, changes in craving and search time for hidden chocolates were assessed. Eye-movement recordings were used to monitor the accuracy during the experimental attention modification task as possible moderator of effects. Regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of attention modification and modification accuracy on chocolate intake, craving and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. Results showed that participants with higher accuracy (+1 SD), ate more chocolate when they had to attend to chocolate and ate less chocolate when they had to attend to non-food stimuli. In contrast, for participants with lower accuracy (-1 SD), the results were exactly reversed. No effects of the experimental attention modification on craving or search time for hidden chocolates were found. We used chocolate as food stimuli so it remains unclear how our findings generalize to other types of food. These findings demonstrate further evidence for a link between attention for food and food intake, and provide an indication about the direction of this relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EL CHOCOLATE, UN PLACER SALUDABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela B, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    El cacao, que se obtiene de la almendra del árbol del cacao, fue utilizado durante cientos de años por los indígenas sudamericanos en la preparación de una bebida amarga, que los europeos modificaron en su preparación y composición, hasta originar lo que hoy se conoce como el chocolate, en sus variedades negro (u oscuro), con leche, y blanco. De ellos el más interesante es el chocolate negro, debido a su alto contenido de los flavanoles epicatequina, catequina y procianidinas. Se ha demostrad...

  7. Effects of addition of different fibers on rheological characteristics of cake batter and quality of cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.

  8. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  9. [Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Juaristi, M; González-Torres, L; Bravo, L; Vaquero, M P; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols) may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the interaction of chocolate and its components with candidate genes will also supply necessary information regarding the individuals best suited to benefit from a potential cardiovascular disease treatment with chocolate.

  10. Dark chocolate: consumption for pleasure or therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Targher, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Traditional chocolate is derived from the cocoa bean, which is one of the most concentrated sources of flavanols, a subgroup of the natural antioxidant plant compounds called flavonoids. Accumulating evidence from the past 10 years demonstrates that moderate consumption of chocolate, especially dark chocolate, may exert protective effects against the development of cardiovascular disease. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this positive influence, including metabolic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects, as well as effects on insulin sensitivity and vascular endothelial function. Should these results be confirmed in randomised, controlled, cross-over, multi-dose trials, then the pleasure associated with chocolate consumption might also be justified from health and psychological perspectives. However, since dark chocolate has substantially higher levels of flavonoids than milk chocolate, and milk proteins may inhibit absorption of flavonoids, it might be preferable to consume dark chocolate than the white (milk) variety.

  11. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diukareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of study arenewly developed biscuits: "Health" (rich in iodine and with the replacement of 50 % sugar by stevioside, "Light" (with the replacement of 75% of sugar by stevioside and enriched with wheat bran, "Fortified" (containselamine, which is a natural source of iodine. Control – the biscuit prepared according to traditional recipes. Tenzometric method was used to study the sorption equilibrium moisture content. Differential function of pore radius distribution was determined using sorption isotherms and then have been subjected to approximation. Results. New biscuits samples are in the area of polymolecular and monomolecular sorption in the range of the relative air humidity (RAH from 10 to 75 ... 80%. The control sample has less distinct plot of monomolecular sorption (10 to 20% and short- moisture range wich is corresponding with polymolecularsorption (from 20 to 65 ... 70%. There is a moisture absorbtion ofmicrocapillary and swelling of samples when RAHincreases to 75 ... 80% for all the samples. The ratio of average pore radius tothe most likely of the test samples are differentthat wasshown by the investigation of differential function of pore distribution. So this ratio for biscuit "Health" is 5.73, for biscuit "Light" − 2.98,forbiscuit "Fortified"− 4.91 and for the control − 3.88. Conclusions. There’s the sense to store developed biscuits in a cardboard packaging with polymeric covering, if RAH is not more than 75%, and vapor-proof if RAH is above that.

  12. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

  13. The true Price of Chocolate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Chocoloney, T.

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate prices generally do not incorporate many of the environmental and social externalities, costs which are incurred as the main ingredients such as cocoa and sugar move from farms, to factories to consumers. Nor do prices reflect the benefits of non-conventional production and alternative

  14. Impurities enhance caking in lactose powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, M.; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Caking of lactose and other dry ingredients is a common problem in the dairy and food industries. The lactose production process includes different purification steps, depending on the type of lactose produced. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the remaining impurities (i.......e. non-lactose components) affect the caking tendency of the final powder. The results from a combination of different methods, including dynamic vapor sorption, characterization of the physicochemical composition and assessment of caking with a ring shear tester, suggested humidity caking. Larger...... amounts of impurities in the lactose powder resulted in enhanced moisture sorption and greater caking tendency. These findings emphasize the importance of controlling the washing and purification steps throughout the production process in order to limit caking in the final product...

  15. EFFECTS OF BARLEY FLOUR ADDITION AND BAKING TEMPERATURE ON Β-GLUCANS CONTENT AND BISCUITS PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Džafić, A; Oručević-Žuljević, Sanja; Spaho, Nermina; Akagić, Asima

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate opportunities to improve the nutritional value of biscuits. Therefore, the content of β-glucans, physical, chemical and sensory properties of biscuits were determined in relation to a share of added barley flour and a baking temperature. Five different blends of barley and wheat were used for biscuit production: barley/wheat flours in combinations: 0/100; 25/75; 50/50; 75/25 and 100/0 according to the procedure described in AACC method 10-52. The temp...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF GLUTEN - FREE FLOURS ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF BISCUIT SEMI - FINISHED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. G. IORGACHOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of applicability of gluten-free flours from cereal crops and from by-products of cereal crop processing - ground crumbs sifted out in a process of flake production from rice, corn and millet during the production of biscuit semi-finished products. Taking into account that viscosity is an important technological characteristic of foam-like biscuit dough, as it determines foam strength and dispersed medium stability, the influence of gluten-free flours on the structural and rheological properties of biscuit dough was studied. It is determined that the substitution of wheat flour for cereal flours leads to viscosity reduction of the dough as a consequence of absence of gluten-forming proteins in them. A comparative analysis of changes in viscous properties of biscuit dough based on flour from flakes crumb while warming it up to 60°C with dough based on cereal flours and dough based on wheat flour was held. It is shown that the presence of partially gelatinized starch granules in flour from flake crumb, as a result of technological peculiarities of their extraction, promotes greater demonstration of thickening properties already at the initial stage of baking than in cereal flours. This leads to an increase of dough viscosity and formation of desired rheological characteristics, which provide the porous structure of finished products. To provide the high quality of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished products, the recipe composition of gluten-free biscuit semi-finished product, based on flour mixture from millet flakes crumb, corn and rice flour, was optimized by using the method of mathematical design of experiments.  The porosity indicator was chosen as the criteria for the evaluation of influence of proportion of gluten-free flours on the quality of biscuit semi-finished products. The response surfaces of dependency of biscuit porosity from mass ratio of recipe components in the composite mixture were

  17. Production technology optimization of biscuit baked by electric-contact way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, G. A.; Popov, V. P.; Khanina, T. V.; Maneeva, E. Sh; Krasnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Electric-contact way of baking allows one to maintain more nutrients used in biscuit making. As a result of the biscuit production technology optimization, it is established that 30-62,5% is an optimal amount of starch brought instead of flour; 184-200% is optimal amount of egg melange; at this a complex indicator of organoleptic properties will be more than 340 degrees, a complex indicator of physical and chemical properties will be more than 3,3 degrees, and specific costs of energy spent on the biscuit electric-contact baking process will be less than 100 W/kg.

  18. Rapid sensory profiling and hedonic rating of whole grain sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits by low income consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovi, Koya Ap; Chiremba, Constance; Taylor, John Rn; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-02-01

    The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand the development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (i.e. cookies; a popular snack) from whole grain staples are an option. The present study aimed to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L * a * b * colour and texture of the biscuits were determined. The CATA method is suitable for rapidly determining which attributes consumers perceive in food products and relating these to acceptability. Consumers preferred the lighter, more yellow wheat biscuits with ginger, vanilla, sweet and cinnamon flavours compared to the stronger flavours (sorghum, beany and nutty) and harder but brittle, grittier, dry and rough textured sorghum or sorghum-cowpea biscuits. However, a substantial proportion of consumers also liked the latter biscuits. The composite biscuits had higher dietary fibre content and a similar protein quality to the standards. Whole grain sorghum-cowpea biscuits could serve as acceptable value-added nutritious complementary snacks for consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. The biscuits are simple to produce for the creation of viable small enterprises. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of Substituting Purple Rice Flour for Wheat Flour on Physicochemical Characteristics, In Vitro Digestibility, and Sensory Evaluation of Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warinporn Klunklin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice flour contains high levels of a number of antioxidant compounds; however, it has seldom been used as an ingredient in bakery products. The aim was to increase the nutritional value of biscuits by adding purple rice flour to a basic wheat flour biscuit. The substitution of purple rice flour in place of wheat flour modified the characteristics of the biscuits in terms of increasing the nutritional values. They contained high fiber, antioxidants, and antioxidant activities, while slightly changing the physical properties such as hardness and spread ratio. The study showed that the protein digestibility increased as the content of the purple rice flour was increased in the biscuit mix. The 100% purple rice flour biscuits had the lowest predicted glycemic index (pGI of all the biscuits. Sensory analysis showed that the overall acceptability of the blended flour biscuits at 25 and 50% substitution levels was slightly less than that of the control biscuits with only 9%; however, the scores were above 5 which means the panelists still liked the biscuits a lot. Overall, the inclusion of purple rice flour in biscuits mix increased crude protein content, protein digestibility, and bioactive compounds with acceptable sensory scores from consumers up to 50% substitution of purple rice.

  20. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of feeding graded levels of biscuit waste based diet on non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Department of Animal Production, College of Agricultural Science, Olabisi ... that diets B1 (25%) and B2 (50%) biscuit waste inclusion had the best (P ... through adaptation for two weeks before the experiment commenced.

  2. A Marketing Strategy for the Development of Want Want Rice Crackers in China Biscuits Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    The Want Want Group, as the biggest rice crackers manufacturer in the world, entered the mainland China's biscuit market and established its first factory in Hunan 1994. Rice Crackers are widely welcomed by Chinese consumers; however, in this decade it remained a stable company share with a very little decline in China's biscuit market. In order to maintain sustainable development, it is worthy to consider the competitive environment and distinguish the opportunities and challenges, analysis strengths and weaknesses.

  3. Formation of monochloropropane-1,2-diol and its esters in biscuits during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Pye, Céline; Anderson, Warwick; Crews, Colin; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-07-23

    The formation of free monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and its esters (bound-MCPD) was investigated in biscuits baked with various time and temperature combinations. The effect of salt as a source of chloride on the formation of these processing contaminants was also determined. Kinetic examination of the data indicated that an increasing baking temperature led to an increase in the reaction rate constants for 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and bound-MCPD. The activation energies of formation of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD were found to be 29 kJ mol(-1). Eliminating salt from the recipe decreased 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD formation rate constants in biscuits by 57.5 and 85.4%, respectively. In addition, there was no formation of bound-MCPD in biscuits during baking without salt. Therefore, lowering the thermal load or limiting the chloride concentration should be considered a means of reducing or eliminating the formation of these contaminants in biscuits. Different refined oils were also used in the recipe to test their effect on the occurrence of free MCPD and its esters in biscuits. Besides the baking process, the results also confirmed the role of refined oil in the final concentration of these contaminants in biscuits.

  4. The effect of modified potato flour substitution on the organoleptics characteristics of toddler biscuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakrawati, Dewi; Rahmawati, Puji

    2016-04-01

    Toddler biscuit is complementary food given to infants to help meet their nutritional needs. This research was undertaken to develop toddler biscuit with subtitution of physically modified potato flour. There were two puposes of the research, first to know the characteristics of physically modification on potato flour; secondly to know biscuit characteristics with modified potato flour substitution. There were two factor analysis in the development of biscuit; first factor was pre heating mehods and substitution rate. The research was conducted with experimental method using split plot design. The functional properties on modified potato flour as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, solubility and viscocity were analyzed. Organoleptic analysis using quality hedonic test showed no interaction between potato starch modification and concentration of modified potato flour. Quality hedonic test showed all toddler biscuit socred in the range of “slightly like” to “like moderately”. Modifying potato starch by boiling and steaming with flour concentration of 30% producing toddler biscuit with organoleptic characteristics acceptable according to the panelists.

  5. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H. E-mail: schenk@science.uva.nl; Peschar, R

    2004-11-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the {beta} phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the {beta} phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the {beta}-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  6. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, H.; Peschar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system

  7. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H.; Peschar, R.

    2004-10-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  8. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, K. T.; Tapper, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed.\\ud \\ud Methods: Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-r...

  9. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  10. The impact of chocolate on cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Murga, L; Tarín, J J; García-Perez, M A; Cano, A

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading determinant of mortality and morbidity in women. Functional foods are attracting interest as potential regulators of the susceptibility to disease. Supported by epidemiological evidence, chocolate has emerged as a possible modulator of cardiovascular risk. Chocolate, or cocoa as the natural source, contains flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids. The latter years have witnessed an increasing number of experimental and clinical studies that suggest a protective effect of chocolate against atherogenesis. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial function define three biological mechanisms that have shown sensitivity to chocolate. Moreover, the consumption of chocolate has been involved in the protective modulation of blood pressure, the lipid profile, the activation of platelets, and the sensitivity to insulin. Dark chocolate seems more protective than milk or white chocolate. Despite this array of benefits, there is a lack of well designed clinical studies demonstrating cardiovascular benefit of chocolate. The high caloric content of chocolate, particularly of some less pure forms, imposes caution before recommending uncontrolled consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The mysterious light of dark chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürk, Tunay; Günay, Şeyda

    2015-03-01

    A healthy diet plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Dark chocolate in particular has been shown to improve endothelial functions and lipid profile and to have cardiovascular protective effects via an inhibitory action on platelet functions. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of chocolate, primarily on hypertension and other conditions such as coronary artery disease and hyperlipidemia. The present review provides a summary of the ingredients, bioavailability and cardiovascular protective effects of chocolate / cocoa and the published effects of chocolate on a number of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  13. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky's question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  14. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  15. Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dean; Hayssen, Gail; Walsh, James

    2007-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment investigated whether chocolate exposed to "good intentions" would enhance mood more than unexposed chocolate. Individuals were assigned to one of four groups and asked to record their mood each day for a week by using the Profile of Mood States. For days three, four and five, each person consumed a half ounce of dark chocolate twice a day at prescribed times. Three groups blindly received chocolate that had been intentionally treated by three different techniques. The intention in each case was that people who ate the chocolate would experience an enhanced sense of energy, vigor, and well-being. The fourth group blindly received untreated chocolate as a placebo control. The hypothesis was that mood reported during the three days of eating chocolate would improve more in the intentional groups than in the control group. Stratified random sampling was used to distribute 62 participants among the four groups, matched for age, gender, and amount of chocolate consumed on average per week. Most participants lived in the same geographic region to reduce mood variations due to changes in weather, and the experiment was conducted during one week to reduce effects of current events on mood fluctuations. On the third day of eating chocolate, mood had improved significantly more in the intention conditions than in the control condition (P = .04). Analysis of a planned subset of individuals who habitually consumed less than the grand mean of 3.2 ounces of chocolate per week showed a stronger improvement in mood (P = .0001). Primary contributors to the mood changes were the factors of declining fatigue (P = .01) and increasing vigor (P = .002). All three intentional techniques contributed to the observed results. The mood-elevating properties of chocolate can be enhanced with intention.

  16. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  17. Teaching Quality Control with Chocolate Chip Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process. In addition, examining…

  18. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  19. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  20. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Optimization of suspensions filtration with compressible cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is described filtering process for separating reaction mixture after enzymatic hydrolysis to process the chromium tanning waste. Filtration of this mixture is very complicated because it is case of mixture filtration with compressible cake. Successful process strongly depends on mathematical describing of filtration, calculating optimal values of pressure difference, specific resistant of filtration cake and temperature maintenance which is connected with viscosity change. The mathematic model of filtration with compressible cake we verified in laboratory conditions on special filtration device developed on our department.

  2. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  3. High-performance composite chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  4. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min, measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated through the use of thermo-physical models. The measures were carried out on whole biscuits and on powdered biscuits compressed into cylindrical cases. Thermal conductivity of the compacted material, at different baking times (and, consequently at different moisture content, was then used to feed parallel, series, Krischer and Maxwell-Eucken models. The results showed that the application of the hot wire method for the determination of thermal conductivity is not fully feasible if applied directly to whole materials due to mechanical changes applied to the structure and the high presence of fats. The method works best if applied to the biscuit component phases separately. The best model is the Krischer one for its adaptability. In this case the value of biscuit thermal conductivity, for high baking time, varies from 0.15 to 0.19 Wm–1 K–1, while the minimum, for low baking time, varies from 0.11 to 0.12 Wm–1 K–1. These values are close to that reported in literature for similar products.

  5. Glycemic Index Biscuits Formulation of Pedada Flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) with Tubers Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyah; Susiloningsih, E. K. B.; Nilasari, K.

    2018-01-01

    The glycemic index of food is the level of food according to its effect on blood glucose levels. Foods with low glycemic index have been shown to improve glucose and fat levels in people with diabetes mellitus and improve insulin resistance. Pedada Fruits (Sonneratia caseolaris) is the one of mangrove fruits has a high fiber content, so it can be used as a raw material in biscuits production. The aim of this research to evaluate the glycemic index on the formula biscuit from the pedada flour and starch from white sweet potato, arrowroot, taro, potato and cassava mixed. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with one factor and five levels on formulation biscuit of pedada flour with tubers starch (20% : 80%). The biscuits product were measured of the proximate, crude fiber, glycemic index and glycemic load on wistar rats. The best treatment was 20% of pedada flour with 80% of taro starch which produced biscuit with 76.24% of yield, 2.58% of protein, 15.55% of fat, 2.72% of crude fiber, 48.83 of glycemic index and 7.39 of glycemic load.

  6. Chemical and biological studies on producing high quality biscuits with irradiated tomato wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to produce high quality biscuits for treatment of some special diseases. In this study, the total tomato processing wastes were used as new source of protein in which the most predominate elements were found to be phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acid, while lysine was the second limiting amino acid. It was found to contain about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processing wastes remain unutilized and they not only add to the disposal problem, but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato wastes were irradiated in two doses (1.5 and 2.5 KGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% tomato wastes. All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated tomato wastes. The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined. Internal organs were also followed. The results obtained showed that 15% tomato wastes biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36, 2.72 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiation on the rats internal organs

  7. Chemical and biological studies on sweet biscuits produced from irradiated phaseolus beans flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of beans such as minerals, amino acids, total carbohydrates and fiber to produce high quality sweet biscuits for treating some special diseases. In this study, the Phaseolus beans flour was used as a new source of very important composition. Beans flour was irradiated at two doses (0.5 and 1.0 KGy) for preservation. Sweet biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10, 15% beans flour. All samples of sweet biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. Biological assay was carried out in rats maintained on 15% either irradiated or non-irradiated beans flour sweet biscuits through determining the weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and investigating the internal organs. The results obtained showed that sweet biscuits containing 15% Phaseolus beans flour had highest content of protein, minerals and fiber and scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiated beans flour on the internal organs

  8. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  9. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  10. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  11. Wafer Cakes of Improved Amino Acid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Boidunyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the amino acid composition of newly developed wafer cakes with adipose fillings combined with natural additives. The appropriateness of the using non-traditional raw materials (powder of willow herb, poppy oilcake, carob, as well as skimmed milk powder in order to increase the biological value of wafer cakes and improve their amino acid composition is proven.

  12. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake) dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen). Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder ...

  13. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  14. Ingredientes usados na indústria de chocolates Ingredients used in chocolate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissol Richter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate é um produto comumente consumido, sendo que sua produção tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor. Os tipos preferidos de chocolate variam em cada país. Os diferentes sabores e usos para o chocolate refletem a história da indústria dos diferentes lugares. O sabor do chocolate é parcialmente determinado pela química do produto. O sabor depende da liberação dos compostos aromáticos, enquanto que a textura é uma função da maneira como o material se funde e quebra na boca. Muitos chocolates disponíveis no mercado são elaborados com ingredientes similares, porém apresentam diferentes sabores. Alguns produtores têm aromas específicos, sendo que existem trocas freqüentes nestes devido a variações no processo, acidez e temperatura, ocasionando variações de aroma e sabor no produto final. Por esta razão, as condições de produção do chocolate são mantidas freqüentemente em segredo. Os ingredientes utilizados na produção de chocolates e de seus produtos têm importante papel na aceitação pelo consumidor e na apresentação do produto.Chocolate is a product widely consumed throughout the world that has seen generally increasing production trends over the last years. Making chocolate requires an understanding of how the consumer perceives it. The preferred type of chocolate varies from country to country. The different tastes and uses for chocolate reflect the histories of the industry in different places. The taste of chocolate is partially determined by the chemistry of the product. Taste depends on the release of flavor compounds in the mouth and nose, while perceived texture is a function of the way in which the material melts and breaks up in the mouth. Most chocolates that are available on the market throughout the world are made from very similar ingredients, yet have very different flavors. Some manufacturers have specific house flavors, and very often this

  15. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C.

