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Sample records for biscay north coast

  1. Lagrangian circulation of the North Atlantic Central Water over the abyssal plain and continental slopes of the Bay of Biscay: description of selected mesoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Serpette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1994 and 2001, several experiments (ARCANE, SEFOS, INTERAFOS were conducted to directly measure the general and mesoscale Lagrangian circulations over the Bay of Biscay abyssal plain and slopes. Two levels (~100 m and ~450 m were selected to cover the North Atlantic Central Water range. Two types of Lagrangian instruments, drogued surface drifters tracked by satellite (Surdrift and acoustically tracked subsurface floats (Rafos and Marvor, were used. Overall, more than 36 instrument-years were collected in the Bay of Biscay region (43-49°N, 01-12°W. The weak general circulation in the Bay of Biscay is seen to be highly influenced by the occurrence of several mesoscale coherent features, notably slope currents and eddies, and these affect the exchanges between the abyssal plain and the slopes. The objective of this paper is to depict some specific examples of the observed mesoscale field. Selected float trajectories are shown and used to discuss observations of slope currents and of both anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Slope currents exhibit alternation of poleward and equatorward directions, depending on both the period and the geographic area considered. Although the generation process of mesoscale eddies is difficult to observe unambiguously from Lagrangian instruments, eddies are nevertheless ubiquitous over the abyssal plain. Some characteristics of the observed cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are presented. Smaller anticyclones, localised over the outer shelf and interpreted in terms of ajustment of slope water intrusions, are also depicted.

  2. Tidal downscaling from the open ocean to the coast: a new approach applied to the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toublanc, F.; Ayoub, N. K.; Lyard, F.; Marsaleix, P.; Allain, D. J.

    2018-04-01

    Downscaling physical processes from a large scale to a regional scale 3D model is a recurrent issue in coastal processes studies. The choice of boundary conditions will often greatly influence the solution within the 3D circulation model. In some regions, tides play a key role in coastal dynamics and must be accurately represented. The Bay of Biscay is one of these regions, with highly energetic tides influencing coastal circulation and river plume dynamics. In this study, three strategies are tested to force with barotropic tides a 3D circulation model with a variable horizontal resolution. The tidal forcings, as well as the tidal elevations and currents resulting from the 3D simulations, are compared to tidal harmonics extracted from satellite altimetry and tidal gauges, and tidal currents harmonics obtained from ADCP data. The results show a strong improvement of the M2 solution within the 3D model with a "tailored" tidal forcing generated on the same grid and bathymetry as the 3D configuration, compared to a global tidal atlas forcing. Tidal harmonics obtained from satellite altimetry data are particularly valuable to assess the performance of each simulation. Comparisons between sea surface height time series, a sea surface salinity database, and daily averaged 2D currents also show a better agreement with this tailored forcing.

  3. Multi-Satellite Altimeter Validation along the French Atlantic Coast in the Southern Bay of Biscay from ERS-2 to SARAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Lan Vu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in coastal sea levels is necessary given the impacts of climate change. Information on the sea level and its changes are important parameters in connection to climate change processes. In this study, radar altimetry data from successive satellite missions, European Remote Sensing-2 (ERS-2, Jason-1, Envisat, Jason-2, and Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa (SARAL, were used to measure sea surface heights (SSH. Altimetry-derived SSH was validated for the southern Bay of Biscay, using records from seven tide gauges located along the French Atlantic coast. More detailed comparisons were performed at La Rochelle, as this was the only tide gauge whose records covered the entire observation period for the different radar altimetry missions. The results of the comparison between the altimetry-based and in-situ SSH, recorded from zero to five kilometers away from the coast, had root mean square errors (RMSE ranging from 0.08 m to 0.21 m, 0.17 m to 0.34 m, 0.1 m to 0.29 m, 0.18 m to 0.9 m, and 0.22 m to 0.89 m for SARAL, Jason-2, Jason-1, ENVISAT, and ERS-2, respectively. Comparing the missions on the same orbit, ENVISAT had better results than ERS-2, which can be accounted for by the improvements in the sensor mode of operation, whereas the better results obtained using SARAL are related to the first-time use of the Ka-band for an altimetry sensor. For Jason-1 and Jason-2, improvements were found in the ocean retracking algorithm (MLE-4 against MLE-3, and also in the bi-frequency ionosphere and radiometer wet troposphere corrections. Close to the shore, the use of model-based ionosphere (GIM and wet troposphere (ECMWF corrections, as applied to land surfaces, reduced the error on the SSH estimates.

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-26 to 2010-09-16 (NODC Accession 0108092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108092 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PRIDE OF BILBAO in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and North...

  5. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1977-10-07 to 1977-10-27 (NODC Accession 0113528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113528 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean...

  6. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1986-09-04 to 1986-10-03 (NCEI Accession 0143391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143391 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1986-09-04 to...

  7. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1984-07-11 to 1984-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0143393)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143393 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from GARCIA DEL CID in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1984-07-11 to...

  8. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the PELAGIA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-06-18 to 1996-06-18 (NODC Accession 0115585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115585 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from PELAGIA in the Bay of Biscay and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  9. Spring plankton community structure and distribution in the north and south coasts of Sfax (Tunisia) after north coast restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Aleya, Lotfi; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2013-02-15

    The first phase of the Taparura Project aimed at restoring the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia), highly polluted by phosphate industry and uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumping. Before restoration of the north coast of Sfax, we investigated the state of the ecosystem in related coastal waters. To establish the impact of the Taparura Project, we conducted a similar study both after restoration. To discriminate natural changes over time, we extended the study to the south coast of Sfax, submitted to the same industrial pressure but not yet restored. The present study, conducted in May 2010 at 36 stations (18 on each coast, north and south), covered the spatial distribution of the microbial assemblage, nutrients, and abiotic parameters by collecting seawater samples at the surface and the water-sediment interface. Results revealed a striking difference between the two coasts regarding pH, with strong acidification of seawater in the south, likely generated by industrial activity. Suspended matter was higher in the north than in the south. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the south coast. Heterotrophic prokaryotes were resolved into three groups, labelled LNA (low nucleic acid content), HNA1 and HNA2 (high nucleic acid content). Prochloroccocus, pico-nano-microphytoplankton, heterotrophic prokaryotes and ciliates were more abundant in the north, whereas Synechococcus and unknown species were more abundant in the south where chl a concentration was also higher. The results show that restoration had positive effects on the microbial assemblage of the north coast; they also highlight the strong acidification still prevalent in the south that may be responsible for the lower development of most phytoplankton groups and the occurrence of unknown species. The

  10. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Southern Pacific in Suisun City; (9) Then north in a straight line for approximately 5.5 miles to...); (22) Then southwest in a straight line for approximately 17.6 miles to the confluence of Redwood Creek...

  11. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  12. Nearshore processes along north Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.; Anand, N.M.

    obliquity. Also it was found that the distribution of longshore currents was not similar at all stations along the study region. The annual net sediment transport was 0.069 x 10 sup(6)/year towards north at Arge beach and 0.040 x 10 sup(6) m sup(3)/year...

  13. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ...: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is requesting peer reviewed information that would be useful in the preparation of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is... information by electronic mail to: [email protected] . Please include your name and contact information in...

  14. Tourism Profile Danish North Sea Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hergesell, Anja; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling

    2007-01-01

    observations, the Germans continue to account for most of all overnights and remain the dominant segment in the southern parts of the peninsula, while the domestic demand prevails in the north. Despite the above described changes and the differences among origin markets regarding their preferred type...... is not important. Instead, the interviews indicate that while sustainability is not an issue in a Danish context to the same extent as in other countries, its principles have been integrated in tourism development. There are numerous networks shaping tourism development in the Danish NSR. Next to permanent...... of new ideas and the implementation of innovative concepts. However, their attitude towards change may differ: some individuals actively encourage innovative behaviour while others resist change until inevitable. Thus, investments into human resources are needed in addition to financial resources...

  15. Quantification of a rock platform bioerosion by the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816): the Basque Coast case (Bay of Biscay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regard, Vincent; de Casamjor, Marie-Noëlle; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Prémaillon, Mélody; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The French Basque Coast is an actively eroding rocky coast. In the study area it is made of flysch with a circa 40 degrees-dip; it is exposed to an average significant wave height of 1.8 m and peak period of 9.6 s. It is mesotidal (spring tide of ˜4m). The current rocky shore platform is carved into the flysch layering. We focus on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus contribution to rock shore erosion. Indeed, this sea urchin has a burrowing behaviour. An ecological study has been conducted for stock assessment, from shore to 10 m-deep. It indicates that sea urchins are burying their own shelter and are not reusing former ones. Below the depth of 10 m, sea urchins densities are very low and burial behavior is considered insignificant. Estimates of sea urchin density, and biomass are provided, making possible to evaluate the average erosion rate along this coast due to burying. It is of the order of 0.17 mm/y between 0 and 3 m below sea level, ˜0.05 mm/y between 3 and 5 m-deep, ˜0.02 mm/y between 5 and 8 m below sea level, and finally drops to negligible under 8 meters below sea-level. Close to the 0 level, it is thus between 30 and 5% of the expected value (evaluated to be 0.5-3 mm/y after 5-10 cm/y cliff retreat rate and a 1-2 degrees platform dip). The overall sea urchin contribution to shore platform erosion is not negligible.

  16. Ecosystem Approach Studying Development of North Coast Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardjo, P.

    2017-07-01

    The Inhabitant population of the city of Jakarta continues to increase, the extent of land is limited, and the increasing demand for housing and support facilities, to encourage the conversion of land in Jakarta, for example, the conversion of mangrove forests and reclamation on the north coast of Jakarta in a bid to increase the area of land for the construction of housing and business and commercial centre. Changes in land cover caused by changes in the ecosystem affect the North Beach neighbourhood of Jakarta. The purpose of this paper examines the impact of changes in land cover and environmental development of coastal areas of Jakarta. The qualitative research approach used. Analysis of changes in land uses the space, temporal analysis instruments, to study the change of land use in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015. The scope of the study is limited to environmental issues, which include the natural and built environment of the Environment. The study results get, the development of the north coast city of Jakarta ignores ecosystems, such as coastal ecosystems, open green spaces, river ecosystems, resulting in a puddle of water at high tide.

  17. Dynamics of inner-shelf, multi-scale bedforms off the south Aquitaine coast over three decades (Southeast Bay of Biscay, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazières, Alaïs; Gillet, Hervé; Idier, Deborah; Mulder, Thierry; Garlan, Thierry; Mallet, Cyril; Marieu, Vincent; Hanquiez, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the seabed morphodynamics of the south Aquitaine inner shelf in the area known as "La Salie" (150 km2, Atlantic ocean, west coast of France), through a descriptive and comparative analysis (time lapse of 29 years) of geophysical and sedimentological datasets. At a water depth of 24-50 m, four orders of sedimentary body types were observed at different scales. The first order are large cross-shore "morphological ridges," corresponding with the properties of very large sorted bedforms. The second order consisted in patchy sorted bedforms, composed of alternately medium to fine sand patches (0.5-2 m in thickness), cut by smaller, elongated coarse sediment depressions. In particular, the data from the sub-bottom profiler revealed that sand patches predominantly overlayed the coarse-grained blankets on the eastern (shoreward) extremities, while coarse-grained blanket wedges were found in front of the sand patches (southwestward) or locally overlying them on the southwestern extremities. The third order of bedforms involved groups of dune-like features (fine/medium sand), lying in wide areas of coarse-grained sediment. Finally, in the fouth order, the entire inner shelf was covered with wave-generated ripples, oriented N15°, that were larger where sediments were coarse (wavelengths of 2.2 m) than where sediments were fine (wavelengths of 0.3 m). Over the past 29 years, at a large scale of observation, patchy sorted bedforms have remained remarkably persistent, as has their overall appearance. However, at a smaller scale, weak but constant movements were observed. The coarse depressions have become elongated at their extremities (by a maximum of 300 m over 15 years), and certain coarse/fine sediment boundaries have moved toward the northeast and southeast (by a maximum of 75 m over 12 years). The general movement has been shoreward as has the migration of third-order submarine dune-like features. The persistence of sorted bedforms thus

  18. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  19. The Minor Rivers of Black Sea North-Western Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyukaeva, Alevtina

    2017-04-01

    The generalisations and conclusions have been done based on the expeditional monitoring of minor rivers of the Russian Federation Black Sea Coast for summer-autumn mean water in 2011-2015. The length of coastal line under monitoring was 300 km with 78 rivers with length no longer, then 50 km. The monitoring task was to establish the natural background of river effluent for the region under study. The observation parameters are physical measures (temperature, pH, Eh), solution (salts) and suspension forms of effluent (feculence, suspension chemical composition). 1. The tendency to decrease minor river water temperature at isthmus correspondent to movement from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. The causes are the growing length of the rivers and steepness of the relief along the Black Sea Caucasus. 2. The dependence between the size of coagulated suspension and water temperature is established. Moreover the intensive mix is not able to compensate the negative influence of the low temperature. 3. The value of hydrogen index, mineralization and specific electric conductivity for minor river are growing from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. 4. By the main ionic composition of the minor rivers of Black Sea north-eastern coast can be classified as hydrocarbonate. The main characteristic (marker) of colt composition for the region is the sensible concentrations of potassium and sodium. 5. The amount of suspension substance in the river water and its feculence changes between 50 mg/dm3 дo 280 mg/dm3. In particle size distribution composition of river suspensions the politic fractions (up to 70%) are prevailed, sand and silt fractions are presented less (25%). 6. Suspension form content of microelements depends on general amount of suspension in river water. The suspension form migration is significant for lead, cobalt, tin and silver. Other metals "prefer" the solution forms and can be arranged approximately in the following: vanadium

  20. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  1. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  2. Mixing Waters and Moving Ships off the North Carolina Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The estuarine and marine environments of the United States' eastern seaboard provide the setting for a variety of natural and human activities associated with the flow of water. This set of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer images from October 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 4344) captures the intricate system of barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries comprising the coastal environments of North Carolina and southern Virginia. On the right-hand side of the images, a thin line of land provides a tenuous separation between the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and the Atlantic Ocean. The wetland communities of this area are vital to productive fisheries and water quality.The top image covers an area of about 350 kilometers x 260 kilometers and is a true-color view from MISR's 46-degree backward-looking camera. Looking away from the Sun suppresses glint from the reflective water surface and enables mapping the color of suspended sediments and plant life near the coast. Out in the open sea, the dark blue waters indicate the Gulf Stream. As it flows toward the northeast, this ocean current presses close to Cape Hatteras (the pointed cape in the lower portion of the images), and brings warm, nutrient-poor waters northward from equatorial latitudes. North Carolina's Outer Banks are often subjected to powerful currents and storms which cause erosion along the east-facing shorelines. In an effort to save the historic Cape Hatteras lighthouse from the encroaching sea, it was jacked out of the ground and moved about 350 meters in 1999.The bottom image was created with red band data from the 46-degree backward, 70-degree forward, and 26-degree forward cameras displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. The color variations in this multi-angle composite indicate different angular (rather than spectral) signatures. Here, the increased reflection of land vegetation at the angle viewing away from the Sun causes a reddish tint. Water, on the other hand, appears predominantly in shades

  3. Predicting seasonal variations in coastal seabird habitats in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, A.; Lambert, C.; Pettex, E.; Dorémus, G.; Van Canneyt, O.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    Seabirds, like all animals, have to live in suitable habitats to fulfil their energetic needs for both somatic and reproductive growth and maintenance. Apart from migration trips, all coastal seabirds are linked to the coast, because they need to return daily to land for resting or breeding. Their use of marine habitats strongly depends on their biology, but also on environmental conditions, and can be described using habitat models. This study aimed to: (1) identify the processes that mostly influence seabird distributions along the coasts of the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay; (2) determine seasonal variations of these processes, (3) provide prediction maps that describe the species distributions. We collected data of coastal seabird sightings from aerial surveys carried out in the English Channel and the eastern North Atlantic in the winter 2011-2012 and summer 2012. We classified seabirds into morphological groups and described their habitats using physiographic and oceanographic variables in Generalised Additive Models (GAMs). Finally, we produced maps of predicted distributions by season for each group. The distributions of coastal seabirds were essentially determined by the distance to the nearest coast, with a weaker influence of oceanographic variables. The nature of the substrate, sand or rock, combined with the timing of reproduction, also contributed to determine seasonal at-sea distributions for some species. The highest densities were predicted near the coast, particularly in bays and estuaries for strictly coastal species with possible variations depending on the season. From this study, we were able to predict the seasonal distribution of the studied species according to varying environmental parameters that changed over time, allowing us to understand better their behaviour and ecology.

  4. Coastal Erosion and Flooding Hazards on the North Sea Coast at Thyboron, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Nielsen, Peter

    Since a breach of the coastal barrier in 1862, the Thyboron Channel connecting the North Sea and the Lim Fiord has been artificially maintained by construction of breakwaters and groins on the North Sea coast and inside the channel, respectively. Sand nourishment schemes have since the 1980s...... counteracted the natural erosion in the upper profile on the North Sea coast where the alongshore sediment transport converges towards the channel and deposits up to 1 million m3/y on the flood tidal delta inside the fiord, Figure 1....

  5. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  6. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fernandes Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings (Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera physalus, Peponocephala electra, and Pseudorca crassidens. A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, N = 12, the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  7. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alexandra Fernandes; Siciliano, Salvatore; Emin-Lima, Renata; Martins, Bruna Maria Lima; Sousa, Maura Elisabeth Moraes; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Júnior, José de Sousa E Silva

    2017-01-01

    Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records' in the area based on strandings ( Balaenoptera borealis , Balaenoptera physalus , Peponocephala electra , and Pseudorca crassidens ). A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins ( Sotalia guianensis , N = 12), the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  8. Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) Applied to Watershed Assessment on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich Walker; Chris Keithley; Russ Henly; Scott Downie; Steve Cannata

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the state of California initiated the North Coast Watershed Assessment Program (2003a) to assemble information on the status of coastal watersheds that have historically supported anadromous fish. The five-agency consortium explored the use of Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) (Reynolds and others 1996) as a means to help assess overall watershed...

  9. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  10. Total maximum daily loads, sediment budgets, and tracking restoration progress of the north coast watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Buffleben

    2012-01-01

    One of the predominate water quality problems for northern coastal California watersheds is the impairment of salmonid habitat. Most of the North Coast watersheds are listed as “impaired” under section 303(d) of Clean Water Act. The Clean Water Act requires states to address impaired waters by developing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) or implementing...

  11. Timber resource statistics for the North Coast resource area of California 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National...

  12. Physical and optical aerosol properties at the Dutch North Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.; Leeuw, G. de; Moerman, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sun photometer measurements at the AERONET station at the North Sea coast in The Hague (The Netherlands) provide a climatology of optical and physical aerosol properties for the area. Results are presented from the period January 2002 to July 2003. For the analysis and interpretation these data are

  13. Physical and optical aerosol properties at the Dutch North Sea coast based on AERONET observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.; Leeuw, G. de; Moerman, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sun photometer measurements at the AERONET station at the North Sea coast in The Hague (The Netherlands) provide a climatology of optical and physical aerosol properties for the area. Results are presented from the period January 2002 to July 2003. For the analysis and interpretation these data are

  14. Monthly mean wind stress along the coast of the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Krishnakumar, V.

    Monthly-mean wind stress and its longshore and offshore components have been computed using the bulk aerodynamic method for each of a string of 36 two-degree-latitude by two-degree-longitude squares along the coast of the north Indian Ocean...

  15. Land subsidence threats and its management in the North Coast of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, D.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Cities on the north coast of Java such as Jakarta, Semarang, Pekalongan, and Surabaya are vulnerable to environmental pressures such as sea level change and land subsidence. Land subsidence can be caused by natural and anthropogenic processes. Geologically, the north coastal plain of Java consists of unconsolidated Holocene alluvial deposit. The recent alluvial deposit is prone to compaction, and further aggravated by anthropogenic forces such as groundwater extraction and land development. Understanding the complex interaction of natural and manmade factors is essential to establish mitigation strategy. Although the impacts of land subsidence are widely felt, many do not realize that land subsidence is taking place. This paper presents a brief review of the land subsidence threats in the North coast of Java and proposes a recommendation for suitable management response.

  16. Life on the edge: early maritime cultures of the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Moss, Madonna L.; Des Lauriers, Matthew

    2008-11-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that the Americas may have been colonized, at least in part, by maritime peoples moving around the North Pacific Rim near the end of the Pleistocene. Understanding the geography of late glacial and early postglacial landscapes and the antiquity of human societies along the Pacific Coast continues to be a challenge, however, due to geological dynamics associated with glaciation, tectonism, submergence of coastal lowland landscapes by rising postglacial seas, and coastal erosion. Nonetheless, archaeological research has pushed back the antiquity of human settlement along the Pacific Coast of North America to the terminal Pleistocene or early Holocene, providing important new data on the nature of the earliest coastal peoples in the Pacific Northwest, Alta California, and Baja California. In this paper, we summarize what is known about the earliest peoples of the Pacific Coast of North America and evaluate the current viability of the coastal migration theory via a Pacific Rim route. Archaeological evidence now shows that Palaeocoastal peoples occupied each major region of the Pacific Coast by at least 13,000-11,500 calendar years ago (cal BP) (13-11.5 ka), essentially contemporaneous with Clovis and Folsom peoples of the interior. Although it is too early to conclude that the initial human colonization of the Americas took place via a migration by maritime or coastal peoples, it seems increasingly likely that such a migration played a role in the early peopling of the Americas.

  17. Measuring Tsunami Current Velocities on California’s North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Dengler, L. A.; Montoya, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern California coast is particularly susceptible to tsunami damage. Thirty-one tsunamis have been recorded since 1933 when the first tide gauge was installed at Citizen’s Dock in Crescent City, California and four have caused damage. In November 2006, a magnitude 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a tsunami that caused over $20 million in damages and replacement costs to the Crescent City small boat basin. The 2006 tsunami did not flood any areas above the normal high tide; very strong currents produced as the tsunami surged in and out of the small boat basin caused all of the damage. The Harbor Master and commercial fishermen in the area estimated the peak currents near the mouth of the small boat basin at 12 to 15 knots or 6 to 8 m/sec. MOST numerical modeling of the 2006 currents in Crescent City gives peak velocities in the 2-3 m/sec range. We have initiated a pilot project to directly measure current velocities produced by moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. In spring of 2009 we acquired a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz acoustic 2-D current profiler through a donation from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company to measure currents in Humboldt Bay, located 100 km south of Crescent City. The manufacturer specifies the current meter can measure currents up to 10 m/sec. In a preliminary deployment at the Fairhaven dock inside Humboldt Bay in May 2009, we measured current velocities of 1.5 m/sec caused by the daily tidal fluctuation with a 1 minute sampling rate. Our primary goal is to model control and data telemetry of this current meter after NOAA’s tsunami-ready tide gages, in collaboration with NOAA personnel at PMEL and CO-OPS. We also intend to make available real-time current measurements online for the local maritime community. In this poster, we present preliminary results from the current meter and discuss deployment and telecommunication considerations. While some interference is present in the closest range bins, the system

  18. Timber resource statistics for the north coast resource area of California, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of North Coast National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of volume and area on timber land are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  19. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  20. Morphological variation in the hydromedusa genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, J.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); Larson, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. Polyorchis montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, and P. haplus Skogsberg, 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  1. The Ancillary Harvest of Atlantic Menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, Roe on the North Carolina Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joseph W.; Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    2000-01-01

    Gravid Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, are available along the central coast of North Carolina during the fall and are harvested by the purse-seine fleet from the port of Beaufort. Virtually all of the catch, sexually immature fish included, is reduces to fish meal, fish oil, and fish solubles; however, minor quantities of roe from ripening female menhaden are extracted for local consupmtion. Routine and selective port sampling information was used to characterize the seasonal and bio...

  2. The role of television advertising in increasing pneumococcal vaccination coverage among the elderly, North Coast, New South Wales, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cate; Corben, Paul; Turahui, John; Gilmour, Robin

    2008-10-01

    North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) conducted a seven week television advertising campaign to raise community awareness of the availability of free adult pneumococcal vaccination and to increase coverage among North Coast residents in high risk groups. Effectiveness of the campaign was evaluated by examining vaccine ordering patterns of North Coast vaccination providers from 2005/2006 as a proxy for vaccination coverage. In the months during and immediately following (June-September 2006) the advertising campaign, a significantly higher proportion of vaccines were despatched to North Coast immunisation service providers. The advertising campaign was an effective strategy to promote vaccination among NCAHS residents not immunised in the first year of the National Pneumococcal Program for Older Australians. This higher immunisation coverage is expected to contribute to the statewide trend of significant reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notifications.

  3. The road to development : the construction and use of 'the Great North Road' in Gold Coast Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntewusu, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is a historical study of a 'motor road' linking the north of the Gold Coast (present day Ghana) to the South. Historians concerned with routes and trade in nineteenth century Gold Coast usually end their accounts at the onset of colonial rule. While studies that concentrate on transport

  4. The Relationship Between Extratropical Cyclone Steering and Blocking Along the North American East Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, James F.; Dunn-Sigouin, Etienne; Pfahl, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The path and speed of extratropical cyclones along the east coast of North America influence their societal impact. This work characterizes the climatological relationship between cyclone track path and speed, and blocking and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). An analysis of Lagrangian cyclone track propagation speed and angle shows that the percentage of cyclones with blocks is larger for cyclones that propagate northward or southeastward, as is the size of the blocked region near the cyclone. Cyclone-centered composites show that propagation of cyclones relative to blocks is consistent with steering by the block: northward tracks more often have a block east/northeast of the cyclone; slow tracks tend to have blocks due north of the cyclone. Comparison with the NAO shows that to first-order blocking and the NAO steer cyclones in a similar manner. However, blocked cyclones are more likely to propagate northward, increasing the likelihood of cyclone related impacts.

  5. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  6. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and tsunami resilience on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting tsunami warning communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county tsunami response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist

  7. Numerical Simulation of Tsunami Hazard Mitigation by Mangrove Forest in North Coast Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Harry Gunawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest or known as bakau forest is important forest as a natural wave barrier or tsunami wave mitigation. Some advantages of mangrove forest to reduce the water waves are already studied. Mangrove forest in north coast of Bali’s island, Buleleng regency, Indonesia is in damaged condition. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of mangrove forest as the water wave mitigation in numerical simulation point of view. Moreover, the results also show the effect of tsunami propagation to the coastal area with and without mangrove resistance. Here, the nonlinear shallow water equations are used to govern the model of numerical simulation.

  8. Dangers, delights, and destiny on the sea: fishers along the East coast of north sumatra, indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative project between the International Labour Organization's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) and the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, in identifying work hazards of fishers along the east coast of North Sumatra, Indonesia, in July 2004. The study employed qualitative investigation techniques: participant observations at fishing villages and harbors; and interviews with local fishers and skippers. Fishers work long hours in life-threatening conditions, often with low pay. It would be synergistic to incorporate fishing safety and health policies and advocacy efforts into reconstruction undertakings of fisheries devastated by the 2004 tsunami.

  9. Reversal of Long-Term Trend in Baseline Ozone Concentrations at the North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    Changes in baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) tropospheric ozone concentrations that have occurred over western North American and eastern North Pacific are analyzed based on data from three measurement records: (1) sites in the U.S. Pacific coast marine boundary layer, (2) an inland, higher altitude site at Lassen Volcanic National Park, CA, and (3) springtime airborne measurements in the free troposphere between 3 and 8 km altitude. Consistent with previously published results, we find increasing ozone prior to the year 2000, but that rate of increase has slowed and now reversed in these data sets in all seasons. The past ozone increase has been identified as a significant difficulty to overcome in achieving U.S. air quality goals; this difficulty has now eased. Global models only poorly reproduce the observed baseline ozone and trends; policy guidance from such models must be considered very cautiously.

  10. Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. Kisutchsalmon from the north coast of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We used starch-gel electrophoresis to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O. kisutch, in the major drainages of the north coast of Washington (the Quillayute, Uoh, Queets, and Quinault Rivers). Of 55 loci examined for electrophoretically detectable variation. 6 were polymorphic (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests of interdrainage and intradrainage variation for coho salmon were tenuous because most of the fish examined were from a single year class so that we could not account for variation among year classes. Nevertheless, these tests suggested that distinct stocks ofcoho salmon exist within drainages. and that variation was not significantly greater among drainages than within drainages. Interdrainage variation for wild chinook salmon was not significant. The data suggested that summer chinook salmon were electrophoretically different from fall chinook salmon, and the hatchery populations of chinook salmon were distinct from wild fish. A hatchery population developed primarily from north coast fish was electrophoretically more similar to wild chinook salmon than were the others.

  11. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Saldívar-Lucio

    Full Text Available The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress. The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  12. Cold-Water Coral Habitats in Submarine Canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge M. J. van den Beld

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The topographical and hydrological complexity of submarine canyons, coupled with high substratum heterogeneity, make them ideal environments for cold-water coral (CWC habitats. These habitats, including reefs, are thought to provide important functions for many organisms. The canyons incising the continental slope of the Bay of Biscay have distinct morphological differences from the north to the south. CWCs have been reported from this basin in the late nineteenth century; however, little is known about their present-day distribution, diversity and environmental drivers in the canyons. In this study, the characteristics and distribution of CWC habitats in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay are investigated. Twenty-four canyons and three locations between adjacent canyons were sampled using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV or a towed camera system. Acquired images were annotated for habitat type (using the CoralFISH classification system, substrate cover and coral identification. Furthermore, the influence of hydrological factors and geomorphology on the CWC distribution was investigated. Eleven coral habitats, formed by 62 morphotypes of scleractinians, gorgonians, antipatharians and seapens, inhabiting hard and/or soft substrate, were observed. The distribution patterns were heterogenous at regional and local scales; the south Bay of Biscay and the southeastern flank favored soft substrate habitats. Biogenic and hard substrate habitats supported higher coral diversities than soft substrate habitats and had similar species compositions. A higher coral species turnover characterized soft substrate habitats. Substrate type was the most important driver of the patterns in both distribution and composition. Observations of coral reefs on steeper areas in the canyons and coral rubble on flatter areas on the interfluve/upper slope support the hypothesis that canyons serve as refuges, being less accessible to trawling, although natural causes

  13. Chemical and biological impacts of ocean acidification along the west coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Carter, Brendan; Bednaršek, Nina; Hales, Burke; Chan, Francis; Hill, Tessa M.; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric; Byrne, Robert H.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Greeley, Dana; Juranek, Lauren

    2016-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the west coast of North America is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) within the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we adapt the multiple linear regression approach to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast Ocean Acidification (WCOA) cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012, and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast, with the lowest values (37-55 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions off southern Oregon and northern California and higher values (51-63 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Coastal dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are also elevated due to a natural remineralized component (Cbio), which represents carbon accumulated through net respiration in the seawater that has not yet degassed to the atmosphere. Average surface Canth is almost twice the surface remineralized component. In contrast, Canth is only about one third and one fifth of the remineralized component at 50 m and 100 m depth, respectively. Uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since the preindustrial period so that undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the shell dissolution of living pteropods. Our data show that the most severe biological impacts occur in the nearshore waters, where corrosive waters are closest to the surface. Since the pre-industrial times, pteropod shell dissolution has, on average, increased approximately 19-26% in both nearshore and offshore waters.

  14. Seasonal distribution of ultraphytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryotes in relation to abiotic variables on the north coast of Sfax after restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Dugenne, Mathilde; Barani, Aude; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2014-07-15

    The Taparura project was set up to restore the north Sfax coast (Tunisia) by shutting down the northern phosphate plant responsible for chronic pollution and uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumping. The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (Sfax coast was unchanged after restoration but was still one order of magnitude higher than in the Gulf of Gabès. Restoration of pH, following the shutdown of the phosphate processing plants on the north coast, appeared to reach normal levels for seawater during the study, whereas seawater acidification persisted on the south coast where plants are still in operation. The largest ultraphytoplankton biomass was from an unknown cell group, whose identity and role needs to be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and others from 2010-01-31 to 2010-11-25 (NCEI Accession 0157388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157388 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel, North...

  17. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  18. Evidence of initial coral community recovery at Discovery Bay on Jamaica’s North Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. James C. Crabbe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Current challenges to coral reef sustainability include overfishing, destructive fishing practices, bleaching, acidification, sea-level rise, starfish, algae, agricultural run-off, coastal and resort development, pollution, diseases, invasive species and hurricanes. We used SCUBA belt transects to record coral cover and digital image analysis in the Dairy Bull Reef off the north coast of Jamaica and found that it is a positive example of how reefs can recover after major environmental disturbance. Live coral cover increased from 13±5% in 2006 to 31±7% in 2008, while live Acropora cervicornis increased from 2±2% in 2006 to 22±7% in 2008. Coral cover levels were maintained until 2012.

  19. Genetic variation in steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) from the north coast of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) collected from various sites in nine drainages in northwestern Washington were genetically characterized at 65 protein-coding loci by starch-gel electrophoresis. Genetic differentiation within and among drainages was not significant, and genetic variation among drainages was much less than that reported in British Columbia; these results may be the consequence of gene flow from hatchery stocks that have been released in Washington since the 1940's. Allele frequencies varied significantly among year-classes (hence, genetic characterization studies must include data from several year-classes), and also between hatchery fish (including a stock developed with local wild fish) and wild fish, indicating that few wild fish have been successfully and routinely included in hatchery brood stocks. Conservation of genetic diversity along the north coast of Washington should be facilitated by reducing the numbers of hatchery fish that spawn in streams and by including wild fish in hatchery brood stocks.

  20. Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; De Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-05-01

    The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  2. Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksissou, M.

    2003-04-01

    The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal wetlands are generally close to Marina or fishing ports and to the residential areas. Cases of fish (Rays and other Chondrychtiens), tortoises (Caretta caretta) and dolphins dead have been noted in some of these beaches during spring and summer (2000-2001) most probably because of oil pollution. Increased dredging in beaches (Haouara, Martil...) involves the salinity of the ground water and the disturbance of the marine biodiversity. Some management (construction of Kabila marina and Smir dam) involved disturbance of hydrology (salinity increased) and biodiversity (migration of the Birds from Smir lake towards Smir dam) in Smir lake. This management, dredging, algae extraction and oil act on the coastal biodiversity and involve the deterioration of the natural environment. The beaches polluted by oil obstruct the tourism activity. Measurements of prevention (by prohibition to get rid of the motor oil and the washing of the boats on the open sea, construction of sewage stations and industrial water purification) are necessary for the conservation of biological diversity and the tourism development. The cleaning of the beaches polluted within the framework of the activities of the ONG or the local communities is also necessary. An integrated coastal zone management is necessary for the nature conservation and the sustainable development of the North Western of Morocco. Keywords: Oil pollution, Biodiversity, Coast, Morocco.

  3. Combining sea state and land subsidence rates in an assessment of flooding hazards at the Danish North Sea coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Broge, Niels; Knudsen, Per

    Sand nourishments (2-3 M3/y) counteract erosion on the central North Sea coast of Denmark and dikes and artificial dunes protect the low-lying hinterland from flooding. The fisheries towns of Thyboron, Thorsminde and Hvide Sande are all liable to flooding during storm surges. Tide gauge series fr...

  4. Large amounts of marine debris found in sperm whales stranded along the North Sea coast in early 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Bianca; Rebolledo, Elisa L Bravo; Deaville, Rob; Gröne, Andrea; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Leopold, Mardik F; Siebert, Ursula; Spitz, Jérôme; Wohlsein, Peter; Herr, Helena

    2016-01-01

    30 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded along the coasts of the North Sea between January and February 2016. The gastro-intestinal tracts of 22 of the carcasses were investigated. Marine debris including netting, ropes, foils, packaging material and a part of a car were found in nine of

  5. Large amounts of marine debris found in sperm whales stranded along the North Sea coast in early 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Bianca; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa; Deaville, Rob; Gröne, Andrea; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L.; Leopold, Mardik F.; Siebert, Ursula; Spitz, Jérôme; Wohlsein, Peter; Herr, Helena

    2016-01-01

    30 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded along the coasts of the North Sea between January and February 2016. The gastro-intestinal tracts of 22 of the carcasses were investigated. Marine debris including netting, ropes, foils, packaging material and a part of a car were found in nine of

  6. Sediment transfer from beach to shoreface: The sediment budget of an accreting beach on the Danish North Sea coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2011-01-01

    The sediment budget along the southern part of the exposed Danish North Sea coast was assessed through a combination of cross-shore profile analysis, numerical modeling and field measurements of cross-shore and longshore sediment transport at the boundary between the upper and the lower shorefaces...

  7. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Desmet, P.; Aelterman, B.; Courtens, W.; Feys, S.; Vanermen, N.; Verstraete, H.; Van de Walle, M.; Deneudt, K.; Hernandez, F.; Houthoofdt, R.; Vanhoorne, B.; Bouten, W.; Buijs, R.-J.; Kavelaars, M.M.; Müller, W.; Herman, D.; Matheve, H.; Sotillo, A.; Lens, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5

  8. Interannual evolution of (submesoscale dynamics in the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Charria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the north-east Atlantic Ocean, the Bay of Biscay is an intersection between a coastal constrained dynamics (wide continental shelf and shelf break regions and an eastern boundary circulation system. In this framework, the eddy kinetic energy is 1 order of magnitude lower than in western boundary systems. To explore this coastal complex system, a high-resolution (1 km, 100 vertical sigma layers model experiment including tidal dynamics over a period of 10 years (2001–2010 has been implemented. The ability of the numerical environment to reproduce main patterns over interannual scales is demonstrated. Based on this experiment, the features of the (submesoscale processes are described in the deep part of the region (i.e. abyssal plain and continental slope. A system with the development of mixed layer instabilities at the end of winter is highlighted. Beyond confirming an observed behaviour of seasonal (submesoscale activity in other regions, the simulated period allows exploring the interannual variability of these structures. A relationship between the winter maximum of mixed layer depth and the intensity of (submesoscale related activity (vertical velocity, relative vorticity is revealed and can be explained by large-scale atmospheric forcings (e.g. the cold winter in 2005. The first submesoscale-permitting exploration of this 3-D coastal system shows the importance of (submesoscale activity in this region with its evolution implying a potentially significant impact on vertical and horizontal mixing.

  9. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  10. Health status of seabirds and coastal birds found at the German North Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebert Ursula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabird and coastal bird populations. Methods 48 individuals of 11 different species of seabirds and coastal birds were collected by the stranding network along the entire German North Sea coast from 1997 to 2008, including mainly waders such as Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus and red knots (Calidris canutus as well as seabirds such as northern fulmars (Fulmaris glacialis and common scoters (Melanitta nigra. For most birds (n = 31 found dead along the shore no obvious cause of death was evident, while 17 individuals were killed by collisions with lighthouses. Results Overall, the nutritional status of the investigated birds was very poor, and the body mass in most cases was significantly lower compared to masses of living birds caught during the same periods of the year. This is partly linked to chronic parasitic or bacterial infections in different organs or to septicaemia. In some cases infections with zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. were found. Avian influenza was not found in any of the collected birds. Conclusion The presented data contribute to the evaluation of the health status of birds in the German North Sea. Moreover, they present an important tool for the assessment of potential pathogens with an impact on the health status of seabirds and coastal birds.

  11. Health status of seabirds and coastal birds found at the German North Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Ursula; Schwemmer, Philipp; Guse, Nils; Harder, Timm; Garthe, Stefan; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Wohlsein, Peter

    2012-07-19

    Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabird and coastal bird populations. 48 individuals of 11 different species of seabirds and coastal birds were collected by the stranding network along the entire German North Sea coast from 1997 to 2008, including mainly waders such as Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and red knots (Calidris canutus) as well as seabirds such as northern fulmars (Fulmaris glacialis) and common scoters (Melanitta nigra).For most birds (n = 31) found dead along the shore no obvious cause of death was evident, while 17 individuals were killed by collisions with lighthouses. Overall, the nutritional status of the investigated birds was very poor, and the body mass in most cases was significantly lower compared to masses of living birds caught during the same periods of the year. This is partly linked to chronic parasitic or bacterial infections in different organs or to septicaemia. In some cases infections with zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. were found. Avian influenza was not found in any of the collected birds. The presented data contribute to the evaluation of the health status of birds in the German North Sea. Moreover, they present an important tool for the assessment of potential pathogens with an impact on the health status of seabirds and coastal birds.

  12. Causes of accelerating sea level on the East Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James L; Vinogradova, Nadya T

    2017-05-28

    The tide-gauge record from the North American East Coast reveals significant accelerations in sea level starting in the late twentieth century. The estimated post-1990 accelerations range from near zero to ∼0.3 mm yr -2 . We find that the observed sea level acceleration is well modeled using several processes: mass change in Greenland and Antarctica as measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites; ocean dynamic and steric variability provided by the GECCO2 ocean synthesis; and the inverted barometer effect. However, to achieve this fit requires estimation of an admittance for the dynamical and steric contribution, possibly due to the coarse resolution of this analysis or to simplifications associated with parameterization of bottom friction in the shallow coastal areas. The acceleration from ice loss alone is equivalent to a regional sea level rise in one century of 0.2 m in the north and 0.75 m in the south of this region.