  16. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-07-05

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon.

  17. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The history and science of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, R

    2013-12-01

    This article gives an account of the origins, evolution and properties of chocolate. Chocolate is processed from the pod or cabosside of the cacao plant, grown in the tropical belt. The origins of chocolate are traced back to the Maya people who were probably the first to cultivate the cacao plant. The early chocolate drink, considered a "drink of the Gods" was mixed with cinnamon and pepper, tasting bitter and strong, and was most appreciated for its invigorating and stimulating effects than for its taste. Imported from the Americas, the softened version soon spread in Europe. From the 1800s to the 20th Century, it evolved from a drink to its current pleasurable varieties (such as fondant, Gianduja, milky and white chocolate), gaining much momentum in industry and also made great impact as a romantic item and art form. Important components in chocolate are flavonoids (antioxidants), cocoa butter, caffeine, theobromine and phenylethylamine, whereas the presence of psychoactive substances account for its pleasurable effects. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine constitutes the methylxanthines, known to enhance the action of cAMP, which plays an important role in the transmission of intracellular signals. Chocolate is noted to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects, and improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which action improves the pressure, platelet function and fluidity of blood.

  19. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  20. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II: Effect of the ratio of reducing sugars and asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after proofing due to enzyme action. Data obtained after baking were used to develop a mechanistic model, based on the asparagine-related pathway, for acrylamide and HMF formation in the four baked biscuit types. Asparagine reacted with fructose to form a Schiff base before decarboxylation to produce acrylamide without Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Fructose contributed considerably to acrylamide formation and to HMF formation via caramelization in all four biscuit types. No clear correlation was found between acrylamide and HMF in baked biscuits, nor between asparagine and the sum of glucose and fructose concentrations in the wheat flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion e...

  2. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  3. In Vitro Propagation of Vanilla in Rwanda | Mushimiyimana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used as flavoring substance in several items such as chocolates, ice-creams, yoghurts, soft drinks, liquors, candies, baked foods, cakes, and biscuits. It is also used in scenting tobacco, perfumery and pharmaceuticals. Vanilla is the second most expensive spice after saffron and its demand worldwide is enormous.

  4. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a..., flavorings, or seasonings specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section are used in the breakfast cocoa, the...

  5. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a... specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section are used in the breakfast cocoa, the label shall bear an...

  6. Attentional bias for craving-related (chocolate) food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated attentional biases for craving-related food cues. A pictorial dot probe task was used to assess selective attentional processing of one particular highly desired food, namely chocolate, relative to that of other highly desired foods. In Experiment 1, we examined biased processing of chocolate cues in habitual (trait) chocolate cravers, whereas in Experiment 2 we investigated the effect of experimentally induced (state) chocolate cravings on such processing. As predicted, habitual chocolate cravers (Experiment 1) and individuals in whom a craving for chocolate was temporarily induced (Experiment 2) showed speeded detection of probes replacing chocolate-related pictures, demonstrating an attentional bias for chocolate cues. Subsequent examination indicated that in both experiments the observed attentional biases stemmed from difficulty in disengaging attention from chocolate cues rather than from a shift of attention toward such cues. The findings have important theoretical and practical implications.

  7. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  8. Time to B. cereus about hot chocolate.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelms, P K; Larson, O; Barnes-Josiah, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause of illnesses experienced by employees of a Minneapolis manufacturing plant after drinking hot chocolate bought from a vending machine and to explore the prevalence of similar vending machine-related illnesses. METHODS: The authors inspected the vending machines at the manufacturing plant where employees reported illnesses and at other locations in the city where hot chocolate beverages were sold in machines. Tests were performed on dry mix, water, and beverag...

  9. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    OpenAIRE

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods). Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukot...

  10. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  11. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  12. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Friese, Malte; Blechert, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes) and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes). Thus, we used a selective, hedonic deprivation (i.e., restricting intake of a specific food in the absence of an energy deficit) that precludes homeostatic changes due to energy restriction. Furthermore, interindividual differences in food craving experiences might affect why some individuals are more prone to experience cravings during dieting than others. Thus, we investigated whether a selective deprivation of chocolate would in- or decrease craving and implicit preference for chocolate as a function of trait-level differences in chocolate craving. Participants with high and low trait chocolate craving (HC, LC) refrained from consuming chocolate for 2 weeks but otherwise maintained their usual food intake. Both groups underwent laboratory assessments before and after deprivation, each including explicit (i.e., state chocolate craving) and implicit measures (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test, SC-IAT; Affect Misattribution Procedure, AMP). Results showed that hedonic deprivation increased state chocolate craving in HCs only. HCs also showed more positive implicit attitudes toward chocolate than LCs on the SC-IAT and the AMP irrespective of deprivation. Results help to disambiguate previous studies on the effects of dieting on food cravings. Specifically, while previous studies showed that energy-restricting diets appear to decrease food cravings, the current study showed that a selective, hedonic

  13. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Richard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes. Thus, we used a selective, hedonic deprivation (i.e., restricting intake of a specific food in the absence of an energy deficit that precludes homeostatic changes due to energy restriction. Furthermore, interindividual differences in food craving experiences might affect why some individuals are more prone to experience cravings during dieting than others. Thus, we investigated whether a selective deprivation of chocolate would in- or decrease craving and implicit preference for chocolate as a function of trait-level differences in chocolate craving. Participants with high and low trait chocolate craving (HC, LC refrained from consuming chocolate for 2 weeks but otherwise maintained their usual food intake. Both groups underwent laboratory assessments before and after deprivation, each including explicit (i.e., state chocolate craving and implicit measures (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test, SC-IAT; Affect Misattribution Procedure, AMP. Results showed that hedonic deprivation increased state chocolate craving in HCs only. HCs also showed more positive implicit attitudes toward chocolate than LCs on the SC-IAT and the AMP irrespective of deprivation. Results help to disambiguate previous studies on the effects of dieting on food cravings. Specifically, while previous studies showed that energy-restricting diets appear to decrease food cravings, the current study showed that a selective

  14. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate’s viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon. PMID:27325758

  15. Effects of chemical and enzymatic modification on dough rheology and biscuit characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    . Rheological studies included creep recovery and shear oscillation. SMS and protease increased maximum strain, recovery strain, and phase tan Δ, and lowered storage modulus, G′, and the relative recovery, % recovery. The effects varied among cultivars and between SMS and protease. Biscuit eccentricity (width...

  16. Rationale for the use of pumpkin and carrot powders in the production of functional biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Gustinovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the measures directed to restriction of negative consequences of the raised radiation background and also other adverse factors of the external environment and production for health of the population, the exclusive role belongs to a balanced diet and use of protective properties of food. Among protective factors of food the increasing part is assigned to ?-carotene, which has ability to inactivate free radicals and has the expressed immunomodulatory effect. A perspective source not only ?-carotene, but also pectin, celluloses can serve fine powders of carrots and pumpkin. The compounding of Solar ship's biscuits with addition of 7% to the mass of flour of composition of powders of pumpkin and carrots is developed. Content of pectinaceous substances in biscuits “Solnechnie” is twice more in comparison with a control sample (ship's biscuits simple of wheat flour of the first grade, the content of calcium is 11% higher, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and potassium – for 40, 39, 10 and 13,6% in comparison respectively. Content of cellulose has increased for 75%, and the content of ?-carotene is more than 30% of daily requirement of a human body that allows to carry biscuits “Solnechnie” to functional products.

  17. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  18. Assessment of Important Sensory Attributes of Millet Based Snacks and Biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Duizer, Lisa M; Seetharaman, Koushik; Dan Ramdath, D

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing push by consumers for new food products that can provide health benefits. To develop these products, sometimes it is necessary to look to alternative crops, 1 of which is millet. For millet to be successfully adopted by consumers, it is necessary to identify and develop product types that are acceptable to North Americans. Biscuits and extruded snacks were produced using varying amounts of refined proso millet flour (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100%). Sensory analysis was conducted on 8 products (4 types of biscuits and 4 types of extruded snack) in 2 separate tests (1 for biscuits and 1 for snacks). Preferred Attribute Elicitation (PAE), a relatively new sensory method, was used to determine attributes affecting liking of the products. Results indicated that as the amount of millet in the biscuits and extruded snacks increased, the liking of the flavor, texture and overall liking decreased. Millet contributed to a bitter taste and bitter aftertaste, and resulted in gritty and dry food products. Further work is required to refine the products tested as well as to identify further products that can be added to the diet in order to take advantage of the health benefits that millet provides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Andrew J; Kennedy, Gwen; McLaren, Margaret; Bancroft, Anne J; Belch, Jill J F

    2003-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the UK. The flavonoids found in cocoa may produce a cardio-protective role for chocolate with a high cocoa content. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised to receive 100 g of white, milk or dark chocolate, and assessments of platelet function were undertaken on venous blood samples before and after chocolate consumption. White and milk chocolate had no significant effect on platelets. However dark chocolate inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma. In the future dark chocolate may have a role in prevention of cardiovascular and thromboembolic diseases.

  20. From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2006-06-01

    We explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. We restrict our consideration to the génoise and obtain a semiempirical relation for the baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The relation, which is based on the diffusion equation, has three parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking cakes in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The relation takes into account the evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which is the dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake.

  1. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  2. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast extracts enhanced growth. Pseudomanas strain G9 degraded 71.25% shea nut cake, while Pseudomonas strain G38 degraded 50.35% shea nut cake within 48 h. Pseudomonas G9 can be used to degrade shea nut cake. G9 and G38 are different species of Pseudomonas and molecular typing such as PCR can be ...

  3. Investigation of the structure of filter cakes from bore flushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Poege, S; Young, F

    1985-01-01

    After a description of the tasks and functions of the filter cake in bores, the requirements for filter cakes are explained. The aim of the investigation is finding a correlation between the filter cake structures and the prehistory of flushing. The technique of preparing the samples and previous results from investigations with electron microscopes are introduced and discussed.

  4. First results of the CAKE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarusi, T.; Bottazzi, E.; Cecchini, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Giacomelli, G.; Kumar, A.; Patrizii, L.; Togo, V.; Valieri, C.

    2003-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the cosmic abundances below the knee energies (CAKE) experiment for the study of the primary cosmic-ray composition and for the search of exotic particles in the primary cosmic radiation. CAKE uses CR39[reg] and Lexan nuclear track detectors, which were calibrated with beams of 158 A GeV Pb ions and 1 A GeV Fe ions at the CERN and BNL accelerators, respectively. Results based on the analysis of a first data sample are shown

  5. First results of the CAKE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chiarusi, T; Cecchini, S; Di Ferdinando, D; Giacomelli, G; Kumar, A; Patrizii, L; Togo, V; Valieri, C

    2003-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the cosmic abundances below the knee energies (CAKE) experiment for the study of the primary cosmic- ray composition and for the search of exotic particles in the primary cosmic radiation. CAKE uses CR39** registered trademark and Lexan nuclear track detectors, which were calibrated with beams of 158 A Ge V Pb ions and 1 A GeV Fe ions at the CERN and BNL accelerators, respectively. Results based on the analysis of a first data sample are shown.

  6. Suppressing images of desire: Neural correlates of chocolate-related thoughts in high and low trait chocolate cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2018-03-05

    Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs. free thinking instructions after being exposed to chocolate and neutral images. Enhanced cue reactivity was evident in high trait chocolate cravers in that they reported more chocolate-related thoughts selectively after chocolate images compared to their low trait craving counterparts. This cue reactivity was mirrored neurally by higher activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum, demonstrating enhanced reward system activity. Unexpectedly, high trait chocolate cravers successfully reduced their elevated chocolate thoughts in the suppression condition. This lends support for the use of thought suppression as a means of regulating unwanted thoughts, cravings and imagery. Whether this thought manipulation is able to curb the elevated cue reactivity and the underlying reward sensitivity in chocolate cravers in applied settings remains to be shown. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical benefit and preservation of flavonols in dark chocolate manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, Andrew; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Munro, Sandra B; Casadesus, Gemma; Castell, Margarida; Smith, Mark A

    2008-11-01

    The consumption of high-cacao-content chocolate has been associated with positive health benefits ascribed to flavanol [corrected] antioxidants derived from the ground, fermented cocoa seeds of Theobroma cacao. However, flavanols [corrected] impart a bitter, astringent flavor to foodstuffs, frequently masked in chocolates and confections by aggressive processing and adulteration with other flavors. Recent reports have implied that not all varieties of dark chocolate are created equally, and significant caveats exist regarding its potential health benefits. It is perhaps not surprising that extensive processing, dilution, and the addition of flavor modifiers may improve the palatability of chocolate, but could have negative nutritional and clinical benefits. This article examines the chemical composition of chocolate and the clinical data associated with the consumption of flavonoid-rich cocoa. We review the steps in chocolate manufacturing that directly affect the antioxidant levels in chocolate products, and the caveats associated with claims of health benefits from the consumption of dark chocolate.

  9. Claims about Cocoa: Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects. These compounds are also found in tea, wine, fruits and vegetables. Different chocolates can vary greatly ... chocolate. You won’t get any of the benefit. It’s just going to be unneeded calories.” But ...

  10. Chocolate protects a heart and vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Chudzińska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis and its complications are nowadays one of the leading causes of death in the western population. Among numerous factors known for slowing down the progression of the disease is the consumption of vegetables, fruits and chocolate rich in multiring compounds called polyphenols. Chocolate is a source of catechins, epicatechins and procyanidins. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of dark chocolate in management of hypertension  by hypotensive effect associated with vasorelaxation mediated most likely by the stimulation of nitric oxide production in the vascular wall. Cocoa and its derivatives have also strong antioxidative properties resulting in enhancement of the  total antioxidant potential and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. It was also demonstrated that cocoa polyphenols have a favourable antithrombotic effect connected with the inhibition of platelet activation. Chocolate may diminish insulin resistance and inhibit inflammatory process. Cocoa improves also psychical well being. This pleiotropic activity of cocoa results in slowing down the progression and limiting the complications of atherosclerosis in regular chocolate consumers.

  11. The health benefits of chocolate enrichment with dried fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Ça&#&#nd&#; Semih Ötleş

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular food all over the world is chocolate and it has highly nutritious energy, fast metabolism and good digestibility. Nowadays, most important trend is healthy foods. Develop a chocolate product that will be be nutritional for many more people. It is well known that dried fruits has high nutritious values and health benefits. Dried fruits are good sources to developed chocolates. This paper aims to review health importance and usage of dried fruits in chocolate.

  12. Environmental impacts of chocolate production and consumption in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantas, Antonios; Jeswani, Harish K; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates life cycle environmental impacts associated with chocolate products made and consumed in the UK. The paper focuses on three representative chocolate products occupying 90% of the market: 'moulded chocolate', 'chocolate countlines' and 'chocolates in bag'. The impacts were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool and following the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The water footprint was also considered. For example, the global warming potential ranges between 2.91 and 4.15 kg CO 2 eq., primary energy demand from 30 to 41 MJ and the water footprint, including water stress, from 31 to 63 l per kilogram of chocolate. The raw materials are the major hotspot across all impact categories for all three product types, followed by the chocolate production process and packaging. The raw material impacts are mainly due to milk powder, cocoa derivatives, sugar and palm oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that the results for global warming potential are sensitive to land-use change (LUC) associated with cocoa production, increasing the impact of the chocolate products by three to four times if LUC is involved. The improvement opportunities targeting the key contributing stages suggest that GWP of chocolates could be reduced by 14%-19%. Chocolate countlines have the highest contribution to the total impacts at the UK level (37%-43%), followed by chocolates in bag (28%-33%). Moulded chocolates and other chocolate confectionary make up the rest of the impacts, with a roughly equal share each. Chocolate consumption in the UK contributes 4.7% to the primary energy consumption and 2.4% to the GHG emissions from the whole food and drink sector. The results of this work will be of interest to policy makers, chocolate producers and consumers, helping them to make more informed decisions towards sustainable production and consumption of chocolate products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From pralines to multinationals: The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  14. Supraventricular tachycardia induced by chocolate: is chocolate too sweet for the heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasramka, Saurabh; Dufresne, Alix

    2012-09-01

    Conflicting studies have been published concerning the association between chocolate and cardiovascular diseases. Fewer articles have described the potential arrhythmogenic risk related to chocolate intake. We present a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in a woman after consumption of large quantity of chocolate. A 53-year-old woman with no significant medical history presented to us with complaints of palpitations and shortness of breath after consuming large amounts of chocolate. Electrocardiogram showed supraventricular tachycardia at 165 beats per minute, which was restored to sinus rhythm after adenosine bolus injection. Electrophysiology studies showed atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Chocolate contains caffeine and theobromine, which are methylxanthines and are competitive antagonists of adenosine and can have arrhythmogenic potential. Our case very well describes an episode of tachycardia precipitated by large amount of chocolate consumption in a patient with underlying substrate. There are occasional case reports describing association between chocolate, caffeine, and arrhythmias. A large Danish study, however, did not find any association between amount of daily caffeine consumption and risk of arrhythmia.

  15. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  16. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder dan telur yakni resep pertama dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 6 gram, telur 100 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan tanpa penambahaan air; dan resep ke dua dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 2 gram, telur 80 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan air 16 gram. Jumlah telur yang digunakaan dalam kedua resep tersebut cukup jauh berkurang dari resep umum yang menggunakan 180 gram telur untuk 100 gram tepung terigu. Temuan penelitian ini akan berimplikasi pada sponge cake dengan harga yang lebih murah, tetapi dengan kualitas yang tetap relatif baik dapat dihadirkan ke pasar.   Kata-kata kunci: spong cake,  kualitas, baking powder, biaya produksi

  17. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  18. Making the yellow cake go round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Yellow cake' is the name given to uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by the mining profession. Ore containing about a million tons of it and capable of processing at reasonable cost has to be found by 1980 if reserves are to be kept in balance. Many areas of the world are favourable for exploration and experts are confident that additional resources exist. (author)

  19. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates the e...

  20. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  1. Effect of fat types on the structural and textural properties of dough and semi-sweet biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Hasmadi; Hill, Sandra E

    2014-09-01

    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.

  2. Formulation of reduced-calorie biscuits using artificial sweeteners and fat replacer with dairy–multigrain approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Aggarwal

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrated that highly acceptable reduced-calorie biscuits can be produced by using dairy–multigrain composite flour with maltitol and FOS-sucralose (as sweetener and PD (as fat replacer.

  3. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG SINGKONG SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI TERIGU UNTUK VARIASI CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Panti Ariani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk memperoleh variasi cake dari tepung singkong dengan mensubstitusi terigu. Karena terigu merupakan produk impor olahan dari gandum, sebagai usaha mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian eksperimental semu di laboratorium karena keterbatasan untuk mengontrol semua variabel yang relevan. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan lembar observasi untuk memperoleh data uji kualitas dari panelis terlatih, sedangkan data uji selera diperoleh dari masyarakat umum untuk mengetahui keberterimaan variasi cake singkong. Analisis data penelitian dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian memperoleh kualitas cake singkong pada kriteria yang sempurna pada, (a pound cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, (b roll cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah, (c chiffon cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta pengembangan (volume maksimal, (d bolu kukus dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas aroma terendah, (e sponge cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi semua kriteria terendah, (f brownies dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, (g fruit cake menggunakan buah-buahan lokal dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, dan (g rainbow cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah. Secara umum keberterimaan masyarakat sangat menyukai variasi cake singkong, tetapi sponge cake dan rainbow cake memperoleh keberterimaan terendah. Dengan demikian 8 jenis cake dapat menggunakan tepung singkong sebagai substitusi terigu untuk mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Kata kunci: tepung singkong, variasi cake, substitusi terigu Abstract The purpose of this study to obtain a cake variation of substituting wheat with cassava flour. Because wheat is imported products processed from wheat, in an effort to support increased food security. This study uses a

  4. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; L. Bravo; M. P. Vaquero; S. Bastida; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...

  5. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health | Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; González-Torres, L.; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii...