  13. Sea-level variability in the Common Era along the Atlantic coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E.; Horton, B.; Little, C. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2017-12-01

    Common Era relative sea-level trends on the margins of the North Atlantic Ocean vary through time and across space as a result of simultaneous global (basin-wide)-, regional- (linear and non-linear), and local-scale processes. A growing suite of relative sea-level reconstructions derived from dated salt-marsh (and mangrove) sediment on the Atlantic coast of North America provides an opportunity to quantify the contributions from several physical processes to Common Era sea-level trends. In particular, this coastline is susceptible to relative sea-level changes caused by melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and redistribution of existing ocean mass on timescales of days to centuries by evolving patterns and strengths of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Using a case study from Newfoundland, Canada, we demonstrate how high-resolution (decadal- and decimeter-scale) relative sea level reconstructions are produced from sequences of salt-marsh sediment that were deposited under conditions of long-term sea-level rise. We use an expanded database of Common Era relative sea-level reconstructions from the Atlantic coast of North America that spans locations from Newfoundland to the southern Florida to identify spatial and temporal patterns of change. A spatio-temporal statistical model enables us to decompose each reconstruction (with uncertainty) into contributions from global-, regional- (linear and non-linear), and local-scale processes. This analysis shows that spatially-variable glacio-isostatic adjustment was the primary driver of sea-level change. The global signal is dominated by the onset of anthropogenic sea-level rise in the late 19th century, which caused the 20th century to experience a faster rate of rise than any of the preceding 26 centuries. Differentiating between regional non-linear and local-scale processes is a challenging using an inherently sparse network of reconstructions. However, we show that sites south of Cape Hatteras have sea-level histories

  14. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  15. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEYS ON THE GERMAN NORTH SEA COAST USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gade

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that high-resolution space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imagery with pixel sizes well below 1 m2 can be used to complement archaeological surveys in areas that are difficult to access. After major storm surges in the 14th and 17th centuries, vast areas on the German North Sea coast were lost to the sea. Areas of former settlements and historical land use were buried under sediments for centuries, but when the surface layer is driven away under the permanent action of wind, currents, and waves, they appear again on the Wadden Sea surface. However, the frequent flooding and erosion of the intertidal flats make any archaeological monitoring a difficult task, so that remote sensing techniques appear to be an efficient and cost-effective instrument for any archaeological surveillance of that area. Space-borne SAR images clearly show remnants of farmhouse foundations and of former systems of ditches, dating back to the 14th and to the 16th/17th centuries. In particular, the very high-resolution acquisition (staring spotlight mode of the German TerraSAR/ TanDEM-X satellites allows for the detection of various kinds of residuals of historical land use with high precision. In addition, we also investigate the capability of SARs working at lower microwave frequencies (on Radarsat-2 to complement our archaeological survey of historical cultural traces, some of which have been unknown so far.

  16. Impact of tourism on island freshwater lenses of the North German coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of tourism on the extraction of groundwater from fresh water lenses on some of the barrier island off the North German Coast were investigated. On the island of Langeoog, consumption steadily rose until the 1980s, parallel to increasing tourism. With the slow but steady implementation of water-saving household appliances and toilets in the 1990s, consumption has significantly decreased since. In 2011 extraction amounted to 333,000 m³/a. This is about a quarter less than the peak extraction of 452,000 m³/a recorded in 1983, although the number of overnight stays has increased in the same period! In 2011 around 1,540,000 overnight stays and 124,000 day visitors were counted. The permanent population on the island is about 2,000 inhabitants, with 150 additional seasonal workers present during the summer months. At least since 1990 the numbers for overnight stays and day visitors have remained relatively stable.The lowest water demand recorded during the off-season (winter) of 2011 was 238 m³/d while the maximum during the Easter holidays reached 1,894 m³/d, a factor of eight between maximum and minimum! The highest demand in summer corresponds to the season of lowest groundwater recharge. Consumption due to tourism is equivalent to about 72 % of all extraction. Water levels and chloride concentrations indicate stable conditions of the lens, though.

  17. Radiological indices of drinking waters on the north part of the bulgarian black sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, P.T.; Rusev, R.; Chuturkova, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria is a country which is located in the Eastern Europe. A drinking water sources on the North part of Bulgarian Black Sea coast have different radiological indices. The sources of drinking water can be lakes, rivers, wells, dam lakes and so on. Property estimation of the contents of Uranium (Ur), Radium (Ra 226), and total Beta activity, shows that concentrations of investigated parameters vary around TDI (tolerable daily intake). To Uranium for example the TDI yields a guideline value are 2 μg/litre if a 60 kg adult consuming 2 litres of drinking water per day and the provisional guideline value of Uranium which shows the health significance in drinking waters is 0.002 mg/1. The situation with the full Beta activity and Radium concentrations is the same. All these qualitative and quantitative indices are close to the provisional guideline values, but in some cases it is higher than the limit concentrations. The full Beta activity is measured in Becquerel per litre and values are around 0.193+7-20% Bq/1. The Radium concentration takes the dimensions of Bq/1 and it is about 0.009 Bq/l. No matter of the source of drinking water, contents of radiological indices is a very important element of the health care control

  18. Application of a battery of biomarkers in mussel digestive gland to assess long-term effects of the Prestige oil spill in Galicia and Bay of Biscay: tissue-level biomarkers and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Larraitz; Soto, Manu; Vicario, Unai; Kim, Yungkul; Cajaraville, Miren P; Marigómez, Ionan

    2011-04-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were collected in 22 localities along the North coast of the Iberian Peninsula over 3 years (April 2003-April 2006). Different tissue-level biomarkers including cell type composition (volume density of basophilic cells, Vv(BAS)) in digestive gland epithelium, structural changes of digestive alveoli (mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness, MLR/MET) and histopathological alterations (prevalence and intensity) of the digestive gland were analysed. Severe alterations in the general condition of the digestive gland tissue were observed all over the study area up to 2004-2005. High Vv(BAS) values were recorded mainly in Galicia but also to a lesser extent in the Bay of Biscay in 2003-2004. Atrophy of the digestive alveoli, measured in terms of MLR/MET, was detected all along the studied area up to 2006. Inflammatory responses cannot be related to pollution due to the POS: (a) prevalence and intensity of focal hemocytic infiltration were higher in the Bay of Biscay than in Galicia but they did not show a clear temporal trend; (b) high intensities of brown cell aggregates were only sporadically recorded; and (c) granulocytomas were more frequently recorded in the Bay of Biscay than in Galicia and especially in localities (i.e. Arrigunaga) subjected to chronic pollution. Likewise, Marteilia, trematodes, intracellular ciliates, unidentified eosinophilic bodies, R/CLO and Mytilicola did not follow any recognisable pattern that could be associated to the POS. In contrast, high Nematopsis intensities recorded in several localities in 2003 might suggest some response of local interest after the POS (i.e., in combination with particular factors/conditions). More data at a regional scale are needed before histopathology may provide a reliable ecosystem health assessment but the present results suggest that the approach is worthwhile. Overall, although Vv

  19. Ship Track for Islands in the Stream 2002 - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the 2002 "Islands in the Stream - Exploration of Outer Shelf and Slope Habitats off the Coast of North Carolina"...

  20. Low prevalence of avian influenza virus in shorebirds on the Pacific coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Schwarzbach, Steven; Cardona, Carol J.; Warnock, Nils; Bishop, Mary Anne; Schirato, Greg A.; Paroulek, Sara; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ip, Hon S.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has elevated concerns about wild birds as virus hosts; however, little is known about the ecological and epidemiological factors of transmission by shorebirds. Here we summarize results for 2,773 shorebirds that were live-trapped on the Pacific coast of the United States during 2006-2007 and tested for avian influenza virus using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation. As was the case throughout North America, HPAI H5N1 was not detected in shorebirds during this interval. Contrary to other wild bird groups, most notably waterfowl, the prevalence of even low pathogenicity virus among shorebirds in our study areas in California, Washington, and Alaska was extremely low (0.5%). Virus was detected by RT-PCR from four different species, including, Dunlin (Calidris alpina; N = 3), Western Sandpiper (C. mauri; N = 8), Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus; N = 1), and American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana; N = 1), with the detections in the latter three constituting the first published records for these birds. Based on studies in the eastern United States, we expected, but did not detect (H1 = 1.6, P = 0.21) elevated avian influenza prevalence among shorebirds during spring migration. Diagnostic tests, which were designed to evaluate testing and sampling methods, indicated poor functioning of traditional virus isolation methods and no improvement in detection likelihood by collecting oropharyngeal swabs in addition to cloacal swab samples for low pathogenicity viruses (Z1 = 0.7, P = 0.48).

  1. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  2. Use of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes for Trophic Levels Evaluation and Food Webs Reconstruction: The Bay of Biscay Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Spitz, J.; Caurant, F.; Mendez Fernandez, P.; Bustamante, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Bay of Biscay is a very large bay opened on the North-East Atlantic Ocean. The continental shelf covers over 220 000 km 2 . The hydrological structure is influenced by 2 main rivers plumes (Loire and Gironde) and a continental slope indented by numerous canyons. The Bay of Biscay supports both numerous important fisheries and a rich fauna including many protected species (e.g., marine mammals). The management of this ecosystem subjected to numerous anthropogenic impacts notably depends on the good understanding of its food webs' structure. Within each major group of taxa, spatial groups displayed significantly different δ 13 C and δ 15 N values (KW tests, all p 13 C and δ 15 N values decreased from near-shore organisms to deep-sea or oceanic organisms. These results highlighted the existence of several food webs with distinct baseline signatures in the Bay of Biscay. Differences in δ 15 N values in particular are linked to processes occurring at the Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) level, and to nutrients and particulate organic matter available for primary production in general. Therefore, the contrasted hydrological landscapes from the Bay of Biscay probably impact signatures of the primary producers in the different areas of the Bay.

  3. Landbird trends in national parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, James F.; Holmgren, Amanda L.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Siegel, Rodney B.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Boetsch, John R.; Huff, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    National parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) can fulfill vital roles as refuges for bird species dependent on late-successional forest conditions and as reference sites for assessing the effects of land-use and land-cover changes on bird populations throughout the larger Pacific Northwest region. Additionally, long-term monitoring of landbirds throughout the NCCN provides information that can inform decisions about important management issues in the parks, including visitor impacts, fire management, and the effects of introduced species. In 2005, the NCCN began implementing a network-wide Landbird Monitoring Project as part of the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program. In this report, we discuss 8-year trends (2005–12) of bird populations in the NCCN, based on a sampling framework of point counts established in three large wilderness parks (Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks), 7-year trends at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (sampled in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012), and 5-year trends at San Juan Islands National Historical Park (sampled in 2007, 2009, and 2011). Our analysis encompasses a fairly short time span for this long-term monitoring program. The first 2 years of the time series (2005 and 2006) were implemented as part of a limited pilot study that included only a small subset of the transects. The subsequent 6 years (2007–12) represent just a single cycle through 5 years of alternating panels of transects in the large parks, with the first of five alternating panels revisited for the first time in 2012. Of 204 transects that comprise the six sampling panels in the large parks, only 68 (one-third) have thus been eligible for revisit surveys (34 during every year after 2005, and an additional 34 only in 2012) and can contribute to our current trend estimates. We therefore initiated the current analysis with a primary goal of testing our analytical procedures rather than detecting trends that might be strong

  4. A multi-decadal wind-wave hindcast for the North Sea 1949-2014: coastDat2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Weisse, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Long and consistent wave data are important for analysing wave climate variability and change. Moreover, such wave data are also needed in coastal and offshore design and for addressing safety-related issues at sea. Using the third-generation spectral wave model WAM a multi-decadal wind-wave hindcast for the North Sea covering the period 1949-2014 was produced. The hindcast is part of the coastDat database representing a consistent and homogeneous met-ocean data set. It is shown that despite not being perfect, data from the wave hindcast are generally suitable for wave climate analysis. In particular, comparisons of hindcast data with in situ and satellite observations show on average a reasonable agreement, while a tendency towards overestimation of the highest waves could be inferred. Despite these limitations, the wave hindcast still provides useful data for assessing wave climate variability and change as well as for risk analysis, in particular when conservative estimates are needed. Hindcast data are stored at the World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) and can be freely accessed using the doi:10.1594/WDCC/coastDat-2_WAM-North_Sea Groll and Weisse(2016) or via the coastDat web-page http://www.coastdat.de.

  5. Large amounts of marine debris found in sperm whales stranded along the North Sea coast in early 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Bianca; Rebolledo, Elisa L Bravo; Deaville, Rob; Gröne, Andrea; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Leopold, Mardik F; Siebert, Ursula; Spitz, Jérôme; Wohlsein, Peter; Herr, Helena

    2016-11-15

    30 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded along the coasts of the North Sea between January and February 2016. The gastro-intestinal tracts of 22 of the carcasses were investigated. Marine debris including netting, ropes, foils, packaging material and a part of a car were found in nine of the 22 individuals. Here we provide details about the findings and consequences for the animals. While none of the items was responsible for the death of the animal, the findings demonstrate the high level of exposure to marine debris and associated risks for large predators, such as the sperm whale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphological variation in the hydromedusa genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, John T.; Larson, R. J.

    1980-11-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  7. Chemical and sequential analysis of some metals in sediments from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad Martinez; Brenda Estanol; Miguel Angel Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Sediments collected from the North Coast of the Gulf of Mexico got carefully mixed, dried, and finally subjected to physical and chemical analysis. Metal concentration was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Sequential chemical analysis was performed by modified TESSIER technique. Results and statistical analysis (α = 0.05) show concentrations of most elements (excepting Mn, Ca, Ga, As and Pb) in the range of those of the earth crust's values, which set a sampling zone base line. Sequential extraction shows the potential risk of mobilization of metals sequestered in particulate phases by oxidation of anoxic sediments or intense organic matter degradation. (author)

  8. Holocene Dunefield Construction, Wind Climate and North Atlantic Climate Change: Data From The West Coast of Jutland, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, L. B.

    Holocene dunefield construction on the west coast of Jutland (56 N) was episodic (Clemmensen et al., 2001a; 2001b). Evidence from optically stimulated luminescence dating and radiocarbon dating supplemented by archaeological data and historical ob- servations places the onset of these phases of increased aeolian activity to about 4000 BC, 2200 BC, 700 BC, AD 500, AD 1100, and AD 1625. Most of these aeolian events record increased storminess and were simultaneous with climatic cooling phases in the North Atlantic (Bond et al., 1997; Bianchi &McCave, 1999). During these events cool, ice-bearing waters were advected far southward in the North Atlantic Ocean and the atmospheric circulation changed (Bond et al., 1997). Climate model experiments suggest that during periods of increased sea-ice cover and cold waters in the North Atlantic Ocean the jet stream over the North Atlantic was strengthened, causing an enhanced cyclonic activity over large parts of Europe (Renssen et al., 1997; Lopez et al., 2000). These climatic events can probably be explained by a change in solar activity (van Geel et al., 1999). Thus geological data and climate experiments agree well and suggest millennial-scale variability in storminess in Jutland in concert with climatic change in the North Atlantic. References: Bianchi, G. G. &McCave, I. N., 1999: Holocene periodicity in North Atlantic climate and deep-ocean flow south of Iceland. Nature, 397, 515-517. Bond et al., 1997: A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science, 278, 1257-1266. Clemmensen et al., 2001a: Sedimentology, stratigraphy and landscape evolution of a Holocene coastal dune system, Lodbjerg, NW Jutland, Denmark. Sedimentology,48, 3-27. Clemmensen et al., 2001b: A Holocene coastal aeolian system, Vejers, Denmark: land- scape evolution and sequence stratigraphy. Terra Nova, 13, 129-134.

  9. [Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific Coast of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Orrego, Carlos Mario; Hernández Gómez, Giovanna

    2006-03-01

    Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at Nancite nesting beach, in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacific) during July and August 2002. Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles. Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered. The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45) and Citrobacter freundi (6/45) from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp. (32/45), Staphylococcus aureus (6/45) and Corynebacterium spp. (5/45) from nasal ducts. The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of several potential human and animal microbe pathogens.

  10. Lehardyia alleithoros, sp. nov. (Turbellaria, Kalyptorhynchia) from the Coast of North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Ashley; Smith, Julian P S; Litvaitis, Marian K

    2011-06-01

    As with other high-energy beaches, those of North Carolina harbor a diverse fauna of kalyptorhynch turbellarians, and most appear to be new to science. Here, we describe Lehardyia alleithoros , a new kalyptorhynch turbellarian of the Karkinorhynchidae, from 3 high-energy beach sites in North Carolina. We also report an apparent range extension for Carcharodorhynchus flavidus Brunet, 1967. These observations bring the total number of kalyptorhynch turbellarians reported from the marine interstitial environment of North Carolina to five.

  11. Late quaternary uplift rates of marine terraces on the Pacific coast of North America, southern Oregon to Baja California sur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Rockwell, T.K.; Kennedy, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Marine terraces are common landforms along the Pacific coast of North America from southern Oregon to southern Baja California. We report 60 new uranium-series ages of marine terrace corals, hydrocorals, and other fossils. Terraces representing the ca. 80 ka and ca. 125 ka high stands of sea are the most common along the Pacific coast and we have used these ages, along with terrace shoreline angle elevations and paleo-sea-level estimates, to calculate Late Quaternary uplift rates. Uplift rates in the forearc region of the Cascadia subduction zone range from 0.45-1.08 m/kyr. Farther south, along most of the coast west of the San Andreas fault zone, uplift rates range from 0.15-0.35 m/kyr, but some areas have significantly higher rates of uplift and others have apparently experienced little or no uplift in the last 125 ka. In Baja California Sur, west of the East Pacific Rise, little or no uplift has occurred during the Late Quaternary. On average, the magnitude of rates of uplift for the tectonic regimes is as follows: Cascadia subduction zone > San Andreas fault zone region > East Pacific Rise region. ?? 1992.

  12. The stranding anomaly as population indicator: the case of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in North-Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Peltier

    Full Text Available Ecological indicators for monitoring strategies are expected to combine three major characteristics: ecological significance, statistical credibility, and cost-effectiveness. Strategies based on stranding networks rank highly in cost-effectiveness, but their ecological significance and statistical credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform in space and constant in time. We used a drift model to map stranding probabilities and predict stranding patterns of cetacean carcasses under H0 across the North Sea, the Channel and the Bay of Biscay, for the period 1990-2009. As the most common cetacean occurring in this area, we chose the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena for our modelling. The difference between these strandings expected under H0 and observed strandings is defined as the stranding anomaly. It constituted the stranding data series corrected for drift conditions. Seasonal decomposition of stranding anomaly suggested that drift conditions did not explain observed seasonal variations of porpoise strandings. Long-term stranding anomalies increased first in the southern North Sea, the Channel and Bay of Biscay coasts, and finally the eastern North Sea. The hypothesis of changes in porpoise distribution was consistent with local visual surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005. This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna.

  13. Understanding heavy mineral dynamics using magnetic fingerprinting technique: A case study of North Maharashtra Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badesab, F.K.; Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A; Naik, D.K.; Gaonkar, S.S.; Luis, R.A.A; Shirodkar, P.; Naik, Smita

    Environmental magnetic and grain size measurements were carried out on sand samples collected from nine sand pits along a 20-km coastal stretch of Arnala Beach, North Maharashtra, India. This study sets out to identify the potential heavy (magnetite...

  14. Sea Star Wasting Disease in Asterias forbesi along the Atlantic Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Caitlin; Francoeur, Madison; McGreal, Jillon; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Wessel, Gary M; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

    2017-01-01

    As keystone species, sea stars serve to maintain biodiversity and species distribution through trophic level interactions in marine ecosystems. Recently, Sea Star Wasting Disease (SSWD) has caused widespread mass mortality in several sea star species from the Pacific Coast of the United States of America (USA) and Asterias forbesi on the Atlantic Coast. A densovirus, named Sea Star associated Densovirus (SSaDV), has been associated with the wasting disease in Pacific Coast sea stars, and limited samples of A. forbesi. The goal of this research is to examine the pathogenesis of SSWD in A. forbesi on the Atlantic Coast of the USA and to determine if SSaDV is associated with the wasting disease in this species. Histological examination of A. forbesi tissues affected with SSWD showed cuticle loss, vacuolation and necrosis of epidermal cells, and oedema of the dermis, but no consistent evidence indicating the cause of the lesions. Challenge experiments by cohabitation and immersion in infected water suggest that the cause of SSWD is viral in nature, as filtration (0.22 μm) of water from tanks with sea stars exhibiting SSWD did not prevent the transmission and progression of the disease. Death of challenged sea stars occurred 7-10 d after exposure to infected water or sea stars, and the infectivity crossed species (A. forbesi and Pateria miniata) with equal penetrance. Of the 48 stars tested by quantitative real time PCR, 29 (60%) were positive for the SSaDV VP1 gene. These stars represent field-collected sea stars from all geographical regions (South Carolina to Maine) in 2012-2015, as well as stars exposed to infected stars or water from affected tanks. However, a clear association between the presence of SSaDV and SSWD signs in experimental and field-collected A. forbesi was not found in this study.

  15. Sea Star Wasting Disease in Asterias forbesi along the Atlantic Coast of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Bucci

    Full Text Available As keystone species, sea stars serve to maintain biodiversity and species distribution through trophic level interactions in marine ecosystems. Recently, Sea Star Wasting Disease (SSWD has caused widespread mass mortality in several sea star species from the Pacific Coast of the United States of America (USA and Asterias forbesi on the Atlantic Coast. A densovirus, named Sea Star associated Densovirus (SSaDV, has been associated with the wasting disease in Pacific Coast sea stars, and limited samples of A. forbesi. The goal of this research is to examine the pathogenesis of SSWD in A. forbesi on the Atlantic Coast of the USA and to determine if SSaDV is associated with the wasting disease in this species. Histological examination of A. forbesi tissues affected with SSWD showed cuticle loss, vacuolation and necrosis of epidermal cells, and oedema of the dermis, but no consistent evidence indicating the cause of the lesions. Challenge experiments by cohabitation and immersion in infected water suggest that the cause of SSWD is viral in nature, as filtration (0.22 μm of water from tanks with sea stars exhibiting SSWD did not prevent the transmission and progression of the disease. Death of challenged sea stars occurred 7-10 d after exposure to infected water or sea stars, and the infectivity crossed species (A. forbesi and Pateria miniata with equal penetrance. Of the 48 stars tested by quantitative real time PCR, 29 (60% were positive for the SSaDV VP1 gene. These stars represent field-collected sea stars from all geographical regions (South Carolina to Maine in 2012-2015, as well as stars exposed to infected stars or water from affected tanks. However, a clear association between the presence of SSaDV and SSWD signs in experimental and field-collected A. forbesi was not found in this study.

  16. Application of EEM fluorescence spectroscopy in understanding of the "LIGA" phenomenon in the Bay of Biscay (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Jérémie; Susperregui, Nicolas; Rouaud, Vanessa; Dubois, Laurent; Anglade, Nathalie; Parlanti, Edith

    2014-05-01

    Marine mucilage is present in all oceans over the world, and in particular in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean. Surface water warming and hydrodynamic processes can favor the coalescence of marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat for biota. DOM is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of compounds, including extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), with wide ranging chemical properties and it is well known to interact with pollutants and to affect their transport and their fate in aquatic environment. The LIGA French research program focuses on tracing colloidal dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources and cycling in the Bay of Biscay (South Western French coast). This ephemeral phenomenon (called "LIGA" in the South West of France) has been observed more than 750 times since 2010. It presents a great ecological impact on marine ecosystems and has been shown to be concomitant with the development of pathogen organisms. A one-year intensive survey of fluorescent DOM was undertaken. From April 2013 until May 2014, water samples were monthly collected from the Adour River (main fresh water inputs) and from 2 sites in the Bay of Biscay at 3 depths of the water column (surface water, at the maximum of chlorophyll-a, and deep water). Moreover, intensified samplings took place from the appearance of the phenomenon twice a week during 4 weeks. UV/visible absorbance and excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PARAFAC and PCA analyses have been used to characterize colloidal DOM in the Bay of Biscay in order to estimate DOM sources as well as spatial and temporal variability of DOM properties. The preliminary results, obtained for about 70 samples of this survey, have already highlighted spatial and temporal variations of DOM optical properties and a peculiar fluorescent component (exc300nm/em338nm) was detected while the LIGA phenomenon arises. The appearance of this specific

  17. Oceanic influence on extreme rainfall trends in the north central coast of Venezuela: present and future climate assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelys Guenni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme events are an important part of climate variability and their intensity and persistence are often modulated by large scale climatic patterns which might act as forcing drivers affecting their probability of occurrence. When the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA and the Equatorial Pacific (Ni\\~no 3 region sea surface temperature (SST anomalies are of opposite signs and the first one is positive while the second one is negative, the rainfall response is stronger in the northern coast of Venezuela as well as in the Pacific coast of Central America during the Nov-Feb period. The difference between these two SST anomaly time series (NTA-Ni\\~no3 is used in this analysis and it is called the Atlantic-Pacific Index or API. By fitting a dynamic generalized extreme value (GEV model to station based daily rainfall at different locations and to the Xie and Arkin dataset for the Vargas state, we found the API index to be an adequate index to explain the probabilistic nature of rainfall extremes in the northern Venezuelan coast for the months Nov-Feb. Dependence between the Atlantic-Pacific index and the probabilistic behavior of extreme rainfall was also explored for simulations from two global coupled General Circulation Models for the 20th century climate (20C3M experiment and the 21st century climate (SRES A2 experiment: the Echam5 model and the HadCM3 model. A significant dependence of extreme rainfall on the Atlantic-Pacific index is well described by the GEV dynamic model for the Echam5 20C3M experiment model outputs. When looking at future climates under the SRES A2 experiment, the dependence of extreme rainfall from the API index is still significant for the middle part of the 21st century (2046-2064, while this dependence fades off for the latest part of the century (2081-2099

  18. Environmental magnetic and petroleum hydrocarbons records in sediment cores from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalapathy, R; Veerasingam, S; Basavaiah, N; Ramkumar, T; Deenadayalan, K

    2011-04-01

    In this study, mineral magnetic properties and petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analysed in four sediment cores (C1, A1, T1 and K1) from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, India to examine the feasibility of PHC concentrations assessment using magnetic susceptibility. The C1 and A1 cores reveal a clear horizon of increase in PHC above 35 and 50 cm respectively suggesting the excess anthropogenic loading occurred in the recent past. Magnetic properties which were enhanced in the upper part of the sediment cores were the result of ferrimagnetic minerals from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis confirmed that the input of magnetic minerals and petroleum hydrocarbons in Chennai coastal sediments are derived from the same sources. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of the sea bottom relief on the Cystoseira communities of the North Caucasian coast of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, U. V.

    2009-10-01

    We studied the characteristics of the Cystoseira ( Cystoseira barbata C. Ag, Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory) community at the North Caucasian coast of the Black Sea under the conditions of the pronounced sea-bottom relief, namely, ridge- and steplike benches. It is shown that a number of parameters of the composition and community structure (the species richness, the diversity indices, the biomass, the dominance pattern, and the epiphyte: basephyte ratio) are influenced more strongly by the sea bottom relief than by the depth. Presumably, this may be due to the variation of the integrated water velocity over different relief elements. The major dominants are shown to have different ecologies: C. barbata inhabits hollows, where the wave effect is minor, while C. crinita prefers to inhabit the ridge tops, i.e., the biotopes with increased hydrodynamic activity.

  20. The Holocene palaeogeography and relative sea level for two tidal basins of the German North Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungenstock, Friederike; Wartenberg, Wolfram; Mauz, Barbara; Freund, Holger; Frechen, Manfred; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Berner, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    The response of coasts to global sea-level rise is highly variable. Knowledge of driving coastal parameters alongside the regional sea-level history is therefore indispensable when the response to global sea-level rise is to be assessed. Here, we study the Holocene relative sea-level of the south coast of the North Sea which is controlled by a number of very local parameters, as well as by regional glacio-isostatic adjustments. It is therefore crucial to restrict the data acquisition and evaluation to small coastal sections, ideally to single tidal basins, to minimize the sources of uncertainties (Bungenstock & Weerts 2010, 2012). We present data from two tidal basins, Langeoog and Jade Bay. For Langeoog a database derived from 600 cores, 68 km of Boomer seismic data, 33 radiocarbon ages and 8 OSL dates is available. (Bungenstock & Schäfer 2009, Mauz & Bungenstock 2007). For the Jade bay, the database comprises sedimentary markers, pollen and macro remains derived from 68 cores. The sedentary chronology is based on 54 radiocarbon ages and pollen constraints (Wartenberg & Freund 2011, Wartenberg et al. 2013). For both tidal basins the sedimentological record was interpreted in terms of the local paleogeographical development since about 7000 cal BP and its influence on the local relative sea-level curve. While the trend of the relative sea level is similar for both tidal basins, it shows a different altitude. The timing of the main marine transgression within the Langeoog area takes place ~3000 cal. BP whereas the sedimentological record of the Jade Bay shows two prominent transgressions, one for ~5000 cal. BP and one for ~3000 cal. BP. The Langeoog palaeo-environment is continuously characterised by marine influence. Within the Jade Bay two different palaeo-environments could be identified, documenting that from the West to the centre the landscape development in the Jade Bay was drainage driven feeding the associated fen peat with minerogenic water but being

  1. New Acotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from the east coast of the North Atlantic Ocean with special mention of the Iberian littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreña, Carolina; Rodríguez, Jorge; Pérez, Jacinto; Almon, Bruno

    2015-11-03

    Polyclad species diversity, although generally well known for European North Atlantic waters, is nearly unknown for the Iberian Peninsula. The "Ría de Arousa", located on the Atlantic coast of Galicia (Spain), is a place where many positive biological factors for species biodiversity converge. Therefore, it is an ideal location to study polyclad diversity. This research, which describes new records and new species, contributes to the knowledge of the distribution of Polycladida (Platyhelminthes), particularly of the suborder Acotylea, in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian Peninsula. The new records include the re-descriptions of Cryptocelis compacta Lang, 1884, Stylochus neapolitanus (Delle Chiaje, 1841-1844) and Discocelis tigrina (Blanchard, 1847), while the two newly described species are Hoploplana elisabelloi n. sp. and Armatoplana celta n. sp.

  2. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  3. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  4. [Abundance of sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) on North, East and West coasts of Margarita Island (Venezuela) ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gaspar, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The sea urchin roe reach a very high price in the international fish product market favoring the increase in the catches of this resource and overfishing in some countries. In the Island of Margarita (Venezuela) some species, Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) among others, are consumed as food but studies to determine abundance of the resource are unknown. Nine sample stations (depth less than 2 m) on the North, East and West coast of Margarita Island were visited in six different occasions between February/1998 and February/1999 to study the population density (urchins/m2) of L. variegatus. Using a quadrat (0.25 m2) thrown 8 times over seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum) beds and over submerged rocks and the urchins removed by dive. The diameter of each specimen was measured and returned to the sea. The water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen of each site was measured. Were collected a total of 2,073 urchins with a diameter ranging from 11.0 to 84.5 mm and population density between 1 to 52 urchins/m2. The mean size of specimens collected in the stations was between 30.44 and 55.09 mm and average density fluctuated between 3.2 to 43.2 urchins/m2. The station where sea urchins were found to be most abundant was the North coast (Manzanillo fishing villae) where they live on rocks with a density (38 a 52/m2) far over the values previously cited for the Caribbean sea and Florida.

  5. How does dynamical downscaling affect model biases and future projections of explosive extratropical cyclones along North America's Atlantic coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Zwiers, F. W.; Hodges, K. I.; Scinocca, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    Explosive extratropical cyclones (EETCs) are rapidly intensifying low pressure systems that generate severe weather along North America's Atlantic coast. Global climate models (GCMs) tend to simulate too few EETCs, perhaps partly due to their coarse horizontal resolution and poorly resolved moist diabatic processes. This study explores whether dynamical downscaling can reduce EETC frequency biases, and whether this affects future projections of storms along North America's Atlantic coast. A regional climate model (CanRCM4) is forced with the CanESM2 GCM for the periods 1981 to 2000 and 2081 to 2100. EETCs are tracked from relative vorticity using an objective feature tracking algorithm. CanESM2 simulates 38% fewer EETC tracks compared to reanalysis data, which is consistent with a negative Eady growth rate bias (-0.1 day^{-1}). Downscaling CanESM2 with CanRCM4 increases EETC frequency by one third, which reduces the frequency bias to -22%, and increases maximum EETC precipitation by 22%. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing is projected to decrease EETC frequency (-15%, -18%) and Eady growth rate (-0.2 day^{-1}, -0.2 day^{-1}), and increase maximum EETC precipitation (46%, 52%) in CanESM2 and CanRCM4, respectively. The limited effect of dynamical downscaling on EETC frequency projections is consistent with the lack of impact on the maximum Eady growth rate. The coarse spatial resolution of GCMs presents an important limitation for simulating extreme ETCs, but Eady growth rate biases are likely just as relevant. Further bias reductions could be achieved by addressing processes that lead to an underestimation of lower tropospheric meridional temperature gradients.

  6. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  7. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R Peecook

    Full Text Available We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters. Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Oil Spill Movement along North-West Coast of India Using GNOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Remyalekshmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available India is located at a very strategic point with respect to the international commercial sea routes with a large amount of crude oil traffic. Hence, the risk of oil spill occurring in the Indian waters is considerably high. In the present paper, forecasting the movement of a possible crude oil spill of 10,000 barrels at a location of latitude 21° 41′ 48.53′ N and longitude 66° 46′ 41.45″ E, intersection point of two ship routes from Kandla port and Bombay port (Kandla port of India to Yanbu port of Saudi Arabia and Bombay port of India to Ras Tanura port of Saudi Arabia has been carried out using GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model developed by Hazardous Materials Response Division (HAZMAT of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA OR&R of United States government. The governing equations for horizontal diffusion, evaporation, dissolution, dispersion etc, adopted by GNOME have been presented in the paper. The simulation is carried out for month of September 2011. It is found that the spill possibly takes 10 hours to reach Gujarat coast and 15 hours to reach Maharashtra coast. With this available knowledge, appropriate mitigation measures may be adopted before spill reaches the shores.

  9. Use of rocuronium for endotracheal intubation of North American Gulf Coast box turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gretchen E; Seymour, Rosemarie E; Bonner, Barbara B; Court, Michael H; Karas, Alicia Z

    2003-04-15

    To determine whether rocuronium, a reversible neuromuscular blocking agent, would provide safe, short-term immobilization to facilitate endotracheal intubation in turtles. Prospective study. 30 healthy adult Gulf Coast box turtles. Turtles were given rocuronium, and responses were recorded every 3 minutes. Times to onset of effects, intubation, and recovery were recorded and analyzed for associations with dose and patient characteristics to determine an optimal dose range. Neostigmine and glycopyrrolate were given to augment recovery from neuromuscular blockade. Rocuronium administered at a dose of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg (0.11 to 0.23 mg/lb), IM, permitted intubation; lower doses were not effective. Mean +/- SD time to loss of the palpebral reflex was 6.4 +/- 4.0 minutes, and mean time to intubation was 9.2 +/- 6.4 minutes. Mean time to return of the palpebral reflex was 44 +/- 13.2 minutes, and mean time to walking was 55 +/- 16.6 minutes. Time to onset of effects was not associated with dose, but recovery times were prolonged with higher doses of rocuronium. Cardiac arrhythmias were observed in 13 (43%) turtles. Administration of rocuronium at a dose of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg is a safe and effective adjunct to general anesthesia in Gulf Coast box turtles. Because rocuronium does not provide any analgesic or sedative effects, the duration of neuromuscular blockade without anesthesia should be minimized to avoid undue distress.

  10. Franciscana strandings on the north coast of Santa Catarina State and insights into birth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lopes Paitach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, is the most threatened small cetacean in the South Atlantic. Accidental captures in fishing nets is the main problem for this species throughout its distribution. Dead franciscanas found along the coast are an important source of information. This work aimed to analyze the records of dead franciscanas found on the northern coast of Santa Catarina, including Babitonga Bay. Between January 2001 and November 2012, 54 franciscana carcasses were recorded, with the highest number (8 individuals in 2011. Fifty-two percent (n=28 of the carcasses were recorded between August and October. Taking into account that this information was not obtained from a systematic effort, it was not possible to consider this as an estimation of mortality. The largest animal was a female, with a total length of 142 cm. Ten recovered animals (18.5% were smaller than 80 cm, and were considered fetuses or calves. These records indicate that the main birthing period for franciscanas in Santa Catarina is between October and January. The findings presented here contribute to our knowledge of franciscana ecology in the state of Santa Catarina.

  11. Monitoring of heavy metals in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Spanish North-Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Manuel Andrade, José; Schultze, Fernando; José González, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were determined in tissues of wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at 41 stations located on the Spanish Atlantic and Northern coasts to assess the levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment. This study, performed in 2005, constituted a contribution to the last international OSPAR pollution monitoring survey. A pool of mussel soft tissue was prepared using 50 or more individuals, representing the size range present at the sampling points. Quantification was carried out after a nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS (Cd and Pb by electrothermal AAS; Cu and Zn by flame AAS; and total mercury by the cold vapour technique). The quality of the chemical analyses was assessed by interlaboratory exercises carried out on a regular basis. In general, the levels of the metals were higher for the Northern region than for the Atlantic one (except for a sampling site close to Vigo, one of the main Galician industrial areas). Some Galician sampling points (Atlantic coast, NW of Spain) located far from human inputs showed high Cd concentrations, which were attributed to the annual upwelling processes in this region. The levels of Cu increased from Northwest to East, whereas Zn concentrations were very homogeneous throughout the two studied geographical regions. These results were confirmed using multivariate studies (PCA and cluster analysis), as well as international 'background assessment concentrations' criteria.

  12. Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Durch and North Sea coasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Wastes from ships are an important source of litter in the marine environment in the Southern North Sea and cause serious economic and ecological damage. Inadequacies in the ship to shore waste delivery procedures are considered a major factor in illegal discharges. The European Union addressed the

  13. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  14. Metric matters : the performance and organisation of volumetric water control in large-scale irrigation in the North Coast of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the organisation and performance of two large-scale irrigation systems in the North Coast of Peru. Good water management is important in this area because water is scarce and irrigated agriculture provides a livelihood to many small and middle-sized farmers. Water in

  15. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Lindstrom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Py. montereyensis sp. nov., Py. columbiensis sp. nov., and Py. protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Py. columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Py. lanceolata or Py. pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Py. nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Py. lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  16. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  17. Estrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena Stranded on the North Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Imazaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000 ng/mL culture medium, as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA. None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p′-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80 ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only β-HCH (at 400 and 2000 ng/mL and δ-HCH (at 2000 ng/mL displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 102~4.2 × 104 μg/kg, p,p′-DDE (5.1 × 102~8.6 × 103 μg/kg, and HCB (7.6 × 101~1.5 × 103 μg/kg were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts.

  18. Estrogenic evaluation and organochlorine identification in blubber of North Sea harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on the North Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazaki, Pedro Henrique; Brose, François; Jauniaux, Thierry; Das, Krishna; Muller, Marc; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000 ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p'-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80 ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only β-HCH (at 400 and 2000 ng/mL) and δ-HCH (at 2000 ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 10(2)~4.2 × 10(4) μg/kg), p,p'-DDE (5.1 × 10(2)~8.6 × 10(3) μg/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 10(1)~1.5 × 10(3) μg/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts.

  19. Seasonal and spatial distributions of dinoflgellates in relation to environmental factors along the north and south coasts of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Rekik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates in relation to environmental factors in north (restored and south (not yet restored coasts of Sfax. Methods: The present study was conducted during the year of 2010 and 2011 at 12 stations for evaluation of the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates and abiotic parameters. Results: Results revealed a striking difference between the two coasts regarding pH with strong acidification of seawater in the south, which may be caused by industrial activity. Suspended matter was more in the north than in the south, which may be reasonably attributed to the recently added soil that has not yet fully stabilised. Inverted microscopy analysis of dinoflagellates showed 35 and 28 taxa in the north and south coasts of Sfax, respectively. Dinoflagellates developed in association with an important proliferation of common species like Gymnodinium sp., Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum micans. Two distinct associations of dinoflagellates species were identified: a north association involving an important abundance of Peridinium sp. and Protoperidinium sp., and a south assemblage concerning mainly Prorocentum triestinum. Chlorophyll a concentrations on the north [(2.48 ± 2.12 mg/L] and south [(4.95 ± 6.60 mg/L] coasts of Sfax were not correlated with dinoflagellates abundance, probably explained by the fact that an important number of dinoflagellates species are deprived of chloroplasts. The highest heterotrophic dinoflagellates mean abundance was recorded in south Sfax coast (1.64 × 102 cells/L during summer. Conclusions: This study shows that environmental variables were in relation with the dinoflagellates community composition which exhibited clear variations over the study area.

  20. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorostiaga, José M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  1. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  2. Strandings of cetaceans and sea turtles in the Alboran Sea and Strait of Gibraltar: a long–time glimpse of the north coast (Spain and the south coast (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo–Nieto, E.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 species of cetaceans and three species of marine turtles were found in this study. Data were collected by eight independent and self-regulated stranding networks, providing information about 1,198 marine mammal (10 odontocetii, three mysticetii and one phocidae and 574 sea turtle stranding events between 1991 and 2008. Trends in the strandings were analysed in relation to species composition and abundance, and their geographic and seasonal distribution. The most abundant species recorded were the striped dolphin and the loggerhead turtle. Some of the strandings, such as the humpback whale, harbour porpoise, hooded seal and olive ridley turtle, were considered ‘rare’ because their distribution did not match the pattern of the study. When the north and south coasts in the study area were compared, pilot whales stranded more frequently in the north, while delphinid species stranded more in the south coast, and loggerhead turtles stranded more frequently in the north while leatherback turtles stranded more in south coast.

  3. Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incera, Mónica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; César, Javier; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2011-04-01

    Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

  4. Eddies in the Bay of Biscay: A numerical approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Luis; Caballero, Ainhoa

    2011-08-01

    The results of numerical modelling in the Bay of Biscay have been used to investigate eddy dynamics. The modelling has been carried out using mean climatological and atmospheric forcing as input for hydrodynamic simulations with the ROMS model (Regional Ocean Modeling System). The most significant regional circulation features have been simulated in a mesoscale model configuration, with 6.6 km horizontal resolution. Eddy characteristics (horizontal and vertical structure, origins and migration) have been analysed. During winter, jet-like extensions of the slope current off northern Spain (mainly in the vicinity of Cape Ortegal) and France (near Cap Breton, Cap Ferret and Audierne canyons) developed into anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies, with an upper core of slope water. Most of the eddies identified in the model area were anticyclonic, with diameters at sea surface of between 60 and 130 km and significant effects below 500 m in depth. After their generation, the eddies moved slowly westward, with a mean migration speed of less than 2 cm s -1; they dissipated later in the year in the deep basin of the Bay of Biscay. The mean annual surface kinetic energy, estimated with the model, was around 34 cm 2 s -2. Both the kinetic energy and vorticity variability in the study area depend upon changes (magnitude and direction) in the wind stress, which have effects on the development of: the slope poleward current; the Galician upwelling; and the eddy generation and migration.

  5. Radiocesium distribution on sea sediment and in benthic organisms in the north-east Japan coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tsuneo; Ambe, Daisuke; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Saito, Hajime; Miki, Shiduho; Setou, Takashi; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Sciences, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawaward, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-8648 (Japan); Sawada, Hideki [National Resarch Institute of Fisheries Engineering, Fisheries Research Agency, 7620-7, Hasaki, Kamisu-shi, Ibaraki, 314-0408 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials, especially radiocesium, were discharged into the western North Pacific Ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. Although radiocesium concentrations in sea water had quickly diminished via water mixing processes, significant amount still existed on sea floors near Fukushima Prefecture. To assess present distributions and/or spatio-temporal variations of sea sediment radiocesium and its potential affection to benthic ecosystems, we had conducted 5'x5' 2-D observation of sea sediment radiocesium concentrations repeatedly from Feb. 2012 to Jul. 2013. Off Fukushima Prefecture, the higher concentration area of radioactive cesium was often observed in the south area from the FDNPP and a north-south high value band was tended to be along the isobaths around 100 m where the concentration values up to thousands Bq/kg-dry order were observed. The concentrations generally decreased eastward from the high concentration band. At many surveyed positions, the vertical profiles of the radiocesium concentrations in sea sediment showed an exponentially decreasing in deeper layer. The influence of the FDNPP was suggested to generally reach up to 10 cm depth from sediment-surface. A negative correlation was found between the radiocesium concentration and median grain size of the sediment, suggesting that the adsorption capability of sediment for cesium associated with grain size possibly has a large contribution to the formation process of the spatial distribution pattern of the radiocesium concentration. In contrast to the land sediment, Chemical reaching experiment results showed that the radiocesium concentration in the organic component of bottom sediment has higher value than that of bulk sediment, suggesting that non-exchangeable adsorption cite of mineral component of marine sediments had already occupied by stable cesium (~2 nM in

  6. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in biological samples from the north coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Tao, Lin; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Guette-Fernandez, Jorge; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; O'byrne-Hoyos, Indira; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2006-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds are widespread pollutants of toxicological importance that have been detected in environmental matrices. However, little is known on their distribution in South America. In this study, distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was determined in the bile of mullet, Mugil incilis, and in tissues of pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) collected from North Colombia. Analysis was performed by HPLC mass spectrometry after ion-pair extraction. PFOS was found in all bile samples and PFOA and PFHxS were detected at lower frequency. Average concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in bile of fish from Cartagena Bay, an industrialized site, and Totumo marsh, a reference site, were 3673, 370, 489 and 713, 47.4, 1.27 ng/mL, respectively. PFOS concentrations in pelican organs decreased in the order of spleen > liver > lung > kidney > brain > heart > muscle. These results suggest, for the first time, that perfluorinated compounds are also found in wildlife from Latin American countries. - Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related perfluorinated compounds have been found in a tropical ecosystem of South America

  7. Spatiotemporal changes in extreme sea levels along the coasts of the North Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Marta; Woodworth, Philip L.

    2017-09-01

    Extreme sea levels along the densely monitored coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico have been investigated using high-frequency tide gauge measurements in the GESLA-2 data set (www.gesla.org). Our results, based on nontidal residuals and skew surges in records since 1960, confirm that mean sea level (MSL) is a major, but not a unique, driver of extremes. Regionally coherent linear trends and correlations with large-scale climate patterns are found in extreme events, even after the removal of MSL. A similar conclusion, that MSL is a major but not the only driver of extremes, comes from a small number of long records starting in the mid-19th century. The records show slight increases in the intensity of extreme episodes at centennial time scales, together with multidecadal variability unrelated to MSL. Objective statistical criteria have been used to investigate whether extreme sea level distributions are stationary or not, resulting in nonstationarity being favored in many records, with or without accounting for changes in MSL. Extremes have been found to favor a non-Gumbel behavior at many locations, with implications for the accuracy of return levels for coastal engineering.

  8. Trace metals in seawater, sediments and some fish species from Marsa Matrouh Beaches in north-western Mediterranean coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa A. Abdel Ghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of trace metals (V, Al, Sn, As, and Se were measured in seawater, sediments, and muscles of fish species collected from beaches of Marsa Matrouh, North West coast of Egypt. The decreasing trend of metals was observed in water as Al > Sn > As > V > Se and in sediment as Al > Sn > V > As > Se. The levels of dissolved V, Se and As were lower than the typical natural trace element concentration of seawater while, Al surpassed. Dissolved Sn concentration was higher than the background concentration (0.01 μg/l but it is still lower than the toxic concentration for organisms. Pollution load index (PLI recorded values >1 indicate progressive deterioration of the sediment quality. Enrichment factor (EF, contamination factor (CF and geoaccumulation index (Igeo demonstrated that most of the sediment samples were moderately to heavily contaminated by Sn which surpassed the threshold limit value (TLV. Metal bioaccumulation in the muscles of fish species was in the decreasing order of Al > Sn > V > Se, while As was not detected in all species. Calculated metal pollution indices (MPI were lower than 1 except in Saurida undosquamis with 1.43 indicating that it is safe for human consumption.

  9. A transboundary study of urban sprawl in the Pacific Coast region of North America: The benefits of multiple measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Schaub, Tim

    2005-12-01

    Sprawling urban development has emerged as a primary concern of policy makers, land preservationists and both urban and rural communities in developing regions across the globe. For the first time in history, more global residents lived in urban areas than not and the trend to urbanization is in full force at the start of the 21st century. An understanding of the nature and character of urban sprawl is complicated by a failure to satisfactorily define it and by the limitations of measurement techniques designed to characterize complex landscape forms. Like other landscape patterns, the quantification of urban sprawl is highly spatially and temporally scale-dependent. This paper summarizes a recent project to measure urban sprawl in the transboundary region of the Pacific Coast of North America. The metropolitan centers of Portland, OR, Seattle, WA and Vancouver, BC, span two nations, three state/provincial governments and dozens of cities. As a region, this was a global leader in population growth in the 1990s. The study relied on three separate methods - an impervious surface metric, a neighborhood density metric and a building permit metric - for quantifying urban growth. The results provide insight on the strengths and shortcomings of different methods with respect to the challenges posed by data availability and format. Taken together they demonstrate the richer understanding that combined methods may offer in characterizing phenomena as difficult to communicate and agree upon as urban sprawl.

  10. RCRA corrective measures using a permeable reactive iron wall US Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmithors, W.L.; Vardy, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A chromic acid release was discovered at a former electroplating shop at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Initial investigative activities indicated that chromic acid had migrated into the subsurface soils and groundwater. In addition, trichloroethylene (TCE) was also discovered in groundwater during subsequent investigations of the hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) plume. Corrective measures were required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The in-situ remediation method, proposed under RCRA Interim Measures to passively treat the groundwater contaminants, uses reactive zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate the chlorinated compounds and to mineralize the hexavalent chromium. A 47 meter by 0.6 meter subsurface permeable iron wall was installed downgradient of the source area to a depth of 7 meters using a direct trenching machine. The iron filings were placed in the ground as the soils were excavated from the subsurface. This is the first time that direct trenching was used to install reactive zero-valent iron filings. Over 250 metric tons of iron filings were used as the reactive material in the barrier wall. Installation of the iron filings took one full day. Extensive negotiations with regulatory agencies were required to use this technology under the current facility Hazardous Waste Management Permit. All waste soils generated during the excavation activities were contained and treated on site. Once contaminant concentrations were reduced the waste soils were used as fill material

  11. Subpolar Atlantic cooling and North American east coast warming linked to AMOC slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan; Caesar, Levke; Feulner, Georg; Saba, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing the history of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is difficult due to the limited availability of data. One approach has been to use instrumental and proxy data for sea surface temperature (SST), taking multi-decadal and longer SST variations in the subpolar gyre region as indicator for AMOC changes [Rahmstorf et al., 2015]. Recent high-resolution global climate model results [Saba et al., 2016] as well as dynamical theory and conceptual modelling [Zhang and Vallis, 2007] suggest that an AMOC weakening will not only cool the subpolar Atlantic but simultaneously warm the Northwest Atlantic between Cape Hatteras and Nova Scotia, thus providing a characteristic SST pattern associated with AMOC variations. We analyse sea surface temperature (SST) observations from this region together with high-resolution climate model simulations to better understand the linkages of SST variations to AMOC variability and to provide further evidence for an ongoing AMOC slowdown. References Rahmstorf, S., J. E. Box, G. Feulner, M. E. Mann, A. Robinson, S. Rutherford, and E. J. Schaffernicht (2015), Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation, Nature Climate Change, 5(5), 475-480, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2554. Saba, V. S., et al. (2016), Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 121(1), 118-132, doi: 10.1002/2015JC011346. Zhang, R., and G. K. Vallis (2007), The Role of Bottom Vortex Stretching on the Path of the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current and on the Northern Recirculation Gyre, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37(8), 2053-2080, doi: 10.1175/jpo3102.1.

  12. Assessment of historical and future extreme flood characteristics for Novorossiysk city on the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Olga; Kruchin, Maksim; Volkova, Nina; Lebedeva, Luidmila

    2014-05-01

    Several catastrophic floods have occurred in the North Caucasus region in recent years. One such, the dramatic flood in Krymsk in July, 2012 led to more than 160 deaths. Except for late warning, the main reason for damage and loss of lives is the unpreparedness of urban drainage systems and hydraulic structures to the increased intensity and volume of precipitation which has been observed in the region in recent years. This study aimed to assess flood characteristics and estimate possible inundation areas for Novorossiysk city, located at the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus. The Cemes River which flows through the city originates on the north-east slopes of the Gudzev Mountain (425 m) and has a basin area about 83 km2. The study is conducted for the purpose of improving the city drainage system. The task of flood characteristic estimation is complicated by the lack of both hydrological and meteorological data. The Cemes River is ungauged and there are no operative precipitation gauges on the mountain slopes where most of the precipitation occurs. There is only one station located in the city on the coast. The assessment was conducted using several approaches. One is that the recommendations which are used in hydrological engineering practice were applied. They include the use of basin-analogous data and the application of regional formulas and maps to estimate maximum discharge of required exceedance probability (1% in this study). In this case where the shortage of observation data is combined with considerable changes in rainfall and land-use, the methods estimating runoff characteristics using the statistical approach of observation data extrapolation may yield incorrect results. As a result, the deterministic-stochastic (DS) modeling approach used herein is suggested as an alternative. Here the deterministic model distinguishes between the processes within catchments, while the stochastic model provides stochastic meteorological input and a framework to

  13. The Perception of the stakeholders influences strategies and its relation with the generic strategy: case study in small business enterprises of the north coast of Santa Catarina State

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Freitas; Valmir Emil Hoffmann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the relationship between the stakeholders’ influence strategy perception and the generic strategy in the small business enterprises in the cities of the North Coast of Santa Catarina, according to the typologies proposed. The work, which has a predominantly quantitative nature, was realized in 148 (one hundred and forty-eight) business enterprises and services, by means of the application of three questionnaires in each company. The results fou...

  14. LiDAR Mapping of Earthquake Uplifted Paleo-shorelines, Southern Wairarapa Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Angenent, J.; Marshall, J. S.; Clark, K.; Litchfield, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific Plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Pronounced forearc uplift occurs at the southern end of the margin along the Wairarapa coast, onshore of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. Along a narrow coastal lowland, a series of uplifted Holocene marine terraces and beach ridges preserve a geologic record of prehistoric coseismic uplift events. In January 2017, we participated in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program of the NSF SHIRE Project (Subduction at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment). We visited multiple coastal sites for reconnaissance fieldwork to select locations for future in-depth study. For the coastline between Flat Point and Te Kaukau Point, we used airborne LiDAR data provided by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) to create ArcGIS digital terrain models for mapping and correlating uplifted paleo-shorelines. Terrace elevations derived from the LiDAR data were calibrated through the use of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveying at one field site (Glenburn Station). Prior field mapping and radiocarbon dating results (Berryman et al., 2001; Litchfield and Clark, 2015) were used to guide our LiDAR mapping efforts. The resultant maps show between four and seven uplifted terraces and associated beach ridges along this coastal segment. At some sites, terrace mapping and lateral correlation are impeded by discontinuous exposures and the presence of landslide debris, alluvial fan deposits, and sand dunes. Tectonic uplift along the southern Hikurangi margin is generated by a complex interaction between deep megathrust slip and shallow upper-plate faulting. Each uplifted Holocene paleo-shoreline is interpreted to represent a single coseismic uplift event. Continued mapping, surveying, and age dating may help differentiate between very large margin-wide megathrust earthquakes (M8.0-9.0+) and

  15. Drifter observations in the summer time Bay of Biscay slope current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M.; Inall, M. E.; Green, J. A. M.; Simpson, J. H.; Dale, A. C.; Miller, P. I.

    2016-05-01

    During the summer of 2012, 20 surface drifters drogued at 50 m depth were deployed on the continental slope to the north of the Bay of Biscay. Initially after release the drifters all crossed the slope, with 14 continuing equatorward, parallel to the slope following an absolute dynamic topography feature and 6 returning to the slope, in an eddy, visible in chlorophyll-a maps. Lagrangian statistics show an anisotropic flow field that becomes less tied to the absolute dynamic topography and increasingly dominated by diffusion and eddy processes. A weaker tie to the absolute dynamic topography allowed for total of 8 of the drifters crossed from the deep water onto the shelf, showing pathways for flow across the slope. A combination of drifter trajectories, absolute dynamic topography and chlorophyll-a concentration maps has been used to show that small anticyclonic eddies, tied to the complex slope topography provide a mechanism for on shelf transport. During the summer, the presence of these eddies can be seen in surface chlorophyll-a maps.

  16. Hurricane Irma's Effects on Dune and Beach Morphology at Matanzas Inlet, Atlantic Coast of North Florida: Impacts and Inhibited Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Conlin, M. P.; Johnson, H. A.; Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Woo, H. B.; Kelly, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    During energetic coastal storms, surge from low atmospheric pressure, high wave set-up, and increased wave activity contribute to significant morphologic change within the dune and upper beach environments of barrier island systems. Hurricane Irma made landfall on the southwestern portion of the Florida peninsula, as a category 4 storm on Sept 10th, 2017 and tracked northward along the axis of the Florida peninsula for two days before dissipating over the North American continent. Observations along the North Florida Atlantic coast recorded significant wave heights of nearly 7 m and water levels that exceeded predictions by 2 meters on the early morning of Sept. 11th. At Fort Matanzas National Monument, the dune and upper beach adjacent to Matanzas Inlet experienced landward retreat during the storm, diminishing the acreage of dune and scrub habitat for federally-listed endangered and threatened animal species, including the Anastasia beach mouse, gopher tortoises, and several protected shore birds. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveys, conducted prior to the passage of the storm (Sept. 8) and immediately after the storm (Sept. 13) document dune scarp retreat >10 m in places and an average retreat of 7.8 m (+/- 5.2 m) of the 2-m beach contour, attributable to the event, within the study region. Although it is typical to see sedimentary recovery at the base of dunes within weeks following an erosive event of this magnitude, our follow up RTK surveys, two weeks (Sept. 26) and five weeks (Oct. 19) after the storm, document continued dune retreat and upper beach lowering. Subsequent local buoy observations during the offshore passage of Hurricanes Jose, Maria (Sept. 17 and 23, respectively) and several early-season Nor'easters recorded wave heights well above normal (2-3 meters) from the northeast. The lack of recovery may reveal a threshold vulnerability of the system, in which the timing of multiple moderate-to-high wave events, in the aftermath of a land falling

  17. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and Delta virus strains that spread in the Mediterranean North East Coast of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi, Lamia; Brichler, Ségolène; Mansour, Wael; Le Gal, Frédéric; Hammami, Walid; Sadraoui, Amel; Ben Mami, Nabil; Msaddek, Azouz; Cheikh, Imed; Triki, Henda; Gordien, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Tunisia is classified as an area of middle endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, however little is known about hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. This study aimed to address the prevalence of HDV infection, to identify possible risks factors, and to analyze the genetic diversity of HDV strains that are spreading in Tunisia. A retrospective large-scale study including 1615 HBsAg positive patients, native of the North East coast of Tunisia, recruited from Gastroenterology departments, was conducted. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnical, clinical and biological data were recorded. HBV and HDV serological analyses and DNA and RNA viral load quantification were performed. Genotyping of HBV and HDV strains was performed using nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogenetic analyses. The study population included 819 (50.7%) men and 796 (49.3%) women; aged 12-90 years (mean age 41±13 years). A very low prevalence of HDV infection, 2% was observed. No risk factor, except a history of hospitalization for surgery was found. All HDV strains belonged to genotype 1, with a wide distribution within the HDV-1 group. They all share the African amino acid marker, a serine at position 202 of the large Delta protein. HBV genotypes were distributed as follows: HBV/D1 (56.8%), HBV/D7 (40.9%), and HBV/A2 (2.3%). Tunisia is a low endemic region for HDV infection, due to an efficient policy of HBV infection control. HDV-1 is the sole genotype found, with a high diversity within this group. Further studies are ongoing in order to better characterize and manage the HBV/HDV-infected patients according to the genetic variability of the viral strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photovoltaic monitoring systems on the North Sea coast. Final report; Einsatz photovoltaisch versorgter Umweltmesseinrichtungen an der Nordseekueste. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasse, W.

    2002-06-01

    7 photovoltaic monitoring systems were installed on the North Sea coast. A detailed analysis of electric loads and operating times was made in the design phase, and dimensioning was made with the aid of simulations carried out at Oldenburg University. Energy consumption during operation is envisaged in order to ensure further cost reduction. Four stations are equipped with remote data transmission systems to facilitate data acquisition and for selective servicing. [German] In dem Projekt 'Einsatz photovoltaisch versorgter Umweltmesseinrichtungen an der Nordseekueste' wurden in einer Kooperation zwischen dem Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH (ISFH), dem Niedersaechsischen Landesamt fuer Oekologie (NLOe), dem Forschungszentrum Terramare, dem Deutschen Windenergieinstitut (DeWI), der Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg und dem Wattenmeerhaus Wilhelmshaven insgesamt sieben photovoltaisch versorgte Umweltmesseinrichtungen realisiert. Fuer die Auslegung der photovoltaischen Versorgung der einzelnen Stationen wurde eine detaillierte Analyse der jeweiligen elektrischen Verbraucher und Geraetebetriebszeiten durchgefuehrt. Durch eine Verbrauchsreduktion einzelner Komponenten konnte der Energiebedarf bei vielen Anlagen erheblich reduziert werden, was sich positiv auf die Groesse der erforderlichen Photovoltaikanlage auswirkte bzw. die photovoltaische Versorgung zum Teil erst ermoeglichte. Die Dimensionierung der Photovoltaiksysteme wurde mit Hilfe von Simulationsrechnungen der Universitaet Oldenburg durchgefuehrt. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wurden die Groessen der Batteriespeicher und der Photovoltaikgeneratoren festgelegt. Dies hat, wie die positiven Betriebsergebnisse zeigen, bei allen Anlagen zu einer hohen Versorgungssicherheit gefuehrt. Bei einigen Stationen waren die aus Datenblattangaben und einzelnen Komponentenvermessungen sowie Angaben der Messstationsbetreiber zu den erforderlichen Betriebszeiten gewonnenen Annahmen fuer den Energiebedarf sehr

  19. TOURISM AND INFORMALITY: AN ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL EVENTS ON THE NORTH COAST OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jochims Kruel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comes from the reflection on texts by Ignacy Sachs, an expert of development, that addresses important contemporary issues to society, in a combination of the themes: economic growth, social equity and environmental preservation. Among the themes, there is the question of eradicating poverty and social exclusion, through decent job. The author argues that the inclusion by the job combines economic and social objectives, and that exercising the right of working, promotes self-esteem, opportunities for self-fulfillment and advancement in the social scale. On the other hand, he denounces the poor distribution of workload socially necessary and a worldwide epidemic of jobless growth, and he argues that in Brazil, especially, most of the work is in small enterprises, many of those where people work in conditions of precariousness and informality. In this sense, the author points to a striking reality in the country and he asks: Who can say how it works in Brazil, the so-called informal economy, how many workers do participate in it and how does it happen? Because of those questions, this article was written, a brief attempt to demonstrate some of the ways the informal economy operates in Brazil, in a context marked by seasonality: tourism, in a which huge number of people move to different places searching for home, leisure, employment opportunities and income, formalized or not. It is perceived in this article, informal economic activity as a survival practice. The study was conducted in the ethnography method, in a medium-size city of the North Coast of Rio Grande do Sul during the summer season of 2009 and 2010. The article starts with a contextual approach, which it comes to tourism, essentially. Following, it is presented a section on informality and practical entrepreneurial survival and searching for better living conditions. The third section relates to the methodological design, followed by ‘findings’ of the research and

  20. Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Lindo, John; Hughes, Cris E.; Johnson, Jesse W.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Kemp, Brian M.; Ma, Jian; Cunningham, Ryan; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycellyn; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2013-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga’a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor–descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP) exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast. PMID:23843972

  1. North Coast Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — CDF-FRAP compiled the 'best available' land cover data into a single data layer, to support the various analyses required for the 2002 Forest and Range Assessment....

  2. Observations and modelling of sea level variability in the Bay of Biscay in the framework of the ENIGME project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordà, Gabriel; Marcos, Marta; Pineau-Guillou, Lucia; Vandermeirsch, Frederic; Theetten, Sebastien; Charria, Guillaume

    2017-04-01

    In a climate change context, understanding the variability of physical properties along the coasts and its link to large scale processes is of paramount importance in order to project how global warming will affect the coastal environments. In this framework, the ENIGME project aims to implement and validate a suite of high resolution numerical models in the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic) in order to better represent the interannual variations of physical properties. In this presentation we will focus on sea level variations at the coast characterized from observations (tide gauges and altimetry) and models (barotropic and baroclinic in different configurations). In a first step we characterize the mechanisms behind sea level variations at time scales from hours to decades. Most of the variability is associated with tides while atmospherically induced variations (meteorological tides) dominate the residuals at all frequencies (true for narrow shelf areas where the open sea dynamics have non-negligible influence on the coastal sea level variability. In those cases, the treatment of the open boundaries in regional circulation models and the quality of the information there (i.e. from the OGCM) is crucial for a good representation of variations in coastal areas. Finally we have also noticed that none of the models is able to correctly reproduce the long-term trends, which are dominated by large scale processes.

  3. Spatial patterns and scale-dependent relationships between macrozooplankton and fish in the Bay of Biscay: an acoustic study

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, A

    2011-10-20

    Macrozooplankton plays a key role in pelagic ecosystems as a link between lower trophic levels and fish. However, although its ecological role is usually considered in polar ecosystems, it is rarely considered in temperate ones. To obtain comprehensive information on the macrozooplankton distribution in the Bay of Biscay we adapted a bi-frequency acoustic method developed for the Humboldt Current system. This method can be used to extract continuous and simultaneous high-resolution information on the spatiotemporal patterns of biomass distributions of macrozooplankton and pelagic fish throughout the diel cycle. The 2 distributions were mapped using geostatistical techniques. We applied kriging with external drifts, which accounts for both diel and across-shore changes in macrozooplankton biomass. We then used a cross-variogram to determine the scale-dependent relationships between macrozooplankton and fish. The results show how macrozooplankton and fish are distributed according to the different ecological domains (coast, shelf, shelf-break and offshore) along the Spanish and French coasts. Specific macrozooplankton hotspots were observed, but macrozooplankton was generally more abundant offshore than inshore, whereas fish showed the opposite trend. This pattern was confirmed by the aggregation sizes, which increased towards oceanic waters for macrozooplankton and decreased for fish. Finally, the correlation between fish and macrozooplankton was positive on a small scale (<30 nautical miles) and negative on a large scale (>30 nautical miles).

  4. Lower trophic levels and detrital biomass control the Bay of Biscay continental shelf food web: Implications for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, G.; Lobry, J.; Le Loc'h, F.; Bustamante, P.; Certain, G.; Delmas, D.; Dupuy, C.; Hily, C.; Labry, C.; Le Pape, O.; Marquis, E.; Petitgas, P.; Pusineri, C.; Ridoux, V.; Spitz, J.; Niquil, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Bay of Biscay (North-East Atlantic) has long been subjected to intense direct and indirect human activities that lead to the excessive degradation and sometimes overexploitation of natural resources. Fisheries management is gradually moving away from single-species assessments to more holistic, multi-species approaches that better respond to the reality of ecosystem processes. Quantitative modelling methods such as Ecopath with Ecosim can be useful tools for planning, implementing and evaluating ecosystem-based fisheries management strategies. The aim of this study was therefore to model the energy fluxes within the food web of this highly pressured ecosystem and to extract practical information required in the diagnosis of ecosystem state/health. A well-described model comprising 30 living and two non-living compartments was successfully constructed with data of local origin, for the Bay of Biscay continental shelf. The same level of aggregation was applied to primary producers, mid-trophic-levels and top-predators boxes. The model was even more general as it encompassed the entire continuum of marine habitats, from benthic to pelagic domains. Output values for most ecosystem attributes indicated a relatively mature and stable ecosystem, with a large proportion of its energy flow originating from detritus. Ecological network analysis also provided evidence that bottom-up processes play a significant role in the population dynamics of upper-trophic-levels and in the global structuring of this marine ecosystem. Finally, a novel metric based on ecosystem production depicted an ecosystem not far from being overexploited. This finding being not entirely consistent over indicators, further analyses based on dynamic simulations are required.

  5. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part II: The Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Doremus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Pettex, Emeline; Stephan, Eric; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    From the Habitat Directive to the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the conservation status of cetaceans in European water has been of concern for over two decades. In this study, a seasonal comparison of the abundance and distribution of cetaceans was carried out in two contrasted regions of the Eastern North Atlantic, the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. Estimates were obtained in the two sub-regions (375,000 km²) from large aerial surveys conducted in the winter (November 2011 to February 2012) and in the summer (May to August 2012). The most abundant species encountered in the Channel, the harbour porpoise, displayed strong seasonal variations in its distribution but a stable abundance (18,000 individuals, CV=30%). In the Bay of Biscay, abundance and distribution patterns of common / striped dolphins varied from 285,000 individuals (95% CI: 174,000-481,000) in the winter, preferentially distributed close to the shelf break, to 494,000 individuals (95% CI: 342,000-719,000) distributed beyond the shelf break in summer. Baleen whales also exhibited an increase of their density in summer. Seasonal abundances of bottlenose dolphins were quite stable, with a large number of 'pelagic' encounters offshore in winter. No significant seasonal difference was estimated for pilot whales and sperm whale. These surveys provided baseline estimates to inform policies to be developed, or for existing conservation instruments such as the Habitats Directive. In addition, our results supported the hypothesis of a shift in the summer distributions of some species such as harbour porpoise and minke whale in European waters.

  6. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  7. Simulation of flow in the upper North Coast Limestone Aquifer, Manati-Vega Baja area, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer ground-water model was constructed of the Manati-Vega Baja area to improve the understanding of the unconfined upper aquifer within the North Coast Province of Puerto Rico. The modeled area covers approximately 79 square miles within the municipios of Manati and Vega Baja and small portions of Vega Alta and Barceloneta. Steady-state two-dimensional ground-water simulations were correlated to conditions prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1940 and calibrated to the observed potentiometric surface in March 1995. At the regional scale, the unconfined Upper North Coast Limestone aquifer is a diffuse ground-water flow system through the Aguada and Aymamon limestone units. The calibrated model input parameters for aquifer recharge varied from 2 inches per year in coastal areas to 18 inches per year in the upland areas south of Manati and Vega Baja. The calibrated transmissivity values ranged from less than 500 feet squared per day in the upland areas near the southern boundary to 70,000 feet squared per day in the areas west of Vega Baja. Increased ground-water withdrawals from 1.0 cubic foot per second for 1940 conditions to 26.3 cubic feet per second in 1995, has reduced the natural ground-water discharge to springs and wetland areas, and induced additional recharge from the rivers. The most important regional drainage feature is Laguna Tortuguero, which is the major ground-water discharge body for the upper aquifer, and has a drainage area of approximately 17 square miles. The discharge to the sea from Laguna Tortuguero through the outlet channel has been measured on a bi-monthly basis since 1974. The outflow represents a combination of ground- and surface-water discharge over the drainage area. Hydrologic conditions, prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1943, can be considered natural conditions with minimal ground-water pumpage (1.0 cubic foot per second), and heads in the lagoon

  8. Determination of the watering scheme for naturally grown cane sugar cultures during the maturing period in the north of the Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langellier, P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to produce sugar canes of optimum richness at the time of harvesting, it is necessary to determine the duration of the weaning period and the water requirements prior to this period. This problem was studied for a naturally grown cane with a NCo 376 cycle grown in the north of the Ivory coast. Water balances were determined using neutronic and tensiometric methods. It was thus possible to confirm the practical usefulness of tensiometers and to establish a weaning period of one month and a half and to determine a vegetation coefficient K=0.5 [fr

  9. Hydrochemistry and radioactivity in the rivers of Biscay (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, F.; Herranz, M.; Elejalde, C.; Legarda, F.

    1995-01-01

    For a research project on the evaluations of radioactive constituents in ecological segments of Biscay (Spain), nuclides in water of the main rivers and hydrochemical parameters (pH, conductivity, temperature, percentage of saturation in oxygen and chemical components) were measured. Radioactive data obtained after statistical treatment at 95% confidence level, were as follows; i) Total alpha and beta idexes with a gas flow detector on dry residues not greater than 2 and 10 mg/cm''2, respectively and ii) gamma emitters with a low level spectrometer (Ge-HP detector + 8000 channels analyser) on the dry residue of more than 8 litres and a counting period of 4 days. This paper include 28 samples from the following rivers: Nervion (10), Ibaizabal (5), Cadagua (8), Barbadun, Butron, Oca, Lea and Artibay. On the basis of average values, studied rivers are characterized as follows: Nervion (important amount of Cs. 137 and the greatest beta index), Ibaizabal (high K.40 contents), Cadagua (the biggest alpha index ) and low radionuclides concentrations in the other rivers. Finally, the application of multivariate statistical techniques, mainly cluster analysis, is tried to find out relations between chemical and radioactive constituents. (Author)

  10. Assessing the Spatial-Temporal Land use Change and Encroachment Activities Due to Flood Hazard in North Coast of Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Setyo Hartanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Demak is known as the second largest region suffering land use change in Java’s North Coast. The topographic condition in downstream affects this area becomes susceptible with flood hazard. This research aims to assess the interactions between flooding, land use change and encroachment activities in Mijen and Wedung sub districts, Demak region, Central Java, Indonesia. This research combines the Driving Force, Pressure, State, Impact and Response (DPSIR analysis. The supervised classification by Maximum Likelihood of time series Landsat images (2000, 2009 and 2014 was chosen for land cover analysis. The land use change shows that paddy field area descended almost 6%, mangrove forest fall 79% meanwhile settlement grown up almost double in 2000-2014. The result of overall accuracy assessment is 78.23%. The DPSIR result shows that land use change not too affect the flood events but floods influence land use pattern in north and south area of Mijen and Wedung.

  11. Cetacean diversity and distribution in the coast of Gipuzkoa and adjacent waters, southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS, E., SALAZAR, J.M., STHEPANIS, R. de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2003, se ha realizado un seguimiento continuo a las poblaciones de cetáceos de la costa guipuzcoana, siguiendo los protocolos de muestreo de cetáceos en mar de la Sociedad Española de Cetáceos. Se ha estudiado la diversidad, la densidad, la distribución espacial y temporal de estas especies. Los resultados indican la presencia de 12 especies de cetáceos en el área, y la importancia de la misma para cinco de ellas, especialmente para el delfín mular (Tursiops truncatus. El delfín común (Delphinus delphis, el calderon de aleta larga (Globicephala melas, el delfín listado (Stenella coeruleoalba y el cifio de cuvier (Ziphius cavirostris son especies altamente representadas en el área. Se han definido las principales áreas de distribución de estas especies con el fin de dar los primeros pasos para la creación de un Área Marina Protegida en el área.

  12. Sea level anomaly in the North Atlantic and seas around Europe: Long-term variability and response to North Atlantic teleconnection patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Lorenzo, M Nieves; Lázaro, Clara; Fernandes, M Joana; Bastos, Luísa

    2017-12-31

    Sea level anomaly (SLA), provided globally by satellite altimetry, is considered a valuable proxy for detecting long-term changes of the global ocean, as well as short-term and annual variations. In this manuscript, monthly sea level anomaly grids for the period 1993-2013 are used to characterise the North Atlantic Ocean variability at inter-annual timescales and its response to the North Atlantic main patterns of atmospheric circulation variability (North Atlantic Oscillation, Eastern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia, Scandinavian and Polar/Eurasia) and main driven factors as sea level pressure, sea surface temperature and wind fields. SLA variability and long-term trends are analysed for the North Atlantic Ocean and several sub-regions (North, Baltic and Mediterranean and Black seas, Bay of Biscay extended to the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, and the northern North Atlantic Ocean), depicting the SLA fluctuations at basin and sub-basin scales, aiming at representing the regions of maximum sea level variability. A significant correlation between SLA and the different phases of the teleconnection patterns due to the generated winds, sea level pressure and sea surface temperature anomalies, with a strong variability on temporal and spatial scales, has been identified. Long-term analysis reveals the existence of non-stationary inter-annual SLA fluctuations in terms of the temporal scale. Spectral density analysis has shown the existence of long-period signals in the SLA inter-annual component, with periods of ~10, 5, 4 and 2years, depending on the analysed sub-region. Also, a non-uniform increase in sea level since 1993 is identified for all sub-regions, with trend values between 2.05mm/year, for the Bay of Biscay region, and 3.98mm/year for the Baltic Sea (no GIA correction considered). The obtained results demonstrated a strong link between the atmospheric patterns and SLA, as well as strong long-period fluctuations of this variable in spatial and

  13. The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Ochrophyta) along the north coast of Portugal: distribution model versus field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, P; Torres, A C; Rubal, M; Troncoso, J; Sousa-Pinto, I

    2014-07-15

    After the first report of Undaria pinnatifida in north Portugal (between 1999 and 2007), a rapid spread of this species could be expected due to the presence of a stable population and the favourable environmental conditions proposed by distribution models. However, field surveys showed that U. pinnatifida was not present in most of the rocky shores in north Portugal. It seems that U. pinnatifida cannot outcompete native species outside of marinas in north Portugal. The only population in natural rocky shores was found in Buarcos, where this species was frequent. This study provides density data of U. pinnatifida that will be useful in the future to monitor changes on its abundance and distribution in the centre and south of Portugal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  15. Reproduction among protobranch bivalves of the family Nuculidae from sublittoral, bathyal, and abyssal depths off the New England coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Rudolf S.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    Protobranch bivalve species of the family Nuculidae pass through either a planktonic lecithotrophic larval stage or a direct non-planktonic development. Oogenesis of the three sublittoral species examined is synchronous. Deposition of egg masses by Nucula delphinodonta and spawning by Nucula annulata and Nucula proxima occur only during summer months. Among the four bathyal and abyssal species, Ennucula similis, Ennucula granulosa, Deminucula atacellana, and Brevinucula verrilli, oogenesis is asynchronous and there is no discernable pattern of periodicity of spawning. Absence of periodicity in reproduction in these deep-sea species is confirmed by examination of individuals from dredge samples taken at different times of the year. The median apparent fecundity among both sublittoral and deep-sea species is directly related to size (i.e. shell length) and age. Among the Nuculidae the median apparent fecundity is greater among sublittoral than bathyal and abyssal species. The geographic distribution of a species depends on its capacity to disperse. The dispersal of the planktonic lecithotrophic larvae of the sublittoral species N. annulata and N. proxima is limited to the continental shelf of the northwestern Atlantic by inshore bottom circulation and because these very small planktonic larvae (lecithotrophic larvae have a very wide amphi-Atlantic distribution extending from 60°N to 40°S latitude along the North and South American coasts and from 55°N to ca. 19°S from off Europe southwards to the coast of West Africa as a consequence of dispersal by planktonic lecithotrophic larvae along the seafloor. The amphi-Atlantic dispersal must occur stepwise between deep-sea populations (e.g., off Greenland). Such a geographic distribution indicates a widespread dispersal and is supported by the genetic similarity that has been described between North American and western European populations of D. atacellana.

  16. The Influence of Oxygen, Temperature, and Salinity on Ostracod Body Size in the Gulf of California and the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N.; Weber, M.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of body size and its evolution is important to paleontological understanding of ecological niches that different organisms have occupied. Ostracods, with frequent occurrences throughout the geological record beginning in the Ordovician, are useful in analyzing how body size has changed. Therefore, understanding the impact of environmental variables is crucial to understanding patterns of body size evolution in extinct ostracods. In order to further investigate this question, ostracod populations in the Gulf of California and the Pacific Coast of North America were studied. By compiling data from Ostracoda from the Gulf of California (Swain, 1967), Marine Holocene Ostracoda from the Pacific Coast of North and Central America (Swain and Gilby, 1974), and the National Oceanographic Data Center, we compare environmental factors, including oxygen levels, temperature, salinity, and depth with anteroposterior length measurements of about 180 recent ostracod species in order to determine the impact of these variables. Using R, we constructed graphs of oxygen levels, temperature, and salinity versus average body size. Using a correlation test, the correlation coefficient for oxygen is -0.193, temperature is -0.398, and salinity is -0.322, with the corresponding p-values of 0.067, 9.196 x 10-5, and 0.002; only the latter two p-values are significant at the alpha = 0.05 level. The correlation test for depth was calculated but showed no trends. The statistically significant correlation coefficient between temperature and body size suggests a strong negative correlation. Because oxygen levels and salinity levels are, to some extent, dependent upon temperature, this may explain the smaller, yet still statistically significant, correlation between body size and salinity. Relationships between ostracod body size and temperature may be relevant to our understanding of the impacts on ecological structure as the ocean temperatures fluctuate in the future.

  17. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Managed aquifer recharge on the west coast north of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme (AWRMS) located some 40 km north of Cape Town shows how insightful planning and management can expand the groundwater supply potential of a primary aquifer for bulk urban water supply. The AWRMS...

  18. Are sea-level-rise trends along the coasts of the north Indian Ocean consistent with global estimates?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shankar, D.

    Mean-sea-level data from coastal tide gauges in the north Indian Ocean wereare used to show that low-frequency variability is consistent among the stations in the basin. Statistically significant trends obtained from records longer than 40 years...

  19. Long-term temporal and spatial changes in the richness and relative abundance of the inshore fish community of the British North Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in temporal and spatial composition of the British inshore North Sea fish community are reviewed. Sampling from the cooling water filter screens of power stations bordering the North Sea commenced in the early 1960s. To date, a total of 112 marine fish species have been recorded, a high proportion of the total inshore fish species complement of shallow North Sea British waters. The unrecorded top predators, such as large sharks, swordfish and tuna are not regularly observed in waters abundance, taxa form a core inshore community throughout the region in both estuarine and marine waters. They show a high level of concordance in relative abundance along the British east coast from the 1970s to the present. A second group of 20 species are abundant, but more restricted in habitat. Where they do occur, this group are usually always present and form together with the ubiquitous taxa the local core community. The third group of 67 species, are never abundant and are restricted in occurrence both spatially and temporally. Total species richness declines between 50 and 56°N, probably because high summer temperatures allow the southern North Sea to support summer migrants entering via the English Channel. Since the 1960s there has been a notable recovery in fish diversity and abundance in large industrialised estuaries such as the Thames and the Firth of Forth. Linked to spawning and nursery habitat gain, smelt, Osmerus eperlangus, and bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, have greatly increased in abundance. There is no evidence for a decline in species richness since the 1970s. However, elasmobranch species number has declined while two species Raja clavata and Scyliorhinus canicula have remained abundant and one, Mustelus asterias, has increased in abundance. It is argued that overexploitation and habitat destruction remain, as they have been for the last 300 years, the most serious threats to the health of North Sea inshore fish communities. There are no clear signs that

  20. A life-cycle model for wave-dominated tidal inlets along passive margin coasts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminack, Christopher T.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2018-03-01

    A regional overview of 107 wave-dominated tidal inlets along the U.S. Atlantic coast, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast, and Canadian Gulf of St. Lawrence coast yielded a generalized wave-dominated tidal inlet life-cycle model that recognized the rotational nature of tidal inlets. Tidal inlets are influenced by concurrently acting processes transpiring over two timescales: short-term, event-driven processes and long-term, evolutionary processes. Wave-dominated tidal inlets are classified into three rotational categories based on net longshore sediment transport direction and rotation direction along the landward (back-barrier) portion of the inlet channel: downdrift channel rotation, updrift channel rotation, or little-to-no channel rotation. Lateral shifting of the flood-tidal delta depocenter in response to available estuarine accommodation space appears to control inlet channel rotation. Flood-tidal delta deposits fill accommodation space locally within the estuary (i.e., creating bathymetric highs), causing the tidal-inlet channel to rotate. External influences, such as fluvial discharge, pre-existing back-barrier channels, and impeding salt marsh will also influence inlet-channel rotation. Storm events may rejuvenate the tidal inlet by scouring sediment within the flood-tidal delta, increasing local accommodation space. Wave-dominated tidal inlets are generally unstable and tend to open, concurrently migrate laterally and rotate, infill, and close. Channel rotation is a primary reason for wave-dominated tidal inlet closure. During rotation, the inlet channel lengthens and hydraulic efficiency decreases, thus causing tidal prism to decrease. Tidal prism, estuarine accommodation space, and sediment supply to the flood-tidal delta are the primary variables responsible for tidal inlet rotation. Stability of wave-dominated tidal inlets is further explained by: stability (S) = tidal prism (Ω) + estuarine accommodation space (V) - volume of annual sediment supply (Mt

  1. Discovery of Widespread Biogenic Methane Emissions and Authigenic Carbonate Mound-like Structures at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, S.; Loubrieu, B.; Scalabrin, C.; Ehrhold, A.; Gautier, E.; Ruffine, L.; Pierre, C.; Battani, A.; Le Bouffant, N.; Berger, L.