  6. Physical Characteristics, Chemical Composition, Organoleptic Test And The Number Of Microbes In The Biscuits With Addition Of Flour Banana Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati; Aryani, A.; Shintawati, R.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study to analyze the physical characteristics, chemical composition and organoleptic test of biscuit flour with the addition of flour banana peel. Materials used are banana peels Kepok. Kepok banana peel has been found to contain high fiber food. Biscuit-making stage includes the formation of cream, adding flour and wheat flour dietary fiber from banana peels to concentrations of 0% as control, 25%, 50% and 75% of 100 grams of wheat flour; mixing; molding; baking in the oven for 20-25 minutes with a temperature of 180°C. Parameters to be measured, namely the physical characteristics include: hardness, softness, consistency, crispness. Furthermore, the biscuits were tested by chemical analysis (proximate). Organoleptic test include: aroma, taste, mouthfeel, aftertaste. Data were analyzed statistically using SAS computing programs. Physical and organoleptic test results biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has sufficient level of preference between like-liked. Based on the results of the proximate analysis of biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has generally been in accordance with the National Standards of Indonesia (SNI). Conclusion of the study that the addition of flour banana peels in biscuits has the potential to become functional foods that contain high fiber.

  7. Enrichment of Biscuits with Matcha Green Tea Powder: Its Impact on Consumer Acceptability and Acute Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjapor Phongnarisorn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Matcha green tea powder (MGTP is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total catechins by 19% compared to dough, although epimerization increased the amount of (+-gallocatechin gallate at the expense of other catechins such as (−-epigallocatechin gallate. Consumer acceptability tests using a 9-point hedonic scale showed that consumers preferred enriched biscuits with low content of MGTP (2 g of MGTP 100 g−1 of flour, and an increase of sugar content did not significantly improve the acceptability of MGTP-enriched biscuits. Overall, enrichment of biscuits with MGTP did not significantly affect the postprandial glucose or triglyceride response (area under curve compared to non-enriched biscuits consumed with water or MGTP drink. Enriching biscuits with Matcha green tea is acceptable to consumers, but may not bring significant postprandial effects.

  8. [How does chocolate impact vascular function?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Andreas J; Sudano, Isabella

    2014-11-12

    For thousands of years, cocoa have been a very popular food and has been linked to various beneficial health effects. Observational and epidemiological studies point towards a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on cardiovascular morbidity. Several small, albeit controlled studies indeed demonstrate an amelioration of endothelial dysfunction - the dysfunction of the inner layer of the vessels - after intake of dark, flavanol-rich chocolate. This is important, as endothelial dysfunction is an important marker of the development of atherosclerosis and an important prognosticator of future cardiovascular events. This article summarizes the actual literature in this respect.

  9. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour, instant noodle and biscuits commercialised in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana Palma de; Lamardo, Leda Conceição Antonia; Shundo, Luzia; Silva, Simone Alves da; Navas, Sandra Aparecida; Alaburda, Janete; Ruvieri, Valter; Sabino, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    A total of 134 samples, consisting of 58 wheat flour, 40 instant noodle and 36 biscuits, were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON). The samples were obtained from retail markets of the city of São Paulo during the period 2010-2014. DON was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and immunoaffinity sample clean-up. Method validation followed international guidelines. The LOD and LOQ were 60 and 200 µg kg -1 , respectively, considering the three different types of samples analysed. The lowest recovery found in this study was 91.8% with RSD 4.5% for instant noodles. DON was detected in 91.4%, 97.5% and 97.2% of samples wheat flour, instant noodles and biscuits, respectively, resulting in a total of 94.8% with levels ranging from LOD to 1720.0 µg kg -1 .

  10. Real-time biscuit tile image segmentation method based on edge detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Tomislav; Aleksi, Ivan; Hocenski, Željko; Kraus, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we propose a novel real-time Biscuit Tile Segmentation (BTS) method for images from ceramic tile production line. BTS method is based on signal change detection and contour tracing with a main goal of separating tile pixels from background in images captured on the production line. Usually, human operators are visually inspecting and classifying produced ceramic tiles. Computer vision and image processing techniques can automate visual inspection process if they fulfill real-time requirements. Important step in this process is a real-time tile pixels segmentation. BTS method is implemented for parallel execution on a GPU device to satisfy the real-time constraints of tile production line. BTS method outperforms 2D threshold-based methods, 1D edge detection methods and contour-based methods. Proposed BTS method is in use in the biscuit tile production line. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05 and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05, a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and

  12. Estimation of thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuit at different baking stages

    OpenAIRE

    Cevoli, C.; Fabbri, A.; Marai, S.V.; Ferrari, E.; Guarnieri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of a food material is an essential physical property in mathematical modelling and computer simulation of thermal processing. Effective thermal conductivity of non-homogeneous materials, such as food matrices, can be determined experimentally or mathematically. The aim of the following research was to compare the thermal conductivity of short pastry biscuits, at different baking stages (60-160 min), measured by a line heat source thermal conductivity probe and estimated t...

  13. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  15. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes det...

  16. How different chocolate brands influence our chocolate perception and buying behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Master in Marketing This master dissertation is based on a research conducted in order to answer the question ‘How different chocolate brands influence our chocolate perception and buying behavior?’. This research was conducted with a sample of 101 respondents through a structured questionnaire. All data acquired were analyzed in the SPSS software, due to its huge potential to compare different variables, that is, different aspects of data. The main aim of this research is to compare...

  17. Effect of incorporation of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolate on functional, baking and sensory characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aesitivum) biscuit

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Hassan; A.I. Mustafa; A.R. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the objectives of using the decorticated pigeon pea protein isolate in the development of protein rich-biscuit, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea protein isolate on the sensory evaluation and quality of biscuit produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea protein Isolate (DPPI) was incorporated in wheat (Triticum aesitivum) flour (WF, extraction rate 72%), for making fortified biscuit. Ratios of DP...

  18. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  19. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim T; Tapper, Katy

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-related products they consumed. They also completed a questionnaire measure of the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic, both before and after the 5-day period. Results showed that compared to controls, those in the cognitive defusion group ate significantly less chocolate from the bag (p = .046) and less chocolate according to the diary measure (p = .053). There was evidence that these changes were brought about by reductions in the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic. There were no differences in chocolate consumption between the acceptance and control groups. Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlight the importance of disentangling the effects of different mindfulness-based techniques. What is already known on this subject? Multicomponent mindfulness interventions have been successfully applied to a range of health behaviours. Low levels of self-control are associated with weight gain and a higher BMI. What does this study add? The results show that a brief mindfulness strategy (defusion) helps individuals resist chocolate over 5 days. The results suggest this may be brought about by reductions in the extent to which eating chocolate is automatic. A second brief mindfulness strategy (acceptance) failed to help individuals resist chocolate. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Testing the Fracture Behaviour of Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…

  1. Measuring and modelling the structure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.; Fryer, Peter J.; Smart, Ian; Bakalis, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The cocoa butter present in chocolate exists as six different polymorphs. To achieve the desired crystal form (βV), traditional chocolate manufacturers use relatively slow cooling (chocolate products during processing as well as the crystal structure of cocoa butter throughout the process. A set of ordinary differential equations describes the kinetics of fat crystallisation. The parameters were obtained by fitting the model to a set of DSC curves. The heat transfer equations were coupled to the kinetic model and solved using commercially available CFD software. A method using single crystal XRD was developed using a novel subtraction method to quantify the cocoa butter structure in chocolate directly and results were compared to the ones predicted from the model. The model was proven to predict phase change temperature during processing accurately (±1°C). Furthermore, it was possible to correctly predict phase changes and polymorphous transitions. The good agreement between the model and experimental data on the model geometry allows a better design and control of industrial processes.

  2. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor... ingredients. The following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat and cocoas (breakfast cocoa, cocoa, or lowfat cocoa); (2) Alkali ingredients. Ammonium, potassium, or sodium bicarbonate...

  3. Time to B. cereus about hot chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, P K; Larson, O; Barnes-Josiah, D

    1997-01-01

    To determine the cause of illnesses experienced by employees of a Minneapolis manufacturing plant after drinking hot chocolate bought from a vending machine and to explore the prevalence of similar vending machine-related illnesses. The authors inspected the vending machines at the manufacturing plant where employees reported illnesses and at other locations in the city where hot chocolate beverages were sold in machines. Tests were performed on dry mix, water, and beverage samples and on machine parts. Laboratory analyses confirmed the presence of B. cereus in dispensed beverages at a concentration capable of causing illness (170,000 count/gm). In citywide testing of vending machines dispensing hot chocolate, 7 of the 39 licensed machines were found to be contaminated, with two contaminated machines having B. cereus levels capable of causing illness. Hot chocolate sold in vending machines may contain organisms capable of producing toxins that under favorable conditions, can induce illness. Such illnesses are likely to be underreported. Even low concentrations of B. cereus may be dangerous for vulnerable populations such as the aged or immunosuppressed. Periodic testing of vending machines is thus warranted. The relationship between cleaning practices and B. cereus contamination is an issue for further study.

  4. The effect of macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits on their sensory properties and on hedonic liking of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzi, Roussa; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Allen, Victoria J; Methven, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Under-nutrition in older adults is widespread. Oral nutritional supplement beverages (ONS) are prescribed, yet consumption by older people is often insufficient. A variety of supplement formats may improve nutrient intake. This study developed protein and micro-nutrient fortified biscuits and evaluated their sensory attributes and liking by older people. Two micro-nutrient strategies were taken, to match typical ONS and to customise to the needs of older people. Oat biscuits and gluten-free biscuits developed contained over 12% protein and over 460 kcal 100 g(-1). Two small (40 g) biscuits developed to match ONS provided approximately 40% of an ONS portion of micro-nutrients and 60% of macro-nutrients; however, the portion size was considered realistic whereas the average ONS portion (200 mL) is excessive. Biscuits developed to the needs of older adults provided, on average, 18% of the reference nutrient intake of targeted micro-nutrients. Sensory characteristics were similar between biscuits with and without micro-nutrient fortification, leading to no differences in liking. Fortified oat biscuits were less liked than commercial oat biscuits, partly attributed to flavour imparted by whey protein fortification. Macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits could provide an alternative fortified snack to help alleviate malnutrition in older adults. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods. Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukotriene/ prostacyclin ratio and is shown to have beneficial effects on platelets and possibly inflammation and vessel dilation. They inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, raise the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level and reduce the thrombotic tendency. Their antioxidant catechin content is four times that of tea. They help the body process nitric oxide. Their flavanols and procyanidins have inhibitory effects on hemolysis, they can also attribute as a defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS and can inhibit their carcinogenic processes. Also they are shown to inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells. They contain tryptophan and anandamide, which lessen anxiety, promote relaxation and trigger the production of endorphins. Cocoa can prevent dental caries and may play a regulating role in the function of the immune system and prevent infectious and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates lactase enzyme activity. Although caffeine may be harmful in large dose, chocolate contains it in small amount in comparison to coffee and tea. Negative effects of chocolate on childhood hyperactivity and migraine  as well as tension headaches are controversial. Since the theobromine content of chocolate relaxes the esophageal sphincter, patients suffering from heartburn should avoid it. Cocoa can trigger some allergic reactions such as atopic dermatitis. This article reviews the potential health benefits and disadvantages of cocoa

  6. Exothermic potential of sodium nitrate salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-06-01

    High-Level radioactive liquid waste is being reduced to a liquid slurry by an evaporation and crystallization process and stored in the existing single-shell tanks. Continuous pumping of the waste storage tank will reduce the present 30 to 50% moisture to the minimum possible. The reduced waste is a relatively immobile salt cake consisting predominantly of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) with lesser amounts of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), sodium metaaluminate (NaAlO 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Trace amounts of fission products, transuranics, and a broad spectrum of organic materials in small but unknown amounts are also present. A program was initiated in 1973 to determine whether or not conditions exist which could lead to an exothermic reaction in the salt cake. Results of the latest series of tests conducted to determine the effects of mass and pressure are summarized. Hanford salt cake, as stored, cannot support combustion, and does not ignite when covered with a burning volatile hydrocarbon

  7. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  8. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat... label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in § 163.130 or skim milk chocolate in § 163.140...

  9. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoguo; Lin Cirong; Pan Haichun; Wang Haita

    2001-01-01

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  10. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of wheat flour characteristics on sponge cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiraghi, Malena; de la Hera, Esther; Pérez, Gabriela T; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To select the flour parameters that relate strongly to cake-making performance, in this study the relationship between sponge cake quality, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile and flour physicochemical characteristics was investigated using 38 soft wheat samples of different origins. Particle size average, protein, damaged starch, water-soluble pentosans, total pentosans, SRC and pasting properties were analysed. Sponge cake volume and crumb texture were measured to evaluate cake quality. Cluster analysis was applied to assess differences in flour quality parameters among wheat lines based on the SRC profile. Cluster 1 showed significantly higher sponge cake volume and crumb softness, finer particle size and lower SRC sucrose, SRC carbonate, SRC water, damaged starch and protein content. Particle size, damaged starch, protein, thickening capacity and SRC parameters correlated negatively with sponge cake volume, while total pentosans and pasting temperature showed the opposite effect. The negative correlations between cake volume and SRC parameters along with the cluster analysis results indicated that flours with smaller particle size, lower absorption capacity and higher pasting temperature had better cake-making performance. Some simple analyses, such as SRC, particle size distribution and pasting properties, may help to choose flours suitable for cake making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P cocoa content chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  14. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, R

    2013-03-01

    Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption.

  15. Sin and pleasure: the history of chocolate in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2015-11-18

    In ancient Mayan texts cocoa is considered a gift of the gods: Pre-Columbian populations used chocolate as medicine, too. After the discovery of America, chocolate was introduced in Europe, but Christian Europe looked to this new exhilarating drink with extreme suspiciousness and criticism. From this reaction, the necessity derived to appeal to the reasons of health, with which doctors and scientists committed themselves to explain that chocolate was good for the body. However, during the Enlightment, the road of therapy separated from that of taste, and chocolate mainly maintained its leading role of excipient, bearing the burden, over time, of a negative valence, being associated with obesity, dental problems, unhealthy lifestyle, and so forth. The rehabilitation of chocolate has arisen only in recent times, re-establishing that value that Linnaeus himself credited to chocolate, calling the generous plant Theobroma cacao, food of the gods.

  16. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    OpenAIRE

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these be...

  17. Entrepreneurial Master Project; Svenska Guldkusten Organic Chocolate.

    OpenAIRE

    Essuman, Paa Kwesi

    2012-01-01

    Svenska Guldkusten aims to provide value for money in the confectionary industry. Its objective is to provide customers with rich organic chocolate that can be eaten as a source of health and wellbeing. This product will reach markets in South of Sweden, specifically, Blekinge and Skåne.   The business’ purpose is to offer customers 100% certified organic cocoa chocolate. Reaching the customer with the product will be through established chocolate shops, supermarkets, internet, schools (unive...

  18. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, choco...

  19. Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik J; Gaffan, Elizabeth A; Rogers, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    Liking, cravings and addiction for chocolate ("chocoholism") are often explained through the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. However, mere "presence" does not guarantee psycho-activity. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies measured the effects on cognitive performance and mood of the amounts of cocoa powder and methylxanthines found in a 50 g bar of dark chocolate. In study 1, participants ( n=20) completed a test battery once before and twice after treatment administration. Treatments included 11.6 g cocoa powder and a caffeine and theobromine combination (19 and 250 mg, respectively). Study 2 ( n=22) comprised three post-treatment test batteries and investigated the effects of "milk" and "dark" chocolate levels of these methylxanthines. The test battery consisted of a long duration simple reaction time task, a rapid visual information processing task, and a mood questionnaire. Identical improvements on the mood construct "energetic arousal" and cognitive function were found for cocoa powder and the caffeine+theobromine combination versus placebo. In chocolate, both "milk chocolate" and "dark chocolate" methylxanthine doses improved cognitive function compared with "white chocolate". The effects of white chocolate did not differ significantly from those of water. A normal portion of chocolate exhibits psychopharmacological activity. The identical profile of effects exerted by cocoa powder and its methylxanthine constituents shows this activity to be confined to the combination of caffeine and theobromine. Methylxanthines may contribute to the popularity of chocolate; however, other attributes are probably much more important in determining chocolate's special appeal and in explaining related self-reports of chocolate cravings and "chocoholism".

  20. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The randomized controlled trial is the “gold standard” for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis...

  1. Influence of processing parameters on textural characteristics and overall acceptability of millet enriched biscuits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subir Kumar; Kumbhar, Baburao K; Chakraborty, Shalini; Yadav, Pravesh

    2011-04-01

    Five blends of refined wheat flour (RWF) (63.2 - 96.8, %RWF) and millet were used to manufacture biscuits baked for varying time (3.3-6.7 min) and temperature (166.6 - 183.4 °C). The manufactured biscuits were evaluated in terms of textural attributes (crispness, hardness and cutting strength) and overall acceptability (OAA). Results showed that increasing the amount of RWF in biscuits decreased (p baking time led to a decrease (p baking temperature was followed by an increase in crispness (p baking time, 6 min and baking temperature, 170 °C. The predicted responses in terms of crispness, hardness, cutting strength and OAA were 45, 0.3N, 27.2N and 8.9, respectively. The desirability of the optimum conditions was 0.98.

  2. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jin Kim; Suna Kang; Da Hee Kim; Yeo Jin Kim; Woo Ri Kim; Yoo Min Kim; Sunmin Park

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conduct...

  3. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  4. The cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Williamson, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Dark chocolate contains many biologically active components, such as catechins, procyanidins and theobromine from cocoa, together with added sucrose and lipids. All of these can directly or indirectly affect the cardiovascular system by multiple mechanisms. Intervention studies on healthy and metabolically-dysfunctional volunteers have suggested that cocoa improves blood pressure, platelet aggregation and endothelial function. The effect of chocolate is more convoluted since the sucrose and lipid may transiently and negatively impact on endothelial function, partly through insulin signalling and nitric oxide bioavailability. However, few studies have attempted to dissect out the role of the individual components and have not explored their possible interactions. For intervention studies, the situation is complex since suitable placebos are often not available, and some benefits may only be observed in individuals showing mild metabolic dysfunction. For chocolate, the effects of some of the components, such as sugar and epicatechin on FMD, may oppose each other, or alternatively in some cases may act together, such as theobromine and epicatechin. Although clearly cocoa provides some cardiovascular benefits according to many human intervention studies, the exact components, their interactions and molecular mechanisms are still under debate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Ana Maria Athayde; Correia da Costa, José Maria; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Meira, Tatyane Ribeiro; Sousa, Paulo Henrrique Machado; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2009-06-01

    Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards.

  6. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ritika B.; Yadav, Baljeet S.; Dhull, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144....

  7. Cake filtration modeling: Analytical cake filtration model and filter medium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Michael

    2008-05-15

    Cake filtration is a unit operation to separate solids from fluids in industrial processes. The build up of a filter cake is usually accompanied with a decrease in overall permeability over the filter leading to an increased pressure drop over the filter. For an incompressible filter cake that builds up on a homogeneous filter cloth, a linear pressure drop profile over time is expected for a constant fluid volume flow. However, experiments show curved pressure drop profiles, which are also attributed to inhomogeneities of the filter (filter medium and/or residual filter cake). In this work, a mathematical filter model is developed to describe the relationship between time and overall permeability. The model considers a filter with an inhomogeneous permeability and accounts for fluid mechanics by a one-dimensional formulation of Darcy's law and for the cake build up by solid continuity. The model can be solved analytically in the time domain. The analytic solution allows for the unambiguous inversion of the model to determine the inhomogeneous permeability from the time resolved overall permeability, e.g. pressure drop measurements. An error estimation of the method is provided by rewriting the model as convolution transformation. This method is applied to simulated and experimental pressure drop data of gas filters with textile filter cloths and various situations with non-uniform flow situations in practical problems are explored. A routine is developed to generate characteristic filter cycles from semi-continuous filter plant operation. The model is modified to investigate the impact of non-uniform dust concentrations. (author). 34 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  8. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  9. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  10. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancing the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The 'neem cake' is the scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA Technical Unit Environment and Sustainable Development Innovation the Agro-Industrial System, developed a promising experiment to promote the use of 'neem cake' as an insecticide, and fertilizer of low cost in sustainable agriculture. [it

  11. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  12. Effects of irradiation on hygiene quality of moon cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengjiao; Chen Bin; Guo Yaping; Gao Meixu; Li Haipeng; Sun Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    To explore the influence of controllable conditions with different doses of irradiation and store time on the safe and the quality of Moon Cake, the indexes including peroxide value, acid value, mould, coli group coliform group, total numbers of colony and taste of Moon Cake were concerned about. The results show that the peroxide value were increased and acid value were decreased gradually with the increased value of 60 Co γ-irradiation. Meanwhile, the microorganism growth in the moon cake were controlled. It is concluded that the taste of Moon Cake was not changed and the shelf life of ones were prolonged by 3 months when doses of irradiation was 8 kGy, in addition, Tea-polyphenols could prevent the lipid in Moon Cake from lipid oxidation effectively. (authors)

  13. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  15. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Lukas, K E; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Dennis, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, many gorillas in zoos consume a diet that is high-calorie and low in fiber. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are minimal in the natural diet of gorillas. There is a growing concern that captive gorillas may qualify as obese. Furthermore, the leading cause of death for adult male gorillas in zoos is heart disease. In humans, a diet that is high in simple carbohydrates is associated with both obesity and the incidence of heart disease. In response to these issues, we implemented a biscuit-free diet (free of biscuits and low in fruit) and measured serum biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance pre- and post-diet change at three institutions: North Carolina Zoological Garden, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, and Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. We also added a resistant starch supplement to gorilla diets at two of the above institutions. We anticipated that these diet changes would positively affect biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance. Both diet manipulations led to a reduction in insulin. Resistant starch also decreased overall serum cholesterol levels. Future research will examine these health changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment of Annual Effective Dose for Natural Radioactivity of Gamma Emitters in Biscuit Samples in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abojassim, Ali Abid; Al-Alasadi, Lubna A; Shitake, Ahmed R; Al-Tememie, Faeq A; Husain, Afnan A

    2015-09-01

    Biscuits are an important type of food, widely consumed by babies in Iraq and other countries. This work uses gamma spectroscopy to measure the natural radioactivity due to long-lived gamma emitters in children's biscuits; it also estimates radiation hazard indices, that is, the radium equivalent activity, the representative of gamma level index, the internal hazard index, and the annual effective dose in children. Ten samples were collected from the Iraqi market from different countries of origin. The average specific activities for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K were 9.390, 3.1213, and 214.969 Bq/kg, respectively, but the average of the radium equivalent activity and the internal hazard index were 33.101 Bq/kg and 0.107, respectively. The total average annual effective dose from consumption by adults, children, and infants is estimated to be 0.655, 1.009, and 0.875 mSv, respectively. The values found for specific activity, radiation hazard indices, and annual effective dose in all samples in this study were lower than worldwide median values for all groups; therefore, these values are found to be safe.