    2014-12-01

    Fishery acoustic surveys conducted in the Bay of Biscay (1998-2012) and dedicated to monitoring and predicting pelagic ecosystem evolution reveal numerous active seeps on the Aquitaine Shelf, east of the shelf break (Dupré et al. 2014). Seafloor and water column acoustic investigation with the use of ship-borne multibeam echosounder in 2013 (Gazcogne1 marine expedition) confirmed the presence of numerous (> 3000) persistent and widespread gas emission sites at water depths ranging from ~140 to 180 m. These fluid emissions are associated at the seafloor with high backscatter subcircular small-scale mounds, on average less than 2 m high and a few meters in diameter. Near-bottom visual observations and samplings were conducted with the ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) Victor (Gazcogne2 expedition). The whole mounds cover an area of ~200 km2 of the seabed, and are by-products of gas seepage, i.e. methane-derived authigenic carbonates. The spatial distribution of the seeps and related structures, based on water column acoustic gas flares and high backscatter seabed patches, appears to be relatively broad, with a North-South extension of ~80 km across the Parentis Basin and the Landes High, and a West-East extension along a few kilometers wide on the shelf, up to 8 km. Gas bubbles sampled at in situ conditions are principally composed of biogenic methane, possibly originated from Late Pleistocene deposits. The volume of methane emitted into the water column is abundant i) with an average gas flux varying locally from 0.035 to 0.37 Ln/min and ii) with regard to the time needed for the precipitation of the authigenic carbonates identified both at the seabed and in the upper most sedimentary column. The GAZCOGNE study is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project. ReferenceDupré, S., Berger, L., Le Bouffant, N., Scalabrin, C., and Bourillet, J.-F., 2014. Fluid emissions at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of

  2. The latest Paleocene to middle Eocene interval in the Bay of Biscay - preliminary results from calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, A.

    2009-04-01

    Calcareous plankton (calcareous nannofossils, planktic foraminifera) is currently studied from DSDP Site 401 during the latest Paleocene to Middle Eocene greenhouse episode. This site is situated on the edge of a tilted fault block underlying the southern edge of the Meriadzek terrace on the North Biscay margin and comprises a 100-m-thick, nearly complete sedimentary record of Paleocene to middle Eocene sediments covering the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum as well as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. Detailed age control is achieved by calcareous nannofossil and planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy suggesting that the study interval covers the NP9 to NP16 and P5 to E13 biozones, respectively, with a pronounced condensed interval across the Early to Middle Eocene boundary (NP13/NP14). Besides DSDP Site 550 this site represents one of the most northern locations which consists of Paleogene carbonates and will provide us a more complete picture by considering also long-term records from the northern hemisphere. Here we present first assemblage data from the two plankton groups which are accompanied by planktic and benthic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope data in order to unravel the impact of the long-term climate change on the planktic ecosystem during the Eocene greenhouse.

  3. Response of planktonic cladocerans (Class: Branchiopoda) to short-term changes in environmental variables in the surface waters of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elbée, Jean; Lalanne, Yann; Castège, Iker; Bru, Noelle; D'Amico, Frank

    2014-08-01

    From January 2001 to December 2008, 73 surface plankton samples and 45 vertical profiles of sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were collected on a monthly basis from a single sampling station located in the Bay of Biscay (43°37N; 1°43W) (North-East Atlantic). Two types of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indexes were included in the data set and submitted to a Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Spearman non-parametric test. Significant breaks and levels in time series were tested using a data segmentation method. The temperature range varies from 11 °C to 25 °C. It begins to rise from April until August and then decline. Low salinity values occur in mid-spring (36 PSU) in autumn. Dissolved oxygen mean values were around 8 mg/l. In summer, when temperature and salinity are high, surface water layer is always accompanied with a significant deoxygenation, and the process reverses in winter. pH mean values range was 7.78-8.33. Seasonal and inter-annual variations of the two NAO indexes are strongly correlated to one another, but do not correlate with any hydrological or biological variable. Five of the seven cladocerans species which are present in the Bay of Biscay were found in this study. There is a strong pattern in species succession throughout the year: Evadne nordmanni is a vernal species, while Penilia avirostris and Pseudevadne tergestina occur mainly in summer and autumn. Evadne spinifera has a maximum abundance in spring, Podon intermedius in autumn, but they both occur throughout the year. However, for some thirty years, the presence of species has tended to become significantly extended throughout the year. During the 2001-2008 period, there was a noticeable decline and even a disappearance of the categories involved in sexual reproduction as well as those involved in parthenogenesis, in favor of non-breeding individuals.

  4. Distribution of fallout 137Cs in soils from Biscay (Spain) and the associated collective dose commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Elejalde, C.; Herranz, M.; Romero, F.

    2000-01-01

    137 Cs is an important contributor to the external irradiation dose received by world population as a consequence of the injections of radionuclides into the biosphere. The activity of 137 Cs injected into the stratosphere in the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed between 1945 and 1980 amounts to 960 PBq. The amount of radionuclide deposited onto the ground at a given location is a function of i) rainfall and ii) surface characteristics. After atmospheric nuclear weapons tests had finished in 1980, the accident occurred in Chernobyl injected into the biosphere a new amount of 137 Cs whose magnitude was estimated as 85 PBq. This activity was deposited onto the ground over a large region of Europe with a complicated deposition pattern. The amount of radioactive material from both sources that has been deposited on the Biscay region, located in the north of Spain, was unknown. Hence a program was developed with the aim of quantifying such deposition and so allow the evaluation of radiation doses received by population as well as possible future depositions of radioactivity. To determine such deposition a sampling program based on a sampling grid with a 15-km mesh was designed and applied. Seventeen sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, six 50 cm deep soil cores were collected along a straight line with 50 cm spacing between them. To measure the contents of 137 Cs, samples were placed into 500 cm 3 Marinelli beakers and analysed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a p-type HPGe coaxial detector. From the results obtained it was observed that such deposition was entirely due to nuclear weapons testing. The contents of 137 Cs were in the range 764 - 5880 Bq/m 2 . A relationship between activity and rainfall was investigated, the correlation is similar to those reported by other authors. Finally, the dose commitment to the population due to internal and external irradiation by the deposited radionuclide has been calculated and a value of 575 Gy

  5. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from...... for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider...

  6. Alguns helmintos de peixe do litoral norte fluminense - I Some fish helminths from Rio de Janeiro north coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim J. Vicente

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De 149 autópsias realizadas em peixes, os autores coletaram diversos helmintos, no litoral de Macaé, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A maior parte das espécies aqui estudadas, são redescritas, algumas apenas referidas e uma nova espécie do gênero Rhipidocotyle Diesing, 1858, é descrita nesta oportunidade.From 149 fishes examined the authors obtaied several helminths in Macaé Coast, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A new species is presently described and some only refered. The helminths were recovered from February, 1970, to December, 1971. The authors give general parasitism by helminthic groups and the percentage is calculated based only on the infested fishes. In preceding papers the authors had described two new species, that here are only refered: Procamallanus macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 and Pulchrascaris caballeroi Vicente & Santos, 1972. the new species now enclosed is Rhipidocotyle fluminensis sp. n. Sterrhurus imocavus Looss, 1907 and Cucullanus cirratus Mueller, 1777 are given to be new host record and new geographical distribution. Pleorchis mollis Poche, 1926, Lecithochirium microstomum Chandler, 1935, Homalometron longulum Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1965, Porrocaecum secundum Chandler, 1935 are also new host records. The authors give original camera lucidan drawings of some of the species here presented.

  7. Ocean climate indicators: A monitoring inventory and plan for tracking climate change in the north-central California coast and ocean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Benet; Higgason, Kelley; Suchanek, Tom; Largier, John; Stachowicz, Jay; Allen, Sarah; Bograd, Steven; Breen, R.; Gellerman, Holly; Hill, Tessa; Jahncke, Jaime; Johnson, Rebecca L.; Lonhart, Steve I.; Morgan, Steven; Wilkerson, Frances; Roletto, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change, defined as increasing atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide and associated increases in average global temperature and oceanic acidity, have been observed both globally and on regional scales, such as in the North-central California coast and ocean, a region that extends from Point Arena to Point Año Nuevo and includes the Pacific coastline of the San Francisco Bay Area. Because of the high economic and ecological value of the region’s marine environment, the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) and other agencies and organizations have recognized the need to evaluate and plan for climate change impacts. Climate change indicators can be developed on global, regional, and site-specific spatial scales, and they provide information about the presence and potential impacts of climate change. While indicators exist for the nation and for the state of California as a whole, no system of ocean climate indicators exist that specifically consider the unique characteristics of the California coast and ocean region. To that end, GFNMS collaborated with over 50 regional, federal, and state natural resource managers, research scientists, and other partners to develop a set of 2 ocean climate indicators specific to this region. A smaller working group of 13 regional partners developed monitoring goals, objectives, strategies, and activities for the indicators and recommended selected species for biological indicators, resulting in the Ocean Climate Indicators Monitoring Inventory and Plan. The working group considered current knowledge of ongoing monitoring, feasibility of monitoring, costs, and logistics in selecting monitoring activities and selected species.

  8. Typology of hydrological structures modelled and observed over the Bay of Biscay shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Planque

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Collecting hydrological observations over the whole Bay of Biscay continental shelf can require several weeks. As a result, the observations are not truly synoptic and the interpretation of hydrological structures is corrupted by the time-lags between observations at distinct locations. We evaluated the effects of non-synoptic sampling during a spring cruise (17 April to 13 May 2000, using outputs from 3D hydrodynamic models as a substitute for true synoptic sampling. We developed a method for clustering hydrological regions based on the vertical structure of the water column and temporal changes in hydrography. In parallel, outputs from the 3D model were compared with field observations. The results show that in spring 2000 the Bay of Biscay continental shelf could be separated into six principal hydrological regions, one of them being characterised by vertical stability and low temporal variability. This region corresponds to an area where pelagic fish spawning activity is known to be persistently low.

  9. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Merlangius merlangus euxinus and Trachurus trachurus off the Turkish coast of Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Bolukbas, Cenk Soner; Gurler, Ali Tumay; Onuk, Ertan Emek

    2013-03-01

    A total of 286 larval forms of Hysterothylacium aduncum were collected from Merlangius merlangus euxinus and Trachurus trachurus captured at different sites of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Prevalence of H. aduncum in M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus was 37.4 and 29.3 %, respectively. The fourth-stage larvae from M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus of H. aduncum were characterized genetically using a molecular approach. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced. Two isolates of H. aduncum obtained from M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus in Black Sea showed a 100 % nucleotide similarity. Pairwise comparison between the entire ITS fragment including ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 sequences of the H. adumcum isolates of M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus from Black Sea (Turkey, JX413596-JX413597) and other H. adumcum isolates from Baltic Sea (Poland, AJ937672), North Sea (Denmark, HM598666), Mediterranean Sea (Tunisia, HQ270427), Japan Sea (Japan, AB277826), Adriatic Sea (Croatia, JQ934878), East Greenland Sea, English Channel, Bay of Biscay, Adriatic Sea, and North Sea showed differences ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 %. With the present study, larvae of H. aduncum infecting M. merlangus euxinus and T. trachurus caught off the Black Sea, Turkey were characterized for the first time by sequencing of the ITS rDNA.

  10. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  11. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes, situated nearly the Pacific coast of the North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    The Pacific coast of the North and South America is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the world forming part of the so-called Ring of Fire More than 10 earthquakes with the Richter scale magnitude 4 5 were analyzed They were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only High resolution Aster satellite images were used to extract the principal lineaments using The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis LESSA software package It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately and a few months later the system returns to its initial state This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and it is much more easily detectable in case of convergent plate boundaries for example Nasca and South American plates The results obtained open the possibility to develop a methodology able to evaluate the seismic risk in the regions with similar geological conditions

  12. Measurements of natural gamma radiation in beach sediments of north east coast of Tamilnadu, India by gamma ray spectrometry with multivariate statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SureshGandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of natural gamma ray emitting 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in beach sediments along north east coast of Tamilnadu, India has been carried out using a NaI(Tl gamma ray spectrometric technique. The total average concentrations of radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were 35.12, 713.16, and 349.60 Bq kg−1, respectively. Correlations made among these radionuclides prove the existence of secular equilibrium in the investigated sediments. The total average absorbed dose rate in the study areas is found to be 504.75 nGyh−1, whereas the annual effective dose rate has an average value of 0.62 mSvy−1. The mean activity concentrations of measured radionuclides were compared with other literature values. The ratios between the detected radioisotopes have been calculated for spatial distribution of natural radionuclides in studied area. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index of the sediment samples in the area under consideration were calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity to know the existing relations.

  13. CONCEPTION OF USERS OF HEALTH CENTERS ABOUT ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DENTIST: STUDY IN A CITY OF THE NORTH COAST OF SANTA CATARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rabaldo Bottan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and to analyze the essential characteristics to the exercise of the dentist profession in view of users of dental services of Health Centers. The approach of the exploratory study was qualitative and quantitative. The target population consisted of adults living in a city in the north coast of Santa Catarina. Data collection was performed through the words of Free Association Technique. The participants were 384 subjects (66% women; 34% men. The age group ranged from 21 to 79 years. Nine hundred and forty-eight (948 evocations, distributed into two categories, were considered. Of all evocations, 47% (n=449 belonged to the category technical and scientific skills and 53% (n=499 to the interpersonal relationship category. The category of interpersonal relationship, compared to the category technical and scientific skills, was less evoked in the first order, but with positive growth for second and third order. It not identified significant differences in the frequency of categories in age function and sex. The group showed that the professional practice of the dentist requires technical and scientific competence and personal interactions based on dialogue, which complement each other without overlapping in relation to each other

  14. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Atwood

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition, and may also “bulldoze” insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition. Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems.

  15. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S

    2012-04-10

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also "bulldoze" insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems.

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in diploid and triploid oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from three farms on the north-central coast of Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Sevilla, Norma Patricia; Villanueva-Fonseca, Brenda Paulina; Góngora-Gómez, Andrés Martin; García-Ulloa, Manuel; Domínguez-Orozco, Ana Laura; Ortega-Izaguirre, Rogelio; Campos Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth

    2017-10-03

    The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg in diploid and triploid oysters from three farms (Guasave, Ahome, and Navolato) on the north-central coast of Sinaloa, Mexico, were assessed based on samples recovered during a single culture cycle 2013-2014. Metal burdens were more strongly correlated (p  Cu > Cd > Pb > Hg. For all three farms, the mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in Crassostrea gigas were high, ranging from 2.52 to 7.98 μg/g wet weight for Cd and from 0.91 to 2.83 μg/g wet weight for Pb. Diploid and triploid oysters from the Guasave farm contained high levels of Cu (76.41 and 68.97 μg/g wet weight, respectively). Cu, Cd, and Zn were highly correlated (p < 0.05), and their concentrations may be influenced by agrochemical inputs. The mean levels of Cu for the Guasave farm and of Cd and Pb for all three farms exceeded permissible limits and represented a threat to human health during the sampling period (July 2014 to July 2014).

  17. Architectural Design of a Nuclear Research Center with Radiation Safety Considerations, in North Western Coast of Egypt (Using Auto CAD and 3ds Max Programs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahat, M.A.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the design of nuclear research centers to help architects and engineers who will design these centers. Also, the research covers the site characteristics which are used in site selection of nuclear research centers. It covers the principles and standards used in design and planning of nuclear research centers. The master plan of a nuclear research center should be designed based on the system of segregation according to the level of radioactivity. Radiation safety is an important aspect in the design of nuclear research centers. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority consists of three nuclear research centers, namely, the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas (Grid Planning Concept), the Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center in Inshas (Grid Planning Concept) and The National Center for Radiation Research and Technology in Nasr City (Linear Planning Concept). The Radial Planning Concept is the best among all the Planning Concepts as regard radiation safety considerations. Therefore, an architectural design of a new nuclear research center was proposed in a suitable site in North Western Coast of Egypt (Radial Planning Concept) using Auto CAD and 3ds Max programs. This site is suitable and satisfies many of the site requirements. It is recommended that the architectural design of nuclear research centers should be supervised by an architectural engineer experienced in architectural design of nuclear facilities

  18. Longitudinal variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of a typical North coast Jamaican river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric. J. Hyslop

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna plays a major role in river ecosystems, especially those of tropical islands. Since there is no information on the distribution of benthic invertebrates along a Jamaican river, we report here on the composition of the benthic fauna of the Buff Bay river, on the Northern coast of Jamaica. A total of 14 samples were collected from five sites, using kick nets and a Surber sampler, between May 1997 and October 1998. We also examined the applicability of the rhithron/potamon model, and some of the premises of the River Continuum Concept (RCC in relation to the distribution of invertebrate taxa. The results showed a total of 38 taxa of identified invertebrates. A group of dominant taxa, composed mainly of immature stages of insects, occurred at all sites. Two notable characteristics of the river were the absence of a true potamonic fauna and the low representation of the shredder functional feeding group in the community We conclude that, while there was minor variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna among the sites, this was a response to local conditions within the river system. The characteristics of the community did not conform to either of the models.La fauna bentónica de macroinvertebrados juega un papel importante en los ecosistemas fluviales, especialmente los de las islas tropicales. En vista de que hay poca información disponible para los ríos de Jamaica, presentamos la composición de la fauna bentónica de la bahía riverina Buff, en la costa norte de Jamaica. Para ello, recolectamos un total de 14 muestras en cinco sitios, mediante el uso de redes de golpe y trampa Surber, entre mayo 1997 y octubre 1998. También se examinó la aplicabilidad del modelo de subdivisión de ríos ritrón/potamón y algunas de las premisas del concepto de Río como un Continuo, en relación con la distribución de los táxones de invertebrados. Los resultados mostraron un total de 38 táxones de

  19. Role of sediment denitrification in water column oxygen dynamics: comparison of the North American East and West Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bianucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low oxygen concentrations, either natural or anthropogenically driven, can severely affect coastal marine ecosystems. A deeper understanding of oxygen dynamics is required in order to improve numerical models, eventually to predict the timing and severity of hypoxia. In this study we investigate the effect of sediment denitrification on oxygen concentrations in bottom waters over the continental shelf. We used two coupled physical-biological models based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS to compare summer simulations with and without denitrification within the sediments for two North American shelves: the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Vancouver Island Shelf (VIS. These regions belong to western and eastern boundary current systems, respectively, and are characterized by different physical and biological dynamics. Both models assume coupled nitrification-denitrification within the sediments. Denitrification represents a loss of bioavailable nitrogen through the production of dinitrogen gas, with the potential to affect biogeochemical cycles. In our MAB model, this loss of regenerated nutrients through denitrification within the sediments significantly affects primary production, since recycled nitrogen supports most of the primary production in that region. The diminished primary production and consequent decrease of organic matter flux to the seafloor leads to less sediment oxygen consumption and higher oxygen concentrations in bottom waters. However, changes in regenerated nitrogen on the VIS barely affect primary production due to the efficient supply of new nutrients through wind-driven upwelling during summer and the nutrient-rich coastal current. We recommend that modelling experiments focusing on oxygen dynamics (as well as oxygen budget calculations should include sediment denitrification in coastal regions where regenerated primary production dominates productivity.

  20. Role of sediment denitrification in water column oxygen dynamics: comparison of the North American East and West Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, L.; Fennel, K.; Denman, K. L.

    2012-07-01

    Low oxygen concentrations, either natural or anthropogenically driven, can severely affect coastal marine ecosystems. A deeper understanding of oxygen dynamics is required in order to improve numerical models, eventually to predict the timing and severity of hypoxia. In this study we investigate the effect of sediment denitrification on oxygen concentrations in bottom waters over the continental shelf. We used two coupled physical-biological models based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) to compare summer simulations with and without denitrification within the sediments for two North American shelves: the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Vancouver Island Shelf (VIS). These regions belong to western and eastern boundary current systems, respectively, and are characterized by different physical and biological dynamics. Both models assume coupled nitrification-denitrification within the sediments. Denitrification represents a loss of bioavailable nitrogen through the production of dinitrogen gas, with the potential to affect biogeochemical cycles. In our MAB model, this loss of regenerated nutrients through denitrification within the sediments significantly affects primary production, since recycled nitrogen supports most of the primary production in that region. The diminished primary production and consequent decrease of organic matter flux to the seafloor leads to less sediment oxygen consumption and higher oxygen concentrations in bottom waters. However, changes in regenerated nitrogen on the VIS barely affect primary production due to the efficient supply of new nutrients through wind-driven upwelling during summer and the nutrient-rich coastal current. We recommend that modelling experiments focusing on oxygen dynamics (as well as oxygen budget calculations) should include sediment denitrification in coastal regions where regenerated primary production dominates productivity.

  1. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast: acclimatization potential to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-02-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45° latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the warmer temperatures. The main objectives of this study were to identify whether the thermal tolerance of the canopy-forming seaweed Fucus serratus is population-specific and where temperatures are likely to exceed its tolerance limits in the next 200 years. We measured the stress response of seaweed samples from four populations (Norway, Denmark, Brittany and Spain) to common-garden heat stress (20 °C-36 °C) in both photosynthetic performance and transcriptomic upregulation of heat shock protein genes. The two stress indicators did not correlate and likely measured different cellular components of the stress response, but both indicators revealed population-specific differences, suggesting ecotypic differentiation. Our results confirmed that thermal extremes will regularly reach physiologically stressful levels in Brittany (France) and further south by the end of the 22nd century. Although heat stress resilience in photosynthetic performance was higher at the species' southern distributional edge in Spain, the hsp expression pattern suggested that this edge-population experienced reduced fitness and limited responsiveness to further stressors. Thus, F. serratus may be unable to mitigate its predicted northward shift and may be at high risk to lose its center of genetic diversity and adaptability in Brittany (France). As it is an important intertidal key species, the disappearance of this seaweed will likely trigger major ecological changes in the entire associated ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 41383 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to... U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, North of 40 10.00' N. lat. This action, which is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...

  3. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  4. Post-Hurricane Ike coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, September 14-15, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Guy, Kristy K.

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 14-15, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, aboard a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ike data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown on September 9-10, 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail

  5. High-resolution ocean and atmosphere pCO2 time-series measurements from mooring WA_125W_47N in the North Pacific Ocean, US West Coast from 2006-06-23 to 2015-03-05 (NODC Accession 0115322)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115322 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_WA_125W_47N in the North Pacific Ocean, US West Coast...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-08-02 to 2012-08-15 (NCEI Accession 0157313)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157313 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and North...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DARVIN in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-06-14 to 1991-07-02 (NODC Accession 0113525)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113525 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DARVIN in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and North Atlantic...

  8. Habitat traits and patterns of abundance of the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816), at multiple scales along the north Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Rula; Domínguez Godino, Jorge; Freitas, Cristiano; Machado, Inês; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2015-03-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and distribution of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) from intertidal rockpools of the north Portuguese coast were examined in relation to physical (surface, altitude, depth, topographic complexity and exposure) and biological (substrate cover by dominant organisms) habitat traits. The methodology was based on a multi-factorial design where the total number and the abundance of urchins in each of six size classes were sampled over a range of spatial scales, from 10s of cm to kms, and a temporal scale of five months. The results highlighted three main features of the studied system: (1) the largest proportion of variability of sea urchins occurred at the smallest scale examined; (2) urchins from different size classes showed different patterns of abundance in relation to habitat traits; (3) variables normally invoked as potential drivers of distribution of urchins at a range of scales, such as hydrodynamics and shore height, were relatively less important than other abiotic (i.e. pool area, pool mean depth calculated over five replicate measures and sand cover) and biological (i.e. space occupancy by the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata and mussels vs. availability of bare rock) variables to provide a considerable contribution to the variability of sea urchins. Intertidal populations of sea urchins are abundant on many rocky shores, where they are socially and economically important as food resource and ecologically key as habitat modelers. This study provides new clues on relatively unstudied populations, with relevant implications for possible management decisions, including the implementation of protection schemes able to preserve the main recruitment, settlement and development areas of P. lividus.

  9. Trophic models: What do we learn about Celtic Sea and Bay of Biscay ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullec, Fabien; Gascuel, Didier; Bentorcha, Karim; Guénette, Sylvie; Robert, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Trophic models are key tools to go beyond the single-species approaches used in stock assessments to adopt a more holistic view and implement the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). This study aims to: (i) analyse the trophic functioning of the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay, (ii) investigate ecosystem changes over the 1980-2013 period and, (iii) explore the response to management measures at the food web scale. Ecopath models were built for each ecosystem for years 1980 and 2013, and Ecosim models were fitted to time series data of biomass and catches. EcoTroph diagnosis showed that in both ecosystems, fishing pressure focuses on high trophic levels (TLs) and, to a lesser extent, on intermediate TLs. However, the interplay between local environmental conditions, species composition and ecosystem functioning could explain the different responses to fisheries management observed between these two contiguous ecosystems. Indeed, over the study period, the ecosystem's exploitation status has improved in the Bay of Biscay but not in the Celtic Sea. This improvement does not seem to be sufficient to achieve the objectives of an EAFM, as high trophic levels were still overexploited in 2013 and simulations conducted with Ecosim in the Bay of Biscay indicate that at current fishing effort the biomass will not be rebuilt by 2030. The ecosystem's response to a reduction in fishing mortality depends on which trophic levels receive protection. Reducing fishing mortality on pelagic fish, instead of on demersal fish, appears more efficient at maximising catch and total biomass and at conserving both top-predator and intermediate TLs. Such advice-oriented trophic models should be used on a regular basis to monitor the health status of marine food webs and analyse the trade-offs between multiple objectives in an ecosystem-based fisheries management context.

  10. Plankton blooms, ocean circulation and the European slope current: Response to weather and climate in the Bay of Biscay and W English Channel (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Robin D.; Garcia-Soto, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The flow of upper-layer surface water and circulation for the Bay of Biscay, continental slope and in the wider region of the NE Atlantic is presented, as well as the seasonality of flow and internal tides. The marine plankton environments of Biscay Ocean, Biscay Eddies, Biscay Slope and Biscay Shelf are defined. The Shelf region (Armorican and Celtic) is further divided into Stratified Shelf, Frontal and Tidally Mixed. Seasonal distributions of chlorophyll a are given for all environment from in situ measurements and remote sensing data. Mixing and stabilisation of surface water in the euphotic layer for the start of the spring bloom using in situ profiling measurements is examined. Some regional responses for the slope current, dinoflagellate blooms and interannual variations in spring diatom numbers with respect to weather and climate in the Bay of Biscay and around the British Isles are suggested and discussed. An example of the Eastern European Ocean Margin continental slope response to winter weather (sea level atmospheric pressure forcing) resulting in warm winter water in the southern Bay of Biscay (Navidad, with eddy production) and off the Shetland continental slopes (the warm-water supply route to the Arctic) is given from the slope climate observation series.

  11. Variability in the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales within the south-eastern Bay of Biscay, as observed by HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two high-frequency (HF radar stations were installed on the coast of the south-eastern Bay of Biscay in 2009, providing high spatial and temporal resolution and large spatial coverage of currents in the area for the first time. This has made it possible to quantitatively assess the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales for the period 2009–2010. The analysis was conducted using the Barnett–Preisendorfer approach to canonical correlation analysis (CCA of reanalysis surface winds and HF radar-derived surface currents. The CCA yields two canonical patterns: the first wind–current interaction pattern corresponds to the classical Ekman drift at the sea surface, whilst the second describes an anticyclonic/cyclonic surface circulation. The results obtained demonstrate that local winds play an important role in driving the upper water circulation. The wind–current interaction timescales are mainly related to diurnal breezes and synoptic variability. In particular, the breezes force diurnal currents in waters of the continental shelf and slope of the south-eastern Bay. It is concluded that the breezes may force diurnal currents over considerably wider areas than that covered by the HF radar, considering that the northern and southern continental shelves of the Bay exhibit stronger diurnal than annual wind amplitudes.

  12. Structural impoverishment of the subtidal vegetation of southeastern Bay of Biscay from 1991 to 2013 in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguerza, N.; Díez, I.; Quintano, E.; Bustamante, M.; Gorostiaga, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses changes in the taxonomic and functional structure and in the diversity of the shallow (3-9 m) subtidal vegetation off the southeastern coast of the Bay of Biscay by studying 19 locations between 1991 and 2013. Results provide evidence that the three-dimensional assemblages of shallow subtidal bottoms in the study area may be shifting towards less structurally complex communities. Canopy-forming algae are declining whereas simple thallus turfs composed of a combination of filamentous, polysiphonated and foliose non-corticated algae are becoming abundant along with articulated corallines and crustose species. Moreover, a significant increase in taxa richness and diversity was found, mainly due to the development of opportunistic and morphologically simple forms with warm-water affinity. The potential ecological consequences of canopy loss for coastal ecosystems are discussed. Given that changes in climate conditions are predicted to intensify, the prevalence of the new turfing space occupiers in the study area here considered seems to be realistic on the basis of their ability to compete for space and resist disturbance. Consequently, major implications for the functioning and diversity of the ecosystem and for ecosystem services may be expected. bJ. rubens and J. Longifurca. cM. alternans and M. expansum. dP. harveyana and P. squamaria. eP. cartilagineum and P. raphelisianum. fP. ardreana, P. parasitica and P. pennata. gU. dangeardii, U. pseudocurvata and U. rigida.

  13. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacos “alpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  14. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation

  15. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia, E-mail: iraia.oribe@deusto.es; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  16. No loss of genetic diversity in the exploited and recently collapsed population of Bay of Biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-04-11

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the Bay of Biscay suffered a collapse in census population size (Nc) starting in 2002, from which it did not recover until 2010. The slow recovery raised concern over sustainability, potential reduction in adaptive potential, and vulnerability to local extirpation. Long- and short-term effective population size (Ne), Ne/Nc ratio, and other genetic parameters were estimated to evaluate demographic signals of population decline. A total of 349 neutral single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in 330 anchovy individuals from the Bay of Biscay distributed across a 20-year period. We show that Nc fluctuations have not significantly affected short-term Ne, and therefore, genetic diversity has remained stable throughout the recent collapse. This study illustrates that Ne estimates should be incorporated into management plans. Our results on short-term Ne suggested that the anchovy in the Bay of Biscay has not faced any recent severe threat of losing evolutionary potential due to genetic drift. However, differences between short- and long-term Ne estimates suggested that the Bay of Biscay anchovy population may be currently much smaller than in the historical past. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. The Santander Atlantic Time-Series Station (SATS): A Time Series combination of a monthly hydrographic Station and The Biscay AGL Oceanic Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Alicia; Somavilla, Raquel; Cano, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar; Viloria, Amaia; Tel, Elena; Ruiz-Villareal, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Long-Term Time Series Stations have been developed in order to document seasonal to decadal scale variations in key physical and biogeochemical parameters. Long-term time series measurements are crucial for determining the physical and biological mechanisms controlling the system. The Science and Technology Ministers of the G7 in their Tsukuba Communiqué have stated that 'many parts of the ocean interior are not sufficiently observed' and that 'it is crucial to develop far stronger scientific knowledge necessary to assess the ongoing changes in the ocean and their impact on economies.' Time series has been classically obtained by oceanographic ships that regularly cover standard sections and stations. From 1991, shelf and slope waters of the Southern Bay of Biscay are regularly sampled in a monthly hydrographic line north of Santander to a depth of 1000 m in early stages and for the whole water column down to 2580 m in recent times. Nearby, in June 2007, the IEO deployed an oceanic-meteorological buoy (AGL Buoy, 43° 50.67'N; 3° 46.20'W, and 40 km offshore, www.boya-agl.st.ieo.es). The Santander Atlantic Time Series Station is integrated in the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing Sistem (IEOOS). The long-term hydrographic monitoring has allowed to define the seasonality of the main oceanographic facts as the upwelling, the Iberian Poleward Current, low salinity incursions, trends and interannual variability at mixing layer, and at the main water masses North Atlantic Central Water and Mediterranean Water. The relation of these changes with the high frequency surface conditions recorded by the Biscay AGL has been examined using also satellite and reanalysis data. During the FIXO3 Project (Fixed-point Open Ocean Observatories), and using this combined sources, some products and quality controled series of high interest and utility for scientific purposes has been developed. Hourly products as Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity anomalies, wave significant

  18. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  19. Comparison of the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on the El Arish coast and seaweed vegetation after ten years in 2010, North Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human activities on coasts and climate changes during the past ten years have given rise to considerable shoreline changes along the El Arish coast (the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula. In the El Arish Power Plant, sediment accretion has reached the tip of the breakwaterof the cooling water intake basin, necessitating extensive dredging inside the basin. To the east of El Arish Harbour, the shoreline has been incontinuous retreat. The differences between the year 2000 and 2010 in the shoreline along the El Arish coast weredetermined by analysing satellite images from NOAA-AVHRR images. The analyses revealed erosion and accretionpatterns along the coast. The physical parameters showed that the minimum water temperature of 18°C wasrecorded at site I in winter and that the maximum was 40°C at site II in summer. The latter temperature can be attributed to the effluent dischargeof cooling water from the El Arish power plant. Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and abundance of macroalgae were measured at four sites(I, II, III and IV along the El Arish coast. The percentage cover of the successional macroalgae exhibited environmental fluctuations. After ten years,the phytocommunity showed that red and green algae were dominant at the study sites. Significant differences between past and current flora were observed.39 taxa recorded in 2000 were absent in 2010, while 9 taxa not previously reported were present in 2010. These changes are discussed in the context ofpossible global warming effects.PERMANOVA showed significant changes (p < 0.001 between sites, seasons, species abundance and macroalgal groups along the El Arish coast in 2000 and2010. The similarity matrix showed a significant difference between the flora in 2010 and that recorded in 2000, indicating poor similarity and changes inspecies composition among the seasons at the different sites. Most of the algae belonged to the filamentous, coarsely branched and sheet

  20. Cetaceans trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo) coasts; Monitoramento de encalhe de cetaceos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the cetaceans stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 15 cetaceans stranded were registered. The species Sotalia guianensis was prevailing in number and distribution. Megaptera novaeangliae was the second specie in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Tursiops truncatus and Peponocephala electra. (author)

  1. Reduced Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Panels for Assigning Atlantic Albacore and Bay of Biscay Anchovy Individuals to Their Geographic Origin: Toward Sustainable Fishery Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Iratxe; Laconcha, Urtzi; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Estonba, Andone

    2017-05-31

    There is an increasing trend upon adding a detailed description of the origin of seafood products driven by a general interest in the implementation of sustainable fishery management plans for the conservation of marine ecosystems. North Atlantic albacore ("Bonito del Norte con Eusko Label") and Bay of Biscay anchovy ("Anchoa del Cantábrico") are two commercially important fish populations with high economical value and vulnerable to commercial fraud. This fact, together with the overexploited situation of these two populations, makes it necessary to develop a tool to identify individual origin and to detect commercial fraud. In the present study, we have developed and validated a traceability tool consisting of reduced panels of gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) suitable for assigning individuals of two species to their origin with unprecedented accuracy levels. Only 48 SNPs are necessary to assign 81.1% albacore and 93.4% anchovy individuals with 100% accuracy to their geographic origin. The total accuracy of the results demonstrates how gene-associated SNPs can revolutionize food traceability. Gene-associated SNP panels are not of mere commercial interest, but they also can result in a positive impact on sustainability of marine ecosystems through conservation of fish populations through establishing a more effective and sustainable fishery management framework and contributing to the prevention of falsified labeling.

  2. A multivariate analytical method to characterize sediment attributes from high-frequency acoustic backscatter and ground-truthing data (Jade Bay, German North Sea coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Manuela; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    One of the burning issues on the topic of acoustic seabed classification is the lack of solid, repeatable, statistical procedures that can support the verification of acoustic variability in relation to seabed properties. Acoustic sediment classification schemes often lead to biased and subjective interpretation, as they ultimately aim at an oversimplified categorization of the seabed based on conventionally defined sediment types. However, grain size variability alone cannot be accounted for acoustic diversity, which will be ultimately affected by multiple physical processes, scale of heterogeneity, instrument settings, data quality, image processing and segmentation performances. Understanding and assessing the weight of all of these factors on backscatter is a difficult task, due to the spatially limited and fragmentary knowledge of the seabed from of direct observations (e.g. grab samples, cores, videos). In particular, large-scale mapping requires an enormous availability of ground-truthing data that is often obtained from heterogeneous and multidisciplinary sources, resulting into a further chance of misclassification. Independently from all of these limitations, acoustic segments still contain signals for seabed changes that, if appropriate procedures are established, can be translated into meaningful knowledge. In this study we design a simple, repeatable method, based on multivariate procedures, with the scope to classify a 100 km2, high-frequency (450 kHz) sidescan sonar mosaic acquired in the year 2012 in the shallow upper-mesotidal inlet of the Jade Bay (German North Sea coast). The tool used for the automated classification of the backscatter mosaic is the QTC SWATHVIEWTMsoftware. The ground-truthing database included grab sample data from multiple sources (2009-2011). The method was designed to extrapolate quantitative descriptors for acoustic backscatter and model their spatial changes in relation to grain size distribution and morphology. The

  3. Assessing the impacts induced by global climate change through a multi-risk approach: lessons learned from the North Adriatic coast (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torressan, Silvia; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Glade, Thomas; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    ), tailored case by case to different sets of natural hazards and elements at risk. Finally, the multi-risk assessment integrates the multi-hazard with the multi-vulnerability index of exposed receptors, providing a relative ranking of areas and targets potentially affected by multiple risks in the considered region. The methodology was applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy) producing a range of GIS-based multi-hazard, exposure, multi-vulnerability and multi-risk maps that can be used by policy-makers to define risk management and adaptation strategies. Results show that areas affected by higher multi-hazard scores are located close to the coastline where all the investigated hazards are present. Multi-vulnerability assumes relatively high scores in the whole case study, showing that beaches, wetlands, protected areas and river mouths are the more sensible targets. The final estimate of multi-risk for coastal municipalities provides useful information for local public authorities to set future priorities for adaptation and define future plans for shoreline and coastal management in view of climate change.

  4. Phytoplankton and pigment studies in the Bay of Biscay and English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe-Wright, Denise; Daniel, Aaron; Boswell, Stephen; Purcell, Diane; Hartman, Mark; Hartman, Susan; Hydes, David

    2014-08-01

    During the final year (2010) of the MV Pride of Bilbao (PoB) ferry operation between Portsmouth (UK) and Bilbao (Spain) a comprehensive phytoplankton data set was collected based on pigments and taxonomy measurements. The work was in support of the EU project ProTool (http://www.protool-project.eu) that aimed to develop an automated system for measuring primary productivity from ships of opportunity. Not unexpectedly, the biological patterns relate to the hydrographic conditions and in general, pigment distributions are indicative of the taxonomy. A predominately diatom bloom was observed in the Bay of Biscay in April, with a mixed population of diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores throughout the spring and summer, and a very distinctive bloom, which contained a large proportion of the dinoflagellate Karenia Mikimotoi, to the stratified side of the Ushant Front in mid-July.

  5. Regulatory considerations in assessing the potential for Phytophthora ramorum to cause environmental impact to ecozones outside the west coast "fog belt" in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    John McDonald; Gary Kristjansson; Stephen Miller; Shane Sela

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) is a disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum that is characterized by lethal trunk lesions that affect tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), and a few oak species, principally coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia). It was first observed in Marin County, California, in 1994, and now has been...

  6. SPECIES COMPOSITION AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIBATID MITES (ACARIFORMES, ORIBATIDA OF THE COAST AND ISLANDS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of oribatid mites of coastal and of islands of the north-west part of the Caspian sea – the updated list of species, data about distribution of species.

  7. IRI performance models for recently constructed low and medium-traffic two lane roads of the province of Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Acebo, H.; Gonzalo-Orden, H.

    2016-07-01

    Reliable pavement prediction models are needed for pavement management systems (PMS), as they are a key component to forecast future conditions of the pavement and to prioritize maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction strategies. The International Roughness Index (IRI) is the most used parameter worldwide for calibrating pavement roughness and measures reasonably the ride comfort perceived by occupants of passenger cars. The Regional Government of Biscay also collects this value on the road network under its control These surveys are carried out regularly in the XXI century. Several IRI performance models have been proposed by different authors and administrations, varying greatly in their comprehensiveness, the ability to predict performance with accurancy and input data requirements. The aim of this paper is to develop a roughness performance model for Biscay's roads, based on availablbe IRI data, taking into account heavy traffic volume and the age of pavement. Local characteristics as climate conditions and average rainfall are not considered. IRI performance models have been suggested for regional two lane highways with low and medium heavy traffic constructed in the last 20 years in the province of Biscay, with no treatments during their life. They can be applied for flexible pavements, but no logical coherent results have been concluded for semi-rigid pavements. (Author)

  8. Objective assessment of the contribution of the RECOPESCA network to the monitoring of 3D coastal ocean variables in the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamouroux, Julien; Charria, Guillaume; De Mey, Pierre; Raynaud, Stéphane; Heyraud, Catherine; Craneguy, Philippe; Dumas, Franck; Le Hénaff, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    In the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel, in situ observations represent a key element to monitor and to understand the wide range of processes in the coastal ocean and their direct impacts on human activities. An efficient way to measure the hydrological content of the water column over the main part of the continental shelf is to consider ships of opportunity as the surface to cover is wide and could be far from the coast. In the French observation strategy, the RECOPESCA programme, as a component of the High frequency Observation network for the environment in coastal SEAs (HOSEA), aims to collect environmental observations from sensors attached to fishing nets. In the present study, we assess that network using the Array Modes (ArM) method (a stochastic implementation of Le Hénaff et al. Ocean Dyn 59: 3-20. doi: 10.1007/s10236-008-0144-7, 2009). That model ensemble-based method is used here to compare model and observation errors and to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the observation network at detecting prior (model) uncertainties, based on hypotheses on error sources. A reference network, based on fishing vessel observations in 2008, is assessed using that method. Considering the various seasons, we show the efficiency of the network at detecting the main model uncertainties. Moreover, three scenarios, based on the reference network, a denser network in 2010 and a fictive network aggregated from a pluri-annual collection of profiles, are also analysed. Our sensitivity study shows the importance of the profile positions with respect to the sheer number of profiles for ensuring the ability of the network to describe the main error modes. More generally, we demonstrate the capacity of this method, with a low computational cost, to assess and to design new in situ observation networks.

  9. Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South China Sea from 2012-05-13 to 2012-08-26 (NCEI Accession 0144304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144304 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South...

  11. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albères coast (France, North-western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Thierry; Pinedo, Susana; Torras, Xavier; Ballesteros, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Only five of fourteen species of Fucales reported at the end of the XIXth century are currently present in the Albères Coast (France, NW Mediterranean). According to historical data there has been a steady decrease of all the populations since the 1940s. Seven taxa now extinct (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa, Cystoseira spinosa, Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa, Sargassum hornschuchii and Sargassum vulgare) were considered frequent and some of them were the dominant and engineering species in several phytobenthic assemblages. Moreover, only one of the five species left, shows no signs of regression (Cystoseira compressa), two are considered as rare (Cystoseira caespitosa, Cystoseira zosteroides), and one is very rare (Cystoseira elegans). Cystoseira mediterranea, a species that was reported to make a continuous belt along the shores of the Albères coast, has almost disappeared from some areas. Overgrazing by sea urchins, outcompetition by mussels, habitat destruction, scientific research sampling and, probably, human trampling and chemical pollution are to be blamed for the decline of populations thriving in shallow waters. Deep-water species have been affected by an increase in water turbidity and, probably, chemical pollution and direct plant destruction attributed to net fishing. If degradation of the environmental conditions continues, the remaining Cystoseira species will face a most unwelcome prospect. Even after the removal of the causes that led to its die-off, natural restoration of extinct species seems not to be possible because the decline has also affected populations from nearby areas and zygotes are unable to disperse over long distances. Urgent management actions have to be designed in order to improve the current situation of the populations of Fucales in the Albères coast.

  12. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian Border to Icy Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2017-09-25

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the north coast of Alaska, from the U.S.-Canadian border to the Icy Cape region of northern Alaska, have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Short-term shoreline change rates are reported for the first time. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included two shoreline positions at a given location. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. The average rates of this report have a reduced amount of uncertainty compared to those presented in the first assessment for this region.

  13. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    Beach rock is a common rock type in many parts of the southern hemisphere and also some areas north of the equator. Its distribution particularly in the Indian Ocean islands and atolls and coasts of India is reviewed. The mineralogic and faunal...

  14. The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the

  15. The Mass-Dimension Relationships in the Mussels Mytilus Galloprovincialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Different Phenotypical Groups in Periphyton Populations near Odessa Coast, the North-Western Part of Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govorin I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of the size-mass indices in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819 from three phenotypic groups - brown, dark violet (black and “zebra” (brown with radial black stripes shells in the periphyton settlements on the concrete traverses near Odessa coast, the North-western part of Black Sea (Ukraine, in March-November 2014-2015 are presented. A comparative evaluation has been made on the relationships of total mass of the mollusks, wet and dry mass of their soft body and mass of the shells on the one hand, and the size of animals (length of its shells on the other hand, in the each of phenotypical groups from the five marine beach areas. It is shown, that in the marine areas with different degrees of isolation from the open sea by coast-protection engineering constructions, the mussels from different phenotypes have almost the same size-mass characteristics. Only the dry weight of soft animal body, which indicated to fatness of mollusk and therefore demonstrated his biological prosperity in specific hydrological conditions, can serve as a reliable criterion which can mark the shellfish habitats with different gradients of environmental factors.

  16. Response of top shell assemblages to cyclogenesis disturbances. A case study in the Bay of Biscay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, M; Jeunen, G-J; Borrell, Y J; Martinez, J L; Turrero, P; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2015-12-01

    Cyclones and other climate disturbances profoundly affect coastal ecosystems, promoting changes in the benthic communities that require time, sometimes even years, for a complete recovery. In this study we have analysed the morphological and genetic changes occurred in top shell (Gibbula umbilicalis and Phorcus lineatus) assemblages from the Bay of Biscay following explosive cyclogenesis events in 2014. Comparison with previous samples at short (three years before the cyclogenesis) and long (Upper Pleistocene) temporal scales served to better evaluate the extent of change induced by these disturbances in a more global dimension. A significant increase in mean size after the cyclogenesis was found for the two species, suggesting selective sweeping of small individuals weakly adhered to substrata. Loss of haplotype variants at the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene suggests a population bottleneck, although it was not intense enough to produce significant changes in haplotype frequencies. The high population connectivity and metapopulation structuring of the two species in the area likely help the populations to recover from disturbances. At a wider temporal scale, cyclogenesis effects seemed to compensate the apparent decreasing trends in size for P. lineatus occurred after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Considering disturbance regimes for population baselines is recommended when the long-term effects of climate and anthropogenic pressures are evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Nutritional profile of foods offered and dietary intake in school canteens in Biscay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta, B; Xarles Irastorza, I; Oliver, P; García, Z; Vitoria, J C

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the school canteen occupies a central place in the supply and in the nutritional education of the children in school age. To assess the nutritional adequacy of the school menus and the food intake of the children. 1,500 trays were selected in six school dining rooms of Biscay. Dietary intake was evaluated by means of the technique of double weighed and visual estimation of the residues. Evaluation of the menus: Macronutrients: carbohydrates 48%, proteins 20%, lipids 32%. Weekly offer: The first plate: vegetables 1.1; legumes 1.8; potatoes 0.4; pasta-rice 1.7. The second plate: meat 2.5; fish 1.4; eggs 0.6; precooked fried food 0.5. Garnish: potatoes 0.5; sauces 0.8; lettuce 1.7; cooked vegetables 1; no garnish 1. Dessert: fruit 2.8; dairy product 2; other 0.2. Significant changes have been observed in 4% of the menus. The vegetable garnish is not served in 40% of the occasions. 70% do not eat the vegetable garnish. Though the theoretical offer of vegetables is appropriate, due to the fact that frequently the vegetables are not served in garnish and to that when they are served children do not eat them, their final intake is poor. The protein contribution to the diet is higher than the recommended. Meaningful changes take place often in the composition of the menus.

  18. Biological characteristics of the hydrological landscapes in the Bay of Biscay in spring 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the biogeography of macrozooplankton and fish biomass in the Bay of Biscay. In this region, we defined six different landscapes based on the hydrogeographical characteristics observed in spring 2009. We then related landscape\\'s characteristics and environmental parameters such as light attenuation depth and chlorophyll-a with macrozooplankton and fish acoustic biomass. Hydrodynamic structures together with coastal influences (river discharges, predation pressure and depth preference) and vertical thermohaline structure/mixing (feeding modes and ability to stay in preferred layers) appeared as the main factors determining the biological distribution. Besides, variance partitioning was used to assess the respective roles played by the hydrological environment, the geographical space and the biological environment alone, and their interactions. Results revealed that: (i) macrozooplankton and fish have a preference for different hydrogeographical landscapes; (ii) the association between hydrological conditions and geographical features, i.e. the spatial structure of the hydrological environment, plays a key role in the distribution of macrozooplankton; and (iii) prey-predator relationships have to be taken into account to provide a comprehensive characterization of habitat suitability.

  19. Allometric relations and consequences for feeding in small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-21

    The body size of fish is an important factor in determining their biology and ecology, as predators eat prey smaller than themselves. Predator mouth size restricts the availability of possible prey. In this paper we provide the allometric relationships of eight common, small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay. In addition, we describe the predator-prey size ratios for different species, and we determine changes in their ratio-based trophic-niche breadth with increasing body size. Results suggest that gape size does not totally determine the predator-prey size ratio distribution, but predators use the entire available prey size range, including the smallest. As they grow they simply incorporate larger prey as their increased gape size permits. Accordingly, a large degree of overlap was found in the diet composition in terms of size and predator-prey ratios, even between fish of different sizes. Of the species studied, only horse mackerels seem to be clearly specialized in relatively large prey. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  20. Large-amplitude internal tides, solitary waves, and turbulence in the central Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X. H.; Cuypers, Y.; Bouruet-Aubertot, P.; Ferron, B.; Pichon, A.; LourençO, A.; Cortes, N.

    2013-06-01

    and fine-scale measurements collected in the central Bay of Biscay during the MOUTON experiment are analyzed to investigate the dynamics of internal waves and associated mixing. Large-amplitude internal tides (ITs) that excite internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the thermocline are observed. ITs are dominated by modes 3 and 4, while ISWs projected on mode 1 that is trapped in the thermocline. Therein, ITs generate a persistent narrow shear band, which is strongly correlated with the enhanced dissipation rate in the thermocline. This strong dissipation rate is further reinforced in the presence of ISWs. Dissipation rates during the period without ISWs largely agree with the MacKinnon-Gregg scaling proposed for internal wavefields dominated by a low-frequency mode, while they show poor agreement with the Gregg-Henyey parameterization valid for internal wavefields close to the Garrett-Munk model. The agreement with the MacKinnon-Gregg scaling is consistent with the fact that turbulent mixing here is driven by the low-frequency internal tidal shear.

  1. Size-dependent photoacclimation of the phytoplankton community in temperate shelf waters (southern Bay of Biscay)

    KAUST Repository

    Álvarez, E

    2015-12-09

    © Inter-Research 2016. Shelf waters of the Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) are productive ecosystems with a marked seasonality. We present the results from 1 yr of monthly monitoring of the phytoplankton community together with an intensive sampling carried out in 2 contrasting scenarios during the summer and autumn in a mid-shelf area. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in summer, while the water column was comparatively well mixed in autumn. The size structure of the photoautotrophic community, from pico-to micro-phytoplankton, was tightly coupled with the meteo-climatic and hydrographical conditions. Over the short term, variations in the size structure and chlorophyll content of phytoplankton cells were related to changes in the physico-chemical environment, through changes in the availability of nutrients and light. Uncoupling between the dynamics of carbon biomass and chlorophyll resulted in chlorophyll to carbon ratios dependent on body size. The slope of the size dependence of chlorophyll content increased with increasing irradiance, reflecting different photoacclimation plasticity from pico-to micro-phytoplankton. The results have important implications for the productivity and the fate of biogenic carbon in this region, since the size dependence of photosynthetic rates is directly related to the size scaling of chlorophyll content.

  2. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-01

    The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Trophodynamics and diet overlap of small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, E

    2015-08-27

    Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  4. A Permo-Triassic border rift structure within the south-western Bay of Biscay controlling the shape of the Alpine crustal root beneath the Cantabrian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, Patricia; Fernández-Viejo, Gabriela; Álvarez-Pulgar, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean geological system is an inverted hyperextended rift that illustrates in its deep structure the transition between an oceanic underthrusting in the west to a continent-continent collision in the east. We developed a structural analysis of the south-western reactivated rift system, which represents at present-day the western branch of the Cantabrian-Pyrenean collisional chain, including the Cantabrian Mountains onshore and the central and western segments of the North Iberian margin in the southern Bay of Biscay. This passive margin was structured during polyphase Triassic to Lower Cretaceous rifting events and subsequently inverted in the Cenozoic during the Alpine orogeny, when the Cantabrian-Pyrenean realm formed in the Iberian-European plate boundary. The reactivated rift system shows a significant structural variability resulting from the strong segmentation and strain partitioning during the subsequent tectonic events. Thus, it is a natural laboratory to study the constraints imposed by tectonic inheritance in the successive stages of an almost complete orogenic cycle. From the interpretation of offshore geological and geophysical data and the integration of onshore wide-angle results, where Mesozoic fossil remnants are very scarce, we analyzed the crustal structure of the reactivated rift system and mapped the now inverted rift domains. Our results show that the inherited rift architecture controlled the subsequent compressional reactivation of the hyperextended rift system. Of particular interest are the structural variations observed in proximal areas. Offshore, the proximal domain includes classical shallow grabens and half-grabens with low degrees of extension developed during an early Permo-Triassic rift event governed by stretching processes. Its NW-SE distal limit runs parallel to the Cantabrian Fault. Following this trend, a major structure, called Ventaniella fault, has been traditionally mapped onshore, interpreted as a

  5. Using large scale surveys to investigate seasonal variations in seabird distribution and abundance. Part II: The Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettex, Emeline; Laran, Sophie; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Lambert, Charlotte; Monestiez, Pascal; Stéfan, Eric; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Seabird distributions and the associated seasonal variations remain challenging to investigate, especially in oceanic areas. Recent advances in telemetry have provided considerable information on seabird ecology, but still exclude small species, non-breeding birds and individuals from inaccessible colonies from any scientific survey. To overcome this issue and investigate seabird distribution and abundance in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA), large-scale aerial surveys were conducted in winter 2011-12 and summer 2012 over a 375,000 km2 area encompassing the English Channel (EC) and the Bay of Biscay (BoB). Seabird sightings, from 15 taxonomic groups, added up to 17,506 and 8263 sightings in winter and summer respectively, along 66,307 km. Using geostatistical methods, density maps were provided for both seasons. Abundance was estimated by strip transect sampling. Most taxa showed marked seasonal variations in their density and distribution. The highest densities were recorded during winter for most groups except shearwaters, storm-petrels, terns and large-sized gulls. Subsequently, the abundance in winter nearly reached one million individuals and was 2.5 times larger than in summer. The continental shelf and the slope in the BoB and the EC were identified as key areas for seabird conservation, especially during winter, as birds from northern Europe migrate southward after breeding. This large-scale study provided a synoptic view of the seabird community in the ENA, over two contrasting seasons. Our results highlight that oceanic areas harbour an abundant avifauna. Since most of the existing marine protected areas are restricted to the coastal fringe, the importance of oceanic areas in winter should be considered in future conservation plans. Our work will provide a baseline for the monitoring of seabird distribution at sea, and could inform the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  6. Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  7. Rare and new cumaceans (Crustacea, Peracarida from the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Corbera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new cumacean genus and species, Ithyleucon sorbei gen. et sp. n., was described from material collected in the southern margin of the Cap Ferret Canyon (Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic. Although the new genus resembles Pseudoleucon Zimmer, 1903, in terms of the general aspect of the carapace and the pseudo-rostrum position, it shows important differences in the uropod structure and in the size of the antenna 1 accessory flagellum. In addition, some comments regarding the morphology of certain rare species (Mesolamprops denticulatus Ledoyer, 1983, Hemilamprops normani Bonnier, 1896 and Schizocuma spino-culatum (Jones, 1984 are also provided.

  8. Process-Based Evidence of Coastal Accretion Adjacent to a Natural Inlet and Ebb-Tidal Delta on the North Florida Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Olabarrieta, M.; Keough, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical mechanisms of tidal inlet accretion are difficult to document because of the episodic nature of sediment delivery to the coast from fluvial sources and the complex patterns of current magnitudes and directions arising from the interaction of nearshore waves with ebb-tidal delta bathymetry. Using monthly RTK-GPS field measurements of beach topography adjacent to a natural inlet, we document a shoreline change time series that illustrates a bi-directional, alongshore spreading pattern of accretion following an exceptionally high rainfall-discharge event in May 2009. Numerical modeling of wave set-up and nearshore currents in the vicinity of the inlet and ebb tidal delta produces depth-averaged flow velocity patterns consistent with our field observations of coastal accretion. Our results are in agreement with an accretion mechanism, proposed by other researchers, that involves sediment delivery to the margins of the ebb tidal delta during high velocity ebb flows that accompany large rainfall-discharge events, followed by onshore migration of swash bars during subsequent days to months, at a rate dependent upon the timing of nearshore wave energy delivery to the site.

  9. Shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Decapoda, Diogenidae from the north Coast of São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Frameschi

    Full Text Available Abstract The pattern of shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Saussure, 1858 from the subtropical region of southeastern coast of Brazil was investigated in the present study. The percentage of shell types that were occupied and the morphometric relationships between hermit crabs and occupied shells were analyzed from monthly collections conducted during two years (from January 1998 to December 1999. Individuals were categorized according to sex and gonadal maturation, weighed and measured with respect to their cephalothoracic shield length (CSL and wet weight (CWW. Shells were measured regarding their aperture width (SAW, dry weight (SDW and internal volume (SIV. A total of 1086 hermit crabs was collected, occupying shells of 11 gastropod species. Olivancillaria urceus (Roding, 1798 was most commonly used by the hermit crab D. insignis, followed by Buccinanops cochlidium (Dillwyn, 1817, and Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767. The highest determination coefficients (r2 > 0.50, p < 0.01 were recorded particularly in the morphometric relationships between CSL vs. CWW and SAW vs. SIV, which are important indication that in this D. insignis population the great majority the animals occupied adequate shells during the two years analysed. The high number of used shell species and relative plasticity in pattern of shell utilization by smaller individuals of D. insignis indicated that occupation is influenced by the shell availability, while larger individuals demonstrated more specialized occupation in Tonna galea (Linnaeus, 1758 shell.

  10. National assessment of shoreline change: historical change along the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Beach erosion is a persistent problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. Along the Arctic coast of Alaska, coastal erosion is widespread, may be accelerating, and is threatening defense and energy-related infrastructure, coastal habitats, and Native communities. As coastal populations continue to expand and infrastructure and habitat are increasingly threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There also is a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline change with metrics that are consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline change so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally.

  11. Hydrodynamic Environment and Ecosystem Diversity at two Deep-Sea Marine Protected Areas in Southern Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pola, C.; Ivey, G. N.; Jones, N. L.; Sanchez, F.; Kelly, S. M.; Bluteau, C.; Somavilla, R.

    2016-02-01

    Two nearby offshore deep sea areas in Southern Bay of Biscay (northern Spain), hosting valuable ecosystems, have been recently declared marine protected areas. The first one is Le Danois Bank, a seamount-like feature connected to the continental shelf by a saddle. The second one is the Aviles Canyon System (ACS) that breaks the continuity of the northern Spanish continental shelf. A number of observational multidisciplinary programs carried out within the last decade allowed a detailed identification of habitats and biological communities. As a long-term goal these programs aimed to understand the ecosystem functioning as a whole with the implicit focus in associated circulation and dynamics. The observational record includes deep sea photogrametry as well as standard hydrography and long-term mooring lines. A lander system provided high-frequency currents and thermal structure tens meters above bottom together with time lapse photographs at selected sites. Different characteristic habitats from sedimentary to rocky, associated with different fisheries, were described both in Le Danois Bank and the ACS. These include sponge aggregations and deep water corals. Noteworthy structured coral reefs only appeared in a relatively small area in one of the tributaries of the ACS (La Gaviera Canyon), where local near-bottom currents were stronger than anywhere else in the region. The development and violent breaking of an internal tidal bore was the main feature of such hotspot. Analytic estimates confirmed that La Gaviera is the only canyon were large patches of the seafloor are critical or near-critical to the semidiurnal internal tide and nearby upper flanks show also large patches of critical seafloor and large body forcing. A year-long near-bottom current record captured the development of three benthic storms, events lasting several days in which currents increases up to 3-fold the tidal max speeds and direction swings rapidly, losing the uniformity of tidal regime.

  12. Degeneration of postovulatory follicles of the Bay of Biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alday

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The degeneration of postovulatory follicles (POFs in time and at different temperatures was studied for the Bay of Biscay anchovy. For this purpose a key of 7 POF stages, solely defined on the basis of their histological degeneration characteristics, was applied. The novelty of this procedure is that it separates staging of POFs from their ageing process. The female gonads, taken from several captivity experiments and field samples, were classified in this way. Water temperature in captivity tanks corresponded to high values (17-21°C, except for one case in which different day and night temperatures were applied. In addition, 472 field samples (11948 anchovy females from several cruises were examined; of these, 126 samples (3348 females were identified as coming from areas of high sea surface temperature (weighted mean =17.76°C, s.d.=0.84 and 131 samples (3181 females as coming from areas of low sea surface temperature (weighted mean =14.42°C, s.d.=0.75. There was close agreement in the succession of POF stages over time after spawning between the experiment and the field samples. The first four stages of POF degeneration occurred in less than 24 h, and by the end of the first day the POFs were mainly in Stage V. Stages VI and VII showed their highest occurrence during the first and second half of the second day after spawning, respectively. Full resorption of POFs was achieved in about 55-60 h. For the range of temperatures examined (13-19°C, little effect of temperature on the degeneration of POFs over time was noticed. The advanced degeneration stages were found all day round, showing some overlapping periods when successive spawning cohorts co-occurred. The application of these results for ageing POFs is discussed.

  13. A laboratory and field study of 210Po depuration by edible winkles (Littorina littorea L.) from the Cumbrian coast (north-eastern Irish Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.; Smith, D.L.; Allington, D.J.; Winpenny, K.

    1995-01-01

    Edible winkles from Saltom Bay, Cumbria (north-eastern Irish Sea) had flesh 210 Po concentrations in excess of 200 Bq kg -1 (wet). This came from liquid waste discharged under authorisation from a chemical plant producing phosphoric acid. This labelling of the winkles under natural conditions was exploited to determine the 210 Po depuration rate and biological half-time. Winkles transferred to Lowestoft and depurated in flowing seawater had biological half-times ranging from 82 to 119 days depending on temperature. After the chemical plant was shut, changes in Saltom Bay winkle flesh contents of 210 Po, 210 Pb and cadmium were followed by monthly samples. The biological half-time in the environment for the decrease in 210 Po after the plant closed was estimated at about 92 days. (author)

  14. Nova contribuição para o estudo dos nematódeos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico: Costa Continental Portuguesa e Costa do Norte da Africa New contribution for study of nematodes of fishes from Atlantic Ocean: Continental Portuguese Coast and North African Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de Oliveira Rodrigues

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available São estudadas 4 espécies de nematódeos encontradas em 21 peixes que foram coletados no Oceâno Atlântico na Costa Continental Portuguesa e na Costa Norte da África. Foram encontados 6 peixes dos 21 necropsiados parasitados por nematódeos. Os hospedeiros e os nematódeos encontrados são os seguintes: 3 exemplares de Solea solea, sendo um parasitado por Contraceaecum magnum; 3 exemplares de Batrachoides didactylus, sendo um parasitado por Contracaecum magnum e também por cucullanus hians; 7 exemplares de Pagellus bogaraveo, sendo 2 parasitados por Contracaecum bidentalum; 7 exemplares de Beryx decadactylus, sendo 2 parasitados por Contracaecum seriolae. Soela solea e Batrachoides didacylus são referidos pela primeira vez como hospedeiros de Contracaecum magnum. Contracaecum seriolae é referido pela primeira vez em Beryx decadactylus e no Oceano Atlântico. Batrachoides didactylus é referido pela primeira vez como hospedeiro de Cucullanus hians e Contracaecum bidentatum como parasito de Pagellus gobaraveo.In an examination of 21 fishes from Atlantic Ocean - Continental Portuguese Coast and North African Coast, 6 were parasited by nematodes. The species of fishes and the nematodes recovered are as follows: 3 samples of Solea solea in one of them we recovered Contracaecum magnum; 3 samples of Batrachoides didactylus in one of them we ecovered Contracaecum magnum and Cucullanus hians; 7 samples of Pagellus bogaraveo, two of them we recovered Contracaecum bidentatum; 7 samples of Beryx decadactylus, two of them recovered Contacaecum seriolae. Contracaecum magnum is for the first time reported infecting both Solea solea and Batrachoides didactylus. Contracaecum seriolae is for the first time reported in Beryx decadactylus and Pagellus bogaraveo are the news hosts record for Cucullanus hians and Contracaecum bidentatum respectively.

  15. Regional and latitudinal patterns of soft-bottom macrobenthic invertebrates along French coasts: Results from the RESOMAR database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Régis K.; Lavesque, Nicolas; Grall, Jacques; Labrune, Céline; Gremare, Antoine; Bachelet, Guy; Blanchet, Hugues; Bonifácio, Paulo; Bouchet, Vincent M. P.; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Desroy, Nicolas; Gentil, Franck; Guerin, Laurent; Houbin, Céline; Jourde, Jérôme; Laurand, Sandrine; Le Duff, Michel; Le Garrec, Vincent; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Olivier, Frédéric; Orvain, Francis; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Thiebaut, Éric; Gauthier, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to describe the patterns of soft bottom macrozoobenthic richness along French coasts. It is based on a collaborative database developed by the "Réseau des Stations et Observatoires Marins" (RESOMAR). We investigated patterns of species richness in sublittoral soft bottom habitats (EUNIS level 3) at two different spatial scales: 1) seaboards: English Channel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea and 2) 0.5° latitudinal and longitudinal grid. Total observed richness, rarefaction curves and three incidence-based richness estimators (Chao2, ICE and Jacknife1) were used to compare soft bottom habitats species richness in each seaboard. Overall, the Mediterranean Sea has the highest richness and despite higher sampling effort, the English Channel hosts the lowest number of species. The distribution of species occurrence within and between seaboards was assessed for each major phylum using constrained rarefaction curves. The Mediterranean Sea hosts the highest number of exclusive species. In pairwise comparisons, it also shares a lower proportion of taxa with the Bay of Biscay (34.1%) or the English Channel (27.6%) than that shared between these two seaboards (49.7%). Latitudinal species richness patterns along the Atlantic and English Channel coasts were investigated for each major phylum using partial LOESS regression controlling for sampling effort. This showed the existence of a bell-shaped latitudinal pattern, highlighting Brittany as a hotspot for macrobenthic richness at the confluence of two biogeographic provinces.

  16. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  17. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia, 16th to 17th Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Teixeira

    Full Text Available The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia. Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  18. Sensitivity mapping of the German North Sea Coast II. Data update and development of an operational model for precaution measures of oil spill response; Sensititivaetsraster Deutsche Nordseekueste II. Aktualisierung und Erstellung eines operationellen Modells zur Vorsorgeplanung bei der Oelbekaempfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Doerffer, R.; Heymann, K.; Kleeberg, U.; Krasemann, H.; Schiller, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Grohnert, A.; Reichert, J. [IfaB - Institut fuer Angewandte Biologie Freiburg/Niederelbe (Germany); Reichert, M. [ARCADIS, Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Wadden Sea is an area of tidal flats and salt marshes extending between the North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. It has enormous value as a cleansing site for North Sea water, as a nursery for young fish and as a feeding ground for many bird species. Due to the proximity of important shipping routes and harbours, this region is especially threatened by oil spills. Thus, for oil spill response and precaution measures, a sensitivity study of the entire intertidal area was badly needed in order to assess and minimize the potential ecological and economical damage. Based on comprehensive field surveys and in close cooperation with the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies, an automated expert-model for the german part of Wadden Sea areas was developed at the Institute for Coastal Research (GKSS-Research Centre). As an operational model it will serve as important instrument for decision making processes, precautionary measures and the further design of oil spill response strategies. Since it is not possible to protect the entire German North Sea coast equally at all levels, oil spill contingency planning requires a more detailed classification. For this reason, individual soft bottom habitats, communities and stocks of saltmarshes, macrofauna, waterfowl and estuarine biotop types were evaluated and classified according to their vulnerability to oil pollution. Hence, the fieldwork for habitat mapping during 2003-2006 was a central part of the study. For this part, the experiences and results obtained from the previous GKSS-project ''Thematic mapping and sensitivity study of Intertidal flats'' during the years 1987-1992 served as an valuable basis. For example, the documentation of changes during these periods of observation provides information on stability features of the ecosystems. During the first project nearly 5000 locations were processed and characterised using about 70 parameters for each site. The in-situ mapping

  19. The 11th Century Collapse of Aqaba on the North Coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Fault System, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Tina; Allison, Alivia; Rucker, John

    2010-05-01

    The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform Fault. Based both on the historical accounts and archaeological excavations, it is clear that earthquakes have played a significant role in the history of the region. The early Islamic city of Ayla was probably founded around 650 A.D., suffered some damage as a result of the 748 A.D. earthquake, and saw extensive reconstruction around the beginning of the Abbasid period (Whitcomb, 1994). Among other evidence of earthquake destruction at the Islamic city of Ayla is the leaning city Sea wall. Stratified pottery collections from our February 2009 excavation of the buttress of the city wall of Ayla strongly suggest a date for revetment construction in the early 11th Century. Based on the fact that the most recent pottery from sealed loci inside the buttress wall is late Abbasid - Fatimid and the absence of handmade pottery often found in the abandonment phases, the buttress was likely constructed after liquefaction damage from the 1033 earthquake. Damage from distant source earthquakes (748 and 1033) in the ancient city was repaired in antiquity. The destruction and loss of life (accounts claim that all but 12 residents who had been out fishing were killed) caused by the 1068 earthquake may account for the relative ease with which Baldwin I of Jerusalem took over when he arrived with a small retinue in 1116 A.D. Paleoseismic trenches in the modern city of Aqaba indicate that at least two earthquakes have occurred after deposits dated to 1045-1278 A.D. A preliminary analysis of the stratigraphy in new trenches in the Taba sabkha north of Aqaba shows at least three separate faulting events, with the most recent event located at a depth of 70 cm below the ground surface. This finding supports the initial ground penetrating radar survey conducted at the southern end of the Taba sabkha by Abueladas (2005). These data document a long period of quiescence

  20. Bogas - Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758 - from the Biscay to the North Sea in 2500 BC and 18980 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Jonsson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los hallazgos del pez espárido boga (Boops boops en los concheros neolíticos de Suecia. La distribucion de los tamaños de los peces hallados indica que existía en el Mar del Norte en este periodo una población reproductora. Las temperaturas del mar eran más altas que hoy. La pesca de la boga indica el uso de redes u otras artes de pesca. Las excavaciones recientes en yacimientos tanto antiguos como nuevos indican que los concheros son intencionales, es decir, estructuras rituales más que amontonamientos comunes. Se subraya la necesidad de nuevas colecciones comparativas y la integración de arqueozoólogos en las excavaciones

  1. Bogas - Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) - from the Biscay to the North Sea in 2500 BC and 18980 AD

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Jonsson

    2005-01-01

    Se presentan los hallazgos del pez espárido boga (Boops boops) en los concheros neolíticos de Suecia. La distribucion de los tamaños de los peces hallados indica que existía en el Mar del Norte en este periodo una población reproductora. Las temperaturas del mar eran más altas que hoy. La pesca de la boga indica el uso de redes u otras artes de pesca. Las excavaciones recientes en yacimientos tanto antiguos como nuevos indican que los concheros son intencionales, es decir, estructuras rituale...

  2. The social mentality of the Biscay workers at the beginning of industrialization. Working-class stereotypes and imaginaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel MONTERO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the values and priorities of the Biscay workers in the late xix century through a documentary source made up of letters written by labourers between 1895 and 1898, while / when they were fighting in Cuba and Philipines. These letters show the social concepts used by them and their mentality towards different social spheres, as well as the presence of patriotism, religion and solidarity-based principles.It also studies the main stereotypes spread about the working-class, basically the socialist stereotype, the Christian and the collaborator with the trade association.The contrast between these stereotypes and the workers’ mentality is very sharp, as we can deduce from the primary source. Regarding their beliefs, the absence of religious or social-related values must be emphasized, as well as the priority of the family, which define the social sphere where they feel to belong.

  3. «True Descendant of my Ancient Lords». The Lordship of Biscay and the Haro Family Members in the 17th Century: Searching for a Patronage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanol MERINO MALILLOS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Modern Age, the institutions of the Lordship of Biscay knew that the most important resolutions concerning the province were taken in the court, next to the king. Thus, it was important to have auspicious people there. In the 17th Century, the age of the favourites, the direct access to them and their relatives would provide certain degree of assurance in Biscay’s victory. For that reason the institutions of the Lordship tried to approach the inner circle of the favourites and, with the rise of Luis Méndez de Haro, they addressed him directly, basing on his condition of descendant of the ancient lords of Biscay

  4. Habitat suitability for juvenile common sole (Solea solea, L.) in the Bay of Biscay (France): A quantitative description using indicators based on epibenthic fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pape, Olivier; Baulier, Loic; Cloarec, Aurélie; Martin, Jocelyne; Le Loch, Francois; Desaunay, Yves

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the spatial distribution of young-of-the-year common sole based on beam trawl surveys conducted in late summer in the coastal and estuarine parts of the Bay of Biscay (France). Previous studies showed that habitat suitability for juvenile common sole varies according to physical factors and notably bathymetry and sediment structure. Nevertheless, the use of these descriptors alone to model habitat suitability led to considerable unexplained variability in juvenile common ...

  5. Petricola pholadiformis Lam. on the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernhout, J.H.

    1912-01-01

    In 1907 Mr. Caesar R. Boettger 1) called attention to the fact that this species, an inhabitant of the North-American seas, since the last decennium of past century is spreading on the European coast. In Europe it was found first in England at Cricksea on the river Crouch, in July 1890 2), and on

  6. 77 FR 35898 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel movement... Topsail Beach, North Carolina. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the Coast Guard on...

  7. DEVISING STRATEGIES FOR RECLAMATION OF DERELICT SITES DUE TO MINING OF RESIDUAL SOIL (“SAIBRO” AT UBATUBA, NORTH COAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL: THE VIEWS AND ROLES OF THE STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Ferreira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Between the late 60's and early 90's intensive exploitation of residual soil for civil construction took place in the municipality of Ubatuba, North Coast of São Paulo State. Tropical climatic conditions associated with a hilly landscape bordered by the Atlantic Ocean gave rise to thick (10-30m weathering profiles derived from Precambrian granitic-gneissic rocks. Exploitation of large volumes of this material required only very simple technology, which on the other hand has caused highly adverse environmental impacts, such asdeforestation, soil erosion, land instability hazards, scenic eterioration, pollution and disturbance of local water flow regime. This paper deals with the devising of strategies thus identifying stakeholders and describing their roles both on the dereliction and reclamation processes related with residual soil exploitation. The evaluation approach focused on the analysis of the regulatory framework and its practical implications and issues in terms of licensing for mining operations, commercialization of construction materials, and the relations of such mining activities with regional and urban planning. A survey of stakeholderviewpoints was successfully achieved through a two-day workshop. The attendance included decision-makers, officials and representatives of governmental and regulatory bodies (Federal, State and Municipal, environmental research institutions, private miners (entrepreneurs and consultants, public attorney, and NGOs. The outcomes have ndicated that State and local authorities properly managed to stop illegal exploitation of residual soil in the early 90´s. However no land reclamation was undertaken until present. One of the main problems would be related with the procedures for mining and environmental licensing that were considered to be too complex and long (usually involving up to seven decisional instances and 2,5 years in average. Other key issues and needs identified included: aorganization of a

  8. Eastward and northward components of ocean current velocity collected from moorings in North East Pacific Coast from 1967-09-01 to 1969-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0163399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Washington recovered 8 current meters, B,C,N,O,S,V,Z,AA deployed on the continental shelf off the Washington coast. Current meters used were...

  9. Eastward and northward components of ocean current and water temperature collected from moorings in North East Pacific Coast from 1973-01-05 to 1974-02-23 (NCEI Accession 0163985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Washington maintained moorings off the coast of Washington as part of the Continental Shelf Experiment 1973-74. Moorings were kept out for longer...

  10. Precisions on the structure of the Basque Arc (western Pyrenees, Spain): preliminary results from magnetic fabrics from the Biscay Synclinorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Néstor; Aranguren, Aitor; Rodríguez-Méndez, Lidia; Cuevas, Julia; María Tubía, José; Julián Esteban, José

    2017-04-01

    The Mesozoic Basque-Cantabrian basin (western Pyrenees) was inverted during the Alpine Orogeny in late Cretaceous-Eocene times. The central sector of the basin, the Basque Arc is characterized by the existence of large folds (80 km long) that outline an arc. This study focuses on the interpretation of AMS fabrics in rocks from the Biscay Synclinorium, a major fold system of the Basque Arc that verges to the NE, with sub-horizontal, N110˚ E trending axes and axial planes striking to N110˚ E and dipping steeply to the SW (Calvo-Rathert et al., 2007). The aim of this contribution is characterize the deformation around the Biscay Synclinorium. For this reason we combined fieldwork with magnetic fabric analysis of 95 cores in Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Biscay Synclinorium. 68 cores come from the Calcareous formation (marls, sandy limestones and limestones of Cenomanian to Campanian age) that makes part of the northeastern limb of the synclinorium and the remaining 27 cores from the Detrital-calcareous flysch (a multilayer sequence with sandy limestones and marls of Maastrichtian age) that crops out in the synclinorium core (Garrote et al., 1991). In the Upper Cretaceous Calcareous formation there is a penetrative cleavage that mainly strikes to N110˚ E dipping 50˚ to 60˚ to the SW (S1). In the Detrital-calcareous flysch of the core, the best-preserved planar structure is the bedding and only locally an axial planar cleavage is observed. Intersection lineations are sub-horizontal and N110˚ E-trending. The measurements of the magnetic susceptibility provide low k values ranging between 99x10-6 and 403x10-6 SI. The anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility, P, reaches values of 1.213, pointing to the overprinting of tectonic deformation on primary magnetic fabrics of sedimentary origin. The magnetic foliation shows a fairly uniform arrangement that is nearly coincident with the dominant planar structures of the rocks, S0 or S1in the core and the limb

  11. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabien, M.J. [Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es; Cearreta, A. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Leorri, E. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Zorroagagaina kalea 11, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Gomez, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Viguri, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna.

  12. Identifying Green Infrastructure as a Basis for an Incentive Mechanism at the Municipality Level in Biscay (Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Rodríguez-Loinaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of green infrastructure (GI to human well-being have been widely recognised; however, pathways for its systematic implementation are missing. Local governments can play a crucial role in the conservation of GI, and a formal recognition of this role in budgeting systems would foster the inclusion of GI in their agenda. The aim of this study is to identify the principal components of GI at the local level to form a basis for a compensatory economic scheme. We identified the principal components of GI based on the mapping of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. Furthermore, we analysed the potentiality of an incentive mechanism to promote GI based on the protection status of GI. Finally, an incentive mechanism to promote GI at the municipality level was proposed. The results showed that the GI of Biscay is mainly composed of the natural forests presented in the area, and that 50% of the principal components of the GI are not protected. Furthermore, one third of the protected principal components of the GI only has protection at the municipality level. So, we propose a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES-like scheme at the municipality level based on the cover of natural forests, where the objective is the conservation and promotion of the GI.

  13. Seasonal evolution of the nutrient pattern on Biscay Bay continental shelf over the years 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Loyer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The French Atlantic shelf is subjected to strong anthropic influences (urban, industrial and agricultural discharges of two main rivers (Loire and Gironde. The extension and consequences of these continental loadings for the nutrient and chlorophyll distribution have never been studied before on the Bay of Biscay continental shelf as a whole. We present the first synoptic view of the nutrient distribution and evolution on the French Atlantic shelf. Nutrient concentrations of the surface layer were studied during four cruises in April, June, September 1999 and March 2000. Until June, the freshwater inputs induce a nitrate gradient from river mouths to offshore waters in the vicinity of the 100 m isobath. The Redfield’s ratio study highlights the nitrate excess in river loadings. The early spring situation is characterised by high N:P ratios in front of the two estuaries and by a potential Si-limitation in the northern part. Nitrate removal continues in spite of the P-limitation and the increase in silicate concentrations during summer supposes high regeneration processes. At the end of summer, the water column is thermally stratified and the surface mixed layer is totally depleted in nitrate.