  17. Deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives in bread and biscuits in Shandong province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dafeng; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Li, Wei; Yu, Lianlong; Zheng, Fengjia; Wang, Xiaolin

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, 100 commercial breads and biscuits were investigated for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-Ac-DON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-Ac-DON). The target mycotoxins were determined by isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). DON was determined in 95% of the test samples with a mean value of 153.3 µg/kg. Compared with DON, 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON were far less frequently detected, with mean values of 1.14 and 0.37 µg/kg, respectively. The estimated daily intakes of the sum of DON and its derivatives in breads and biscuits were 0.0059 and 0.0313 µg/kg bw/day, respectively, which was within the group provisional tolerable daily intake of 1.0 µg/kg bw/day set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. In the future, systematic monitoring programmes of DON and its derivatives in relevant foodstuffs are still necessary for food safety and human health.

  18. The dopamine β-hydroxylase inhibitor, nepicastat, suppresses chocolate self-administration and reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaru, Alessandro; Maccioni, Paola; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2013-10-01

    Craving for chocolate is a common phenomenon, which may evolve to an addictive-like behaviour and contribute to obesity. Nepicastat is a selective dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor that suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats. We verified whether nepicastat was able to modify the reinforcing and motivational properties of a chocolate solution and to prevent the reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats. Nepicastat (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) produced a dose-related inhibition of operant self-administration of the chocolate solution in rats under fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement, measures of the reinforcing and motivational properties of the chocolate solution, respectively. The effect of nepicastat on the reinstatement of chocolate seeking was studied in rats in which lever-responding had been extinguished by removing the chocolate solution for approximately 8 d. Nepicastat dose-dependently suppressed the reinstatement of lever-responding triggered by a 'priming' of the chocolate solution together with cues previously associated with the availability of the reward. In a separate group of food-restricted rats trained to lever-respond for regular food pellets, nepicastat reduced FR10 lever-responding with the same potency as for the chocolate solution. Spontaneous locomotor activity was not modified by nepicastat doses that reduced self-administration of the chocolate solution and regular food pellets and suppressed the reinstatement of chocolate seeking. The results indicate that nepicastat reduces motivation to food consumption sustained by appetite or palatability. Moreover, the results suggest that DBH inhibitors may be a new class of pharmacological agents potentially useful in the prevention of relapse to food seeking in human dieters.

  19. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  20. Chocolate: A Heart-healthy Food? Show Me the Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2002-01-01

    Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.

  1. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, “Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture...

  3. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell, Elvira; Blanch, Consol

    2012-01-30

    Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences in acceptability among dark chocolates were mainly related to differences in flavour acceptability. The use of a long roasting time lowered chocolate acceptability in Ghanaian samples while it had no effect on acceptability of Ecuadorian chocolates. This response was observed for most consumers (two subgroups with different frequency consumption of dark chocolate). However, for a third group of consumers identified as distinguishers, the most acceptable dark chocolate samples were those produced with specific combinations of roasting time and conching time for each of the cocoa geographical origin considered. To produce dark chocolates from a single origin it is important to know the target market preferences and to select the appropriate roasting and conching conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Chocolate consumption modulates cytokine production in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, S.A.; Janssen, S.A.; Jaeger, M.; Jansen, T.J.; Jacobs, L.; Miller-Tomaszewska, G.; Plantinga, T.S.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chocolate increases the incidence and severity of acne. Here we demonstrate that chocolate consumption primes human blood mononuclear cells from volunteers to release more interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-10 upon stimulation with Propionibacterium acne or

  5. Feasibility analysis of heat pump dryer to dry hawthorn cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C., E-mail: wdechang@163.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, G.; Han, Y.P.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} A heat pump dryer (HPD) is effectively proposed to dry hawthorn cake-likely materials. {yields} Low drying temperature and high COP of heat pump are obtained in drying beginning. {yields} HPD is more effective, economic than a traditional hot air dryer. {yields} Feasibility of the HPD is also validated by the operation economy estimation. - Abstract: A heat pump dryer (HPD) would be an economic, environmentally friendly, hygienic drying machine used to dry some food, such as hawthorn cakes. Based on the production process of the hawthorn cake, a HPD is proposed and its basic principle is introduced. The experimental drying curves of the hawthorn cake using the heat pump drying method and the traditional hot air drying method are compared and analyzed. The drying process of hawthorn cakes is similar to that of the other drying materials. The higher drying temperature causes a faster drying process. But in the initial stage of the heat pump drying process, the water content of the hawthorn cake is not sensitive to the drying temperature, so a lower drying air temperature can be available in order to get a higher coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump (HP). The experimental results and the economic analysis indicate that the HPD is feasibly used to dry hawthorn cakes.

  6. Feasibility analysis of heat pump dryer to dry hawthorn cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.C.; Zhang, G.; Han, Y.P.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A heat pump dryer (HPD) is effectively proposed to dry hawthorn cake-likely materials. → Low drying temperature and high COP of heat pump are obtained in drying beginning. → HPD is more effective, economic than a traditional hot air dryer. → Feasibility of the HPD is also validated by the operation economy estimation. - Abstract: A heat pump dryer (HPD) would be an economic, environmentally friendly, hygienic drying machine used to dry some food, such as hawthorn cakes. Based on the production process of the hawthorn cake, a HPD is proposed and its basic principle is introduced. The experimental drying curves of the hawthorn cake using the heat pump drying method and the traditional hot air drying method are compared and analyzed. The drying process of hawthorn cakes is similar to that of the other drying materials. The higher drying temperature causes a faster drying process. But in the initial stage of the heat pump drying process, the water content of the hawthorn cake is not sensitive to the drying temperature, so a lower drying air temperature can be available in order to get a higher coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump (HP). The experimental results and the economic analysis indicate that the HPD is feasibly used to dry hawthorn cakes.

  7. Jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer in lettuce cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mantovani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In biodiesel production, vegetable press cake is obtained as waste, and a suitable destination for jatropha press cake would be the use in agriculture as organic fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of jatropha press cake on soil fertility attributes and on lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots. The experiment was conducted in pots in a greenhouse, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of doses of jatropha press cake equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 t ha-1. Portions of 5.5 dm3 of soil received limestone, phosphate fertilizer and the doses of jatropha press cake, and remained incubated for 30 days. After incubation, soil samples were collected, each pot received one lettuce seedling and the experiment was carried out for 45 days. The organic fertilization with jatropha press cake increased the contents of nutrients in the soil, especially K+, but caused increment in soil acidity and electrical conductivity. The use of jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer decreased lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots.

  8. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Adam K; Wilson, Helen J

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work. (paper)

  9. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Adam K.; Wilson, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work.

  10. Impact of flavour solvent (propylene glycol or triacetin) on vanillin, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, structural parameters and sensory perception of shortcake biscuits over accelerated shelf life testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ni; Hort, Joanne; Linforth, Robert; Brown, Keith; Walsh, Stuart; Fisk, Ian D

    2013-11-15

    The influence of choice of flavour solvent, propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA), was investigated during accelerated shelf life (ASL) testing of shortcake biscuits. Specifically, the differential effect on the stability of added vanillin, the natural baked marker compound 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), specific markers of oxidative rancidity (2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal), and the structural parameters of hardness and fracturability. Significantly more HMF was formed during baking of biscuits prepared with TA; these biscuits were also more stable to oxidative degradation and loss of vanillin during ageing than biscuits prepared with PG. Fresh TA biscuits were significantly more brittle than fresh PG biscuits. There was no impact of solvent choice on hardness. Sensory evaluation of hardness, vanilla flavour and oily off-note was tested during ASL testing. There was no significant impact of storage on sensory ratings for either the PG or TA biscuits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Wheat-Purple Rice Biscuits Enriched with Green-Lipped Mussel Powder (Perna canaliculus and Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warinporn Klunklin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biscuits are one of the most consumed bakery products eaten by everyone. Purple rice contains much higher levels of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals such as iron and zinc compared to wheat. The aim of this work was to produce a protein-rich biscuit made from purple rice flour and defatted green-lipped mussel powder (Perna canaliculus (0–20% blended with ginger and galangal spices at 4% for each spice. The objective was to produce an inexpensive, balanced, healthy snack product containing increased levels of protein and antioxidants from the mussel powder and to investigate the consumer preferences of these biscuits using the four different ethnic groups (Thai, Chinese, Caucasian, and Pacific Islanders living in New Zealand. The addition of the mussel powder increased the crude protein content by 43% and the protein digestibility by 21% at the highest level of inclusion. The addition of mussel powder significantly (p<0.05 increased the hardness of biscuits while making small increases in the browning index of the cooked biscuit. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS were significantly (p<0.05 increased as additional amounts of mussel powder were incorporated into the biscuit mix, resulting in a reduction in the total starch contents. The addition of 10% mussel powder to the control biscuit mix was accepted by all the ethnic groups. Overall, the Pacific Islanders showed a higher appreciation for all the attributes tested.

  12. Optimization of Protein Hydrolysate Production Process from Jatropha curcas Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Phanu Somkliang; Taweesiri Malapant

    2009-01-01

    This was the first document revealing the investigation of protein hydrolysate production optimization from J. curcas cake. Proximate analysis of raw material showed 18.98% protein, 5.31% ash, 8.52% moisture and 12.18% lipid. The appropriate protein hydrolysate production process began with grinding the J. curcas cake into small pieces. Then it was suspended in 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution with ratio between solution/ J. curcas cake at 80:1 (v/w). The hydrolysis reactio...

  13. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.

  14. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  15. Study on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes and shelf life of pineapple powder incorporated biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thivani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bakery industry is growing very fast and the products are becoming increasingly popular among consumers world-wide. Among ready-to-eat snacks, biscuits possess several attractive features including wider consumption base, relatively long shelf-life and preferred eating quality. Pineapples constitute important natural and valuable material in producing functional foods due to the presence of several anti-oxidants and bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the nutritional composition and sensory quality of wheat flour biscuits incorporated with pineapple powder at the rates of 3, 5, 10, and 15% (w/w basis. The protein, fat, total sugar, moisture and mineral contents were significantly (p<0.05 changed during storage. Nutritional analysis indicated that biscuits incorporated with 5% pineapple powder had a slow rate of increase in moisture content (4.19 to 5.0% and decreasing trend in protein (22.15 to 22.06%, fat (18.83 to 18.79%, total sugar (58.52 to 58.34% and mineral contents (2.212 to 1.591% compared to other treatments during storage. Among the treatments, the biscuits prepared with 5% pineapple powder had the highest nutritional and sensory quality, having the overall acceptability score of 7.7 in a 9-point hedonic scale. The shelf life evaluation showed that these biscuits could be stored for 6 weeks at the ambient conditions of average temperature at 301ºC and RH at 75-80% with acceptable quality.

  16. Chocolate--guilty pleasure or healthy supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Laura S; Hensen, Zeb K; Minor, Deborah S

    2014-02-01

    Dark chocolate and other cocoa products are popular in the population as a whole, but their overall health benefit remains controversial. Observations from the Kuna Indian population have shown an impressive cardiovascular health benefit from cocoa. For various reasons, this benefit has not been as robust as in other populations. Additionally, several mechanisms have been proposed that might confer cocoa's possible health benefit, but no consensus has been reached on cocoa's physiologic role in promoting cardiovascular health. Flavanols, as well as theobromine, may contribute to enhancements in endothelial function and subsequent improvements in various contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension, platelet aggregation and adhesion, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. While the benefits of cocoa may be altered at the various stages of growth, development, and production, it appears that for many people "healthy" dark chocolate may, indeed, provide a pleasurable role in CVD risk reduction. The objectives of this review are to discuss the associations of cocoa with decreased blood pressure and improved CVD risk, to describe the possible mechanisms for these potential benefits, and to highlight considerations for the use of cocoa as a dietary supplement.

  17. Sensorial, chemical and microbiological quality of anchovy cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... Key words: Anchovy cake, shelf-life, chemical, sensorial, microbiological, Engraulis encrasicolus. ... The ingredients shown in Table 1 except the fish were mixed with ... products which can satisfy consumers sensationally and.

  18. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  19. 2.4.2. Water processing of cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, Sh.B.; Safiev, Kh.S.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2008-01-01

    The cake water processing carried out with the purpose of extraction ofalkali components, in particular calcium chlorides and sodium, formed atbaking of raw materials with calcium chloride and by acid processingextracted the aluminium and iron compounds

  20. Chocolate in history: food, medicine, medi-food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-05-14

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored.

  1. Chocolate and migraine: the history of an ambiguous association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-12-17

    Migraine is a highly prevalent condition and an important cause of disability. Although the pathogenesis of this condition is complex and multifaceted, several environmental factors have been associated with development and aggravation of headache attacks. Among the various foods that have been implicated in migraine, chocolate has been regarded as detrimental on the basis of old and mostly anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this article is aimed to provide an overview on the current scientific evidence about the relationship between chocolate and migraine. Taken together, the information gathered from epidemiological and provocative studies attests that the potential causal association between chocolate and migraine remains largely enigmatic. The analysis of epidemiological surveys reveals a highly heterogeneous picture, with frequency of migraine episodes attributable to chocolate ranging from 0 to 22.5%. Even in those studies reporting a more convincing association, the risk of migraine after chocolate ingestion was found to be 2- to 3-fold lower than that reported for exposure to other conventional triggers such as stress, fasting, lack of sleep and alcohol beverages. The results of the double-blind studies are instead unequivocal, and clearly demonstrate that the risk of developing a headache attack after ingestion of chocolate is as likely as administering placebo in patients with migraine. It can hence be concluded that the widespread belief that chocolate and cocoacontaining foods should be absolutely avoided by migraine patients lacks of a reliable scientific basis.

  2. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Grosso, Laura M; Belanger, Kathleen; Darefsky, Amy S; Benowitz, Neal L; Bracken, Michael B

    2008-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication with cardiovascular manifestations. Recent studies suggest that chocolate consumption may benefit cardiovascular health. We studied the association of chocolate consumption with risk of preeclampsia in a prospective cohort study of 2291 pregnant women who delivered a singleton livebirth between September 1996 and January 2000. Chocolate consumption was measured by self report in the first and third trimesters, and by umbilical cord serum concentrations of theobromine, the major methylxanthine component of chocolate. Preeclampsia was assessed by detailed medical record review for 1943 of the women. We derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Preeclampsia developed in 3.7% (n = 63) of 1681 women. Cord serum theobromine concentrations were negatively associated with preeclampsia (aOR = 0.31; CI = 0.11-0.87 for highest compared with lowest quartile). Self-reported chocolate consumption estimates also were inversely associated with preeclampsia. Compared with women consuming under 1 serving of chocolate weekly, women consuming 5+ servings per week had decreased risk: aOR = 0.81 with consumption in the first 3 months of pregnancy (CI = 0.37-1.79) and 0.60 in the last 3 months (0.30-1.24). Our results suggest that chocolate consumption during pregnancy may lower risk of preeclampsia. However, reverse causality may also contribute to these findings.

  3. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored. PMID:23673608

  4. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored.

  5. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  6. Proximate Analysis Of Castor Seeds And Cake | Annongu | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid profile analysis of un-decorticated and decorticated seed and cake compared with soybeans as standard plant protein indicated that the cake is deficient in some indispensable amino acids like lysine (4.11), iso-leucine (3.09), tryptophan (0) compared with 6.30, 7.90 and 1.30 lysine, iso-leucine and tryptopha in ...

  7. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Dennis, P M; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Lukas, K E

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas travel long distances while foraging and consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, gorillas in zoos typically consume a diet that is low in fiber and calorically dense. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are present at low levels in the natural diet of gorillas. Diet items high in simple carbohydrates are associated with obesity and heart disease in humans. Typical captive gorilla diets may also encourage undesirable behaviors. In response to these issues, we tested the behavioral impact of a diet that was biscuit-free, had low caloric density, and which was higher in volume at five institutions. We hypothesized that this diet change would reduce abnormal behaviors such as regurgitation and reingestion (R/R), decrease time spent inactive, and increase time spent feeding. The biscuit-free diet significantly reduced (and in the case of one zoo eliminated) R/R and may have reduced hair-plucking behavior. However, an increase in coprophagy was observed in many individuals following the diet change. The experimental diet caused a general increase in time the gorillas spent feeding, but this increase did not occur across all institutions and varied by individual. Interestingly, the overall time gorillas spent inactive actually increased with this diet change. Future research will examine these behavioral changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. Additionally, future research will examine the physiological impact of this diet change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. FREE CHOICE PROFILING, ACCEPTANCE AND PURCHASE INTENTION IN THE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BISCUIT FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Angélica Machado dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increased demand for differentiated and health-oriented food has driven the development of bakery products with specific nutritional and sensory characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare four different biscuits: two commercial (sugar-free and gluten-free and two experimental formulations (standard and source of extra fiber. The cookie with added fiber had passion fruit albedo and pumpkin peel added to its formulation, as well as reduced wheat flour content compared with the standard formulation. These alterations aimed to achieve both nutritional and economic benefits. The Free Choice Profiling methodology was used, and the data were subjected to Generalized Procrustes Analysis. The analysis was performed separately by attribute classes (appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The percentage of variance explained in the first dimension was 87.6% for texture, and the sum of the first two dimensions was greater than 90% for all four attributes. Both experimental formulations were characterized as having a yellowish color, flattened appearance, passion fruit aroma, natural aroma, passion fruit flavor, passion fruit residual flavor, soft texture and compact texture. Therefore, the addition of byproducts in the standard formulation did not qualitatively change the characteristic attributes. The products were also evaluated on a 9-point hedonic scale, and the data were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. When compared by affective analysis, the formulation with added fiber and the commercial biscuits showed no significant difference regarding flavor and intent to purchase. Thus, the cookie developed herein has promising market potential, and it presents additional benefits due to its economic and nutritional appeal.

  9. Determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W J; Tarka, S M; Dobson, G; Reid, C M

    2001-03-01

    The fatty acids from a series of milk-chocolate-based confectionery samples were analyzed as methyl esters by GC to determine the presence and amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). A single peak corresponding to the 9-cis,11-trans isomer and ranging from less than 0.1% to nearly 0.2% of the total fatty acids, corresponding to up to 0.3 mg per g of chocolate, was observed. One of the chocolate extracts and a milk extract were subjected to silver ion HPLC and GC-MS in order to confirm the identity of the major isomer and tentatively identity minor isomers.

  10. Unintentional eating. What determines goal-incongruent chocolate consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julia L; Johnston, Marie; Campbell, Neil

    2010-04-01

    Overeating can be automatically triggered by the presence of palatable food. When presented with an opportunity to consume unlimited chocolate under the guise of a consumer study, chocolate consumption in individuals (n=62) with healthy dietary intentions could be predicted from a psychological measure of cognitive inhibition. Individuals who were less able to suppress goal-incongruent responses in an established inhibitory task: (a) ate more chocolate and (b) had a higher body mass index than others suggesting that these individuals were less able to exert dietary control in the presence of palatable but intention-incongruent foods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality.