  14. Spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-28

    Previous studies have shown that the survival of larval and juvenile anchovy off the continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay is not significantly different from that observed on the shelf, even though the food concentration is significantly higher on the shelf. In this paper we investigate the causes for the lack of relationship between food and survival for anchovy juvenile through analyses of feeding activity versus zooplankton distribution (in the transition from summer to fall from 2003 to 2010). The spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy in relation to body size on and off the shelf revealed higher stomach fullness in areas off the shelf, where less zooplankton biomass was available. This result indicates that the food concentration is not always the main factor determining ingestion in fish. A situation of comparatively lesser prey abundance may provide better feeding conditions when combined with lower predation risk and lower light attenuation. In addition, the relatively heavier stomachs found in anchovies caught in years of higher recruitment indices suggest a large stomach content may be a symptom of good biological condition that may favour the winter survival of a larger fraction of the juvenile stock. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  15. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  16. Eddy-induced cross-shelf export of high Chl-a coastal waters in the SE Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Rubio, Anna

    2017-12-08

    Different remote sensing data were combined to characterise a winter anticyclonic eddy in the southeastern Bay of Biscay and to infer its effects on cross-shelf exchanges, in a period when typical along shelf-slope currents depict a cyclonic pattern. While the joint analysis of available satellite data (infrared, visible and altimetry) permitted the characterisation and tracking of the anticyclone properties and path, data from a coastal high-frequency radar system enabled a quantitative analysis of the surface cross-shelf transports associated with this anticyclone. The warm core anticyclone had a diameter of around 50km, maximum azimuthal velocities near 50cms−1 and a relative vorticity of up to −0.45f. The eddy generation occurred after the relaxation of a cyclonic wind-driven current regime over the shelf-slope; then, the eddy remained stationary for several weeks until it started to drift northwards along the shelf break. The surface signature of this eddy was observed by means of high-frequency radar data for 20 consecutive days, providing a unique opportunity to characterise and quantify, from a Lagrangian perspective, the associated transport and its effect on the Chl-a surface distribution. We observed the presence of mesoscale structures with similar characteristics in the area during different winters within the period 2011–2014. Our results suggest that the eddy-induced recurrent cross-shelf export is an effective mechanism for the expansion of coastal productive waters into the adjacent oligotrophic ocean basin.

  17. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  18. 77 FR 45488 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...; North Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 252.3, at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel...

  19. Growth and condition of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. as indicators of habitat quality in coastal and estuarine nurseries in the Bay of Biscay with a focus on sites exposed to Erika oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Gilliers

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of growth and condition were used to compare the habitat quality of nurseries of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. in the Bay of Biscay, based on one survey in 2000. The four biological indicators are poorly correlated with each other, suggesting that no single measure may give an adequate description of fish health and of its habitat’s quality. Growth indicators showed significant differences between northern and southern areas. Juveniles from the two southernmost nurseries, the Gironde estuary and the Pertuis Antioche, displayed significant lower otolith increment widths and mean sizes. These differences were inversely related to water temperature and unrelated to genetic or age differences, and are unlikely to be due to limiting trophic conditions in the nurseries. Hence, they may be considered in terms of differences in habitat quality and potential anthropogenic impacts. Condition indices do not show this north-south pattern but highlight low condition values in the Pertuis Antioche. Short-term and fluctuating biochemical indicators such as RNA/DNA ratios appeared to be unreliable over a long-term study, while morphometric indices seemed to be relevant, complementary indicators as they integrate the whole juvenile life-history of sole in the nurseries. The growth and condition indices of juveniles in September 2000 from nursery grounds exposed to the Erika oil spill in December 1999 were relatively high. These results lead us to suggest that there was no obvious impact of this event on the health of juvenile sole and on the quality of the exposed nursery grounds a few months after the event.

  20. Is juvenile anchovy a feeding resource for the demersal community in the Bay of Biscay? On the availability of pelagic prey to demersal predators

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Lopez, Lucia; Preciado, I.; Villamor, B.; Velasco, F.; Iglesias, M.; Nogueira, E.; Gutierrez-Zabala, J. L.; Olaso, I.

    2012-01-01

    The role that juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) play as a food resource for the demersal community in the southern Bay of Biscay is assessed using 21 years of anchovy abundance data and demersal predator diets. During the study period, a total of 26 fish and elasmobranch species preyed on anchovy either frequently or occasionally. Predators with a crustacean-based diet targeted the smaller anchovy individuals. The size range of anchovy juveniles (centred at 7.5–8.9 cm) was comparable ...

  1. Seasonal and interannual variability of mesozooplankton in two contrasting estuaries of the Bay of Biscay: Relationship to environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate, Fernando; Iriarte, Arantza; Uriarte, Ibon; Sanchez, Iraide

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal and interannual variations of total mesozooplankton abundance and community variability were assessed for the period 1998-2005 at 3 salinity sites (35, 33 and 30) of the estuaries of Bilbao and Urdaibai (southeast Bay of Biscay). Spatial differences in mesozooplankton seasonality were recognized, both within and between estuaries, related to differences between sites in hydrodynamic features and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment that drive phytoplankton biomass seasonal cycles. The within estuary seasonal differences in mesozooplankton community were mainly shown through seaward time-advances in the seasonal peak from summer to spring along the salinity gradient, linked to differences in phytoplankton availability during the summer, in turn, related to nutrient availability. These differences were most marked in the estuary of Urdaibai, where zooplankton seasonal pattern at 35 salinity (high tidal flushing) resembled that of shelf waters, while at 35 of the estuary of Bilbao zooplankton showed an estuarine seasonal pattern due to the influence of the estuarine plume. Cirripede larvae contributed most to the mesozooplankton seasonal variability, except at the outer estuary of Bilbao, where cladocerans and fish eggs and larvae were the major contributors, and the inner estuary of Urdaibai, where gastropod larvae contributed most. Total mesozooplankton increased at 30 salinity of the estuary of Bilbao and 35 salinity of the estuary of Urdaibai. Interannual variability of mesozooplankton at the lowest salinity of the estuary of Bilbao was mainly accounted for by copepods due to the introduction of non-indigenous species during estuarine rehabilitation from intense pollution. However, bivalve larvae and gastropod larvae showed the highest contributions at 35 salinity of the estuary of Urdaibai. At the rest of sites, the opposite interannual trends of polychaete larvae and hydromedusae generally made the highest contribution.

  2. East coast gas - the big picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    The North American conventional gas resource base was reviewed and an explanation of how Canada's East coast fits into the overall picture was given. At 1996 year end, the total conventional ultimate natural gas resource base for North America was estimated to be 2,695 trillion cubic feet. The most important supply areas are Canada and the United States. Mexico and Alaska are expected to play only a minor role in the overall North American supply. Approximately half of the conventional gas estimated to exist in North America remains to be discovered. Only 78 per cent from the half that has been discovered has been produced, and only 22 per cent of it is remaining as reserves. Of the undiscovered natural gas resource, 38 per cent is in the frontier regions of Alaska and Canada. The growing importance of the East coast of North America as markets for natural gas was reviewed. The distribution of ultimate conventional marketable gas resources for Canada was described. The potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and selected frontier areas were assessed. The report showed an undiscovered conventional marketable gas estimate of 122 trillion cubic feet for the WCSB and 107 trillion cubic feet for the Frontier areas. The two most significant areas of discovery in eastern Canada were considered to be the Hibernia oil field on the Grand Banks and the Venture gas field of the Scotian Shelf. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Modelling the spatio-temporal distribution of age-1 bay of biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) at spawning time [Distribución espacio-temporal de la edad 1 de anchoa del golfo de Bizkaia (Engraulis Encrasicolus) en el momento de puesta

    KAUST Repository

    Ibaibarriaga, Leire

    2013-09-13

    To efficiently manage and maintain fish stock abundance and age structure, it is necessary to understand variability in its spatial distribution. The main objective of this study was to describe the demographic structure of the Bay of Biscay anchovy during the main spawning period based on adult samples from 15 daily egg production method surveys. The proportion of age-1 individuals was modelled using generalized additive models with a binomial distribution and a logit link in relation to geographical and environmental covariates. The possibility of obtaining different models depending on the average age-1 proportion (low or high) was also explored. In general, age-1 individuals were found in shallow waters close to the coast, especially associated with the Gironde and Adour river plumes, whereas older individuals were prevalent on the shelf break and in oceanic waters. However, in years with a high age-1 proportion the younger individuals were also dominant in oceanic waters. These results could be used for management purposes, such as defining protected areas for particular age groups.

  4. Eastward and northward components of ocean current, water temperature, and others collected from moorings in the North East Pacific Coast during the spring/summer through early fall from 2003-2008 (NCEI Accession 0164626)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Bloom-Pacific North West (ECOHAB PNW) was a 5-year multi-disciplinary project that studied the physiology, toxicology,...

  5. Ecology and conservation of the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi in “restinga” habitats of the north coast of Bahia state, Brazil doi: 10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n4p71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Vieira Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "Restingas" are herbaceous/ shrubby coastal sand-dune habitats that cover great areas of Brazil, particularly along the Bahia state coast. The restingas are disturbed and are under strong pressure, mainly in northeastern Brazil. Fragmentation of the landscape and habitat loss within natural ecosystems are the factors which are mainly responsible for reduction of species diversity by extinction events. The goal of the present study was elucidate whether the conservation status of restinga habitats on the northern coast of Bahia state was interfering with microhabitat use by the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi. The results showed that the use of microhabitat resources by T. hygomi did not have any signifi cant differences in the four areas we chose for study. However, diverse factors of degradation were found to contribute indirectly to its habitat loss. The T. hygomi lizard is a generalist in its use of restinga microhabitats, and probably due the endemic condition, its conservation status is linked directly to conservation of the restinga habitats on the northern coast of Bahia state.

  6. Interannual differences in growth and hatch-date distributions of early juvenile European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: implications for recruitment

    KAUST Repository

    Aldanondo, Naroa

    2016-01-22

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. In order to understand better the recruitment variability in European anchovy in the Bay of Biscay, it is important to investigate the processes that affect survival during the early life stages. Anchovy juvenile growth trajectories and hatch-date distributions were inferred over a 3-year period based on otolith microstructure analysis. Otolith growth trajectories showed a characteristic shape depending on their hatch-date timing. Earlier-born juveniles had notably broader maximum increments than later born conspecifics, resulting in higher growth rates. This observation suggests that early hatching would be beneficial for larval and juvenile growth, and, therefore, survival. The estimated juvenile hatch-date distributions were relatively narrow compared with the extended anchovy spawning season (March-August) in the Bay of Biscay and indicated that only individuals originated mainly from the summer months (June-August) survived until autumn. Hatch-date distributions were markedly different among years and seemed to influence the interannual recruitment strength of anchovy. We conclude that years characterized by juvenile survivors originating from the peak spawning period (May and June) would lead to considerable recruitment success. Downwelling events during the peak spawning period seem to affect larval survival.

  7. Long-lasting Microbial Methane Release at the Aquitaine Shelf Break (Bay of Biscay): Relation with the (Plio)-Pleistocene Sedimentary Progradation of the Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, S.; Michel, G.; Pierre, C.; Ruffine, L.; Scalabrin, C.; Ehrhold, A.; Loubrieu, B.; Gautier, E.; Baltzer, A.; Imbert, P.; Battani, A.; Deville, E.; Dupont, P.; Thomas, Y.; Théréau, E.

    2017-12-01

    The recent identification of acoustic and visual gas release in the water column at the Aquitaine Shelf (140 and 220 m water depths) led to the discovery of a 200 km2 fluid system at the seafloor with 3000 bubbling sites associated with microbial methane (Dupré et al 2014; Ruffine et al. 2017). The moderate methane fluxes (measured in situ, on average 200 mLn/min per bubbling site) contribute to the formation of small-scale sub-circular authigenic carbonate mounds (with reliefs emissions at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay, France): a biogenic origin or the expression of hydrocarbon leakage? Cont. Shelf Res. 88:24-33 Pierre C, Demange J, Blanc-Valleron M-M, Dupré S (2017) Authigenic carbonate mounds from active methane seeps on the southern Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay, France): Evidence for anaerobic oxidation of biogenic methane and submarine groundwater discharge during formation. Cont. Shelf Res. 133:13-25 Ruffine L, Donval J-P, Croguennec C, Bignon L, Birot D, Battani A, Bayon G, Caprais J-C, Lantéri N, Levaché D, Dupré S (2017) Gas Seepage along the Edge of the Aquitaine Shelf (France): Origin and Local Fluxes. Geofluids 2017:13

  8. Extension of a qualitative model on nutrient cycling and transformation to include microtidal estuaries on wave-dominated coasts: Southern hemisphere perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available need resolving. It can also be applied to other regions in the southern hemisphere, and even the northern hemisphere, with similar hydrological and estuarine geomorphological characteristics (e.g. the Mediterranean coast, the west coasts of North...

  9. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  10. Resource inventory of marine and estuarine fishes of the West Coast and Alaska: A checklist of North Pacific and Arctic Ocean species from Baja California to the Alaska - Yukon border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.; Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Mecklenburg, T. Anthony; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.

    2005-01-01

    This is a comprehensive inventory of the fish species recorded in marine and estuarine waters between the Alaska–Yukon Territory border in the Beaufort Sea and Cabo San Lucas at the southern end of Baja California and out about 300 miles from shore. Our westernmost range includes the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. In addition, we have also included our best impressions of the species that might reasonably be expected to be members of the West Coast ichthyofauna but have not yet been captured or reported within our study area. These species are marked with an asterisk (*) and have been reported (1) in the western Bering Sea; (2) off Canada’s Yukon Territory and adjacent portions of the Northwest Territories; (3) along the southern-eastern tip (non-Pacific side) of Baja California; and (4) in waters somewhat beyond 300 miles from shore. Although the term West Coast usually refers to the coast of the continuous western states, our usage herein means the entire study area. The West Coast inventory within this range encompasses fish fauna from 44 orders, 232 families, and a minimum of 1,450 species. Please note that introduced and invasive fish species are marked by double asterisks (**) and that their scientific names are highlighted in gray. We have compiled this document because the most geographically inclusive previous inventories (Jordan and Evermann 1896a, Jordan et al. 1930) are largely of historical interest and are out of date. More recent lists and compilations have either focused on relatively narrow taxonomic groups (e. g., Kramer et al. 1995, Love et al. 2002), are regional in scope (e. g., Hart 1973, Hubbs et al. 1979, Mecklenburg et al. 2002), or focus on commonly observed species (e. g., Miller and Lea 1972, Eschmeyer and Herald 1983). With the explosion of coastal research and environmental assessments, beginning in the 1970s, and more recently, renewed scientific interest in biodiversity (e.g., effects of global climate change), our own

  11. Ocean drifter studies of surface currents along the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador and in the Beaufort Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diemand, D; Reimer, Ernest M; Barrie, J. Vaughn

    1982-01-01

    .... Some passed through the Bering Strait and were found in the Aleutian Islands and the were coast of North America, however most, predictably, were swept westward from the release sites and were found along the north and west coasts of Alaska and the N.W.T.

  12. Coasts under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection.

  13. Recent sea-level changes in the southern Bay of Biscay: transfer function reconstructions from salt-marshes compared with instrumental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leorri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the accuracy and regional significance of salt-marsh reconstructions of former sea level based on foraminiferal transfer functions, we compared the calibration of the foraminiferal assemblages of two salt-marsh cores from two estuaries using the regional transfer function constructed for the southern Bay of Biscay. The foraminifera-based reconstructions were placed into a temporal framework using 137Cs, heavy metal concentrations, and 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates. The resulting relative sea-level (RSL curves were compared with the nearest tide-gauge data (Santander. The two RSL trends from core sediments show excellent agreement and are in very good agreement with instrumental data, providing a regional relative sea-level rise of 1.9 mm yr-1 for the 20th century.

  14. Position, swimming direction and group size of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus in the presence of a fast-ferry in the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Aniceto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze group size, swimming direction and the orientation of fin whales relative to a fast ferry in the Bay of Biscay. Fin whale groups (≥3 individuals were on average closer to the vessel than single individuals and pairs (F1,114 = 4.94, p = 0.028 and were more often observed within a high-risk angle ahead of the ferry (binomial probability: p = 7.60 × 10−11. Also, small groups tend to swim in the opposite direction (heading of 180° of the ferry at the starboard side (binomial test: p = 6.86 × 10−5 and at the portside (binomial test: p = 0.0156. These findings provide valuable information to improve shipping management procedures in areas at high risk for collisions.

  15. Distribution of phosphorus in the marine sediments off the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Sediment samples collected from the shelf and slope regions off the East Coast of India between "Swatch of no ground" in the north and Karaikal in the south, have been analysed for their total phosphorus content and its distribution studied...

  16. Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the south west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    upwelling in the southern regions off the East Coast of India. Vertical temperature and salinity structures north of Visakhapatnam show a predominant estuarine character and upwelling is not evident. In the northern regions, the flow is directed south...

  17. Optimizing Observation Networks Combining Ships of Opportunity, Gliders, Moored Buoys and FerryBox in the Bay of Biscay and English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charria, G.; Lamouroux, J.; De Mey, P. J.; Raynaud, S.; Heyraud, C.; Craneguy, P.; Dumas, F.; Le Henaff, M.

    2016-02-01

    Designing optimal observation networks in coastal oceans remains one of the major challenges towards the implementation of future Integrated Ocean Observing Systems to monitor the coastal environment. In the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel, the diversity of involved processes requires to adapt observing systems to the specific targeted environments. Also important is the requirement for those systems to sustain coastal applications. An efficient way to measure the hydrological content of the water column over the continental shelf is to consider ships of opportunity. In the French observation strategy, the RECOPESCA program, as a component of the High frequency Observation network for the environment in coastal SEAs (HOSEA), aims to collect environmental observations from sensors attached to fishing nets. In the present study, we assess that network performances using the ArM method (Le Hénaff et al., 2009). A reference network, based on fishing vessels observations in 2008, is assessed using that method. Moreover, three scenarios, based on the reference network, a denser network in 2010 and a fictive network aggregated from a pluri-annual collection of profiles, are also analyzed. Two other observational network design experiments have been implemented for the spring season in two regions: 1) the Loire River plume (northern part of the Bay of Biscay) to explore different possible glider endurance lines combined with a fixed mooring to monitor temperature and salinity and 2) the Western English Channel using a glider below FerryBox measurements. These experiments combining existing and future observing systems, as well as numerical ensemble simulations, highlight the key issue of monitoring the whole water column in and close to river plumes (e.g. using gliders), the efficiency of the surface high frequency sampling from FerryBoxes in macrotidal regions and the importance of sampling key regions instead of increasing the number of Voluntary Observing Ships.

  18. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marigomez, Ionan . E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Garmendia, Larraitz; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V V L , surface-to-volume ratio, S/V L , and numerical density, N V L ) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V V BAS ) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V L values. V V BAS and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in fish liver were remarkably prominent in some

  19. Past, present and future morphological development of a tsunami-affected coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilianda, Ella

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigated a thorough geomorphology of Banda Aceh, a coast on the north tip of Sumatra Island, Indonesia which was severely affected by the earthquake and tsunami occurred on 26 December 2004. The response and development of the Banda Aceh coast before and after the tsunami was thus

  20. Deep-sea benthic response to rapid climatic oscillations of the last glacial cycle in the SE Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.; Pascual, A.; Cacho, I.; Varela, Z.; Pena, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Paleoclimatic evolution of the last 140 ka (Marine Isotopic Stages MIS 1 to MIS 5) in the South Bay of Biscay has been studied by considering microfossil changes in sediment samples of deep core PP10-17. This core was retrieved at 2882 m water depth (mwd) in the Landas Plateau and is formed by 1792 cm of clay-silt continuously deposited sediment. For this study, a total of 114 samples have been examined, yielding approximately 60 thousands of specimens of foraminifers (181 benthic species, BF) and ostracods (70 spp.). Reconstruction of the benthic response is based on the main foraminifer and ostracod species by considering their oxic/anoxic character as well as other ecological features of the assemblages. Detailed quantification of microfossils (planktonic and benthic foraminifers, ostracods) together with grain size analyses and magnetic susceptibility of the sediments allow us to characterize many of the climatic events registered in this core. Based on a robust chronostratigraphy by correlation with reference core MD95-2002 and Greenland ice core records (GICC05modelext), we are able to characterize a detailed response of benthic environments to cooling/warming, oxygen-content and productivity cycles in the region. MIS 5 has been characterized by oscillations of the planktonic/benthic foraminifer ratio (Oceanity index, OI; 60-90%); this index was higher (90-100%) and stable through the MIS 4-MIS 3 intervals. We found BF species indicators of different climatic-related events. Thus, MIS 5a, c, e interstadials are evidenced by Bulimina gibba and B. aculeata while the stadials MIS 5b, d are shown by the occurrence of Melonis pompilioides. Heinrich events, with massive iceberg discharges into the N Atlantic Ocean, are indicated by presence of Globobulimina affinis, particularly during the MIS 4 to MIS 2 interval. The beginning of MIS 4 is indicated by the appearance of new species of BF and an increase of Cassidulina laevigata. Krithe spp. and C. laevigata are

  1. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Maron, Philippe; Amouroux, David

    2014-01-01

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day −1 ) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day −1 ), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day −1 ) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d −1 , in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d −1 ). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d −1 ) may also limit Hg T inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d −1 ). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the coastal zone. - Highlights:

  2. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France); Maron, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingénieur Appliquées à la Mécanique et au Génie Electrique, Institut Supérieur Aquitain du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Allée du Parc Montaury, 64600 Anglet (France); Amouroux, David, E-mail: david.amouroux@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day{sup −1}) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day{sup −1}), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day{sup −1}) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d{sup −1}, in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d{sup −1}) may also limit Hg{sub T} inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the

  3. Geophysical constraints on the deep structure of a limited ocean-continent subduction zone at the North Iberian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; MartíNez CataláN, J. R.; Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Zeyen, H.; Juhlin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic convergence between Iberia and Europe led to the partial closure of the Bay of Biscay with limited southward subduction of oceanic crust below the North Iberian Margin. Inclined sub-Moho reflections and diffractions observed in deep seismic reflection profiles shot across the margin are especially well represented in two reflection profiles: ESCIN-3.2 and ESCIN-3.3. These two profiles have been chosen to test if the sub-Moho reflections correspond to true primary deep events and, provided that they are reflecting off the subduction zone, to investigate its deep structure. Spectral analysis together with travel time estimation and migration allow us to characterize a number of these sub-Moho events as deep-source, low-frequency (˜19 Hz), reflections and diffractions. Synthetic seismograms were generated by three-dimensional seismic modeling of a sub-Moho southward dipping surface, interpreted to correspond to the top of subducted oceanic crust. Comparison between the real and synthetic data show that inclined, low-frequency sub-Moho reflections in both, ESCIN-3.2 and ESCIN-3.3 profiles may correspond to reflections from southward subducted Bay of Biscay oceanic crust. Geoid, free-air gravity, and absolute topography modeling provides additional constraints on the lithospheric-scale structure of this limited ocean-continent subduction zone beneath the North Iberian Margin.

  4. Microfossil response to the PETM at DSDP Site 401 (eastern North Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, A.; Walther, R.; D'haenens, S.; Joachim, C.; Speijer, R. P.; Mutterlose, J.; Norris, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55.8 Ma) is the most prominent of a number of global transient warming events during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs. This so-called hyperthermal has been studied in numerous sites with deep and shallow marine sediments as well as in terrestrial archives. Nearly all of these sections show indications of substantial warming based on temperature-sensitive geochemical proxies and a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion accompanied by biotic changes. However, only few complete deep-sea records exist from the North Atlantic region. In the Bay of Biscay at DSDP Site 401 the PETM is well developed and consists of a fairly thick sequence of clay-rich sediments providing well preserved calcareous microfossils. So far foraminiferal calcite has been used to compile high resolution carbon and oxygen isotope records for the sea-floor and the surface ocean from this site. Carbon isotopes represent the typical asymmetric, negative anomaly of about 2 per mil; oxygen isotope data suggest high rates of freshwater supply into the Bay of Biscay resulting in enhanced water column stratification during both the core of the carbon isotope excursion and the recovery phase. In this contribution we combine detailed assemblage records of planktic and benthic foraminifera as well as calcareous nannofossils studied from the same sample material in order to reconstruct the biotic response to this severe warming event. This allows us to detect differences and similarities between these microfossil groups that represent different life habitats and trophic strategies.

  5. National assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Karen A. Ohman,; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native communities, and encompasses unique habitats of global significance. Coastal erosion along the Arctic coast is chronic, widespread, and may be accelerating, which threatens defense- and energy-related infrastructure, natural shoreline habitats, and Native communities. There is an increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes across the United States. To meet these national needs, the Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is compiling existing reliable historical shoreline data along sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii under the National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project (hereafter referred to as the "National Assessment project";http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/shoreline-change/). A comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and rates of shoreline change for Alaska, from the U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape, is presented in this report as part of the National Assessment project.

  6. Avaliação agroindustrial e parâmetros genético de progênies de cana-de-açúcar em fase inicial na zona canavieira do Litoral Norte de Pernambuco Agroindustrial evaluation and genetic parameters of sugarcane progenies at the initial phase in a sugarcane plantation zone of north coast of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Ferreira de Moraes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho agronômico, industrial e a magnitude dos parâmetros genético de progênies de cana-de-açúcar na zona canavieira do Litoral Norte de Pernambuco. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos durante o ano agrícola 2006/2007 no Litoral Norte de Pernambuco, no município de Igarassu, dentro de área da Usina São José. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições, utilizando-se como tratamentos 24 genótipos (20 provenientes dos cruzamentos e quatro variedades padrões. A parcela constou de três sulcos de 6 m, espaçados de 1,30 m, com 10 plântulas por sulco, (espaçados de 0,6 m dentro do sulco, totalizando 30 plântulas por parcela, perfazendo uma área total de 23,4 m². O corte foi realizado no décimo mês após o transplantio, onde foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: tonelada de cana por hectare (TCH, tonelada de pol por hectare (TPH, Fibra (FB, pol % corrigida (PCC, pureza (PZA, Brix (BX e açúcar total recuperável (ATR. As progênies dos cruzamentos: RB855035 X RB 72454; RB 865230 X RB855035; Tuc71-7 X RB72454 e RB72454 X Tuc71-7, destacaram-se para as variáveis TPH, FB, PZA e BX. Há variabilidade genética entre as progênies dos cruzamentos para todas as variáveis avaliadas. As estimativas de h²m foram expressivas para as variáveis TPH, TCH, PCC, FB, BX e ATR, indicando a possibilidade de êxito na seleção dessas variáveis dentro da região canavieira do Litoral Norte de Pernambuco.The objective of our research was to evaluate the agronomical, industrial performance and the magnitude of the genetic parameters of initial phase sugarcane progenies in the north coast of Pernambuco. Experimental works were developed during the agricultural year of 2006/2007 in the sugarcane plantation zone in the north coast of Pernambuco, in the district of Igarassu, in the area of the São José industrial plant. The experimental delineation was randomized

  7. Comparación de la abundancia, estructura de tallas y fecundidad de Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae en tres sitios de la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Venezuela Abundance, size structure and fecundity of Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae in three sites of the north coast of Araya Peninsula, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Peralta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la intensa actividad pesquera artesanal y subsecuente fuente adicional de alimento como carroña en Isla Caribe, se esperaría un efecto sobre algunos parámetros poblacionales de V. musica como: mayor número de ovicápsulas, individuos de tallas mayores y densidades de caracoles adultos mayores. Con el presente trabajo se desea conocer la abundancia, estructura de talla y fecundidad de Voluta musica en tres sitios de la costa norte de la Península de Araya en las que existen actividades de pesca diferenciales. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales entre 2008 y 2009 en Isla Caribe, Isla Lobos y Bajo Cuspe, en cada uno con 3 áreas de 40m². La abundancia varió de 5ind/120m² a 30ind/120m², con diferencias significativas entre los sitios (F= .77; pAbundance, size structure and fecundity of Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae in three sites of the north coast of Araya Peninsula, Venezuela. Considering the intensive artisanal fishing activity and the consequent carrion discard found at Isla Caribe, in relation to other two sites with no intensive artisanal fishing activity, we expect different effects on some features of V. musica life history (larger egg capsules, larger organisms, higher abundance of adult organisms. In this paper we compare some population parameters of Voluta musica at three localities in the north coast of the Araya Peninsula in Venezuela under different fishing exploitation regimes. The samples were taken monthly during 2008 and 2009 at Isla Caribe, Isla Lobos and Bajo Cuspe. At each site, samples were taken within three areas of 40m². The abundance of V. musica ranged between 5 ind/120m² to 30 ind/120m² with significant differences between sites (F=7.77; p<0,01. Organisms from Isla Caribe were larger in size (p=0,045, than those in the other two sites. There is a significant differences in the number of egg capsules between sites and between months, and there is clear evidence that Isla Caribe has

  8. Re-analysis of the Krakatoa Tsunami Records along the European Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.; Daubord, C.; Hebert, H.; Woppelmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The explosion of the Krakatoa volcano on August, 27, 1883, generated one of the highest tsunami ever recorded by tide gauges. The sea level measurements available at that time were collected and published by the Krakatoa Committee (Symons, 1888) but the original records seem to be lost. Pelinovsky et al (2005) digitized the Krakatoa Committee reproductions and pointed at the difficulties of using Symons' (1888) figures for a quantitave analysis. In this study, we attempted to identify the Krakatoa tsunami signature in the Symons' records along the British and French Atlantic coasts by comparing them to the sea level variations measured at the tidal station of Saint Servan. The original Saint Servan sea level record has been recently discovered in the French Navy (SHOM) data archive. The wavelet-based technqiues of cross-correlation and coherence analysis revealed a coherence between the Saint Servan observations and some of the Krakatoa Comittee records. The wavelet-based methods helped to identify the Krakatau tsunami signature in the English Channel and to estimate its parameters. Additional signal detection techniques were required, however, to extract the Krakatoa tsunami from the sea level oscillations recorded in the Bay of Biscay, at Rochefort and Soccoa tidal stations.

  9. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, freons, oxygen, currents (ADCP), underway and other measurements collected in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic as part of the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise (GOMECC) 2007 (NODC Accession 0066603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GOMECC Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise(RB 07-05). North American Carbon Program (NACP) Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC) Cruise on board NOAA...

  10. Coast Guard SOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Independence in 1783 and the beginning of the Quasi-War with France in 1798. Acts of Congress in 1790, 1797, and 1799 indexed Revenue-Marine pay to that of...undeclared war with France until a new program of battleship construction could be completed. As depicted in Figure 1, the Coast Guard again conducted...Embassy. ITD members serve as advisers to the Panamanian Servicio Maritima Nacional (National Maritime Service), an agency modeled after the US

  11. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  12. Seasonal dynamics of reproductive parameters of the calanoid copepods Calanus helgolandicus and Calanoides carinatus in the Cantabrian Sea (SW Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Sara; Álvarez-Marqués, Florentina

    2006-07-01

    The seasonal reproductive dynamics of the calanoid copepods Calanus helgolandicus and Calanoides carinatus and the main driving factors that control their reproductive activity were evaluated through a three-year study performed at two shelf stations in the Cantabrian Sea (SW Bay of Biscay). As a general pattern, the seasonal dynamics showed two peaks of reproduction for both species: the highest peak was associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, whereas a second and less intense peak coincided with the autumn bloom. Between these two blooms, copepod recruitment showed low rates, and the lowest reproductive activity was recorded in winter. Gonads started to mature in pre-bloom conditions, probably fuelled by stored lipids and concurrent feeding, but the highest RIs (Reproductive Index) and EPRs (egg production rates) were found during the spring blooms. Accordingly feeding seems to be crucial for the main recruitment event for both species. Temperature, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and diatom abundance explained part of the variability found in reproductive activity, with the phytoplankton biomass as the most relevant environmental factor. Temperature probably had an indirect effect on fecundity; temperature and female size were inversely correlated, and large females produced larger clutch sizes. The food assemblage seemed to be more adequate for egg hatching success (HS) than for EPR, because HS was high most of the time, but EPRs were often lower than maximum production rates, pointing to a food limitation. However, the nauplius production rates compared well with those in other areas with higher phytoplankton productivity. Interestingly, a trade-off between number of eggs produced and their viability was found; small clutch sizes with high viability were produced during inadequate food conditions. This strategy maximizes naupliar survival under short food resources by investing in egg quality rather than in quantity. The annual cycle and

  13. Morphodynamic evolution of Laida beach (Oka estuary, Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve, southeastern Bay of Biscay) in response to supratidal beach nourishment actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ganuzas, M.; Gainza, J.; Liria, P.; Epelde, I.; Uriarte, A.; Garnier, R.; González, M.; Nuñez, P.; Jaramillo, C.; Medina, R.

    2017-12-01

    Laida beach, located at the Oka estuary mouth (Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve) in the southeastern region of the Bay of Biscay, suffered the impact of a severe succession of storms during the first months of 2014. As a result of the erosion induced by these events, the beach lost its supratidal zone almost completely. The absence of a supratidal beach generated an impact on the recreational use of the beach during the summer 2014, and represented a potential impact for the coming summer 2015. Furthermore, it resulted in an overexposure and damage of adjacent infrastructures due to impinging strong waves. Therefore, the competent authorities, in coordination, decided to take action in order to nourish the supratidal zone of this beach. The solution adopted combined two different actions. The first one accomplished in spring of 2015, consisted in the mobilization of 44,800 m3 of sand from an area of 35,200 m2 equal to the 7% of the intertidal zone of Laida beach interpreted as the existing surface between the average low and high tidal limits, to the zone next to the eastern rocky beach contour. This action successfully resulted in an increase of the supratidal beach for the entire summer 2015 without negatively perturbing the morphological system. The second action was somewhat experimental and consisted in the mechanical plough of the previously existing intertidal low-amplitude ridges with the aim of increasing the sand transport toward the supratidal beach. Although this action did not lead to the increase of the supratidal beach, it seems to have resulted in an acceleration of the natural onshore migration of the bars. The objective of this contribution is to describe the morphodynamical response of the estuarine mouth after the performed actions with special emphasis on the evolution of extracted sites and the supratidal Laida beach area. The information here presented represents an innovative step in the understanding of the complex mechanisms driving the

  14. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  15. Use of native species to improve carbon sequestration and contribute towards solving the environmental problems of the timberlands in Biscay, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

    2013-05-15

    The rapid transformation of natural forest areas into fast-growing exotic species plantations, where the main objective is timber and pulp production, has led to a neglect of other services forests provide in many parts of the world. One example of such a problem is the county of Biscay, where the management of these plantations has negative impacts on the environment, creating the necessity to evaluate alternative tree species for use in forestry. The actual crisis in the forest sector of the region could be an opportunity to change to native species plantations that could help restore ecosystem structure and function. However, forest managers of the region are using the current interest on carbon sequestration by forest to persist with the "pine and eucalyptus culture", arguing that these species provide a big C sequestration service. Moreover, they are promoting the expansion of eucalyptus plantations to obtain biomass for the pulp and paper industry and for bioenergy. The aim of this paper is to answer the following questions: Is this argument used by the foresters well-founded? or, could the use of native species in plantations improve the C sequestration service in Biscay while avoiding the environmental problems the actual plantations cause? To answer these questions we created three alternative future scenarios: a) the Services scenario, where there is a substitution of fast-growing exotic plantations by native broadleaf species plantations; b) the Biomass scenario, where there is a bet on eucalyptus plantations; and c) the Business as usual scenario. The changes in the C stock in living biomass in these scenarios have been simulated by a hybrid approach utilising inventories and models, and the period considered was 150 years. Our results show that the substitution of existing exotic plantations by plantations of native species has the greatest potential for increasing C sequestration. Although short- and mid-term outcomes may differ, when the long

  16. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0052] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard... Temporary Final Rule (TFR) published in the Federal Register on April 13, 2012. In the preamble, the Coast...

  17. Late Pleistocene shallow water sand transported to the slope at IODP Sites U1484 and U1485 off the north coast of Papua New Guinea: how, when and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Browning, J. V.; Bova, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    IODP Exp 363 drilled two sites on a gently seaward-dipping terrace 18 and 21 km north of Papua New Guinea, enabling the study of mechanisms that bring shallow water sediment to the deep sea. We expect past changes in sea level and precipitation / fluvial run-off dominated this record, but additional processes may have been important. We examined Hole U1484B (1031 m water depth; 223 m drilled; 99.8% recovered) and detected 339 sharp-based sand layers 0.5 cm or more thick. In contrast to the background hemipelagic nanno-bearing silty clay, sand layers are graded or massive turbidites containing detrital grains, shallow-water benthic foraminifera, shell fragments and/or wood. δ18O values of Globigerinoides ruber tied to the isotopic curve of Lisiecki and Raymo (2004) show the densest concentration of sand layers in the last 310 ka occurred during the cooling trend of MIS stage 6. Stage 2 contains significantly fewer discrete sand beds, even during the coldest part of the LGM. Other times of glacial intensification show a similarly modest correlation to peak sand deposition. Sand layers strongly correlate with high values of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measured on unsplit cores, and when mapped to the MIS time scale, MS increases match times of ice growth / falling sea level more consistently than does the density of sand layers. We attribute this to reworking of discrete sand layers by bioturbation, indicating the need for caution tying the absence of sharp-based sands to times of transgression or low precipitation / fluvial run-off. Packages of especially thick and closely-spaced sharp-based sands match seismic reflections at Site U1484. Tracing these reflections throughout the grid of hi-res MCS site survey profiles reveals the areal distribution and transport path of sand as well as a direct tie to similar sharp-based sands in the more distal Hole U1485A (1145 m water depth; 301 m drilled; 103.8% recovered.) The distribution of sands through time might be

  18. Revisiting chlorophyll data along the coast in north-central Chile, considering multiscale environmental variability Reinterpretando datos de clorofila en la costa centro-norte de Chile, considerando variabilidad ambiental de multiescala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIAN MONTECINO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton abundance in the surface mixed layer of the coastal ocean responds to environmental changes at various time scales. Here the "warm", "cold" and "neutral" phases of "three environmental cycles" have been jointly considered to assess chlorophyll-a (Chl-a biomass variability for both the active and relaxed phases of the local, wind-driven coastal upwelling: (i the interannual ENSO cycle (ii the annual (seasonal cycle and (iii the intraseasonal cycle associated with equatorially-sourced, ocean trapped-waves along the coast in northern Chile. The main goal of this study is to quantitatively assess the variability of the depth- integrated Chl-a biomass in the euphotic zone (¾Chl-a in terms of an overall "environmental condition" over a 50 km upwelling sensitive coastal strip, revisiting published and unpublished Chl-a ship (Cship = Chl-a + Phaeopigments data. All possible "environmental conditions" combinations were further ranked into seven "environmental indices" ranging from 0 ("absolutely cold" to 6 ("absolutely warm". Out of 332 samples of ¾Chl-a, 198/134 were obtained during active/relaxed upwelling conditions from which 24/38 and 30/36 samples were associated with the simultaneous occurrence of at least two "cold"/"warm" phases of the three environmental cycles ("cold"/"warm" environmental conditions, respectively. Lower ¾Chl-a values during "cold" and "warm" environmental conditions relative to the "neutral" ones reached statistical significance for both active and relaxed conditions (144/60 samples respectively. Higher turbulent mixing during "cold" environmental conditions and a deeper nutricline during "warm" ones would explain lower ¾Chl-a-values. Satellite chlorophyll (Csat data obtained in clear skies (active upwelling only, showed a similar distribution to those of ¾Chl-a when classified into the corresponding "environmental indices". These results suggest that during "neutral" (transitional "environmental conditions

  19. Coasts in Crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  20. Composition and spatial distribution of cephalopods in two North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faunistic composition and the spatial distribution of the cephalopod fauna were studied and compared in two areas of the north-western Mediterranean: the Catalan Sea (Spanish coast) and the northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italian coast). In all, 46 species were collected in the Catalan Sea and 36 in the northern Tyrrhenian ...

  1. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil Vegetação de manguezais na Amazônia: uma revisão dos estudos da costa dos Estados Pará e Maranhão, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moirah Paula Machado de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic local stand parameters. Seasonal variation in rainfall and salinity affect the species' phenology and litter fall. Local population use products derived from mangrove plants for different purposes (e.g. fuel; medicinal; rural construction. The increase in the coastal population has given rise to conflicts, which impact on mangrove forest.O presente estudo apresenta uma compilação da literatura sobre a vegetação dos manguezais da costa norte do Brasil, apresentando uma síntese do conhecimento e listando a literatura disponível. O estudo se concentra na costa dos estados do Pará e Maranhão que formam um cinturão contínuo de manguezais . Foram contabilizadas seis espécies arbóreas exclusivas de mangue e várias outras associadas. A altura e o diâmetro das árvores de mangue variam em função de parâmetros abióticos locais. As variações sazonais do regime de chuvas e da salinidade afetam a fenologia das espécies e a produção de serapilheira. A população costeira utiliza a flora do manguezal para diferentes fins (ex: combustível, medicinal, construção rural. O aumento da ocupação costeira inicia um processo de impacto para as florestas de mangue e a disponibilidade de seus recursos.

  2. Acoustics reveals the presence of a macrozooplankton biocline in the Bay of Biscay in response to hydrological conditions and predator-prey relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Lezama-Ochoa

    Full Text Available Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a 'biocline' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.

  3. Lithogenic sources, composition and intra-annual variability of suspended particulate matter supplied from rivers to the Northern Galician Rias (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, Patricia; Prego, Ricardo; Filgueiras, Ana Virginia; Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Álvarez-Vázquez, Miguel Angel; Caetano, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Scarce research about small European rivers from non-human impacted areas to determine their natural background state has been undertaken. During the annual hydrological cycle of 2008-9 the patterns of particulate supply (SPM, POC, PON, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) from the rivers Sor, Mera Landro, Lourido and Landoi to the Northern Galician Rias (SW Bay of Biscay) were tackled. No differences in the composition of the SPM were detected for the studied rivers regarding Al, Fe and POC but the relative percentage of particulate trace elements (PTE) discriminate the rivers. So, Cr, Co and Ni in the Lourido, and Landoi rivers, and Cu in the Mera River, are controlled by watershed minerals of Ortegal Geological Complex while for the rest rivers PTE are by granitic and Ollo de Sapo bedrock watershed. Therefore, the imprint of PTE in the parental rocks of the river basins is reflected on the coastal sediments of the Rias. The main process controlling the dynamics and variations of chemical elements in the particulate form is the river discharge. This fact exemplifies that these rivers presents a natural behavior not being highly influenced by anthropogenic activities.

  4. Towards a regional ocean forecasting system for the IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area: developments and improvements within the ECOOP project framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cailleau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional ocean operational system remains a key element in downscaling from large scale (global or basin scale systems to coastal ones. It enables the transition between systems in which the resolution and the resolved physics are quite different. Indeed, coastal applications need a system to predict local high frequency events (inferior to the day such as storm surges, while deep sea applications need a system to predict large scale lower frequency ocean features. In the framework of the ECOOP project, a regional system for the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area has been upgraded from an existing V0 version to a V2. This paper focuses on the improvements from the V1 system, for which the physics are close to a large scale basin system, to the V2 for which the physics are more adapted to shelf and coastal issues. Strong developments such as higher regional physics resolution in the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model for tides, non linear free surface and adapted vertical mixing schemes among others have been implemented in the V2 version. Thus, regional thermal fronts due to tidal mixing now appear in the latest version solution and are quite well positioned. Moreover, simulation of the stratification in shelf areas is also improved in the V2.

  5. Acoustic surveys for juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: Abundance estimate as an indicator of the next year's recruitment and spatial distribution patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2013-08-16

    A series of acoustic surveys (JUVENA) began in 2003 targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. A specific methodology was designed for mapping and estimating juvenile abundance annually, four months after the spawning season. After eight years of the survey, a consistent picture of the spatial pattern of the juvenile anchovy has emerged. Juveniles show a vertical and horizontal distribution pattern that depends on size. The younger individuals are found isolated from other species in waters closer to the surface, mainly off the shelf within the mid-southern region of the bay. The largest juveniles are usually found deeper and closer to the shore in the company of adult anchovy and other pelagic species. In these eight years, the survey has covered a wide range of juvenile abundances, and the estimates show a significant positive relationship between the juvenile biomasses and the one-year-old recruits of the following year. This demonstrates that the JUVENA index provides an early indication of the strength of next year\\'s recruitment to the fishery and can therefore be used to improve the management advice for the fishery of this short-lived species. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  6. Seasonal and interannual variability of fat content of juvenile albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) and bluefin ( Thunnus thynnus) tunas during their feeding migration to the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Nicolas; Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2010-07-01

    The fat content of 2945 juvenile albacore and 618 juvenile bluefin tunas caught in the Bay of Biscay was measured. Individuals were caught in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 from June to early November by pelagic trawling, trolling and baitboat gears. The results for the two species show different seasonal trends. The fat content of albacore tuna increased linearly throughout the fishing season, which reflects their feeding migration. The seasonal trend of bluefin tuna showed a minimum in early August, which may be related to a different behaviour, physiology or feeding strategy. An interannual increase of fat content was observed in albacore tuna and in age-2 to age-5+ bluefin tuna, which is possibly related to a density-dependence phenomenon. The seasonal increase of fat content was strongest and appeared in the four years studied for age-3 and age-4 albacore tuna, which can be related to a different vertical habitat or a more efficient use of their ecological niche by the individuals of these age-groups, relatively to the younger age-groups. Condition factor and girth/length ratio do not appear to be relevant indicators of fat content.

  7. Acoustics Reveals the Presence of a Macrozooplankton Biocline in the Bay of Biscay in Response to Hydrological Conditions and Predator-Prey Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa; Irigoien, Xabier; Chaigneau, Alexis; Quiroz, Zaida; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a ‘biocline’ during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten. PMID:24505374

  8. Analysis of calibrated seafloor backscatter for habitat classification methodology and case study of 158 spots in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezzani, Ridha; Berger, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    An automated signal-based method was developed in order to analyse the seafloor backscatter data logged by calibrated multibeam echosounder. The processing consists first in the clustering of each survey sub-area into a small number of homogeneous sediment types, based on the backscatter average level at one or several incidence angles. Second, it uses their local average angular response to extract discriminant descriptors, obtained by fitting the field data to the Generic Seafloor Acoustic Backscatter parametric model. Third, the descriptors are used for seafloor type classification. The method was tested on the multi-year data recorded by a calibrated 90-kHz Simrad ME70 multibeam sonar operated in the Bay of Biscay, France and Celtic Sea, Ireland. It was applied for seafloor-type classification into 12 classes, to a dataset of 158 spots surveyed for demersal and benthic fauna study and monitoring. Qualitative analyses and classified clusters using extracted parameters show a good discriminatory potential, indicating the robustness of this approach.

  9. Acoustics reveals the presence of a macrozooplankton biocline in the Bay of Biscay in response to hydrological conditions and predator-prey relationships.

    KAUST Repository

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa

    2014-02-04

    Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a \\'biocline\\' during the day i.e., the interface where zooplankton biomass changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below. The biocline separated the surface layer, almost devoid of macrozooplankton, from the macrozooplankton-rich deeper layers. It is a specific vertical feature which ties in with the classic diel vertical migration pattern. Spatiotemporal correlations between macrozooplankton and environmental variables (photic depth, thermohaline vertical structure, stratification index and chlorophyll-a) indicate that no single factor explains the macrozooplankton vertical distribution. Rather a set of factors, the respective influence of which varies from region to region depending on the habitat characteristics and the progress of the spring stratification, jointly influence the distribution. In this context, the macrozooplankton biocline is potentially a biophysical response to the search for a particular depth range where light attenuation, thermohaline vertical structure and stratification conditions together provide a suitable alternative to the need for expending energy in reaching deeper water without the risk of being eaten.

  10. Net sea–air CO2 flux uncertainties in the Bay of Biscay based on the choice of wind speed products and gas transfer parameterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Otero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of sea–air CO2 fluxes is largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim, one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet, winds derived under the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP project, and QuikSCAT winds in combination with some of the most widely used gas transfer velocity parameterizations. Results show that net CO2 flux estimations during an entire seasonal cycle (September 2002–September 2003 may vary by a factor of ~ 3 depending on the selected wind speed product and the gas exchange parameterization, with the highest impact due to the last one. The comparison of satellite- and model-derived winds with observations at buoys advises against the systematic overestimation of NCEP-2 and the underestimation of NCEP-1. In the coastal region, the presence of land and the time resolution are the main constraints of QuikSCAT, which turns CCMP and ERA-Interim in the preferred options.

  11. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  13. Andrew spares Florida Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    When geologists heard of the intensity of Hurricane Andrew, which struck the Florida coast on August 25 and then moved on to southern Louisiana, they were expecting the same kinds of coastal damage that Hurricane Hugo brought to the Caribbean and Carolina shores in 1989. Both storms were category 4 hurricanes, having winds of 131-155 mph and surges of 13-18 feet. However, the coastal damage never materialized, leaving geologists to analyze the factors that lessened the impact of the storm. “For minimum coastal damage, you couldn't have designed a better storm,” said Orrin Pilkey, director of the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines (PSDS) in Durham, N.C. This was due in part to the nature of the storm itself and where it hit land, and in part to the regional geology, said Rob Thieler of PSDS. Despite the huge amounts of damage to buildings, there was virtually no evidence of coastal process destruction, he said.

  14. On the marine fauna of the Anglesey coast adjacent to Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, R.N.

    1989-04-01

    The findings of recent surveys of the marine fauna in the vicinity of Wylfa Power Station are collated and discussed in the context of previous studies on the biota of this coast. The surveys included a study of the mussel populations of the north Anglesey coast, general surveys of rocky shore and beach habitats and of Cemlyn Beach and Lagoon and a detailed quantification of cliff-dwelling species from which those influenced by the cooling water have been identified. (author)

  15. Plaguicidas organoclorados en población general adulta de Bizkaia Organochlorine pesticides in the general adult population of Biscay (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña Zubero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y analizar las concentraciones de siete plaguicidas organoclorados; hexaclorobenceno (HCB, beta-hexaclorociclohexano (β-HCH, gamma-hexaclorociclohexano (γ-HCH, heptacloro epóxido, beta-endosulfán, diclorodifenildicloroetileno (p,p´-DDE y diclorodifeniltricloroetano (p,p´-DDT en suero de adultos de cuatro zonas de Bizkaia no expuestos a fuentes conocidas de plaguicidas. Método: Se analizaron 283 muestras individuales de voluntarios captados a partir del censo. Se les entrevistó utilizando un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y de consumo. Se analizaron los datos utilizando la ji al cuadrado para variables discretas, y el análisis de varianza y un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple para las variables continuas. Resultados: El p,p´-DDE fue detectado en el 100% de los individuos (media: 191,43ng/g lípido, mientras que el 31% mostró valores detectables de p,p´-DDT (media: 18,9ng/g lípido. Un 96,5% de los individuos presentaban valores detectables de HCB (media: 78,56ng/g lípido; el 90,4% β-HCH (media: 42,78ng/g lípido y un 3,5% γ-HCH. No se detectó heptacloro epóxido ni beta-endosulfán. En el modelo de regresión, el incremento de la edad aumentaba los valores de todos los plaguicidas (pObjective: To identify and analyze levels of seven organochlorine pesticides [hexachlorobenzene (HCB, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, beta-endosulfan, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT] in the serum of adults of four areas of Biscay (Spain not exposed to known sources of pesticides. Method: We analyzed 283 individual samples from volunteers recruited from the census. The volunteers were interviewed using a questionnaire with items on demographic variables and consumption. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for discrete variables and analysis of variance and multiple linear regression

  16. Geotechnical properties of marine soil off north Konkan Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Naik, R.L.

    for various geotechnical properties. These sediments were found to have less bulk density, low carbonate content, high plasticity index with very low undrained shear strength. Grain size distribution shows that the sediments consist of 60% to 80% silt with 18...

  17. 78 FR 36753 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ..., considering future sea-level rise and climate change scenarios. In addition, the Comprehensive Study will... Appropriations Act, Public Law 113-2, are to (1) reduce flood risk to vulnerable coastal populations, and (2..., National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance processes will not be completed due to the scale of the...

  18. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  19. Monitoring Sea Level and Topography of Coastal Lagoons Using Satellite Radar Altimetry: The Example of the Arcachon Bay in the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Salameh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Radar altimetry was initially designed to measure the marine geoid. Thanks to the improvement in the orbit determination from the meter to the centimeter level, this technique has been providing accurate measurements of the sea surface topography over the open ocean since the launch of Topex/Poseidon in 1992. In spite of a decrease in the performance over land and coastal areas, it is now commonly used over these surfaces. This study presents a semi-automatic method that allows us to discriminate between acquisitions performed at high tides and low tides. The performances of four radar altimetry missions (ERS-2, ENVISAT, SARAL, and CryoSat-2 were analyzed for the retrieval of sea surface height and, for the very first time, of the intertidal zone topography in a coastal lagoon. The study area is the Arcachon Bay located in the Bay of Biscay. The sea level variability of the Arcachon Bay is characterized by a standard deviation of 1.05 m for the records used in this study (2001–2017. Sea surface heights are very well retrieved for SARAL (R~0.99 and RMSE < 0.23 m and CryoSat-2 (R > 0.93 and RMSE < 0.42 m missions but also for ENVISAT (R > 0.82 but with a higher RMSE >0.92 m. For the topography of the intertidal zone, very good estimates were also obtained using SARAL (R~0.71 and CryoSat-2 (R~0.79 with RMSE lower than 0.44 m for both missions.

  20. From the Bay of Biscay to the High Atlas: Completing the anisotropic characterization of the upper mantle beneath the westernmost Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Gallart, J.; Morais, I.; Silveira, G.; Pedreira, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Dias, N. A.; Ruiz, M.; González-Cortina, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge of the anisotropic properties beneath the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Morocco has been dramatically improved since late 2007 with the analysis of the data provided by the dense TopoIberia broad-band seismic network, the increasing number of permanent stations operating in Morocco, Portugal and Spain, and the contribution of smaller scale/higher resolution experiments. Results from the two first TopoIberia deployments have evidenced a spectacular rotation of the fast polarization direction (FPD) along the Gibraltar Arc, interpreted as an evidence of mantle flow deflected around the high velocity slab beneath the Alboran Sea, and a rather uniform N100°E FPD beneath the central Iberian Variscan Massif, consistent with global mantle flow models taking into account contributions of surface plate motion, density variations and net lithosphere rotation. The results from the last Iberarray deployment presented here, covering the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, also show a rather uniform FPD orientation close to N100°E, thus confirming the previous interpretation globally relating the anisotropic parameters to the LPO of mantle minerals generated by mantle flow at asthenospheric depths. However, the degree of anisotropy varies significantly, from delay time values of around 0.5 s beneath NW Iberia to values reaching 2.0 s in its NE corner. The anisotropic parameters retrieved from single events providing high quality data also show significant differences for stations located in the Variscan units of NW Iberia, suggesting that the region includes multiple anisotropic layers or complex anisotropy systems. These results allow to complete the map of the anisotropic properties of the westernmost Mediterranean region, which can now be considered as one of best constrained regions worldwide, with more than 300 sites investigated over an area extending from the Bay of Biscay to the Sahara platform.

  1. Assessing the hydrological response from an ensemble of CMIP5 climate projections in the transition zone of the Atlantic region (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaurio, Maite; Zabaleta, Ane; Boithias, Laurie; Epelde, Ane Miren; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, Jose-Miguel; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Antiguedad, Iñaki

    2017-05-01

    The climate changes projected for the 21st century will have consequences on the hydrological response of catchments. These changes, and their consequences, are most uncertain in the transition zones. The study area, in the Bay of Biscay, is located in the transition zone of the European Atlantic region, where hydrological impact of climate change was scarcely studied. In order to address this scarcity, the hydrological impacts of climate change on river discharge were assessed. To do so, a hydrological modelling was carried out considering 16 climate scenarios that include 5 General Circulation Models (GCM) from the 5th report of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), 2 statistical downscaling methods and 2 Representative Concentration Pathways. Projections for future discharge (2011-2100) were divided into three 30-year horizons (2030s, 2060s and 2090s) and a comparison was made between these time horizons and the baseline (1961-2000). The results show that the downscaling method used resulted in a higher source of uncertainty than GCM itself. In addition, the uncertainties inherent to the methods used at all the levels do not affect the results equally along the year. In spite of those uncertainties, general trends for the 2090s predict seasonal discharge decreases by around -17% in autumn, -16% in spring, -11% in winter and -7% in summer. These results are in line with those predicted for the Atlantic region (France and the Iberian Peninsula). Trends for extreme flows were also analysed: the most significant show an increase in the duration (days) of low flows. From an environmental point of view, and considering the need to meet the objectives established by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), this will be a major challenge for the future planning on water management.

  2. Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

  3. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  4. Earliest occupation of north-west Europe: A coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  5. Climate change and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellnhuber, H.J.; Sterr, H.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation of climatic processes and behaviour examines the effects of climatic changes on human beings and the surrounding environment. The authors discuss, in a wide-subject perspective, the regional impacts of the greenhouse effect, increase of the sea level, and changed conditions of both precipitation and wind using the North and Baltic Sea as examples. In this effort, questions dealing with changes of water level, motion and (disturbance) of the sea and morphodynamic in the coastal apron, in reference to requirements on a future protection of the shore, are handled. In addition, not only the aspects of ecosystem-orientated adaption in the strip of land between the continent northern islands 'Wattenmeer' and ground landscape (Bodenlandschaft) are taken into consideration, but also the impact of these on human beings and their interest to use the coastal regions. (orig.). 102 figs., 9 tabs [de

  6. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  7. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  8. Aspectos ecológicos e levantamento malacológico para identificação de áreas de risco para transmissão da esquistossomose mansoni no litoral norte de Pernambuco, Brasil Ecological aspects and malacological survey to identification of transmission risk' sites for schistosomiasis in Pernambuco North Coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. A. Souza

    Full Text Available Realizou-se levantamento malacológico na praia de Carne de Vaca, município de Goiana, litoral norte de Pernambuco, entre novembro de 2006 e outubro de 2007, com o objetivo de conhecer a fauna malacológica dessa localidade e verificar as condições naturais, pouco ou bastante alteradas das áreas de estudo através da aplicação de um protocolo de avaliação de diversidade de hábitats. Foram coletados 5.912 moluscos, representados por sete espécies e quatro famílias, dos quais, 5.209 exemplares de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, 113 de Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839, 55 de Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1837, 13 de Drepanotrema anatinum (Pfeiffer, 1839, 222 de Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller, 1774, 263 de Pomacea sp. e 37 de Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Entre os exemplares de B. glabrata coletados, 44 mostraram-se positivos para Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 e 91 mostraram-se positivos para outras larvas de trematódeos. Um exemplar de Pomacea sp. mostrou-se positivo para larva de trematódeo. Os dados obtidos, georreferenciados espacialmente, serão utilizados para a determinação das áreas de risco para a transmissão da esquistossomose na praia de Carne de Vaca, além de simulações computacionais para estudos de previsibilidade e comportamento do processo de expansão da esquistossomose no estado de Pernambuco.It was carried out a malacological survey at Carne de Vaca beach, Goiana municipality, Pernambuco North coast, between November 2006 and October 2007 in order to know the malacological fauna of this town and verify the natural, slightly or more modified conditions of mollusks sites by using an habitat diversity protocol analysis. From 5,912 mollusks collected, they belong to seven species and four families, as follows: 5,209 Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 specimens, 113 of Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839, 55 of Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1837, 13 of Drepanotrema anatinum (Pfeiffer, 1839, 222 of

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-05-29 to 2011-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0115715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115715 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-02-11 to 2013-11-24 (NCEI Accession 0164749)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164749 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-22 to 2014-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157359 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-11 to 2007-11-05 (NODC Accession 0115226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115226 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface and discrete observations using flow-through pump and other instruments from M/V Equinox in the North Atlantic ocean (east coast of Miami, FL, Bahamas, and Turks and Caicos Islands) from 2015-03-07 to 2015-03-09 (NCEI Accession 0154382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains surface discrete measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and pH from the east coast of Florida to Puerto Rico....

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and other variables collected from profile and discrete observations using Niskin bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the North Atlantic ocean (off the east coast of Florida) during the Ocean Acidification Cruise RB1201 from 2012-02-23 to 2012-03-03 (NCEI Accession 0154381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains bottle measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity off the east coast of Florida. Increasing amounts of...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-05-10 to 2013-05-24 (NCEI Accession 0157282)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157282 includes chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Cartier in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-09-12 to 2015-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0157236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157236 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Cartier in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland,...

  17. Crustal structure of the North Iberian continental margin from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and geodynamics of the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay have been investigated from a set of 11 multichannel seismic reflection profiles, recorded also at wide angle offsets in an onshore-offshore network of 24 OBS/OBH and 46 land sites. This contribution focuses on the analysis of the wide-angle reflection/refraction data along representative profiles. The results document strong lateral variations of the crustal structure along the margin and provide an extensive test of the crustal models previously proposed for the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Offshore, the crust has a typical continental structure in the eastern tip of the bay, which disappears smoothly towards the NW to reach crustal thickness close to 10 km at the edge of the studied area ( 45°N, 6°W). The analysis of the velocity-depth profiles, altogether with additional information provided by the multichannel seismic data and magnetic surveys, led to the conclusion that the crust in this part of the bay should be interpreted as transitional from continental to oceanic. Typical oceanic crust has not been imaged in the investigated area. Onshore, the new results are in good agreement with previous results and document the indentation of the Bay of Biscay crust into the Iberian crust, forcing its subduction to the North. The interpreted profiles show that the extent of the southward indentation is not uniform, with an Alpine root less developed in the central and western sector of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. N-S to NE-SW transfer structures seem to control those variations in the indentation degree.

  18. Origin and Processes Highlighted By Noble Gases Geochemistry of Submarine Gas Emissions from Seeps at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay):

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battani, A.; Ruffine, L.; Donval, J. P.; Bignon, L.; Pujol, M.; Levaché, D.

    2014-12-01

    Noble gases are widely used as tracers to both determine fluid origin and identify transfer processes governing fluid flow in natural systems. This work presents the preliminary results and interpretations from submarine gas samples collected during the GAZCOGNE2 cruise (2013). The seepage activity and the spatial distribution of the widespread emission sites encountered at this area are described by (Dupré et al. 2014). Gas composition shows that methane is the dominant species compared to the C2+. The associated δ13C and δD signatures point to a biogenic origin- through CO2 reduction- of the gas. Helium concentrations are very low, ranging from 0.1 and 2.3 ppm, indicating a low residence time of the fluids in the subsurface. However, the resulting helium isotopic ratios are mostly crustal fingerprinted (around 0.02). The R/Ra values sometimes exhibit higher value of 0.2, indicative either an ASW (air saturated water) value, or the fingerprint of ancient mantle helium, the later in agreement with the geological structural context of the Parentis Basin. Most of the samples exhibit a mixing between ASW and air, probably by excess air addition to the initial ASW concentration. The elemental Ne/Ar ratio is remarkably constant for the totality of the samples, with a value typical of ASW (0.2). This result implies that the migrating gas phase is "stripping" the original water matrix from its noble gas content, as described by Gillfillian et al., 2008. This further indicates that an intermediate reservoir of biogenic gas should be present at depth. The GAZCOGNE study is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project. References: Dupré, S., L. Berger, N. Le Bouffant, C. Scalabrin, and J. F. Bourillet (2014), Fluid emissions at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay, France): a biogenic origin or the expression of hydrocarbon leakage?, Continental Shelf Research, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2014.07.004. Gilfillan S

  19. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  20. The Physical Oceanography of Australia's Sunshine Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Australia's Sunshine coast is located to the south of the Great Barrier Reef and Fraser Island between about 25 oS to 28 oS. With a width of nearly 70-80 km, the eastern Australian continental shelf is at its widest here. The shelf region is referred to as the Southeast Queensland Marine Coastal Zone due to its unique physical oceanographic characteristics. The most prominent large-scale oceanic feature is the southward flowing East Australian Current (EAC). It forms to the north of Fraser Island from Coral Sea outflows, intensifies, and follows the continental shelf as a swift continental shelf hugging current but variable in strength; stronger in the southern hemisphere summer and weaker in winter. Little attention has been paid to the physical oceanography of this region, although important physical processes take place that drive regional marine environmental conditions, drive cross-shelf exchanges and interactions with the EAC, and that represent marine connectivity processes significant to the larger scale eastern Australian fisheries. This presentation reviews recent discoveries that include the Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System, the Fraser Island Gyre, and document the role of cyclonic mesoscale eddies in driving cross-shelf exchanges and contribute to the formation of the Fraser Island Gyre. The Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System appears to be predominately driven by the interaction of the EAC with the continental shelf leading to the establishment of one of eight important marine ecological hotspots along the east Australian coast. The Fraser Island Gyre is most prominent during the southern hemisphere autumn and winter months. It is characterised by on-shelf northerly flow, turning eastward south of Fraser Island before joining the EAC. It emerges that cyclonic eddy formation as well as the south-easterly trade winds drive the gyre's establishment and strength. A census of short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic eddies, the first for any western

  1. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  2. Lessons learned using water quality models to develop numeric nutrient criteria for a Gulf coast estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay is a shallow, mesotrophic estuary located in the north-central coast of the Gulf of Mexico, US. In November 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) proposed numeric total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) water quality cr...

  3. Potential Flooding area for local Tsunami in Nayarit Region (Western Coast of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Gomez, E.; Ortiz, M.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The western coast of Mexico in the region of Jalisco and Nayarit states has a complex tectonics and a high seismic activity. In the last century, four big tsunamis occurred in this area, (three of them in 1932 and one in 1995, that hit the coast of Colima, Jalisco and Nayarit. Three of these tsunamis were generated by earthquakes and one more (22 June 1932) by an underwater landslide. Currently, there is a seismic Gap on the north coast of Jalisco and southern Nayarit. Recent published papers (Urías-Espinosa et al, 2016) and the first results of TsuJal Project (Núñez- Cornú et al, 2016) suggest that subduction regime to the north of Cabo Corrientes changes and the Rivera plate subducts with a very low angle and this structure remains until Maria Madre Island at north of the Marias Islands. The hypothesis of this work is the estimation of the tsunami run up and the flooding zone after a great magnitude earthquake generated by the rupture of the hypothetical subduction structure north of Cabo Corrientes. The possible effects on the coasts of Nayarit, Islas Marias and Banderas Bay (Puerto Vallarta) are proposed in this study.

  4. Recent marine microfauna from the continental margin, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Neogloboquadrina pachyderma@@ occurs as far north of equator as 23~'N in the Arabian Sea. Similarly, high salinity indicating palnktonic assemblages of Red Sea and Persian Gulf is also observed near Kerala Coast. The edaphic state of some benthonic species on the shelf...

  5. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Coast Range, western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin J. Long; Cathy Whitlock; Patrick J. Bartlein

    2007-01-01

    Pollen and high-resolution charcoal records from three lakes were examined to reconstruct the vegetation and fire history of the Oregon Coast Range for the last 9000 years. The sites are located along a north to- south effective precipitation gradient and changes in vegetation and fire activity provided information on the nature of this gradient in the past. The...

  6. The North Field Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Qatar Europe LNG Company's activities include gas production, gathering, treatment, liquefaction, shipping and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and by-products. The (LNG) project to be developed by the Company shall be initially capable of processing 1200 mmscfd of raw gas and associated quantities of condensate from the North Field. Hydrocarbons produced will be delivered to shore in the industrial area (Ras Laffan) via a sub sea pipeline system. Raw gas is used as a feedstock into the liquefaction plant which is initially capable of producing 6.1 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA) of (LNG). The initial quantity of (LNG) will be exported from (Ras Laffan) loading terminal to a receiving terminal located on the North East coast of Italy via a dedicated fleet of (LNG) carriers. The whole project (Upstream, Downstream and Shipping) shall be executed on an integrated scheme basis under the the direct control of the Qatar Europe LNG Company and in accordance with the overall Master Schedule in order to ensure a delivery of first shipment of (LNG) in the 2 nd half of 1997. 3 figs

  7. Modelling teleconnections between the North Atlantic and North Pacific during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Crowley, Thomas J.; Schiller, Andreas; Voss, Reinhard

    1997-05-01

    Evidence for a cooling event synchronous with the Younger Dryas (12,000 calendar years before present) has been found in the North Pacific Ocean north of 30° N in records of surface1-5 and subsurface water properties6,7. These changes may be related to a temporary shut-down of North Atlantic Deep Water formation and associated surface cooling over the North Atlantic. It has remained unclear, however, whether this North Atlantic cooling was communicated to the North Pacific Ocean through the atmosphere or the ocean. Here we report results of a sensitivity experiment with a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model that support a primarily atmospheric forcing of North Pacific climate variations. Changes in wind strongly affect coastal upwelling at the North American west coast, and surface cooling by the atmosphere causes better ventilation of the thermocline waters of the northeast Pacific. This effect is amplified by oceanic progagation to the Pacific of the signal arising from collapse of North Atlantic Deep Water formation. These teleconnections may also explain earlier North Pacific and western North American millenial-scale cooling events of a similar nature8-12.

  8. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  9. Variabilidade diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica em praias arenosas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul Daily zonation variation of sandy beach benthic macrofauna in north coast of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Monteiro Neves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a variação diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica nas praias de Tramandaí, Harmonia e Jardim do Éden, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram feitas ao longo de cinco dias consecutivos, utilizando-se um tubo de PVC de 20 cm de diâmetro. Foram demarcadas três transversais distantes 50 m uma da outra, com 4 estações de coleta e três amostras cada. As estações se estenderam desde 8 m acima do limite superior da zona de varrido (definida a cada dia até 1 m de profundidade. Também foram coletados diariamente dados dos perfis topográficos de cada praia. Os resultados mostraram que a macrofauna bentônica apresenta um padrão de zonação regular ao longo dos dias. O intermareal foi marcado pela presença do isópode Excirolana armata (Dana, 1853 e do poliqueta Euzonus furciferus (Ehlers, 1897. A zona de varrido apresentou grande abundância do caranguejo hipídeo Emerita brasiliensis (Schmitt, 1935, do bivalvo Donax hanleyanus (Philippi, 1842 e do poliqueto Scolelepis gaucha (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974. As zonas de "surf" e arrebentação interna não apresentaram diferenças na composição de espécies, sendo dominantes os juvenis de D. hanleyanus, Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854, o anfípode Phoxocephalopsis zimmeri (Schellenberg, 1931, o poliqueto Hemipodus olivieri (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974, além do bivalve Donax gemmula (Morrison, 1971. Os resultados indicaram que, apesar do padrão de zonação da macrofauna ter sido regular ao longo do estudo, algumas mudanças na posição vertical das espécies foram observadas, principalmente em função da variação da zona de varrido.This work verified the daily zonation of benthic macrofauna in Tramandaí, Harmonia and Jardim do Éden beaches, north coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, for five consecutive days. Biological data were collected with a PVC core (20 cm diameter along three transects distant 50 m of each other

  10. O USO DE SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS NA IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ÁREAS PRIORITÁRIAS PARA RECUPERAÇÃO E APROVEITAMENTO MINERAL NO LITORAL NORTE DE SÃO PAULO - THE USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO IDENTIFY PRIORITY AREAS FOR RECOVERY AND MINERAL EXPLOITATION ON THE NORTH COAST OF SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tadeu de Carvalho Gamba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O Litoral Norte paulista constitui um dos principais polos turísticos do Estado. A atividade de mineração, principalmente dos materiais de empréstimo (saibro, apesar de ter deixado um legado negativo ao longo dos últimos 30 anos, sempre serviu de suporte para o desenvolvimento urbano, o que possibilitou o incremento da atividade turística na região. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar os remanescentes da mineração de saibro, que apresentassem degradação do meio ambiente e risco às comunidades locais, com o intuito de classificar estas áreas quanto ao seu potencial de aproveitamento para exploração de recursos minerais. Para isso lançou-se mão dos sistemas de informações geográficas para gerar um modelo digital de elevação, a partir de redes irregulares triangulares (TIN e se obter o volume das áreas. Posteriormente estas informações foram integradas com os dados de degradação e risco para se chegar ao potencial de aproveitamento das áreas para a mineração. Os resultados alcançados mostram que as 33% das 226 áreas mapeadas apresentam alto potencial para aproveitamento de bens minerais, sendo capazes de sustentar a demanda de suprimentos de baixo valor unitário utilizados na construção civil. O aproveitamento também pode trazer benefícios ambientais uma vez que é capaz de minimizar os riscos ambientais deixados pelas frentes de lavra abandonadas e restringir a ampliação das áreas mineradas. ABSTRACT The North Coast of São Paulo is one of the major tourist centers of the State. The mining activity, especially of borrow materials (saibro, despite having left a negative legacy over the past 30 years, has always been the support for urban development, which enabled the growth of tourism in the region. This study aimed to identify and quantify the remnants of saibro mining, with environmental degradation and risk to local communities in order to classify these areas by their potential

  11. 76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to.... exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to...

  12. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... management measures for several groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast...

  13. 75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to... management measures for several groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast...

  14. 75 FR 38030 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Harvest Specifications... economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to prevent exceeding...

  15. Chalk coast dynamics: Implications for understanding rock coast evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Cherith; Robinson, David

    2011-12-01

    Rock cliffs and shore platforms are linked components of the world's coastal zone. Understanding of the dynamics of their relationships has been hindered by the often imperceptible changes that occur within human time scales. The Cretaceous Chalk coasts of northwest Europe, and particularly those of southeast England, are among the most dynamic, and most intensively studied, cliffed rock coasts in the world. Perceptible changes to both cliffs and platforms have been measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal time scales. Through a review of previously published data and the addition of data not previously published, average cliff retreat rates are calculated as 0.49 ± 0.38 m y - 1 and platform erosion rates 3.999 ± 3.208 mm y - 1 . This paper highlights some of the interactions over time and space between process and measurement that continue to limit our understanding of the dynamics of rock coasts; in particular the link between rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion. It concludes by identifying fruitful areas for future research.

  16. Coastal circulation in the North Indian Ocean: Coastal segment (14,S-W)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.

    The article provides an overview of the circulation of the coastal regime of the North Indian Ocean stretching from southern coast of Indonesia to the coast of East Africa. A special feature of this regime is that it experiences the Asian monsoons...

  17. PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE NORTH-SEA AND ITS DYNAMICS - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REID, PC; LANCELOT, C; GIESKES, WWC; HAGMEIER, E; WEICHART, G

    1990-01-01

    Phytoplankton is the major contributor to algal biomass and primary production of the North Sea, although crops of macroalgae can locally be up to 2000 g C.m-2 along the coast of the U.K. and Norway, and microphytobenthos dominates production in the shallow tidal flat areas bordering the coasts of

  18. Radiological assessment of coastal marine sediment and water samples, Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Akram, M.; Sajjad, M.I.; Shafiq, M.; Javed, T.; Aslam, M.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of selective natural radionuclides (/sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 40/K) in shallow marine coastal sediments and sea water off Karachi coast, Pakistan, were measured with a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. Sediment and water samples were collected from polluted Layari and Malire River downstream (pre-out fall), Gizri Creek, Layari River out fall in Karachi harbor, Karachi Harbor/ Manora Channel Mains, as well as from open sea (South-East Coast and North-West Coast) within the 10m depth contour. No artificial radionuclides (e.g. /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs were detected in both water and sediment samples at any of these locations. The activity of /sup 226/Ra in coastal river sediments is found below its limit of detection (<18.35 Bqkg/sup -1/). Activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments off Karachi Coast ranges between 11.80 +- 3.60 to 37.27+- 4.31 Bqkg/sup -1/. The highest activity was found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) and the lowest activity was found in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea). The /sup 226/Ra activity ranges from 19.40+- 5.88 to 67.14 +- 10.02 Bqkg/sup -1/. The activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments of Manora Channel, South-east Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA-135 (/sup 228/Ra = 36.7 +- 3 Bqkg/sup -1/). The activity of /sup 226/Ra for the South East Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA 135(/sup 226/Ra=23.9 +- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/) and Pacific Ocean sediment standard namely: IAEA-368 (/sup 226/Ra=21.4+- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/). The /sup 40/K activity in sea sediments varies from 197.7+- 44.24 to 941.90 +- 39.00 Bqkg-1). The highest activity is observed in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea) along the Clifton coast (South-East Cost of Karachi) and the lowest activity is found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) along the

  19. A Pyrenean Cretaceous extensional fault system in the Briançonnais Domain of the Alps: implications for the eastern termination of the segmented Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Bertok, Carlo; D'Atri, Anna; Piana, Fabrizio; Barale, Luca; Corradetti, Amerigo; Granado, Pablo; Martire, Luca; Vigna, Bartolomeo

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies in the foreland fold and thrust belt of the SW Alps reported that, in spite of the obliterating effect by the Alpine deformation, Mesozoic structures can still be recognised. These structures, occurring at the southern portion of the Western Alps arc, include a well-exposed crustal-scale Cretaceous extensional fault system. Field data (geological maps) and subsurface data (karst network) have been integrated to produce a detailed 3D reconstruction of this extensional fault system. Cretaceous faults affect the Paleozoic and Mesozoic successions and consist of a tens of km long E-W striking master fault, having in its northern block a set of E-dipping transverse extensional faults, having displacements in the order of hundreds of meters. The 3D reconstruction indicates that E-W extension, accommodated by transverse faults, is between 20% and 40%, and it reduces toward the E-W striking master fault. N-S extension is instead negligible and the E-W fault is interpreted as a Cretaceous right-lateral strike-slip fault. Removing the about 120° counter-clockwise vertical axis rotation, which is associated with the post-Cretaceous Alpine orogeny, the strike-slip fault becomes parallel to a suite of NNE-SSW to NE-SW striking faults occurring in the SW Alps foreland (present Provence region). We propose that, during the Cretaceous separation of Iberia from Eurasia, the NNE-SSW striking faults of Provence and Western Alps were delimiting to the east the Bay of Biscay - Pyrenean rift system. In detail, they formed a NNE-SSW striking transfer zone bounding to the east the Pyrenean arm of the rift, and likely ensured the connection of the Bay of Biscay - Pyrenean rift system with a further eastern, intra-plate, arm.

  20. Spatial segregation within the spawning migration of North Eastern Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus as indicated by juvenile growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available A comparison of growth data (fish length with latitude shows that southern juvenile mackerel attain a greater length than those originating from further north before growth ceases during their first winter. A similar significant relationship was found between the growth in the first year (derived from the otolith inner winter ring and latitude for adult mackerel spawning between 44°N (Bay of Biscay and 54°N (west of Ireland. These observations are consistent with spatial segregation of the spawning migration; the further north that the fish were hatched, the further north they will tend to spawn. No such relationship was found in mackerel spawning at more northerly latitudes, possibly as a consequence of increased spatial mixing in a more energetic regime with stronger currents. This study provides previously lacking support for spawning segregation behaviour among North East Atlantic mackerel--an important step towards understanding the migratory behaviour of mackerel and hence the spatiotemporal distribution dynamics around spawning time.

  1. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  2. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  3. Initiation of an active margin at the North Iberian continent-ocean transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegui, J.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.

    2002-08-01

    The North Iberian or Cantabrian margin, located at the southern flank of the Bay of Biscay, underwent successive tectonic regimes of rifting, passive margin, and compression from Mesozoic to Tertiary times. A complete crustal cross section of the North Iberian Margin, from the abyssal plain to the shoreline, and a reconstruction of its undeformed Upper Cretaceous structure are presented here. It is constrained after the compilation and interpretation of different geophysical data sets recently available in the area. The reflective pattern is provided by deep seismic reflection profile ESCIN-4, complemented by commercial profiles and well information from the North Iberian platform, and the velocity-depth control comes from an onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic profile, tested also with gravity modeling. The detailed cross section of the Meso-Tertiary basins that fill the platform and abyssal plain shows structures from the three main tectonic events: (1) normal faults and asymmetric basins from the Permian to lower Cretaceous extensional stage; (2) Upper Cretaceous sediments deposited under stable conditions during the passive margin period; and (3) inverted faults, thrusts and folds related to the Tertiary compression. The deep structure of the crust beneath the margin is poorly constrained from ESCIN-4 profile that shows reflectivity in the lower crust only at a small area under the platform. However, the corresponding wide-angle experiment provides a conspicuous image of the Moho that shows a continued deepening toward the continent. On the basis of the geophysical results, we propose a new model for this margin where the lower crust is detached and underthrusted to the south as a result of the partial closure of the Bay of Biscay. An interpreted Mesozoic crustal-scale extensional detachment could be the weakness zone that allowed the lower crust to ``slide'' southward under the upper crust, resulting in the indentation of the Cantabrian Margin lower crust into

  4. H09061: NOS Hydrographic Survey , North Carolina Coast, North Carolina, 1969-01-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. CO2 Absorptibility of Seagrass, Enhalus Acoroides, From Tongkaina Coast, North Minahasa, North Sulawesi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoy, Khristin I. F

    2016-01-01

    Climate change results from increase in green house effect and particles in the atmosphere. It comes from 1) fossil fuel combustion, green house gas removals, such as CO2, called “brown carbon”, and dust particles called “black carbon”; 2) emission from forest vegetation clear cut, forest fire, and agricultural activities (fertilizer); 3) low ability of the natural ecosystem to absorb carbon in photosynthesis and store it called “green carbon”. Seagrass can function to absorb CO2 in photosy...

  6. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    -constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  7. Coastal monitoring solutions of the geomorphological response of beach-dune systems using multi-temporal LiDAR datasets (Vendée coast, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mauff, Baptiste; Juigner, Martin; Ba, Antoine; Robin, Marc; Launeau, Patrick; Fattal, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Three beach and dune systems located in the northeastern part of the Bay of Biscay in France were monitored over 5 years with a time series of three airborne LiDAR datasets. The three study sites illustrate a variety of morphological beach types found in this region. Reproducible monitoring solutions adapted to basic and complex beach and dune morphologies using LiDAR time series were investigated over two periods bounded by the three surveys. The first period (between May 2008 and August 2010) is characterized by a higher prevalence of storm events, and thus has a greater potential for eroding the coast, than the second period (between August 2010 and September 2013). During the first period, the central and northeastern part of the Bay of Biscay was notably impacted by Storm Xynthia, with water levels and wave heights exceeding the 10-year return period and 1-year return period, respectively. Despite differences in dune morphology between the sites, the dune crest (Dhigh) and the dune base (Dlow) are efficiently extracted from each DEM. Based on the extracted dune base, an original shoreline mobility indicator is built displaying a combination of the horizontal and vertical migrations of this geomorphic indicator between two LiDAR datasets. A 'Geomorphic Change Detection' is also completed by computing DEMs of Difference (DoD) resulting in segregated maps of erosion and deposition and sediment budgets. Accounting for the accuracy of LiDAR datasets, a probabilistic approach at a 95% confidence interval is used as a threshold for the Geomorphic Change Detection showing more reliable results. However, caution should be taken when interpreting thresholded maps of changes and sediment budgets because some beach processes may be masked, especially on wide tidal beaches, by only keeping the most significant changes. The results of the shoreline mobility and Geomorphic Change Detection show a high variability in the beach responses between and within the three study

  8. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hurricane frequency and landfall distribution for coastal wetlands of the Gulf coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    The regularity and severity of tropical storms are major determinants controlling ecosystem structure and succession for coastal ecosystems. Hurricane landfall rates vary greatly with high and low frequency for given coastal stretches of the southeastern United States. Site-specific meteorological data of hurricane wind speeds and direction, however, are only available for select populated cities of relatively sparse distribution and inland from the coast. A spatial simulation model of hurricane circulation, HURASIM, was applied to reconstruct chronologies of hurricane wind speeds and vectors for northern Gulf coast locations derived from historical tracking data of North Atlantic tropical storms dating back to 1851. Contrasts of storm frequencies showed that tropical storm incidence is nearly double for Florida coastal ecosystems than the westernmost stretches of Texas coastline. Finer-scale spatial simulations for the north-central Gulf coast exhibited sub-regional differences in storm strength and frequency with coastal position and latitude. The overall pattern of storm incidence in the Gulf basin indicates that the disturbance regime of coastal areas varies greatly along the coast, inland from the coast, and temporally over the period of record. Field and modeling studies of coastal ecosystems will benefit from this retrospective analysis of hurricane incidence and intensity both on a local or regional basis. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  10. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were coasts originated from global fallout. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. North American natural gas price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future natural gas prices for North America were discussed. Various aspects of the issue including the relationship between storage, weather and prices, received attention. It was noted that strong demand-growth will be needed to support near-term Canadian export increases without price declines. The issue of Gulf Coast production was also discussed. Power generation using natural gas as fuel is expected to support strong growth in the demand for natural gas. tabs., figs

  12. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  13. Synecology of Cutandia maritima (L. Barbey, a rare psammophytic species along the Montenegrin Coast (East Adriatic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutandia maritima is a circum-Mediterranean species that inhabits sandy dunes along the coast line. It is fairly frequent on the western Adriatic coast but fairly rare and possibly even non-native in the east. In Croatia, it was discovered in 1990 in Crnika Bay on the island of Rab, which was considered until 2005 to be the only site on the eastern Adriatic coast from the Gulf of Trieste in the north to Corfu in the south. In 2009, the species was briefly reported for Velika plaža (Long Beach in Ulcinj (Montenegro but without details about the habitat type and synecology. The aim of this paper is thus to provide a deeper insight into the ecology and synecology of C. maritima in the eastern Adriatic part of the distribution area. On Velika plaža in Ulcinj, the species was found along the whole sea-inland gradient of sand dunes, in various types of vegetation: [1210] - annual vegetation of drift lines, [2110] - embryonic shifting dunes, [2120] - shifting dunes with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes, [2220] - dunes with Euphorbia terracina, [2130*] - fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes, and also [2190] - humid dune slacks.