  12. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  13. Characterization and bake stability of dry fruit fillings in dehydrated chiku (Manilkara zapota L. P. Royen) incorporated biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditi, Mahapatra; Shashirekha, M N; Sudha, M L

    2017-06-01

    Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Value added products, especially products rich in fiber and phytochemicals are getting popular. Among the dry fruits used for filling, Figs were rich in ash and protein and Dates were rich in dietary fiber. Gallic acid was the dominant free phenolic acid in Fig whereas chlorogenic acid and procatechuic acid were dominant in Dates in the bound form. Farinograph water absorption, dough development time, maximum pressure (P), and extensibility (L) decreased on increase in the replacement of wheat flour with chiku powder from 0 to 30%. The dry fruit fillings in the pH range of 3.3-3.5 with 75-80°Bx showed better bake stability with respect to spreadability and breaking strength. Biscuits topped with higher °Bx fillings had higher breaking strength values even during storage. Among the gelling agents used, addition of sodium alginate stabilized and further improved the bake stability of the fillings. The chiku incorporated biscuits sandwiched with fruit filling were rich in dietary fiber. Also significant amounts of gallic acid and chlorogenic acid in free and bound form were present in the biscuit. Bakery products can act as a vehicle for supplementation of vitamins, minerals, protein, dietary fiber, and so on, to prevent nutritive deficiencies. Among the bakery products, biscuits are shelf stable and have better consumer acceptability by all age groups. To incorporate fruits which are rich in many bioactive principles, and to add on to variety, fruit sandwiched biscuits with fruit powder in the casing too. Fillings mainly from dry fruits were prepared at varying degree brix and with different gelling agents. Biscuit sheets containing chiku powder in the formulation was topped with the fillings and looked for the bake stability with respect to texture and spreadability. Addition of fruit powder in the shells

  14. [Design and application of a cake-shaping apparatus for drug-separated moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ai-Jun; Lu, Xiao-Dong

    2008-08-01

    Acupuncturist makes herbal cakes with traditional manual way, with such disadvantages as slow in making, varying in thickness and size of the cake. When the patients are treated with medical cake-separated moxibustion, they will be unevenly affected by the heat and the patient easily suffers from burning. These hinder clinically wide application of cake-separated moxibustion. With practice of many years, the authors design and make a kind of manual cake-shaping apparatus which can rapidly and conveniently make uniform medical cake, with simple technique, ingenious structure and normal material.

  15. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran,Sumitra; Patel,Anil K.; Nampoothiri,Kesavan Madhavan; Chandran,Sandhya; Szakacs,George; Soccol,Carlos Ricardo; Pandey,Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC) sesame oil cake (SOC), groundnut oil cake (GOC), palm kernel cake (PKC) and olive oil cake (OOC) were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB). GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1) resulted higher enzyme titres than the indivi...

  16. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  17. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  18. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH DALAM PEMBUATANBISKUIT KACANG KAYA BETA KAROTEN [Utilization of Red Palm Oil To Produce BetaCarotene-Rich Nuts Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyansyah Robiyansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to get formulation of red palm oil and cooking oil to produce nuts biscuits with the best organoleptic properties. The formula consisted of red palm oil and cooking oil mixture with 6 comparisons: (0:100, (20:80, (40:60, (60:40, (80:20 and (100:0. These formula were then used as basis to produce nuts biscuits. Observation was done on the organoleptic properties (aroma, texture, taste and color for all biscuits for all samples, while  proximates test (water, fat,protein,ash content and betacarotene content were done only for the best formulation. The data were descriptively analyzed and presented in tables and graphs. The best organoleptic properties of these betacarotene rich nuts biscuits was formulation of 20:80. This biscuits had water content 1,42%, ash content 1,21%, fat content 32,60%, protein content 12,59%, and the total of beta carotene 347,15 ppm, with the less normal for aroma (4,55, less crunchy for the texture (4,40, distinctive flavor beans for the taste (4,28, and yellowish for the color (4,50. Keywords: β-carotene, nuts biscuits,red palm oil.

  19. Self Regulation through Art and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Josh Banks provided the cover art for the spring 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The cover art is titled “Birthday Party” because the piece resembles images involved in a birthday party: multicolored balloons, napkins, cakes, and icing. Josh created the piece using oil crayons on watercolor paper. Josh is sensory seeking and has difficulty using various types of materials, which include crayons, street chalk, and markers. After much experimentation, Josh is able to use nibs, a type of marker that does not have a cap. Josh is able to sit for 5-10 minute periods and participate in his artistic endeavors. His normally bright and charming demeanor suddenly turns to one of concentration and focus on his work. He uses short, intense strokes in his artwork. Vicki, his mother, has noted seasonal undertones in some of Josh’s artwork and has named his pieces of art according to the season

  20. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  1. Effect of coal soluble constituents on caking property of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Mingdong Zheng; Zhicai Wang; Xunming Li [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Anhui Educational Department

    2007-07-15

    Three cokemaking bituminous coals were extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvents with different content of NMP, and the effect of the amount and the component of coal soluble constituents on the caking property of the extracted residues of coals were investigated in this study. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was found to give the maximal extraction yields for the three coals, and the fat coal gave the highest extraction yield of 78.6% (daf) corresponding to its highest caking index of 101. It was found that for coking coal, when the extraction yield got to the maximum of 25.3% in the 1:1 by volume of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent, the residue extracted still had caking property with the caking index of 19. This means parts of the caking constituents of coal are un-extractible because of covalent bonding or strong associative cross-links. The soluble components extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent and their effects on the caking indexes of the residues at a similar extraction yield quite differed depending on the NMP content in the mixed solvent. The coal solubles extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP less than 50% contained less light constituents with less of oxygen groups. This may lead to the decrease in the caking indexes for the residues obtained at the similar extraction yields compared to those of the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP more than 50%. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Thea Magrone; Matteo Antonio Russo; Emilio Jirillo; Emilio Jirillo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothe...

  3. Microbiological, nutritional and sensory evaluation of long-time stored amaranth biscuits produced from irradiated-treated amaranth grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozová, B.; Buchtová, V.; Dodok, L.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents some results achieved by the evaluation of microbiological (total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, aerobic sporeforming bacteria, yeasts and moulds( nutritional (lysine) and sensory (shape, surface, colour consistency, taste, odour, the profiling of tastiness) quality and of the aw values of amaranth-based biscuits produced from the amaranth grain irradiated by various ionizing radiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy, source 60 Co) and stored for the period of 12 months at the laboratory temperature (20–25°C). The irradiation dose providing the biscuits maximum hygienic, nutritional and sensory quality maintained up to the end of the one-year storage was 5 kGy

  4. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

    2003-02-01

    This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

  5. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Andreadou, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively. Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study (maximum increase by 0.15 mm and 0.18 mm, respectively, P chocolate throughout the study (maximum absolute decrease 7.8%, P chocolate, indicating no alterations in plasma oxidant status. Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

  6. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  7. The survival time of chocolates on hospital wards: covert observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Moualed, Daniel J; Nicolson, Phillip L R; Adjei, Felicia D; Cakebread, Holly E; Duehmke, Rudolf M; Martin, Claire A

    2013-12-14

    To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment. Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study. Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom. Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates. Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study containing a total of 258 individual chocolates). These boxes were kept under continuous covert surveillance, with the time recorded when each chocolate was eaten. Median survival time of a chocolate. 191 out of 258 (74%) chocolates were observed being eaten. The mean total observation period was 254 minutes (95% confidence interval 179 to 329). The median survival time of a chocolate was 51 minutes (39 to 63). The model of chocolate consumption was non-linear, with an initial rapid rate of consumption that slowed with time. An exponential decay model best fitted these findings (model R(2)=0.844, P<0.001), with a survival half life (time taken for 50% of the chocolates to be eaten) of 99 minutes. The mean time taken to open a box of chocolates from first appearance on the ward was 12 minutes (95% confidence interval 0 to 24). Quality Street chocolates survived longer than Roses chocolates (hazard ratio for survival of Roses v Quality Street 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.93, P=0.014). The highest percentages of chocolates were consumed by healthcare assistants (28%) and nurses (28%), followed by doctors (15%). From our observational study, chocolate survival in a hospital ward was relatively short, and was modelled well by an exponential decay model. Roses chocolates were preferentially consumed to Quality Street chocolates in a ward setting. Chocolates were consumed primarily by healthcare assistants and nurses, followed by doctors. Further practical studies are needed.

  8. Elaboration of biscuits with oatmeal and fat palm with added L-leucine and calcium for sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of oatmeal and palm fat in the elaboration of biscuits with added L-leucine and calcium in order to develop a product for sarcopenia in the elderly. The biscuits, or cookies, were elaborated applying a central composite rotational design with surface response methodology, and the significant linear, quadratic and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. Physical, physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed by a trained panel. Based on the best results obtained, three cookie formulations were selected for sensory evaluation by the target group and physicochemical determinations. The formulations with the highest sensory scores for appearance and texture and medium scores for color and expansion index were selected. The addition of calcium and leucine increased significantly the concentration of these components in the biscuits elaborated resulting in a cookie with more than 30% of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake for calcium and leucine. The formulations selected showed high acceptance by the target group; therefore, they can be included in the diet of elderly with sarcopenia as a functional food.

  9. Development, Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Biscuits Supplemented with Pumpkin Seeds to Combat Childhood Malnutrition in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, S.; Raza, S.; Naseem, K.; Amjad, M.; Bibi, N.; Gillani, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in Food Science and Product Development Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. Nutritive pumpkin seed flour fortified biscuits were prepared with four different substituted levels of pumpkin seed flour in wheat flour (T/sub 2/ = 5%, T/sub 3/ = 10%, T/sub 4/ = 15% and T/sub 5/ = 20%), were compared with control (T/sub 1/). Chemical attributes of biscuits showed that T/sub 5/ has maximum level of pumpkin flour (20%) with maximum protein (12.30%), fat (28.29%), ash (4.13%), iron (2.28%) and zinc (3.11%). Sensory results also revealed increasing trend in all sensory parameters. Results showed acceptability at all levels but treatment T/sub 4/ with 15 % pumpkin seed flour scored highest (8.0) for maximum overall acceptability. It was concluded that pumpkin seed flour can be supplemented successfully to partially replace wheat flour to prepare highly nutritious biscuits without affecting its overall acceptability. (author)

  10. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  11. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Preparation Of Pure Vanadium Pentoxide From Red Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAREH, M.M.; EL-HAZEK, M.N; BU ZAID, A.H.M; MOHAMED, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    The red cake, extracted from petroleum ash by acid leaching, contains some impurities such as iron, nickel, zinc, Cr and Cu. For purification the red cake, vanadium in the red cake was taken into solution by treating the red cake with soda ash solution at 90 o C, S /L 1/10 and leaching time of 6 h. The obtained leaching efficiency of vanadium reached 99 %. The solution was clarified by filtration and slurred with solid ammonium sulphate (50g/l) and ammonium chloride (50 g/l). The pH of the slurry was kept at 8-9 by adding ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium metavanadate was crystallized from the slurry at room temperature and during the crystallization step, the slurry was kept under mild agitation. The reaction between the sodium vanadate and ammonium sulphate led to the formation of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) 98.35 % (atomic adsorption techniques). The AMV crystals were separated from the residual liquor by filtration, washed with 5% ammonium chloride solution then dried at 100 o C. Over 98.35 % of the vanadium contained in the red cake was recovered by this way as AMV. Thermal decomposition of AMV at 350 o C 1 h yielded 99.32 % pure vanadium pentoxide.

  13. Rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers compared to melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate, a bitter and generally recognized as safe additive. Paired preference tests (blank compared to spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between 2 self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (P= 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (P= 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (P= 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. This work makes use of the rejection threshold method to study market segmentation, extending its use to solid foods. We believe this method has broad applicability to the sensory specialist and product developer by providing a

  14. Development of cassava cake enriched with its own bran and Spirulina platensis - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.10687

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Franci Polonio Navacchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cassava cake was developed enriching it with a biomass of Spirulina platensis and a type of bran made out of its own starch. This biomass, a part from being rich in protein, also contains vitamins, essential fatty acids and minerals. Around Umuarama, in the State of Paraná, there is an agricultural/industrial complex annually producing and processing tons of cassava. Baked goods can be elaborated based in cassava as a way to expand the use of this raw material and to produce food free of gluten to celiac people. In this complex a solid byproduct is generated, which is rich in starch and fibres, and because of its low commercial value it is used for animal feed or discarded. The bran was dehydrated and analysed microbiologically as well as physically and chemically so as to be used in applied research. Developed energetic food based on cassava lacks protein, but this can be supplied by adding the biomass of Spirulina platensis. Different formulations of this cassava cake were developed varying the concentration of Spirulina platensis and cassava bran. The formulation that presented the best features received chocolate before being submitted to sensory tests by children in the public education system. The results show an excellent acceptance which made viable the development of this product because of aspects like nutrition, technology and sensorial.

  15. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  16. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, AKS; Wilson, David Ian; Sadd, PI; Moggridge, Geoffrey Dillwyn

    2014-01-01

    A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and AACC shape measures were optimal after 15 min treatment at 130 °C, though their values varied between harvests. Separate oscillatory rheometry tests of cake ba...

  17. Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs

  18. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Ekkehard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S. Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an increase in S. Oranienburg infections was noted in other European countries in the Enter-net surveillance network. In a multistate matched case-control study in Germany, daily consumption of chocolate (matched odds ratio [MOR]: 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–26.5, having shopped at a large chain of discount grocery stores (MOR: 4.2; CI: 1.2–23.0, and consumption of chocolate purchased there (MOR: 5.0; CI: 1.1–47.0 were associated with illness. Subsequently, two brands from the same company, one exclusively produced for that chain, tested positive for S. Oranienburg. In two other European countries and in Canada chocolate from company A was ascertained that also contained S. Oranienburg. Isolates from humans and from chocolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. No source or point of contamination was identified. Epidemiological identification of chocolate as a vehicle of infections required two months, and was facilitated by proxy measures. Conclusions Despite the use of improved production technologies, the chocolate industry continues to carry a small risk of manufacturing Salmonella-containing products. Particularly in diffuse outbreak-settings, clear associations with surrogates of exposure should suffice to trigger public health action. Networks such as Enter-net have become invaluable for facilitating rapid and appropriate management of international outbreaks.

  19. Chocolate and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-03

    Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71-0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  20. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  1. Ovarian chocolate cysts. Staging with relaxation time in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio

    1988-10-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 +- 91 msec for stage II, 356 +- 126 msec for stage III and 208 +- 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery.

  2. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  3. Bioenergy and biofertilizer : improvement of biogas production from filter cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, A.H. [Environmental Bioremediation Group, Research and Development Agency, GeoCuba, Camaguey (Cuba); Alvarez, R.C. [Provincial Direction of Soils, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) was studied using a natural zeolite to intensify the biogas production. The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural waste mixtures in certain proportions is the underlying basis of biogas generation. Earlier studies have shown that certain inert materials can act as stimulators in biogas production when used in conjunction with AD. This study involved three experiments using filter cake from different sugar mills using three doses of zeolite to determine how they stimulate biogas production. Another objective of the study was to determine if the mud of the digester containing the added zeolite has an impact on plants and soil. The study was conducted under glass house conditions using a brown soil with carbonates with neutral pH and high contents of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter. It was concluded that it is possible to increase the biogas yield and to improve AD behaviour of the filter cake by using a zeolite adapted to unique operating conditions. The amount of yield depends on the origin of the filter cake, the stimulator dose and age. Results were in the order of 20-40 per cent biogas production. Fresh filter cake was found to produce more biogas. The mud of the anaerobic digestion of the filter cake containing zeolite positively impacted on the agronomic behaviour of the sorghum in relation to P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter content. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  5. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  7. Leaching of sodium carbonate cakes by nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanker, L.S.; Nikonov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction has been studied of soda cakes of fluorite-rare-earth concentrate with nitric acid. The effect of a number of factors on extraction of REE into a nitric solution has been considered: the final acidity of the pulp, the duration of leaching, and the ratio between solid and liquid phases. The effect of adding aluminium nitrate into the pulp has also been studied. It has been shown that three-stage counterflow leaching of soda cakes with nitric acid increases REE extraction approximately by 10%

  8. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculated to Cake and Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Dadalı

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated to the cake dough and a whole raw chicken was investigated. The cake dough was inoculated with 6.15 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis then, thermal treatment was applied at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The initial count of S. Enteritidis showed reductions 1.49 log-cfu/g, 2.06 log-cfu/g and 4.29 log-cfu/g in the samples from the cold point location from the geometric center of the cake at 5, 7 and 10 minutes of thermal treatment, respectively. Although S. Enteritidis is not detected at the end of 15 minutes of heat treatment, the center of the cake temperature has reached 85.69°C and the cake sample is uncooked and its sensory properties are not acceptable. The cake that is safe and favorable with the sensory properties to the consumers was obtained by heat treatment for 30 minutes. After the cold point of a whole raw chicken was inoculated with 7.29 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis, thermal treatment was applied at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The temperature at the cold point of 35 and 45 minutes heat-treated chickens reached 59.33 and 74.08°C, respectively, and 1.93 log-cfu/g and 5.33 log-cfu /g S. Enteritidis reduction caused in the samples respectively. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the whole chicken heat treated at 220°C for 60 minutes. The cakes, heat treated at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 30 minutes, were stored at two different storage temperatures as 4°C and 25°C for 72 hours. The whole chicken, heat treated at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 60 minutes, was stored at 4°C for 72 hours. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the cake and the whole chicken samples after the storage period.

  9. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  10. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  11. [Cacoa and dark chocolate in cardiovascular prevention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, G G; Mohr-Kahaly, S

    2011-12-01

    It has been shown that the consumption of cocoa has a positive influence on a number of cardiovascular surrogate parameters such as arterial vasodilatation and a moderate decrease in blood pressure in humans. In the blood, a decrease in platelet aggregation and an increase in angiogenetic progenitor cells was noted. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects, an amelioration of the lipid profile and glucose metabolism was described. An increase of endothelial NO production following the ingestion of the antioxidant cocoa flavanols catechin and epicatechin seems to be the leading mechanism causing these effects. In animal studies of myocardial reperfusion, a decrease in infarct size was noted. In several prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States, a 50 % reduction of mortality mostly due to a reduction of myocardial infarction was published. Consumption up to about 25 g daily of a flavanol rich dark chocolate (ca. 85 % cocoa content) can be recommended for cardiovascular prevention. In this moderate dosage, the potentially harmful effects due to weight gain and cadmium intake will be minimal. However, controlled randomized trials with well defined clinical endpoints are needed to prove the positive effects described so far. At this point, in time based on the information described in this article, a moderate consumption of flavanol rich cocoa products seems to be effective in the prevention of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  13. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  14. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk in postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J A; Manson, J E; Tinker, L; Neuhouser, M L; Garcia, L; Vitolins, M Z; Phillips, L S

    2017-09-01

    Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report of the first treatment with oral medication or insulin. Among women free of diabetes at baseline, there were 10 804 cases, representing an incidence rate of 11.7% during 13.1 years and 1 164 498 person-years of follow-up. There was no significant linear association between long-term chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes risk, but there was significantly reduced risk at moderate levels of intake. Compared to women who ate 1 oz. of chocolate chocolate consumption and type 2 diabetes at moderate levels of consumption in two subgroups of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health initiative cohort.

  15. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Magrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  17. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit. PMID:28649251

  18. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Cesar Susin; Renata Mior; Vera Maria da Costa Dias

    2015-01-01

    SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in th...

  19. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/lo...

  20. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n=40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days. Control participants (n=18) received two exposures at the start and end of each session. Chocolate craving was measured (alternately) through subjective report and the amount of saliva secretion to cho...

  1. 76 FR 38680 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy...) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area. By this notice, the BLM is...: You may submit comments related to the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area by...

  2. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Beckers, T.; Hermans, D.; Baeyens, F.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n ¼ 40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days.

  3. Acute dark chocolate ingestion is beneficial for hemodynamics via enhancement of erythrocyte deformability in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, Jana; Horvathova, Martina; Frimmel, Karel; Muchova, Jana; Vidosovicova, Maria; Vazan, Rastislav; Bernatova, Iveta

    2017-03-01

    Erythrocyte deformability is an important property of erythrocytes that considerably affects blood flow and hemodynamics. The high content of polyphenols present in dark chocolate has been reported to play a protective role in functionality of erythrocytes. We hypothesized that chocolate might influence erythrocytes not only after repeated chronic intake, but also immediately after its ingestion. Thus, we determined the acute effect of dark chocolate and milk (with lower content of biologically active substances) chocolate intake on erythrocyte deformability. We also focused on selected factors that may affect erythrocyte deformability, specifically nitric oxide production in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. We determined posttreatment changes in the mentioned parameters 2hours after consumption of chocolate compared with their levels before consumption of chocolate. In contrast to milk chocolate intake, the dark chocolate led to a significantly higher increase in erythrocyte deformability. Nitric oxide production in erythrocytes was not changed after dark chocolate intake, but significantly decreased after milk chocolate. The plasma total antioxidant capacity remained unaffected after ingestion of both chocolates. We conclude that our hypothesis was confirmed. Single ingestion of dark chocolate improved erythrocyte deformability despite unchanged nitric oxide production and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Increased deformability of erythrocytes may considerably improve rheological properties of blood and thus hemodynamics in humans, resulting in better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  5. A review of United States yellow cake precipitation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litz, J.E.; Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The various process flowsheets used to produce concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. The choices of flowsheets are affected by ore alkalinity, uranium mineralization, and the impurities solubilized during leaching. The techniques used to precipitate yellow cake from concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. Consideration is given to precipitation chemistry, reagent requirements, and process equipment and costs for precipitation, dewatering, drying and calcining. (author)

  6. The replacement value of groundnut cake with cooked Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in which groundnut cake (GNC) was replaced by cooked bambara groundnut meal (CBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of inclusion for both starter and finisher phases. Replacement levels of cooked bambara ...

  7. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  8. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  9. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    , it is difficult to use the existing mathematical filtration models to simulate and optimise the filtration process. Activated sludge as well as synthetic model particles has been filtrated in this project. The study shows that compression of the formed filter cake is a time dependent process, and not only...

  10. Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria isolated from peanut cake product were Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp. and Clostridium spp. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. being the dominant microflora in decreasing frequency of occurrence. High concentrations of ...

  11. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  12. Effects of partial replacement of soyabean meal or groundnut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    160 unsexed Nera day old chicks were weighed and randomly divided into 8 experimental groups such that there were 2 replicates of 10 birds each per diet. Eight diets were formulated for the starter and finisher phases. The first four diets had groundnut cake as the protein source and were gradually replaced by sunflower ...

  13. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Nutritional indices (true nitrogen digestibility, biological value and protein ... Salt. 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. -. 0.50. Vitamin Premix2. 0.20. 0.20. 0.20 ... WNSC = Water processed neem seed cake, MNSC = Methanol processed neem seed ... were given ad libitum and pre-measured quantity of food calculated.

  14. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  15. Cake kidney: a rare anomaly of renal fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lippi Ciantelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urinogenital tract that can be diagnosed at any age. Few more than 20 cases have been described in the literature. The authors describe in this article another case of this rare malformation. Key-words: kidney, congenital abnormalities, rare diseases.

  16. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time. On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC ...

  17. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

  18. Evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa) cake as an unconventional protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabczak, J; Py, R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient procedure of a protein isolate production from the evening primrose cake was developed. The cake is a by-product of oil extraction from seeds by using the cold pressing method. The evening primrose cake contains 22.7% of protein. Its content in the protein isolate derived from the cake is 74%. Proteins present in evening primrose seeds are rich in Trp (7%) and Met (3%), but Lys-deficient (1.3%) as compared to the FAO protein standard. Apart from the proteins, the protein isolate contains 8.5% (w/w per s.s.) dietary fiber, that negatively affects its digestibility. To enhance the bio-availability of the protein isolate, it was partially hydrolyzed with commercial preparations of trypsin and other proteases (Alcalase and Flavourzyme, Novozymes. Denmark). The most advanced proteolysis (52%) was achieved by 6 h digestion of 2% protein suspension with a mixture of Flavourzyme and Alcalase (350 and 600 U per g of protein, respectively) at 50 degrees C and pH 9.0.

  19. How does particle size influence caking in lactose powder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, Melanie Anne; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is known to influence product properties such as flowability and compressibility. When producing crystalline lactose, different steps can affect the PSD of the final powder. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PSD on caking and the mechanisms...

  20. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Minimax and Cake Topography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Minimax and Cake Topography. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 4-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...

  2. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Chocolate Bar with Natural Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest period of time the people’s interest for natural products without synthetic dyes, with benefits to the human body has significantly increased. Chocolate is widely consumed all over the world. The pleasure derived from the consumption of chocolate is accompanied by a whole range of effects on the human health, which may explain their its attractiveness. One of the objectives of this reaserch was to extract dyes from various plants (fruits and vegetables and incorporating them in white chocolate. In order to characterize the new product, several physicochemical analyses were conducted (moisture, dry matter, ash content, total extract and acidity. Also the consumer perception was followed by conducting a sensory analysis. The new product can be placed in the free synthetic dyes category

  3. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  4. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  5. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).

  7. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  8. New insights into comparison between synthetic and practical municipal wastewater in cake layer characteristic analysis of membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Yang, Shufang; Xia, Siqing

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, cake layer analysis in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was both carried out with synthetic and practical municipal wastewater (SMW and PMW), leading to different results. This study aimed to identify the comparison between SMW and PMW in cake layer characteristic analysis of MBR. Two laboratory-scale anoxic/oxic MBRs were operated for over 90days with SMW and PMW, respectively. Results showed that PMW led to rough cake layer surface with particles, and the aggravation of cake layer formation with thinner and denser cake layer. Additionally, inorganic components, especially Si and Al, in PMW accumulated into cake layer and strengthened the cake layer structure, inducing severer biofouling. However, SMW promoted bacterial metabolism during cake layer formation, thus aggravated the accumulation of organic components into cake layer. Therefore, SMW highlighted the organic components in cake layer, but weakened the inorganic functions in practical MBR operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE EFFECT OF 'ORGANIC' LABELS ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Kiss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important success factors in the organic food industry is the positive image that a significant number of customers attach to organic products in many countries, which includes the perception of healthiness and also sensory characteristics such as smell, texture or taste. Several papers have examined the effect of organic certification on consumer perceptions for many types of products from a number of perspectives. The present study aims to reveal the effect of organic (‘bio’ labels on customers’ evaluation of chocolates regarding five product attributes: fragrance, taste, healthiness, calorie content and price. The two research questions are: (1 ‘How do consumers modify their perceptions about a given chocolate after receiving information as to whether the given chocolate is an organic or a non-organic product?’ and (2 ‘How do consumers’ evaluations of organic and non-organic chocolates relative to each other change after it is revealed which ones have an organic certificate?’ To find the answers an experiment was conducted on a sample of 32 second year bachelor university students from the ‘Commerce and Marketing’ major. During the experiment the students tasted 4 dark (2 regular and 2 organic and 3 milk (2 regular and 1 organic chocolates in two phases. In the first phase they had no information as to whether organic products were involved in the experiment, but in the second the organic products were labelled. The students had to evaluate fragrance, taste, healthiness, and calorie content, and estimate the price in both phases. The results show that ‘organic’ labels can significantly modify consumers’ perception and evaluation of chocolates with every attribute for one or more of the chocolates. Labelling can also widen the perceived gap between organic and regular chocolates according to fragrance, healthiness, calorie content and price. However, changes were identified only in the case of

  10. IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF BISCUIT PRODUCTION PROCESS THROUGH LEAN SIX-SIGMA AT PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mukti Almansur

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze waste or loss using the 7-waste approach and value added/non value added activities in the production process at PT. XYZ. This research also aims to evaluate the production process capability and sigma values at PT. XYZ and used DMAIC technique (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control from Lean Six-sigma with an analysis using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. The results of the research obtained the values of Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE of 47.29%, CTQ (Critical to Quality and process capability value in the form of Cpm (Capability Index for each process stage and yield. Line-5 has DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities value of 29,632,607 with a Sigma Score 3.39, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis analysis resulted in recommendations for improvement at each process stage.Keywords: process cycle efficiency, biscuit, lean six-sigma, CTQ, CpmABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan melakukan analisis tingkat pemborosan (waste/loss dengan menggunakan pendekatan 7 waste dan value added/non value added activity dalam proses produksi di PT. XYZ. Selanjutnya, melakukan evaluasi terhadap nilai kapabilitas proses produksi dan nilai sigma di PT. XYZ. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improvement, and Control dari Lean Six Sigma dengan Analisis menggunakan menggunakan alat Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Hasil Penelitian mendapati nilai Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE 47.29%, CTQ (Critical to Quality dan nilai kapabilitas proses berupa Cpm (Capability Index setiap tahapan proses dan Yield. Line-5 memiliki DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunities sebesar 29632.607 dengan Sigma Score 3.39 Sigma, analisis FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis menghasilkan rekomendasi perbaikan di setiap tahapan proses.Kata kunci: process cycle efficiency, biskuit, lean six sigma, CTQ, Cpm

  11. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  12. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  13. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI; FARAH SALEENA TAIP; SITI MAZLINA MUSTAPA KAMAL; NORASHIKIN AB. AZIZ

    2014-01-01

    Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firm...

  14. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora Perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the sensory quality of chocolates obtained from two cocoa cultivars (PH16 and SR162 resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa mould comparing to a conventional cocoa that is not resistant to the disease. The acceptability of the chocolates was assessed and the promising cultivars with relevant sensory and commercial attributes could be indicated to cocoa producers and chocolate manufacturers. The descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of chocolates were developed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Ten panelists, selected on the basis of their discriminatory capacity and reproducibility, defined eleven sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Tukey's test to compare the means. The results revealed significant differences among the sensory profiles of the chocolates. Chocolates from the PH16 cultivar were characterized by a darker brown color, more intense flavor and odor of chocolate, bitterness and a firmer texture, which are important sensory and commercial attributes. Chocolates from the SR162 cultivar were characterized by a greater sweetness and melting quality and chocolates from the conventional treatment presented intermediate sensory characteristics between those of the other two chocolates. All samples indicated high acceptance, but chocolates from the PH16 and conventional cultivars obtained higher purchase intention scores.

  15. Effects of dark chocolate on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Nulton, Emily; Shelechi, Mahshid; Hernández, Lisa M; Nemoseck, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports that diets rich in polyphenols promote health and may delay the onset of colon cancer. Cocoa and chocolate products have some of the highest polyphenolic concentrations compared to other polyphenolic food sources. This study tested the hypothesis that a diet including dark chocolate can protect against colon cancer by inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, downregulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and favorably altering cell kinetics. We also investigated whether bloomed dark chocolate retains the antioxidant capacity and protects against colon cancer. Forty-eight rats received either a diet containing control (no chocolate), regular dark chocolate, or bloomed dark chocolate and were injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane. Relative to control, both regular and bloomed dark chocolate diets lowered the total number of ACF (P = 0.022). Chocolate diet-fed animals downregulated transcription levels of COX-2 (P = 0.035) and RelA (P = 0.045). Both chocolate diets lowered the proliferation index (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a diet including dark chocolate can reduce cell proliferation and some gene expression involving inflammation, which may explain the lower number of early preneoplastic lesions. These results provide new insight on polyphenol-rich chocolate foods and colon cancer prevention.

  16. Investigations of Physical-Chemical and Microbiological Deterioration of Chocolate Pralines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig

    Chocolate pralines, defined as soft fruit, sugar or fat based fillings covered with a chocolate shell, are multidomain, complex food products. The chocolate shell consists of a continuous fat phase in which sugar and cocoa particles are dispersed. The fillings can vary in composition and texture...... of the sugar and cocoa particles plays a role in the sensorial assessment of the chocolate. Fillings for chocolate pralines varies a lot and no common quality parameters can be set for these, but needs to be defined for the individual filling. The shelf life of chocolate pralines is determined by numerous...... and complex interactions between intrinsic and external parameters, and spoilage can be of either microbial or physical-chemical character or a combination of the two. Chocolate belong to the group of low moisture food products and is only susceptible to physical-chemical spoilage, while the fillings has...

  17. The impact of the manufacturing process on the hardness and sensory properties of milk chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of the manufacturing process on the textural characteristics and sensory properties of milk chocolate. The research was conducted on the samples of chocolate produced in a ball mill during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of refining, each of them being pre-crystallized at 26, 28 and 30°C. A chocolate mass of identical ingredient composition was also produced using a standard manufacturing process at the same pre-crystallization temperatures. Chocolate hardness was examined using a piece of equipment called Texture Analyser, measuring the stress intensity which leads to chocolate crushing. Sensory analysis was performed using the point scoring method. The new manufacturing process, i.e. the manufacturing of chocolate in a ball mill improves sensory properties and hardness of milk chocolate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  18. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-12-04

    The randomized controlled trial is the "gold standard" for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis showed that there were no differences between any of the groups. The reason for this result is that many participants switched groups mid-study because of their personal chocolate preferences. Although the CHUMP study was pleasurable, it demonstrated the difficulties associated with performing a truly blinded clinical trial.

  19. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  20. Exploring consumer perception about the different types of chocolate Explorando a percepção do consumidor sobre diferentes tipos de chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gámbaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Word Association technique was used to analyze the perception of 120 Uruguayan consumers concerning the different types of chocolate. Similarly, it was estimated how healthy consumers perceived dark, white and milk chocolate to be. As a generic product, chocolate was associated with good taste, positive feelings, sweetness, feelings of warmth and calories/energy. White, dark and milk chocolate were significantly associated with other concepts (creaminess, bitterness, intense taste, etc.. A cluster analysis was performed on the scores regarding the perceived healthiness as reported by the consumers. 3 clusters were identified: Cluster 1 did not perceive any of the three types of chocolate to be very healthy, Cluster 2 considered dark chocolate to be very healthy but white chocolate to be less healthy and Cluster 3 perceived the three types of chocolate as very healthy. The Word Association technique enabled us to identify the differences between the associations made by each cluster.A técnica de Associação de Palavras foi utilizada para analisar a percepção que 120 consumidores uruguaios tinham em relação a diferentes tipos de chocolate. Da mesma forma, estimou-se o quão saudável os consumidores percebiam cada tipo de chocolate: escuro, branco e ao leite. Como um produto genérico, o chocolate foi associado com bom gosto, sentimentos positivos, doçura, sensação de calor e calorias/energia. Chocolates dos tipos branco, escuro e ao leite foram significativamente associados com outros conceitos (cremosidade, amargura, sabor intenso, etc.. Uma análise de agrupamento foi realizada na pontuação em relação à saudabilidade percebida, reportada pelos consumidores. Três grupos foram identificados: Grupo 1 - não percebem qualquer um dos três tipos de chocolate como sendo muito saudável; Grupo 2 - consideram o chocolate escuro como muito saudável e o chocolate branco foi considerado como menos saudável; Grupo 3 - percebem os tr

  1. Investigation into the Microstructure, Texture and Rheological Properties of Chocolate Ganache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Jade; Hartel, Rich W

    2018-03-01

    Ganache is a mixture of chocolate and dairy. Although a popular confection, little is known about how it functions as a system. Objectives were to (1) determine if dairy fats and cocoa butter mix in ganache, (2) characterize ganache microstructure, and how structure affects texture and rheology, and (3) identify how changes in chocolate composition alter ganache. Textural analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, stress sweep tests, and microscopy were used to examine ganache formulations that varied in dairy source (cream or butter) or in solid fat content (SFC), composition or type of chocolate. Melting temperatures for all ganache formulations were lower than for chocolate, indicating that cream milk fat globules rupture during processing, and mix with cocoa butter. Altering the SFC of chocolate affected ganache hardness, spreadability, melting enthalpy, and resistance to deformation. Chocolate systems made with constant fat content and greater amounts of defatted cocoa powder relative to sugar or nonfat milk powder yielded ganache that was harder, less spreadable, and more resistant to deformation. Ganache made with commercially produced dark, milk, and white chocolates behaved similarly to model chocolate systems. Ganache attributes are affected by chocolate crystalline fat content in addition to particle phase volume-greater levels of cocoa powder, which is mostly insoluble, strengthens ganache structure, producing a firmer product, whereas greater levels of milk powder and sugar, which dissolve in the aqueous cream component, produce a softer ganache. Understanding how ganache functions as a system and how differences in chocolate composition affect its textural and rheological properties may allow for greater control over the desired characteristics of the final product. For example, this research shows how changing cocoa content of the chocolate affects ganache, which is useful when developing formulations involving chocolates with different cocoa

  2. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  4. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, N; Hazlehurst, T; Povey, M; Vieira, J; Sundara, R; Sandoz, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product

  5. EDULCORANTES NATURALES UTILIZADOS EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTEBAN PALACIO VÁSQUEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of confectionery products and their massive consumption, leads to the agri-food industry include in its transformation processes inputs that improve the nutritional quality of the final products. Considering that chocolate has a high percentage of sugar (sucrose content of 30-60%, it is necessary to use alternative sweeteners for its elaboration, that promote a healthy diet. The objective of the present review is to characterize some natural sweeteners such as erythritol, stevia (stevioside and rebaudioside-A, thaumatin and bulking agents such as inulin and polydextrose with structural and rheological functions; highlighting aspects such as its origin, caloric intake, sweetening power, ADI (Admissible Daily Intake and its influence on chocolate quality parameters. Although they may affect their sensory properties, these sweeteners have wide advantages because of their low caloric content and high potency in sweetness compared to sucrose. This shows the need to perform studies to determine the sweetener and the bulking agent that best substitute sucrose in the manufacture of chocolates. Finally, it is evident that the use of natural sweeteners, generates health benefits and impact on the sensorial and rheological quality of chocolate.

  6. Influence of dark chocolate administration on uric acid, liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess the influence of dark chocolate administration on uric acid, liver enzymes, glucose and lactate responses to summaximal exercise test in male swimmers. Subjects. Eleven competitive swimmers from the athletic club Academic, Sofia volunteered for the study. Design. A randomised study of two periods ...

  7. Dark chocolate administration improves working memory in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawanto Agung Prastowo

    2016-04-01

    Dark chocolate as a single dose is capable of improving verbal working memory in students, 3 hours after its consumption. Since cocoa contains multiple bioactive compounds, one approach might be to examine the neurocognitive effects of combinations of potential functional ingredients.

  8. Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik J; Blackburn, Rachel J

    2005-08-01

    Although in a previous study we showed that caffeine and theobromine were the main psychopharmacologically active constituents in a 50-g bar of chocolate, mere activity does not guarantee a role in our liking for the food. Our aim was to see if liking for a drink repeatedly paired with these amounts of caffeine and theobromine would increase compared to a placebo-paired drink. Participants (n=64) consumed a 'novel' drink + treatment capsule on six non-consecutive mornings using a double-blind, placebo-controlled independent-sample design. Aspects of liking and intensity of various sensory descriptors for these drinks were measured at every drink collection. Treatment capsules contained either an ecologically relevant dose combination of 19-mg caffeine and 250-mg theobromine or a placebo. Liking for the drink paired with the methylxanthine-containing capsules increased over time compared to the placebo-paired drink. This highly significant effect was confirmed by subjective, retrospective changes in liking for the drink. Methylxanthines in amounts found in 50-g chocolate may well contribute to our liking for chocolate, especially to the more acquired taste for dark chocolate.

  9. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  10. Chocolate, well-being and health among elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, T E; Strandberg, A Y; Pitkälä, K; Salomaa, V V; Tilvis, R S; Miettinen, T A

    2008-02-01

    We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.

  11. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  12. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for centrifuge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Davies, A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce and adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. Three possible types of encapsulants for Centrifuge Cake;- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers, are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie. Storage Transport, handling and emplacement Disposal, and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on Centrifuge Cake. (author)

  13. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls.

  14. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Sommier; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Imen Douiri; Christophe Chipeau

    2012-01-01

    The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C) leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specific...

  15. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  16. Feeding behavior in lambs fed diets containing crambe cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Adriane Syperreck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing 30% sorghum silage and 70% crambe cake (30:70 diet, and 70% sorghum silage and 30% crambe cake (70:30 diet under voluntary and controlled consumption. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four animals, four periods, and four treatments; feeding behavior was determined by observation. The results indicated that animals fed the 30:70 diet showed higher DM and NDF (g day-1 than those fed the 70:30 diet. Animals fed the 70:30 diet showed longer feeding times (h kg-1 DM, mastication (min kg-1 DM and min kg-1 NDF, rumination (min day-1 and min kg-1 DM, and the largest number of mericics chewing per bolus; however, a higher feed efficiency (g DM h-1 was observed in the 30:70 diet group. Furthermore, animals feeding voluntarily had higher DM intake and chewed for longer. Therefore, the combined results indicated that crambe cake could be used in the diet of sheep without affecting feeding behavior.

  17. Conversion of Hanford salt cake to glass: laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Dressen, A.L.; Hobbick, C.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    Approximately 140 million liters of solid salt cake (mainly NaNO 3 ), produced by evaporation of aged, alkaline high-level wastes, will be stored in underground tanks when the present Hanford Waste Management Program is completed in the early 1980's. These solid wastes can be converted to silicate-based glasses by melting them either at 1200 to 1300 0 C with appropriate amounts of sand and lime (soda-lime formulation) or at 1000 to 1100 0 C with appropriate amounts of Columbia River basalt and B 2 O 3 (basalt formulation). Both formulations yield dense, immobile glasses of low water leachability (10 -7 to 10 -6 g cm -2 day -1 ) suitable for terminal storage. The soda-lime formulation is presently preferred over the basalt formulation because it can accommodate more salt cake (50 wt percent versus 30 to 40 wt percent) while yielding a glass whose volume is 10 to 20 percent less than the volume of the salt cake in the melt charge

  18. CRAMBE CAKE (Crambe abyssinica hochst ON LAMB DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Breda Canova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative feedstuffs in animal diet, such as residues derived from the biodiesel production aims to increase productivity and reduce costs in animal production. Them aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution effect of 0, 22, 44 and 64% of soybean meal protein by Crambe cake (Crambe abyssinica Hochst protein in lamb diet. In the in vivo experiment, 20 lambs were used and evaluated the apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and voluntary DM intake. The replacement of the protein resulted in a linear decrease in apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, cellulose (CEL and the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN, which resulted in decreased daily DM intake. The blood level of urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were not affected. In vitro gas production technique (GP evaluation of diets showed a significantly decrease (P<0.05 of the total gas and methane production without altering the true degradability of DM and OM and the partition factor (PF. Replacement of soybean meal protein by the Crambe cake protein decreased digestibility of the fiber fraction of the diet, the voluntary intake of DM and methane, without altering rumen fermentation. Crambe cake can be utilized as lamb's food, because, despite reduced intake, assure a large energy intake and similarity to soybean meal protein.

  19. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  20. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK SUBTITUSI TEPUNG KIMPUL DALAM PEMBUATAN CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Rafika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptic properties of kimpul flour substitution in the cake making. Kimpul is a one of tuber food source, which contains carbohidrate, protein, fat, some mineral and vitamins. The aims of this research is to find out the sensory properties (hedonic quality and hedonic of the kimpul cake flour substitution. This experimental research uses a completely-randomized design using an analysis of variance. The results analysis of the hedonic quality of color, texture and flavor obtain the highest mean rates at the amount of 40% substitution of kimpul flour, and the results  were not significantly different between treatments. The hedonic test of color, flavor, and texture obtain the highest mean rates at the amount of 80% substitution of kimpul flour.   Kimpul merupakan sumber pangan umbi-umbian yang mengandung karbo­hidrat, protein, lemak, beberapa mineral dan vitamin. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah  mengetahui sifat sensori (mutu hedonik dan hedonik cake subtitusi tepung kimpul. Penelitian eksperimen ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap  mengguna­kan analisis sidik ragam (Analysis of Variance. Hasil analisis uji mutu hedonik warna, tekstur dan rasa memperoleh rerata tertinggi pada jumlah substitusi tepung kimpul 40% yang tidak berbeda antar perlakuan. Uji hedonik (uji tingkat kesukaan warna, rasa, dan tekstur  memperoleh rerata tertinggi pada jumlah subtitusi tepung kimpul 80%.

  1. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (PBaking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  2. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  3. Maternal and fetal effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia

    2018-03-13

    The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included. Databases searched were PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus; between April and May 2017. Risk of bias within each human randomized controlled trial (RCT) and animals' experimental studies was evaluated by "The Cochrane Collaboration's tool" and SYRCLE's tool respectively. Fourteen human studies including a total of 6639 participants and nine animal studies were selected. Outcome variables investigated in human studies were maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, and striae gravidarum. Animal studies explored chocolate-induced teratogenicity and fetal metabolic derangements. Ten out of these 23 studies reported chocolate to be "beneficial"; five studies reported adverse effects, whereas eight studies declared chocolate as "neutral". Maternal chocolate intake has acute stimulatory effects on fetal reactivity and chronic blood pressure reducing effect in mothers. Chocolate is nonteratogenic and does not affect reproductive indices. Metabolic derangements in offsprings born to chocolate fed dams have been reported. Pregnant females must be careful about consumption of cocoa and chocolate. Future studies should be planned, keeping in view heterogeneities identified across the selected studies in this review.

  4. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chia Meng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins, insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC, milk (MC, and white (WC chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93 between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  5. Phenolic and theobromine contents of commercial dark, milk and white chocolates on the Malaysian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cheng Chia; Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd; Ismail, Amin

    2009-01-05

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93) between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  6. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (Peffect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  7. [Influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Arbelaez, Edilbeto; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; López García, Esther

    2017-07-28

    There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols. To assess the infl uence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults. Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption, chocolate consumption of ≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE ≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]). Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.

  8. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  9. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  10. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  11. Effects of Variety and Hydration of Rice Flour on Cake Making Properties

    OpenAIRE

    長沼, 誠子; NAGANUMA, Seiko

    1993-01-01

    The pysicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of rice layer cake were investigated to study the effects of rice variety and rice flour treatment on cake making properties. The rice layer cake were made from rice flour ground from 4 rice varieties (Sasanishiki, Akitakomachi, Kiyonishiki and Akihikari), water, sugar, oil, and baking powder. The treatment of rice frour with water before adding other ingredients improved appearance, texture and palatability of the baking products. The...

  12. Prediction of acrylamide formation in biscuits based on fingerprint data generated by ambient ionization mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Capuano, Edoardo; Gökmen, Vural; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of the potential of high-throughput direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) fingerprinting and multivariate regression analysis in prediction of the extent of acrylamide formation in biscuit samples prepared by

  13. Instant coffee as a source of antioxidant-rich and sugar-free coloured compounds for use in bakery: Application in biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Cláudia P; Kukurová, Kristína; Basil, Eva; Fernandes, Pedro A R; Neto, Andreia; Nunes, Fernando M; Murkovic, Michael; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-09-15

    Ammonia caramels are the most common antioxidant colour agent used in bakery formulations, although their high sugars content. An alternative could be coffee melanoidins, which are brown coloured compounds with antioxidant properties, readily available from instant coffee. However, high caffeine content is limiting its direct application. To evaluate the possibility of obtaining coloured melanoidin-rich, sugars- and caffeine-poor fractions from instant coffee, in this work, simple procedures based on their ethanol insolubility (fraction EtPp) or retention by ultrafiltration (fraction HWSn) were exploited. Melanoidins incorporation into biscuits formulation (amounts of 1, 5 and 10% w/w related to flour content) resulted in acceptable coloured products with higher antioxidant activity. The biscuits supplemented with 1% EtPp or HWSn had a low caffeine content. The caffeine of one espresso coffee was equivalent to 130 biscuits containing EtPp and 31 biscuits containing HWSn. Besides, both fractions did not promote extra formation of acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during baking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Karakteristik Organoleptik Formulasi Biskuit Berbasis Tepung Labu Kuning (Cucurbita moschata, Tepung Kacang Koro (Mucuna prurien, dan Tepung Sagu (Metroxilon sago (The Organoleptic Characteristics of Biscuit Formulation with Curcubita moschata, Mucuna prurien, and Metroxilon sago Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wati

    2016-07-01

    Riskesdas (2013 shows that prevelance of children under nutrition in Aceh province based on index weight for age, height for age, and weight for height are above National prevalency, comprising 25%, 40%, and 15% respectively. One of the efforts conducted to reduce nutrition problem is the adminstration of supplementary food for children. Development of biscuit from local food can be used as supplemetary food to help the unfortunate children. This research was aimed to study the  organoleptic characteristic of biscuit formulation based on local food pumpkin flour (Cucurbita moschata, koro bean flour (mucuna prurien and sago flour (Metroxilon sago. The research design used was one factor complete randomized design, with  the combination of pumpkin flour, koro bean and sago in biscuit combination. The quality of the biscuits was assessed organolepticaly using 30 semi trained panelists.  The result of the analysis of variance of colours and flavour paramaters showed a significant difference at  95% confident interval. The analysis of variance resulted in confident interval 95% (α=0,05, while from the smell and texture parameter it does not show a significantly different result. Based on the characteristic of organoleptics, the preferrred biscuit formulation chosen by panelists is biscuit with the combination of 20 g pumpkin flour, 10 g koro bean flour and 20 g sago flour. Keywords : biscuit, pumpkin flour, koro bean flour, sago flour, organoleptic

  15. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmović, Marko; Karlović, Sven; Biškić, Matija; Brnčić, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimentally induced chocolate craving leads to an attentional bias in increased distraction but not in speeded detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Elke; Roefs, Anne; Jansen, Anita

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the causal influence of chocolate craving on attentional bias for chocolate-related information was examined by experimentally inducing chocolate craving in a sample of high trait chocolate cravers vs. low trait chocolate cravers. A sample of 35 high trait chocoholics and 33 low trait chocolate cravers were randomly assigned to either the exposure condition in which craving was manipulated or the non-exposure condition. To measure attentional bias, a pictorial version of the visual search paradigm [Smeets, E., Roefs, A., van Furth, E., & Jansen, A. (2008). Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: increased distraction, speeded detection, or both? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 229-238] was used, assessing two components: distraction and detection. It was found that experimentally induced chocolate craving led to increased distraction by chocolate pictures in the high trait chocolate cravers, in comparison to the low trait chocolate cravers. Moreover, this measure of distraction correlated strongly with self-reported craving, but only in the chocoholics and in the exposure condition. In the non-exposure condition, high trait chocolate cravers showed speeded detection of chocolate pictures relative to non-chocoholics, but this component did not correlate with self-reported craving. It is concluded that experimentally induced craving for chocolate causes a bias in, specifically the increased distraction component of attention in high trait chocolate cravers.

  18. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  19. Experimental assessment of toxic phytochemicals in Jatropha curcas: oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Naik, S N; Khan, M Ashhar I; Sahoo, P K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed is a rich source of oil; however, it can not be utilised for nutritional purposes due to presence of toxic and anti-nutritive compounds. The main objective of the present study was to quantify the toxic phytochemicals present in Indian J. curcas (oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol). The amount of phorbol esters is greater in solvent extracted oil (2.8 g kg⁻¹) than in expeller oil (2.1 g kg⁻¹). Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the purified compound from an active extract of oil confirmed the presence of phorbol esters. Similarly, the phorbol esters content is greater in solvent extracted cake (1.1 g kg⁻¹) than in cake after being expelled (0.8 g kg⁻¹). The phytate and trypsin inhibitory activity of the cake was found to be 98 g kg⁻¹ and 8347 TIU g⁻¹ of cake, respectively. Identification of curcin was achieved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the concentration of curcin was 0.95 g L⁻¹ of crude concentrate obtained from cake. Higher amounts of phorbol esters are present in oil than cake but bio-diesel and glycerol are free of phorbol esters. The other anti-nutritional components such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates and curcin are present in cake, so the cake should be detoxified before being used for animal feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla D. Di Mattia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  2. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattia, Carla D; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  3. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors

  4. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  5. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Ackar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows potentially beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies. This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine factual influence of chocolate on health.

  6. Differentiation of chocolates according to the cocoa's geographical origin using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambrai, Amandine; Marcic, Christophe; Morville, Stéphane; Sae Houer, Pierre; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2010-02-10

    The determination of the geographical origin of cocoa used to produce chocolate has been assessed through the analysis of the volatile compounds of chocolate samples. The analysis of the volatile content and their statistical processing by multivariate analyses tended to form independent groups for both Africa and Madagascar, even if some of the chocolate samples analyzed appeared in a mixed zone together with those from America. This analysis also allowed a clear separation between Caribbean chocolates and those from other origins. Height compounds (such as linalool or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) characteristic of chocolate's different geographical origins were also identified. The method described in this work (hydrodistillation, GC analysis, and statistic treatment) may improve the control of the geographical origin of chocolate during its long production process.

  7. The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Noll, Sabrina W; Molokwu, Oluwatobi J

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of the rheological behavior of chocolate and margarine [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaste, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, the production process is often established in an empirical way, according to rules of good practice. These methods present gaps, in particular at the level of the production regularity. To model and optimize the processes, it is highly useful to determine the physico-chemical properties of the product. In this work, chocolate and margarine are studied, both aiming direct industrial application but also aiming a general enhancement of rheological mechanism understanding. Indeed, the chocolate is a suspension of solid particles in cocoa butter and the margarine is a water-in-oil emulsion. Rheological behavior of those fluids is therefore relying on different key phenomena. In this work the flow behavior of both products is characterized and a mathematical model describing the rheological behavior of chocolate is developed. For chocolate, the goal is to model the tempering process. To establish the rheological behavior of chocolate, viscosity measurements were realized in a SEARLE VT550 viscometer using a bob and cup geometry. To build the mathematical law, general tests following the International Office of Cocoa, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery (IOCCC recommended method (Servais et al., 2004 were performed. The obtained rheogram shows that the chocolate has a slightly thixotropic behavior. More focus is set on a smaller range of shear rate important for the industrial application (Debaste et al., 2008. Measures for various temperatures and various quantities of cocoa butter were realized. The results show a classical shear-thinning behavior. Further, a statistical analysis of the results was made to determine the parameters of a power-law describing this behavior. It appears that temperature and cocoa butter fraction have no influence on the exponent but well on the consistency parameter. For margarine, the goal is to model the flow in resting tubes, the last step in the industrial production (Herman et al., 2008. To

  9. Marketing research of the chocolate market in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanov-Marjanova Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumer market in Macedonia and the chocolate market in particular, are overtaken from many foreign brands. The domestic companies, disregarding their size, are losing market share to the competitors with stronger strategies. This paper shows the existing weaknesses in the current strategies of the domestic companies through case study of the 2 largest confectionery producers in Macedonia on one side, and discovers the consumer behavior and preferences toward FMCG and chocolate through market research and analysis of a purposive statistical sample of 300 consumers on the other. The applied research techniques for the need of the consumer research were questionnaires and in depth interviews with the firms' managers. The analysis clearly indicates that with the adequate market research, i.e. implementation of the market research models and techniques a basis for competitive and successful marketing strategy can be created, not only by large corporations, but by individuals/owners of small and medium sized companies as well.

  10. Development of Synbiotic Milk Chocolate Enriched with Lactobacillus paracasei, D-tagatose and Galactooligosaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Homayouni Rad; Aslan Azizi; Roghayeh Darghahi; Omid Bakhtiari; Mina Javadi; Maryam Jafarzadeh Moghaddam; Hamideh Homayouni Rad; Seyed Bagher Mirtajeddini; Noushin Mobaraki Asl; Maryam Tayebali; Haniyeh Rasouli Pirouzian

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective: Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli). Galactooligosaccharide and tagatose are two main prebiotic compounds which are used in the food industry. Chocolate is widely consumed all over the world and could be used as an excellent vehicle for delivery of prebiotics. Furthermore, the incorporation of probiotics into chocolate, allows broadening the health claims of chocolate. The aim of ...

  11. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. Methods: We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993–1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular out...

  12. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Pavelka, Miroslav; Hrubý, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 331, č. 25 (2012), s. 5387-5392 ISSN 0022-460X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : hot chocolate effect * gas-liquid mixture * speed of sound Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022460X12005640

  13. Determinants of Brand Equity: Offering a Model to Chocolate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emari Hossien

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the underlying dimensions of brand equity in the chocolate industry. For this purpose, researchers developed a model to identify which factors are influential in building brand equity. The second purpose was to assess brand loyalty and brand images mediating effect between brand attitude, brand personality, brand association with brand equity. The study employed structural equation modeling to investigate the causal relationships between the dimensions...

  14. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadeta Ririn; Lulu Laela Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to...

  15. [Effects of herb cake-separated moxibustion on spleen in immunosuppressive rabbits:a morphology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuefeng; Wu, Aihua; Wang, Jun; Shan, Zengtian

    2016-10-12

    To observe the influence of different methods of moxibustion on spleen morphology in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive rabbits. A total of 50 rabbits were randomly assigned into a blank group, a model group, a herbal cake-separated moxibustion group, a moxibustion group and a sham cake-separated moxibustion group, 10 rabbits in each group. Except the blank group, the rabbits in each group were treated with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg), once a day, for 7 consecutive days to establish immunosuppressive model. After the model establishment, the rabbits in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with herbal cake-separated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8), "Guanyuan" (CV 4), "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Pishu" (BL 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23); the moxa cone was placed on the herbal cake which was made of Liuwei Dihuang decoction, three cones for each acupoint. The rabbits in the moxibustion group were treated with moxa stick moxibustion which contained equal moxa of three moxa cones. The rabbits in the sham cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with cake which was made of flour. The acupoint selection in the above three groups was identical, and the intervention was given once every other day for totally 10 times. The rabbits in the blank group and model group were immobilized for identical time without any intervention. After treatment, the rabbits were sacrificed to collect the spleen. With routine HE staining, the morphology changes of spleen were observed under microscope. In addition, the white pulp, splenic corpuscle and the counts of lymphatic cells of lymphatic sheath around the arteries were observed. Compared with the blank group, the average size of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were reduced (both P 0.05). Compared with the model group, the averagesize of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were significantly increased in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group and moxibustion

  16. Microbial protein and blood parameters of goats fed with licury cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal Souza Borja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ideal level of licury cake in the diet of Boer goats through microbial synthesis estimated based on the presence of purine derivatives in the urine and on blood urea and glucose parameters. Twenty uncastrated one-year-old ¾ Boer goats with an average body weight of 18 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Each animal was confined to a one m2 suspended stall with access to water ad libitum. The diets were formulated in accordance with the NRC (2007, and the ingredients were: 50% Tifton-85 (Cynodon sp hay, corn meal, soybean meal, premixed vitamin and mineral supplement, and licury cake. The treatments were: 1 0% of the goat’s total diet composed of licury cake (DM basis, 2 15% of the total diet composed of licury cake, 3 30% of the diet composed of licury cake, and 4 45% of the diet composed of licury cake. The experiment lasted for 17 days. The first 10 days were used to adapt the animals to the diets and facilities. The inclusion of the licury cake in the goat’s diets reduced the levels of blood nitrogen and glucose. Urinary excretion decreased linearly with the inclusion of licury cake in the diet. The inclusion of licury cake in the goat’s diets also caused a linear reduction in the excretion of allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine and total purine derivative (PD in urine samples. Based on the microbial protein production and blood parameters of goats fed with licury cake, up to 15% of the goat diet may be composed of licury cake.

  17. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901

  18. Minimizing the Negative Flavor Attributes and Evaluating Consumer Acceptance of Chocolate Fortified with Peanut Skin Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L L; Klevorn, C M; Hess, B J

    2016-10-13

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...

  20. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  1. Development of the composition of chocolate mass that resistant to bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Tkeshelashvili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate or used as a coating on the surface of the sweets chocolate mass when exposed to a temperature drop and/or a drop in the humidity of the environment, change color, lose gloss and acquire an unwanted grayish-white surface. The loss of the appearance of chocolate – the effect of bloom is the reason for the return of products from the trading network causing highly tangible the economic damage to the producers. In this connection, experimental researches devoted to the problem of preventing bloom and developing consist of chocolate masses preclusion to bloom appear to be an urgent task. The purpose of the research is develop consist of chocolate and covering chocolate resistant to bloom. The work is performed at the Scientific research institute of «Applied research of innovative technologies and food quality» of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. For an investigation, samples of chocolate and covering chocolate based on cocoa butter were made in the formulation of which an additive including milk fat/isomalt/polydextrose. The control samples were dark chocolate and covering chocolate prepared according to a unified formula. For the formation of blooming, the samples were exposed to temperature fluctuations and relative humidity. The measurement of the color of chocolate is implementation by an instrumental method based on the analysis of the optical characteristics of the product. The coefficients of reflection spectra of samples of chocolate were converted into color coordinates of space CIEL ? a ? b* 1976. The emergence of a bloom of chocolate by changing the parameter lightness L ? (CIEL ? a ? b* was diagnosed. The effect of introducing an additive, including milk fat/isomalt/polydextrose on fat and sugar bloom, was determined in the formulation of chocolate masses. Based on research the consist of the chocolate mass has been developed which practically does not change the taste of the finished chocolate products

  2. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness.

  3. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...... and smelling both induced a similar appetite suppression with a disappearance of correlations between VAS scores and insulin, GLP-1 and CCK levels. However, while the correlation between VAS score and ghrelin disappeared completely after chocolate eating, it reversed after chocolate smelling, that is......, olfactory stimulation with dark chocolate (85%) resulted in a satiation response that correlated inversely with ghrelin levels....

  4. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.

  5. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the “witches’ broom” disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  6. Development of chocolate technology for dietary purposes based on natural sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate it’s popular confectionery product for children and adults. However, excessive consumption of chocolate adversely affects to human health due to high content of simple carbohydrates, especially sucrose. At Department of Technologies grain processing, bakery, confectionery and pasta production in Moscow State University of Technology and Management. K.G. Razumovsky developed a recipe for chocolate with natural sweeteners, such as stevioside and erythritol. Stevioside is a glycoside extracted from a stevia plant. Thanks to thermal stability (destruction occurs at 190–200 °C it can be used in the traditional technology of chocolate production. Erythritol (erythritol is a polyhydric sugar alcohol, produced from corn. Main difficulty of chocolate production with natural sweeteners on traditional way is - replacing sucrose with stevioside and erythritol in finished chocolate, a specific bitterness appeared, elimination of which became the main task of research. The obtained sample is characterized by maximum approximation to traditional taste, it does not have a side effect of using sweeteners - bitterness and a specific aftertaste. According to organoleptic and physicochemical parameters, it is close to classical dark chocolate, and also exceeds by more than two times average value of antioxidant capacity by lipophilic fraction, compare with well-known chocolate producers in Russia. This may be a consequence of increased content cocoa products in prototype recipe of chocolate sample, in comparison with traditional brands, with exclusion of sugar from recipe and replacement with natural sugar substitutes.

  7. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Igor; de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Maria Gabriela; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Freitas Schwan, Rosane

    2017-05-09

    Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  8. Acute Consumption of Flavan-3-ol-Enriched Dark Chocolate Affects Human Endogenous Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Philo, Mark; Colquhoun, Ian J; Tapp, Henri S; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; Kemsley, E Kate; de Roos, Baukje; Kroon, Paul A; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle

    2017-07-07

    Flavan-3-ols and methylxanthines have potential beneficial effects on human health including reducing cardiovascular risk. We performed a randomized controlled crossover intervention trial to assess the acute effects of consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark chocolate and white chocolate, on the human metabolome. We assessed the metabolome in urine and blood plasma samples collected before and at 2 and 6 h after consumption of chocolates in 42 healthy volunteers using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Plasma samples were assessed and showed differentiation between time points with no further separation among the three chocolate treatments. Multivariate statistics applied to urine samples could readily separate the postprandial time points and distinguish between the treatments. Most of the markers responsible for the multivariate discrimination between the chocolates were of dietary origin. Interestingly, small but significant level changes were also observed for a subset of endogenous metabolites. 1 H NMR revealed that flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and standard dark chocolate reduced urinary levels of creatinine, lactate, some amino acids, and related degradation products and increased the levels of pyruvate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, a phenolic compound of bacterial origin. This study demonstrates that an acute chocolate intervention can significantly affect human metabolism.

  9. Mood food: chocolate and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-04-26

    Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, >or=16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, >or=22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score >or=16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (>or=22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study.

  10. Chocolate para el imperio: la interiorización europea de estética mesoamericana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy Norton.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a new interpretation of how and why Europeans developed a taste for chocolate. While previous studies have suggested that Europeans transformed chocolate materially and ideologically in order to make it fit their existing set of tastes and prejudices, it is demonstrated that Europeans learned to like chocolate on Indian terms as a result of their status as cultural minorities in colonial Mesoamerica. In addition this article uses the historical case study of chocolate's transcultural migration to revise current models of taste used in historical and anthropological literature. It rejects biologicalessentialism and culturalfunctionalism and instead shows that taste is an independent historical variable affected by social circumstances.

  11. Chocolate packaging cues and first moment of truth: An exploratory study on young consumers’ mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is often called as the fifth P of the marketing mix. Chocolate is a product which is loved to be consumed irrespective of any age group. Consumers were asked to imagine that a new chocolate bar has been launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste it or a chocolate bar which was already launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste it .The present study explored different chocolate packaging cues that could possibly influence the purchase decision of young consumers in such a scenario. Descriptive research with convenient sampling elicited 240 responses across the age group lying between 11 to 27 years. Results showed that an attractive package design was of paramount significance in first purchase of chocolate bars. The important factors which affected the buying decision were ‘Information’ and ‘Visual aesthetics’. However it was found that chocolate packaging had less influence on subsequent purchase of chocolate bars. It was also inferred that an attractive package along with a strong advertising campaign could bring prospective sales for a newly launched chocolate bar. The study also discussed the influence of chocolate packaging for national and international brands across various demographic variables.

  12. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  14. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  15. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  16. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  17. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  18. Ultrasound-guided interventional therapy for recurrent ovarian chocolate cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Dong, Xiao-Qiu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided interventional therapy in the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. The 198 patients enrolled in this study were divided into three groups. In group 1, the saline washing group, the cavity of the cyst was washed thoroughly with warm saline. In group 2, the ethanol short-time retention group, after washing with saline, the cyst was injected with 95% ethanol with a volume of half of the fluid aspirated from the cyst. Ten minutes later, the rest of the ethanol was aspirated. In group 3, the ethanol retention group, the procedures were the same as with the ethanol short-time retention group, except that 95% of the ethanol was retained in the cyst. An ultrasound examination was performed in the third, sixth and 12th months after therapy. The chocolate cyst cure rate was significantly higher in the ethanol retention group (96%, 66/69) than in the ethanol short-time retention group (82%, 56/68) and no case was cured in the first group (saline washing). We conclude that ultrasound-guided injection and 95% ethanol retention are an effective therapy for the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  20. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. β-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function.

  1. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  2. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-06-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  3. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  4. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, J.E.G. van; Heeres, H.J.

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  5. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Heeres, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  6. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  7. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The applicability of fluoride volatility process to producing UF6 from yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang

    2005-01-01

    The schematic diagrams producing UF 6 from yellow cake are showed in this paper. The characteristics and process improvements of the fluoride volatility process are explained. The applicability of the fluoride volatility process to producing UF 6 from yellow cake is discussed. (authors)

  9. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of

  10. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancement of the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna, Mariani

    2015-01-01

    The 'neem cake' scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA laboratories have developed a promising trial to promote the use of neem cake as a low-cost insecticide and fertilizer in sustainable agriculture. [it

  11. Effect of transglutaminase on some properties of cake enriched with various protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, H; Bilgiçli, N

    2008-06-01

    The effect of transglutaminase (TG) enzyme addition (0% and 0.09%) on batter and cake properties, prepared with different protein sources (nonfat dry milk [NFDM], soy flour, and soymilk) and flour types (type A with 11.4% protein and type B with 8.6% protein), was investigated. Specific gravity and pH of cake batters were determined, and physical and chemical analysis of the cake samples was performed. Soy products improved cake weight, volume, softness, protein, and fat contents. NFDM increased the crust redness and crumb lightness more than the other protein sources. TG enzyme addition affected the volume, softness, crust, and crumb color of the cake samples significantly (P flour B with lower protein gave more puffed, symmetrical, and softer cake samples. TG had a potential application with different protein sources in cake production. Especially interactions between TG with soy flour and TG and wheat flour with high protein content were important in cake formulations due to the softening effect on crumb.

  12. A prospective, multi-center study of the chocolate balloon in femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease: The Chocolate BAR registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Lansky, Alexandra; Shishehbor, Mehdi; Miles McClure, John; Johnson, Sarah; Davis, Thomas; Makam, Prakash; Crowder, William; Konstantino, Eitan; Attaran, Robert R

    2018-05-01

    The Chocolate BAR study is a prospective multicenter post-market registry designed to evaluate the safety and performance of the Chocolate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon catheter in a broad population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The primary endpoint is acute procedural success (defined as ≤30% residual stenosis without flow-limiting dissection); secondary long-term outcomes include freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), major unplanned amputation, survival, and patency. A total of 262 patients (290 femoropopliteal lesions) were enrolled at 30 US centers between 2012 and 2014. The primary endpoint of procedure success was achieved in 85.1% of cases, and freedom from stenting occurred in 93.1%. Bail out stenting by independent adjudication occurred in 1.6% of cases and there were no flow limiting dissections. There was mean improvement of 2.1 Rutherford classes (±1.5) at 12-months, with 78.5% freedom from TLR, 97.2% freedom from major amputation, and 93.3% freedom from all-cause mortality. Core Lab adjudicated patency was 64.1% at 12 months. Use of the Chocolate balloon in an "all-comers" population achieved excellent procedural outcomes with low dissection rates and bailout stent use. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparable postprandial glucose reductions with viscous fiber blend enriched biscuits in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus: acute randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alexandra L; Jenkins, David J A; Wolever, Thomas M S; Rogovik, Alexander L; Jovanovski, Elena; Bozikov, Velimir; Rahelić, Dario; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    To compare the blood glucose-lowering effect of a highly viscous fiber blend (VFB) added to a starchy snack on postprandial glycemia between healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus. Ten healthy participants (4 men and 6 women, aged 28+/-2.6 years, body mass index [BMI], 24.3+/-0.8 kg/m(2)) and 9 participants with diabetes mellitus type 2 (3 men and 6 women, aged 68+/-3.8 years, BMI 28.8+/-1.2 kg/m(2)) on four separate occasions took either 50 g available carbohydrates as control biscuits, biscuits with 10 g of highly viscous fiber blend, white bread with 12 g of margarine, or white bread alone. Postprandial blood glucose response, glycemic index (GI), and palatability were determined. Mean (95% confidence interval) GI values of the viscous fiber blend biscuits were 26 (16-36) and 37 (27-47) GI units for healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of white bread, white bread with 12 g of margarine, and control biscuits (Phealthy participants (GI 100, 108 [57-159], and 101 [44-158], respectively) and participants with diabetes mellitus (GI 100, 103 [79-127], and 94 [78-110], respectively). Viscous fiber blend significantly reduced the glycemic index by 74% (7.4 GI units/g of fiber) in healthy participants and by 63% (6.3 GI units/g of fiber) in participants with diabetes. The GI did not differ between control meals in both healthy participants and participants with diabetes. There were no significant differences in palatability among the types of meals, although participants with diabetes found the viscous fiber blend biscuits more palatable (P=0.002, t test). Viscous fiber blend is a very potent and palatable soluble fiber addition to a starchy snack, which is able to reduce the glycemic response to a similar extent in both healthy participants and individuals with diabetes mellitus. Biscuits with low GI, and possibly other viscous fiber blend fortified starchy

  14. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  15. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (Pgoats had higher pH24 (Pgoats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (Pgoats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of shading time on quality of matcha and matcha cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of shading time on the quality of Matcha and the Matcha cake.It showed that shading could help the systhesis of nitrogen compounds such as amino acids,caffeine chlorophyll and protein,but couldn′t favor accumulation of tea polyphenol and polysaccharides.The more shading time was,the more chlorophyll content would be,and the more green of Matcha color would be.After Matcha cake was baked,the green color reduced.The colors of Macha cake are greener with longer shading time.Thus,the length of Shading time has obvious effect on the green tea and the tea cake quality,We can adjust the Matcha cake taste,flavor and color by adding Matcha from different shading time.

  17. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessasma, Mohamed; Silva Tavares, Homayra; Afrassiabian, Zahra; Saleh, Khashayar

    2017-06-01

    This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM). In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV), the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation) in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength).

  18. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guessasma Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM. In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV, the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength.

  19. Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Wu, Xianli; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2006-05-31

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blind for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORAC(FL)), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate with NIST certified values. Procyanidin (PC) content was related to the nonfat cocoa solid (NFCS) content. The natural cocoa powders (average 87% of NFCS) contained the highest levels of AOC (826 +/- 103 micromol of TE/g) and PCs (40.8 +/- 8.3 mg/g). Alkalized cocoa (Dutched powders, average 80% NFCS) contained lower AOC (402 +/- 6 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (8.9 +/- 2.7 mg/g). Unsweetened chocolates or chocolate liquor (50% NFCS) contained 496 +/- 40 micromol of TE /g of AOC and 22.3 +/- 2.9 mg/g of PCs. Milk chocolates, which contain the least amount of NFCS (7.1%), had the lowest concentrations of AOC (80 +/- 10 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg/g). One serving of cocoa (5 g) or chocolate (15 or 40 g, depending upon the type of chocolate) provides 2000-9100 micromol of TE of AOC and 45-517 mg of PCs, amounts that exceed the amount in a serving of the majority of foods consumed in America. The monomers through trimers, which are thought to be directly bioavailable, contributed 30% of the total PCs in chocolates. Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity contributed >90% of AOC in all products. The correlation coefficient between AOC and PCs in chocolates was 0.92, suggesting that PCs are the dominant antioxidants in cocoa and chocolates. These results indicate that NFCS is correlated with AOC and PC in cocoa and chocolate products. Alkalizing dramatically decreased both the procyanidin content and antioxidant capacity, although not to the same extent.

  20. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubmann, R; Foidl, G; Foidl, N; Gübitz, G M; Lafferty, R M; Arbizu, V M; Steiner, W

    1997-01-01

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m3 m"3 d"1 was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m~3 d"1. However, the UASB reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane.

  1. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staubmann, R.; Guebitz, G.M.; Lafferty, R.M. [Graz Technical Univ. (Austria)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. However, the UAS reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Radiolytic gas generation in salt cake technical task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.; Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are stored in large, steel tanks in the Savannah River Site Tank Farms. The liquid levels in these tanks are monitored to detect leakage of waste out of tanks or leakage of liquids into the tanks. Recent unexplained level fluctuations in high-level waste (HLW) tanks have caused High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to develop a program to better understand tank level behavior. Interim Waste Technology (IWT) has been requested by HLWE to obtain data which will lead to a better understanding of the radiolytic generations of gases in salt cake. The task described below will provide data from laboratory experiments with simulated wastes which can be used in tank level fluctuation modeling. The following experimental programs have been formulated to meet the task requirements of the customer: (A) determine whether radiolytically generated gas bubbles can be trapped in salt cake; (B) determine the composition of gases produced by radiolysis; (C) determine the yield of radiolysis gases as a function of radiation dose; (D) determine bubble distribution

  3. Energy requirements during sponge cake baking: Experimental and simulated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureta, M. Micaela; Goñi, Sandro M.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Olivera, Daniela F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sponge cake energy consumption during baking was studied. • High oven temperature and forced convection mode favours oven energy savings. • Forced convection produced higher weight loss thus a higher product energy demand. • Product energy demand was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied. • The greatest energy efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode. - Abstract: Baking is a high energy demanding process, which requires special attention in order to know and improve its efficiency. In this work, energy consumption associated to sponge cake baking is investigated. A wide range of operative conditions (two ovens, three convection modes, three oven temperatures) were compared. Experimental oven energy consumption was estimated taking into account the heating resistances power and a usage factor. Product energy demand was estimated from both experimental and modeling approaches considering sensible and latent heat. Oven energy consumption results showed that high oven temperature and forced convection mode favours energy savings. Regarding product energy demand, forced convection produced faster and higher weight loss inducing a higher energy demand. Besides, this parameter was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied, with an average error between experimental and simulated values in a range of 8.0–10.1%. Finally, the energy efficiency results indicated that it increased linearly with the effective oven temperature and that the greatest efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode.

  4. The yellow cake accident at the Ezeiza Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1987 several drums containing yellow cake fell from about six meters during the loading operation of a Boeing 747 T-100 cargo aircraft. As a result of the accident, about 50% of the 38 drums involved lost their lids and a fraction of the radioactive content was released on an area of about 200 meters squared. Small amounts of yellow cake were dispersed down wind until about 100 meters from the accident place. The shipment was prepared for transport in standard 200 liter steel drums fulfilling the applicable Transport Regulations and the accident was the consequence of an erroneous operation during the cargo associated with a mechanical failure of the cargo lift. In order to avoid human contamination, immediate action was taken by the airport emergency team and in the meantime, the specialized groups of the National Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Fire Brigades, were convened to take care of the decontamination and radiological evaluation problems. This paper describes the accidental sequences, the accident scenery, the countermeasures taken, the recovery and decontamination actions, and finally, as a conclusion, a brief description of the toxic and radiological aspects of the accident's mode

  5. Cocoa content influences chocolate molecular profile investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cínthia C; Silva, Luciano P

    2015-06-01

    Chocolate authentication is a key aspect of quality control and safety. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of cells, tissues, and even food. The present study evaluated if MALDI-TOF MS analysis on low molecular mass profile may classify chocolate samples according to the cocoa content. The molecular profiles of seven processed commercial chocolate samples were compared by using MALDI-TOF MS. Some ions detected exclusively in chocolate samples corresponded to the metabolites of cocoa or other constituents. This method showed the presence of three distinct clusters according to confectionery and sensorial features of the chocolates and was used to establish a mass spectra database. Also, novel chocolate samples were evaluated in order to check the validity of the method and to challenge the database created with the mass spectra of the primary samples. Thus, the method was shown to be reliable for clustering unknown samples into the main chocolate categories. Simple sample preparation of the MALDI-TOF MS approach described will allow the surveillance and monitoring of constituents during the molecular profiling of chocolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The Science of Chocolate: Interactive Activities on Phase Transitions, Emulsification, and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Nearly everyone loves chocolate, which makes this an excellent topic for communicating scientific concepts to the general public and to students in the classroom. Here we present the outline and activities for an interactive presentation on the science of chocolate for nonspecialists and their children ages 6 and up. We design the presentation…

  7. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-09

    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  8. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Ackar, Djurdjica; Valek Lendić, Kristina; Valek, Marina; Šubarić, Drago; Miličević, Borislav; Babić, Jurislav; Nedić, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  9. Minimizing the negative flavor attributes and evaluating consumer acceptance of chocolate fortified with peanut skin extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. This has resulted in an increased focus on chocolate as a natural source of antioxidant compounds and the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate p...

  10. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Loke, Yoon K.; Luben, Robert N.; Yeong, Jessica K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Myint, Phyo K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency

  11. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  12. Incidence of Mycotoxins in Local and Branded Samples of Chocolates Marketed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present overview was intended to evaluate the degree of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A contamination in different samples of bitter, dark, milk, and white chocolates marketed in Pakistan. For that exploration, two hundred (n=200 samples of chocolates, 100 branded and 100 local, were analyzed for mycotoxins profile by HPLC-FLD. The outcomes firmly sustained that the majority of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The incidence of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in branded samples was 83% and 90%, whereas the local samples showed 91% and 97% contamination, respectively. The highest amount of total aflatoxins was found in branded dark chocolates, that is, 2.27 μg/kg, and maximum ochratoxin A level was detected white chocolates (2.06 μg/kg. On average, the local white chocolates and dark chocolates faced the highest level of total aflatoxins (3.35 μg/kg and ochratoxin A (3.48 μg/kg, respectively. The local samples of chocolates were more contaminated with mycotoxins as compared to branded ones accredited to the lack of quality control and quality assurance during the manufacturing as well as packing processes. In recent years, consumption of chocolate is rapidly increasing especially by young generation, so monitoring of mycotoxin occurrence in them is a matter of great concern and more studies are required to comprehend the production of mycotoxins in these products.

  13. Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Schumacker, Julie; Guerrero, François; Tillmans, Frauke; Boutros, Antoine; Lambrechts, Kate; Mazur, Aleksandra; Pieri, Massimo; Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water. Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group (8 males and 2 females) and a chocolate group (9 males and 1 female). The control group was asked to perform a series of dives to 20 m adding up to 20 min in the quiet diving pool of Conflans-Ste-Honorine (Paris, France), water temperature was 27 °C. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography, nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite ONOO−) levels were measured before and after each series of breath-hold dives. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives (95.28 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (104.1 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (98.44 ± 31.86 %, p > 0.05). No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

  14. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, James I; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kroon, Paul A; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C H

    2016-11-01

    Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years) were supplemented with: (1) 70g dark chocolate (150 mg epicatechin) with placebo capsules; (2) pure epicatechin capsules (2 × 50 mg epicatechin) with 75g white chocolate; and (3) placebo capsules with 75 g white chocolate (0 mg epicatechin). Vascular function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx)) were measured before and 2 hours after interventions. Epicatechin metabolites time-profiles were measured in blood to calculate the bioavailability. Pure epicatechin did not significantly improve FMD (+0.75%; p = 0.10) or AIx (-2.2%; p = 0.23) compared to placebo. Dark chocolate significantly improved FMD (+0.96%; p = 0.04) and AIx (-4.6%; p = 0.02). Differences in improvements in FMD (+ 0.21%; p = 0.65) or Aix (-2.4%; p = 0.20) between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate were not significant. The bioavailability of epicatechin did not differ between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate (p = 0.14). Despite differences in epicatechin dose, improvements in vascular function after pure epicatechin and chocolate were similar and the bioavailability did not differ, suggesting a role for epicatechin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  16. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  17. Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Eileen; Fong Sam, Jennifer; Gray, Patrick; Robin, Lauren Posnick

    2018-06-01

    Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the US and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004 to 3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from cocoa, with correlations varying by product type and geographic origin. Geographic variation was observed for Cd, with higher Cd concentrations found in products reported as originating from Latin America than from Africa. The influence of percent cocoa solids and cocoa origin on Cd levels are relevant to international standards for Cd in chocolate products.

  18. Acceptability and nutritional value of dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to formulate dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa (9% in replacement of chocolate, as well as assess the acceptability (global acceptance, appearance and purchase intent and the nutritional value of the formulations. The various chocolate samples were considered accepted and showed good levels of purchase intent, except for the variation enriched with flaxseed. The chocolate samples showed high content of fiber (27 to 40 g/100g, and lower energy value (385 to 413 kcal/100g compared to conventional dark chocolates with almonds (7 to 11 g of dietary fiber/100g and 500 to 550 kcal/100g, thus providing a healthier alternative for consumers.

  19. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mattia, Carla D.; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction product...

  20. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.