  14. Upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene angiosperm pollen biostratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Strata comprising most of the upper Paleocene in eastern North America are divided into two new pollen zones, the Carya and Platycarya platycaryoides Interval Zones. Pollen data have proven to be important for correlations between Alabama-western Georgia and eastern Mississippi and between the eastern Gulf Coast and Virginia. Migration of tropical plant taxa from the Caribbean to the Gulf Coast began at least 4 m.y. before the end of the Paleocene. The Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event, accompanied by a distinct pulse of plant immigration from Europe, began several hundred thousand years before the end of the Paleocene.

  15. Paleogeography of Cretaceous ammonoids of the Pacific coast of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were

  16. First visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Sonja M; Ellrich, Julius A

    2016-01-01

    The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a rocky intertidal gastropod of the North Atlantic coast. Individual shell color varies. Common colors range between white and brown, with darker dogwhelks being more affected by heat stress than lighter-colored conspecifics. Other reported shell colors are purple, black, mauve, pink, yellow, and orange from UK coasts, red and gray from the Bay of Fundy coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Canada), and purple, black, gray, yellow, and orange from the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts (USA), with purple being considered as a rare color. On the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, dogwhelks are active from April until November, but information on dogwhelk shell color is missing for this coast. On 16 June 2016, we found two purple-colored dogwhelks in the mid-to-high intertidal zone of a moderately wave-exposed rocky shore near Duncans Cove, on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia while collecting dogwhelks (n= 1000) during low tide for manipulative field experiments. All other dogwhelks collected on that day were of common white and brown colors. During earlier dogwhelk collections in Atlantic Nova Scotia (between 2011-2013) and field surveys in Duncans Cove (between 2014-2016), we did not find any purple-colored dogwhelks, indicating the rareness of this color in that region. Apparently, our observations provide the first visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

  17. A note on the ancient mangroves of Goa, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Chauhan, O.S.

    Int Explor Mer. 22 (1957) 180. 6 Biscaye P E, Geol Soc Am Bull. 76 (1965) 803. /7' Cohen A D, Raymond R, Ramirez A, Morales Z & Ponce F, InO Coal Geol. 12 (1989) 157. 8 Davies T D & Cohen A D, Bull Mar Sci, 44 (1989) 387. f) Woodroffe C D, Thorn B G...

  18. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  19. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    During the maritime archaeological explorations a few sites of protohistoric in nature have been noticed along the saurashtra coast. the trial excavations of a few sites namely Bet Dwarka and Bhokhira on the western saurashtra coast yielded...

  20. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... proposed Trawl Rationalization Program. We are interested in feedback concerning proposed regulations to... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has been developing a trawl rationalization program that...

  1. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    . Foreign travellers have mentioned the names of active ports on the Saurashtra coast since the early historical period. During the medieval period this coast has witnessed hectic maritime activities and international trade and commerce. Marine...

  2. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from NOAA Ship WHITING in the North American Coastline-North from 1990-04-20 to 1990-06-28 (NODC Accession 9000151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected using SEACAT recorders from North American Coast line. NOAA Ship Whiting was used to...

  3. Recent marine deposits reconstruction of two depositional environments of the French Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzet, Pierre; Maanan, Mohamed; Schmidt, Sabine; Athimon, Emmanuelle; Robin, Marc

    2017-04-01

    This work provides a 300-yr high-resolution record of past storm and/or tsunami events using a multi-proxy analysis (137Cs and 210Pb dating, chemical composition and grain size) of sedimentary deposits from two coastal depositional environments of the French Atlantic coast. We analyse two wetland areas situated just behind a narrow coastal sand strip: 1) the Mer Blanche and 2) the Turballe. Evidence for strong extratropical storms and /or tsunamis events can be identified in this central part of the Bay of Biscay from the XIXth to the XXth century. Nine short sediment cores were collected in August 2016 using gravity type corer of 10 inner diameter and 100 cm length. Each core was longitudinally sliced, each half section photographed and described. High-resolution elemental analyses of split sediment cores were done using an Avaatech XRF core scanner. Then sediment cores were sampled every 0.5 cm. Grain size analysis was done using a Malvern 2600 laser beam grain sizer; organic carbon was measured by Leco induction furnace. 137Cs, 210Pb and 226Ra activities were measured on about 2 g dried sediment using a low background, well-type γ spectrometer (Canberra). The 210Pb in excess, which is used for dating, was calculated as the difference of measured 210Pb and of its supported activities (226Ra). The history information is performed using historical documents including narrative sources, ancient maps, records of cities repairs, surveys conducted after a disaster, newspaper from different departmental and national archives, and meteorological data. Coastal depositional environments were affected hardest by extreme environmental and climatological events during the last century. In the Mer Blanche core, three extreme episodes can be observed: i) at 36 cm, sediment is characterized by coarser sand and higher Sr/Al ratio, this episode coincides with a high tidal wave in spring 1937; ii) at 55 cm, we observe the presence of many gravels, they dates back to the high tidal

  4. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... Delegation No. 0170.1. ] On September 12, 2013 the City of Virginia Beach will host a fireworks display...

  5. 76 FR 53820 - Safety Zone; Missouri River From the Border Between Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Missouri River From the Border Between Montana and North Dakota AGENCY: Coast Guard... the Montana and North Dakota border to the confluence with the Mississippi River, extending the entire... to August 30, 2011, will continue in effect through October 31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Documents indicated...

  6. The earliest occupation of north-west Europe: a coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  7. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to... fishery management measures for several groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access more...

  8. 77 FR 66577 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ...-XC165 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program... implemented as part of the trawl rationalization program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamie Goen, phone..., NMFS implemented a trawl rationalization program, a catch share program, for the Pacific coast...

  9. 2008 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) Topobathy Lidar: North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain topographic lidar data collected by the Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) system along the coast of North Carolina near...

  10. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  11. The growth and dynamics of Ensis directus in the near-shore Dutch coastal zne of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witbaard, R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Witte, H.IJ.; Groot, de L.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present data on the wax and wane of a subtidal Ensis directus population which settled in 2009 off the coast of Egmond (North Holland Coast in The Netherlands). Initial densities decreased from a maximum of 700 m- 2 in early 2010 to about 50 m- 2 in June 2013. In this period the average

  12. North Pacific atmospheric rivers and their impact on North America since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J. M.; Mitchell, J.; Risi, C.; Tripati, A.

    2017-12-01

    Using climate models and reanalysis data, we investigate the climatology of North Pacific atmospheric rivers, as well as the influence of the Last Glacial Maximum conditions on the circulation and moisture budget of the eastern North Pacific and western North America. Atmospheric transport of water vapor from the North Pacific is the primary source of moisture for most of western North America. Wintertime precipitation accounts for upwards of 75% of the total along the west coast of the United States, and atmospheric rivers in particular deliver large fractions of this precipitation in high-intensity events. Proxy records from western North America indicate a much wetter environment in Nevada and southern California at the Last Glacial Maximum, which has been interpreted as evidence for a southward shift of the mid-latitude jet stream, which steers extratropical storms, in the eastern North Pacific. Our results show that a southeastward shift and intensification of the atmospheric river ``track'' into the continent, resulting from a reorganized atmospheric circulation in response to the North American ice sheets, can explain the inferred hydroclimate changes. We also examine the relative contributions of the mean flow and transient systems to these changes, and diagnose the relative importance of thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms.

  13. Human impact on dynamics of Barents and Kara Seas Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodov, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    The coasts of Barents and Kara Seas which are composed of unconsolidated deposits have poor erosion resistance qualities. In natural conditions such coasts may retreat with a rate of 1 to 2 m a year. Under the influence of human activities this rate can double and even triple. Over the last twenty years the human impact on the natural coastal geosystems has noticeably increased due to the latest oil and gas developments on the sea shelf and coasts of the Russian North. A range of facilities - oil custody terminals for drilling and production platforms, submerged pipelines, ports and other industrial features and residential infrastructure - are currently being operated in the coastal and shelf zones. In most of the cases no morphodynamic or lithodynamic features of the coastal zone had been taken into account during the construction or operation of these facilities. This results in a disturbance of the sediment transport in the coastal zone, which triggers active erosion of both the shore itself and the coastal slope beneath. The operated facilities themselves are then threatened as their destruction is possible and often no new facilities can be constructed in the disturbed area. The operating companies have to bear forced nonmanufacturing expenses to protect or move their facilities of oil and gas industry to new areas. We may cite here three instances for Barents and Kara Seas where human impact has already brought in negative effects. One of the examples is Varandey Coast of the Barents Sea. From 1979 to 2012 a deliberate destruction of the dune chain of the barrier beach by vehicle traffic and a removal of the beach material for construction needs led to a quick intensification of the coastal retreat here. And now, storm surges without hindrance penetrate inland for several kilometers. Let's move further east to the Kara Sea: on to Kharasavey Coast to the Yamal Peninsula. A large-scale extraction of sediments from the coastal slope has resulted in a depletion

  14. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  15. COAST code conversion from Cyber to HP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Cho

    1996-04-01

    The transient thermal hydraulic behavior of reactor coolant system in a nuclear power plant following loss of coolant flow is analyzed by use of COAST digital computer code. COAST calculates individual loop flow rates and steam generator pressure drops is a function of time following coast-down of any number of reactor coolant pumps. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of COAST on HP 9000/700 series and code validation results after installation. Secondly, a series of work is also describes in relation to installation of COAST on Apollo DN10000 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new

  16. Genetic population structure of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) supports the presence of multiple hybrid zones for marine fishes in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Nielsen, P.H.; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    Sea, suggesting high gene flow among populations in these areas. In contrast, there was a sharp cline in genetic differentiation going from the low saline Baltic Sea to the high saline North Sea. The data were explained best by two divergent populations connected by a hybrid zone; however......Genetic population structure of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in the Northeast Atlantic was investigated using eight highly variable microsatellite loci. In total 706 individuals from eight locations with temporal replicates were assayed, covering an area from the French Bay of Biscay......, a mechanical mixing model could not be ruled out. A significant part of the genetic variance could be ascribed to variation among years within locality. Nevertheless, the population structure was relatively stable over time, suggesting that the observed pattern of genetic differentiation is biologically...

  17. Antibacterial activity of extracts of six macroalgae from the northeastern brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Filho José Vitor M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of six marine macroalgae (Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta from North Ceará coast (Northeast Brazil were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the single disk method. Best results were shown by the hexane extracts of Amansia multifida against enteric Gram-negative strains such as Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. cholerae-suis, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. Syllinae (Syllidae: polychaeta from the Mediterranean coast of Egypt with the description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. ABD-ELNABY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second paper dealing with the Syllidae collected on soft and hard bottom from the north-western coast of Egypt (Mediterranean Sea and southern part of the Suez Canal. Eleven species were reported, two of them seem to be new to science, (Syllis sp.1 and Syllissp.2, but need further examination. Six species namely Opisthosyllis brunnea, Syllis columbretensis, Syllis gerlachi, Syllis ergeni, Syllis pulvinata andTrypanosyllis coeliaca were recorded as new for Egyptian waters.

  19. Trace metal dynamics in fishes from the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.

    with 2.02 million km 2 of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) along with a coastline of 8129 km and 0.5 million km 2 continental shelf, occupying a very important strategic position in the north Indian Ocean and with a catchable annual fishery potential... kanagurta and Cyanoglossus macrostomus were studied. The selected species are economically important and are abundant in the study area. The investigation in the southwest coast of India (Cruise No.217 of Fishery and Oceanographic Research Vessel (FORV...

  20. Some observations on the state of coastal environment of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    , respected and not contradicted by anthropogenic influences. Coastal dune 218 belts for example, are among the most diverse landscapes in the world (Nordstrom, 1994,a,b); they have multiple functions and hence of value to society (carter, 1988). The role... tourism . oriented activity, observed mostly along the sandy stretches, and to lesser degree along the rivers and backwaters. They are more concentrated in north Goa. 2. Dwellings: Migration of population towards coasts, preference for a sea side home...

  1. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  2. Episode of Low Level Jets in the north and northeast coast of state of Para: a case study of 2002 april 21st to 22nd Episódio de jatos de baixos níveis no litoral norte e nordeste do estado do Pará: um estudo de caso de 21-22 de abril de 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Marlisom Leão Sousa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the characteristics of the vertical structure of an episode of Low Level Jets (LLJ occurring in the coast of Para is described. Radiosonde data of Ajuruteua city in Bragança collected during the DESMATA Experiment (Impact of the Deforestation the Atlantic Coast of the Amazonian, taking place in 2002, from April 08th to 22th, are used. Among the detected cases during the rainy period, one specific case with 12 hours duration, average velocity of 15m/s and directed from NE to E in the point of maximum velocity was selected. The observational results have indicated that this LLJ located in the coast of Para was due to the combined action of two factors: (1 inertial oscillation and (2 superficial baroclinicity. These two combined factors sustained this LLJ with velocities between 10 and 13m/s during the day and between 14 and 16m/s during the night, at an average altitude of 800m above surface.Neste estudo descreve-se as características da estrutura vertical de um episódio de Jatos de Baixos Níveis (JBN ocorrido no litoral do Pará, utilizando-se para tal, dados das radiossondagens de Ajuruteua, Município de Bragança coletados durante o experimento DESMATA (Impacto do Desmatamento Junto ao Litoral Atlântico da Amazônia realizado no período de 08 a 22 de abril de 2002. Dentre os casos detectados no período chuvoso, selecionou-se um que se manteve por 12 horas com velocidade média de 15m/s e que estava direcionado de Nordeste para Leste, no ponto de máxima velocidade. Os resultados observacionais indicaram que, este JBN localizado no litoral Paraense foi resultado da ação combinada de dois fatores: (1 oscilação inercial e (2 baroclinia superficial. Estes dois fatores combinados sustentaram este JBN com intensidades entre 10 e 13m/s durante o dia e entre 14 e 16m/s durante a noite, localizado a uma altitude média de 800m acima da superfície.

  3. Changes in occurrence and abundance of northern / southern flatfishes over a 20-year period in a coastal nursery area (Bay of Vilaine and on the eastern continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Désaunay

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Several works have demonstrated trends in the distribution of fish species relative to global warming. This study investigated whether similar trends have occurred for selected flatfish species on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay. These species were used as indicators and changes in their populations were studied in a coastal nursery ground where flatfish juveniles are concentrated as well as on the entire shelf. Previous studies analysing changes in sea surface temperature for the continental shelf indicate that winter warming occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. Sixteen autumn cruises conducted since 1981 in the Bay of Vilaine nursery area and 11 autumn cruises since 1987 over the entire shelf provided data on a nearly annual basis for the abundance of benthic fish. The four most common flatfish species were selected and their occurrence and yearly abundance were analysed with regard to specific biogeographic ranges and climate change. Similar results were obtained for juveniles on a nursery scale and for all age groups on the entire shelf. Although sole (Solea solea showed irregular yearly variations, northern winter spawners such as plaice (Pleuronectes platessa and dab (Limanda limanda exhibited significantly high abundance during the 1980s, followed by a continuing low level and ultimately zero catches. On the other hand, the wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata, a southern summer spawner, showed an increasing trend in the late 1990s.

  4. The fate of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and sardine (Sardina pilchardus in relation to prevailing currents in the Bay of Biscay: Could they affect larval survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvarez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine, in the Bay of Biscay was studied in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The spatial distribution was clearly different between the years studied and corresponds quite precisely to different water circulation regimes. Mackerel and horse mackerel larvae are more affected by the prevailing currents than sardine, as their spawning grounds are located offshore, far from the shelf break where the current velocities are higher. Survival rates for mackerel and horse mackerel were higher in 2001, when the offshore larval transport was stronger. However, for sardine, the mortality rate hardly varied between years. The abundance of 25-day-old larvae, considered as an index of the survival rate, appears to be a good recruitment indicator, at least for 1998, 2001 and 2004. Our results did not support the hypothesis of Bakun (1996, which states that dispersion of early life stages towards open ocean waters should cause high larval mortality. At least under the conditions observed for the years studied, the retention of larvae offshore appears to have a positive effect on larval growth and/or survival.

  5. New insights into the Middle Pleistocene paleoecology and paleoenvironment of the Northern Iberian Peninsula (Punta Lucero Quarry site, Biscay): A combined approach using mammalian stable isotope analysis and trophic resource availability modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laura; Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Libano, Iñaki; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2017-08-01

    The northern coastal area of the Iberian Peninsula shows an excellent archaeo-paleontological record with a unique representation of Pleistocene mammalian fossils. While the Late Pleistocene is better recorded, the Middle Pleistocene record remains more fragmentary. The Punta Lucero site (Biscay) has yielded the most important fossil assemblage of the middle Middle Pleistocene for the northern Iberian Peninsula in both, number of identified specimens and taxonomic diversity. Punta Lucero constitutes a unique opportunity to evaluate Middle Pleistocene mammalian resource and habitat use, and trophic dynamics employing a combined approach: biogeochemical analysis and mathematical modeling. Stable isotope analysis points to resource partitioning between Punta Lucero cervids and bovids. Stable isotope analysis and trophic modeling evidence resource overlap and interspecific competition among predators, especially between the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium latidens and the European jaguar Panthera gombaszoegensis. The trophic resource availability modeling assumes that Canis mosbachensis consumed a 20% of preys of more than 10 kg, mainly as carrion. Thus, while there would be a taxonomic overlap with those preys consumed by the large felids, the different strategy would have facilitated the coexistence of these canids with larger carnivores. Trophic modeling indicates a high competition among the predator guild. The potential presence of hominins in the area would have reached to an unsustainable situation. However, the potential presence of other prey species, such as Equus sp., would have made the ecosystem more sustainable. The methodology followed in this study highlights the potential of multidisciplinary approaches in the assessment of Pleistocene faunal dynamics.

  6. Transformation of model data to information - experiences with coastDat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E.; Weisse, R.

    2016-02-01

    The idea of coastDat is to improve the data base in sparse observational marine regions and to increase data homogeneity and consistency. In doing so long-term historical model data of e.g. wind (e.g. storms), wind wave and tide surge hindcasts are developed and proofed for regions like North Sea and Baltic Sea. These data-sets are available in hourly resolution and highly spatial resolution to simulate the marine environment from 1948/1958 up to now. Scenarios of potential future developments in a changing climate are also available. The coastDat data sets are used for applications e.g. offshore wind industry (design & logistics), risk analysis and analysis of pathways of energy transition. More than 80 stakeholders have used coastDat data sets. They are composed of science networks (31%), economic actors (45 %) and administrating policy actors (14%). The idea of coastDat is compatible in other coastal regions. Also coastDat is suitable as an information base in order to develop possible future adaptation measures. Here the data set and the history are briefly described, validation is reviewed, and an overview about recent uses of the data is provided.

  7. The influence of topography on midlatitude cyclones on Australia's east coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Acacia S.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Evans, Jason P.; Sherwood, Steven C.

    2017-09-01

    The east coast of Australia has a relatively high frequency of midlatitude cyclones, locally known as East Coast Lows (ECLs), which can cause severe weather including widespread flooding and coastal erosion. The elevated topography close to the east coast has been hypothesized to play a role in both the genesis and impacts of cyclones in this region, but existing studies have been limited to case studies of individual events. In this paper we present the results from two 20 year simulations over the Australian region using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and assess the results from removing all topography in the region on both mean atmospheric circulation and ECL frequency. Removing topography results in an increase in sea level pressure to the south of Australia and an increase in moisture flux convergence and rainfall near the east coast, as well as a decrease in potential vorticity to the north of the ECL region. This results in a change in the spatial distribution of cyclones, with a 37% decrease in the frequency of cyclones that develop to the south of the ECL region but a 20% increase in cyclones near the east coast. This results in little overall change in the frequency of ECLs and suggests that coarse topography is unlikely to be responsible for the difficulties in simulating coastal cyclones in global climate models.

  8. Coastal outfalls, a sustainable alternative for improving water quality in north-east Atlantic estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Juanes, José A; Puente, Araceli; Revilla, José A

    2010-09-01

    The city of Santander ceased the discharge of sewage effluents into the bay of Santander in June, 2001 and began discharging at a site 2.4 km offshore in the nearby coastal area (Virgen del Mar, Bay of Biscay) at a water depth of about 40 m. The present study investigates the effects of the new outfall discharges on the water quality of the high-energy coastal area and the recovery of the perturbed temperate estuarine area now only affected by combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and urban pollution indicators were analysed. No significant spatial or temporal change in water quality variables was found in the coastal area around the outfall. No signs of nutrification or increases in chlorophyll-a were observed throughout the study period, although a slight increase in phosphates, suspended solids and turbidity were observed two years after the relocation of the discharge. These changes were not attributed to outfall discharge but to a regional increase also observed at control stations and nearby coastal areas. Considerable reductions in indicators of urban discharges were observed in the estuary after the relocation of discharges, even at stations located around CSOs. Results from this study support the efficiency of ecological quality-driven designs of sanitation systems, which are used as management tools for sensitive and environmentally valuable coastal ecosystems in the north-east Atlantic.

  9. Temporal and spatial patterns on serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Teleostei, Scombridae, catches from the fisheries on the Maranhão coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. da BATISTA

    Full Text Available The displacement pattern of the serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, in North-eastern Brazil was analyzed from landing data recorded from the fleet fishing serra. Serra fishery has two seasons: from September to February (demersal species plus serra, and from March to August (almost only large amounts of serra. S. brasiliensis relative abundance increases similarly along the coast from March, but decreases first on the West coast from June. Records indicate that serra is near the coast at least until September/October in Eastern grounds. From October to March (strongest spawning season there is no record of shoals on the coast. We concluded that the Maranhão coast is just a part of the migration circuit of S. brasiliensis that may exceed 300 nautical miles.

  10. Temporal and spatial patterns on serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Teleostei, Scombridae, catches from the fisheries on the Maranhão coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATISTA V. da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The displacement pattern of the serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, in North-eastern Brazil was analyzed from landing data recorded from the fleet fishing serra. Serra fishery has two seasons: from September to February (demersal species plus serra, and from March to August (almost only large amounts of serra. S. brasiliensis relative abundance increases similarly along the coast from March, but decreases first on the West coast from June. Records indicate that serra is near the coast at least until September/October in Eastern grounds. From October to March (strongest spawning season there is no record of shoals on the coast. We concluded that the Maranhão coast is just a part of the migration circuit of S. brasiliensis that may exceed 300 nautical miles.

  11. Pacific Coast Groundfish Individual Fishing Quota Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On January 11, 2011, NOAA Fisheries implemented a new fishery management system for the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Catch Share Program as specified in the...

  12. CoastWatch Regions in HDF Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest. Each file contains multiple data variables stored using the HDF-4...

  13. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  14. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  15. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  16. Human interreference along the coast of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    , the promotion of tourism, increase in population and construction activities have created a heavy demand for resources resulting in congestion on coasts, increase in density of constructions and pressures on infrastructure. Large scale conversions of dune belts...

  17. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  18. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  19. Geological and geophysical surveys of Visakhapatnam coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, K.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    Continuous records of the total earth's magnetic field and the surface sediment samples from the ocean bottom have been collected off Ramakrishna Beach and Lawsons Bay along the Visakhapatnam Coast. The magnetic data has recorded significant...

  20. Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Seagrass environments, from the main coast of India, Lakshadweep and Andaman Islands, were surveyed for seagrass and marine algal composition. Extensive seagrass meadows and the maximum number of species (seven genera and 12 species) occurred along...

  1. Hurricane Linda Off the Baja Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie captures Hurricane Linda moving off the Baja California coast in September 1997. The strongest hurricane on record for the eastern Pacific at that time, Hurricane Linda invaded Southern California with winds that had gusted to 105 mph (174 kph). While off the coast of Mexico, her winds gusted up to 220 mph (354 kph). Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  2. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Raphidascaridae) from different fish caught off the Tunisian coast based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-11-01

    Larval forms of the genus Hysterothylacium have been previously reported in teleost fish from the North African coasts of central Mediterranean Sea by morphological analysis. In the present study, samples identified morphologically as Hysterothylacium aduncum (n = 62), from Merluccius merluccius, Trachurus mediterraneus and Pagellus erythrinus from different geographical locations of the Tunisian coasts, were genetically characterised by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of the sequences obtained with those available in public gene databases confirmed that all the samples from the Tunisian coasts belong to a single species, namely H. aduncum. All specimens from the Tunisian coasts showed one indel in position 787 in ITS-2 sequences not reported by any of the previously published sequences from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) and the East Greenland Sea, suggesting the existence of a population-specific pattern exhibiting a low differentiation of this parasite in this area. This is the first molecular characterization of H. aduncum from the Tunisian coasts using ITS rDNA sequences which allows the definition of genetic markers for their unequivocal identification, and provides further biological data on these nematodes in marine fish off the Tunisian coasts, improving the picture of the occurrence of these taxa in the North African coasts of central Mediterranean Sea.

  3. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... would implement a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program... 7372

  4. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preteft Emiliani, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  5. 33 CFR 23.10 - Coast Guard emblem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section... DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The distinctive emblem of the Coast Guard shall be as follows: On a disc the shield of the Coat of Arms of the United...

  6. Multiple SNP markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Albaina, Aitor; Pardo, Miguel Angel; Manzano, Carmen; Grant, W Stewart; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2012-01-01

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian

  7. Multiple SNP markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Zarraonaindia

    Full Text Available Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the

  8. Multiple SNP markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.).

    KAUST Repository

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-07-30

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian

  9. Multiple SNP Markers Reveal Fine-Scale Population and Deep Phylogeographic Structure in European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Albaina, Aitor; Pardo, Miguel Angel; Manzano, Carmen; Grant, W. Stewart; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2012-01-01

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian

  10. Dynamic stability of coral reefs on the west Australian coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad W Speed

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10-35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%, although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs.

  11. BENTHIC SPECIES and Other Data from FIXED STATIONS From North Atlantic Ocean and Others from 19830501 to 19860731 (NODC Accession 8700358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The three files contain trace metal data from North, Central and South Atlantic observed in bottom sediment samples along the East Coast Continental Slope and Rise...

  12. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  13. Notes on eel larvae (Anguilla anguilla Linnaeus, 1758) from the central and eastern North Atlantic and on glass eels from the European continental shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utrecht, van W.L.; Holleboom, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Eel larvae caught in the mid North Atlantic and along the continental slope off the Portuguese coast are studied together with samples of glass eels caught just before entering fresh water along the Dutch and French coasts. During their migration from the mid Atlantic towards the continental slope

  14. Present-day trends of vertical ground motion along the coast lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostanciaux, Émilie; Husson, Laurent; Choblet, Gaël; Robin, Cécile; Pedoja, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Vertical ground motion (VGM) rates stand as crucial information, either for predicting the impact of the actual sea level rise along low-lying coasts or refining geodynamic problems. Because present day VGM rates have a magnitude smaller than 10 mm/yr, they remain challenging to quantify and often elusive. We focus on the quantification of global-scale VGM rates in order to identify global or regional trends. We computed VGM rates by combining tide gauges records and local satellite altimetry, which yield a new dataset of 634 VGM rates. We further compare this database to previous studies that use geodetic techniques and tide gauges records in order to evaluate the consistency of both our results and previous ones. The magnitudes differ by less than 5 mm/yr, and similar subsidence and uplift general tendencies appear. Even if the asset of our database stands in the greater number of sites, the combination of all studies, each with different pros and cons, yields a hybrid dataset that makes our attempt to extract VGM trends more robust than any other, independent study. Fennoscandia, the West coast of North America, and the eastern coast of Australia are uplifting, while the eastern coast of North America, the British Isles and Western Europe, the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Japan, and the western coast of Australia are subsiding. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is expected to provide a major contribution to the present-day signal. Aside from Fennoscandia, observed VGM often depart from the GIA model predictions of Peltier (2004). This either results from an underestimate of the model predictions or from the influence of other processes: indeed, the influence of the geodynamic setting appears in particular along the coasts of western North America or Japan, where the alternation of transform faults and subduction zones makes it possible to assign contrasted behaviours to the local geodynamic context. Local mechanisms like anthropogenic processes or sediment

  15. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...: Modification of fishing seasons; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 23 inseason actions in... allowing fishers access to the available fish at the time the fish were available while ensuring that.... 130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC964 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast...

  16. Artificial Regeneration of Blue and Coast Live Oaks in the Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim R. Plumb; Bennie Hannah

    1991-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to find economical and effective planting techniques that will ensure the establishment and early survival of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) and blue oak (Q. douglasii H. and A.) in the Central Coast region of California. Eight treatments were evaluated ranging from unprotected seed spots...

  17. First visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M. Ehlers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a rocky intertidal gastropod of the North Atlantic coast. Individual shell color varies. Common colors range between white and brown, with darker dogwhelks being more affected by heat stress than lighter-colored conspecifics. Other reported shell colors are purple, black, mauve, pink, yellow, and orange from UK coasts, red and gray from the Bay of Fundy coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Canada, and purple, black, gray, yellow, and orange from the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts (USA, with purple being considered as a rare color. On the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, dogwhelks are active from April until November, but information on dogwhelk shell color is missing for this coast. On 16 June 2016, we found two purple-colored dogwhelks in the mid-to-high intertidal zone of a moderately wave-exposed rocky shore near Duncans Cove, on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia while collecting dogwhelks (n= 1000 during low tide for manipulative field experiments. All other dogwhelks collected on that day were of common white and brown colors. During earlier dogwhelk collections in Atlantic Nova Scotia (between 2011-2013 and field surveys in Duncans Cove (between 2014-2016, we did not find any purple-colored dogwhelks, indicating the rareness of this color in that region. Apparently, our observations provide the first visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

  18. Storm-tide elevations produced by Hurricane Andrew along the southern Florida coasts, August 24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mitchell H.

    1994-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew crossed southern peninsular Florida. The combined effects of storm surge from the hurricane and astronomical tide, referred to as storm tide, caused flooding over a large part of southern Florida. Subsequent to the flooding, many high-water marks were identified, described, and surveyed along the south- eastern coast of Florida (Miami to Key Largo) and at selected areas along the southwestern coast of Florida (Flamingo to Goodland). Descriptions of these 336 high-water makrs are presented in tabular form in this report and their locations are plotted on nineteen 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. For the southeastern coast, north-south profiles of the high-water makrs along the outher and inner barrier islands and the western shoreline of Biscayne Bay are presented. Average storm-tide elevations (relative to sea level) ranged from 4 to 6 feet in northern Biscayne Bay, were as much as 17 feet on the western shoreline near the center of the bay and ranged from 3 to 6 feet in southern Biscayne Bay and Barnes Sound. Storm-tide elevations along the southwestern coast ranged from 4 to 5 feet at Flamingo and 5 to 7 feet at Goodland in the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  19. Seasonal variations of heavy metal concentration in Sardinella sindensis (Day, 1878 from Balochistan coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulan Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations in muscle of sind sardinella [Sardinella sindensis (S. sindensis] from Balochistan coast, Pakistan. Methods: S. sindensis were collected from Balochistan coast, Pakistan, at autumn inter monsoon, north east monsoon, spring inter monsoon and south west monsoon during October 2005-September 2006. All samples were analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by AAnalyst 700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Generally, S. sindensis caught from Balochistan coast showed the accumulation level of Fe [(16.88 ± 5.60 µg/g], Cu [(2.74 ± 1.89 µg/g], Cd [(0.29 ± 0.25 µg/g], Zn [(4.29 ± 2.31 µg/g] and Pb [(0.24 ± 0.24 µg/g] in the muscle tissues. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in fish from Balochistan coast observed in this study were lower than the limit values. Therefore, all metal accumulations in S. sindensis have to be monitored continuously, especially in this region.

  20. Status of the Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus on the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mouriño

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the status of the threatened Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus along the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula by studying its movements and numbers. Balearic shearwaters are detected off Galicia during their annual cycle although they are uncommon between November and May. Overall, 44 groups of over 150 birds have been recorded in seven main areas since 1976, especially in the Vigo Ria and the Pontevedra Ria and along the coast of Bergantiños (Sisargas-Baldaio. Birds have been observed moulting primary and secondary feathers, mainly in June. North-eastward migration is evident along the Atlantic coast (capes Silleiro and Fisterra, daily maximum of 476 birds per hour between June and August, where it seems to overlap with local movement. However, south-westward migration is far more frequent between September and October (daily maximum of 360 birds per hour along the Cantabrian coast. The results might be biased due to the methodological problems, on account of the existence of irregular flows, an important inter-annual variability and local movements, probably brought about by the distribution of food resources.

  1. Spatial pattern, water use and risk levels associated with the transmission of schistosomiasis on the north coast of Pernambuco, Brazil Padrão espacial, uso da água e níveis de risco associados à transmissão da esquistossomose no litoral norte de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Paredes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis in Carne de Vaca, Goiana, on the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil and analyze the spatial distribution of households' sanitary conditions and patterns of water contact. A parasitological survey was conducted between 2006 and 2007. An indicator was set to establish risk levels for schistosomiasis based on variables of water contact pattern, household characteristics and proximity to the foci of vector snails. The prevalence was 18.71 in men and 15.96 in women. The age groups most affected were 20-29 years among men and 10-19 among women. The most common parasite load was 1-99 eggs per gram of feces. The prevalence was 17.3 cases per 100 inhabitants and its spatial distribution was not homogeneous. The Bayesian analysis proved unsatisfactory. It is concluded that schistosomiasis is endemic in Carne de Vaca and the risk indicator, based on geoprocessing, proved to be satisfactory, highlighting areas where the problem is more acute.O estudo objetivou descrever aspectos epidemiológicos da esquistossomose em Carne de Vaca, litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, e analisar a distribuição espacial das condições de esgotamento sanitário e padrão de contato com a água. Foi realizado um inquérito parasitológico entre 2006 e 2007, e criado indicador de risco para a esquistossomose com base em variáveis do padrão de água de contato, características do agregado familiar e da proximidade com focos de moluscos vetores. A prevalência em homens foi de 18,71, e 15,96 em mulheres. A faixa etária mais acometida em homens e mulheres foi de 20-29 e 10-19, respectivamente. A carga parasitária mais freqüente foi de 1-99 ovos por grama de fezes. A prevalência foi de 17,3 casos por 100 habitantes e sua distribuição espacial não foi homogênea. A estatística Bayesiana não se mostrou satisfatória. Conclui-se que a esquistossomose é endêmica em Carne de Vaca e que o indicador de risco

  2. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  3. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  4. Coral microatoll as geodetic tool in North Andaman and Little ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as a proxy for a level line and this level line has a known elevation with respect to the sea level. From the study of coral microatolls at North Reef and. Interview islands on the western coast of Andaman,. Kayanne et al (2007) have estimated 1.3m ver- tical uplift in that part. Rajendran et al (2007) have shown the microatolls ...

  5. Arctic Sovereignty Disputes: International Relations Theory in the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Osica, “The High North as a New Area of Cooperation and Rivalry,” Nowa Europa Special Issue, vol. 1, no. 4, 2010. 16 Northwest Passage indicates...over ballistic missile defense in Europe as well as the conflict in Georgia , which could have resulted in strong anti-NATO rhetoric reverberating...miles of Canada’s Arctic coast.”115 This law essentially required Canadian certification of oil spill prevention standards and amounted to a de facto

  6. The status of osprey research in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The status of research on the Osprey tn western North America is reviewed. For discussion purposes the geographical populations are conveniently subdivided into Canada and Alaska, the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the western interior of the United States, and Mexico. Suggestions are made for further research on the populations in each region. In addition, possible research and management activities related to the extirpated or nearly extirpated California population on the Channel Islands and along the southern coast are presented.

  7. Labrets: Piercing and Stretching on the Northwest Coast and in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Reddish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of piercing and stretching the lip in order to accommodate a labret in two regions: the North American Northwest Coast (with historical examples from Tlingit and Haida groups and lowland South America (utilizing ethnographic writings on Suya and Kayapo communities. Drawing on the recent ‘sensorial turn’ within anthropology, I suggest an approach which goes beyond considerations of the symbolism of body ornaments and analyses how the infliction of pain they involve can be manipulated to serve social ends at a local level. Also discussed is the use of labrets within global ‘mediascapes’ (Appadurai 1996 by Kayapo and Northwest Coast groups in the context of self-representation and the politicization of ‘culture’ (Wright 1998.

  8. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus roselaari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A; DeCicco, Lucas H; Ruthrauff, Daniel R; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  9. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  10. Badass gullies: Fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes in New Zealand's East Coast region, and potential for remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Michael; Fuller, Ian C.; Herzig, Alexander; Betts, Harley D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews gully erosion in the East Coast region of New Zealand's North Island and conceptualises fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes as badass gully systems. Tectonic setting and lithological control, with steep slopes and a climate influenced by tropical cyclones, predispose hill country in the East Coast region to gully erosion. The clearance of indigenous forest since the late 1800s has dramatically increased catchment erosion and paved the way for development of large-scale fluvio-mass-movement gully complexes. These features are a composite of fluvial and mass movement processes. They are conceptualised as 'badass' by not conforming to any existing gully model and by generating disproportionate results in East Coast catchment sediment cascades. Their remediation is discussed, but their nature means that prevention is better than a cure.

  11. Patterns of significant seismic quiescence in the Pacific Mexican coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Rudolf-Navarro, Adolfo; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with higher seismicity. During the 20th century, 8% of all the earthquakes in the world of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 have taken place in Mexico. On average, an earthquake of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 occurred in Mexico every two and a half years. Great earthquakes in Mexico have their epicenters in the Pacific Coast in which some seismic gaps have been identified; for example, there is a mature gap in the Guerrero State Coast, which potentially can produce an earthquake of magnitude 8.2. With the purpose of making some prognosis, some researchers study the statistical behavior of certain physical parameters that could be related with the process of accumulation of stress in the Earth crust. Other researchers study seismic catalogs trying to find seismicity patterns that are manifested before the occurrence of great earthquakes. Many authors have proposed that the study of seismicity rates is an appropriate technique for evaluating how close a seismic gap may be to rupture. We designed an algorithm for identification of patterns of significant seismic quiescence by using the definition of seismic quiescence proposed by Schreider (1990). This algorithm shows the area of quiescence where an earthquake of great magnitude will probably occur. We apply our algorithm to the earthquake catalogue of the Mexican Pacific coast located between 14 and 21 degrees of North latitude and 94 and 106 degrees West longitude; with depths less or equal to 60 km and magnitude greater or equal to 4.2, which occurred from September, 1965 until December, 2014. We have found significant patterns of seismic quietude before the earthquakes of Oaxaca (November 1978, Mw = 7.8), Petatlán (March 1979, Mw = 7.6), Michoacán (September 1985, Mw = 8.0, and Mw = 7.6) and Colima (October 1995, Mw = 8.0). Fortunately, in this century have not occurred earthquakes of great magnitude in Mexico, however, we have identified well-defined seismic

  12. Seasonal Variation of the North/South Equatorial Current Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The seasonal variation of the North/South Equatorial Current (NEC/SEC) bifurcation off the Philippine/Madagascar/Australian coast is investigated. It is shown that the seasonal cycles of the NEC/SEC bifurcation are generally analogous to each other, all of which shift synchronously back and forth seasonally and arrive at their southernmost positions in boreal late spring and early summer. It is demonstrated that the linear, reduced gravity, long Rossby model, which works well for the NEC bifurcation, is insufficient to reproduce the seasonal cycles of the SEC bifurcation off the Madagascar/Australian coast particularly in their south-north migrations. This can be attributed to the existence of the isolated island in the Madagascar case and the seasonally-varying wind forcing around the Australian coast, while they are almost absent in the NEC bifurcation case. Without considering the existence of an island and the alongshore winds, we propose a simple bifurcation model under the framework of linear Rossby wave dynamics. It is found that the seasonal bifurcation latitude is predominantly determined by the spatial pattern of the wind and baroclinic Rossby wave propagation. This model explains the roles of local/remote wind forcing and baroclinic adjustment in the south-north migration and peak seasons of the bifurcation latitude.

  13. Interim oceanographic description of the North-East Atlantic site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbutt, P.A.; Dickson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Within the terms of the Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes, NEA is requested to assess the suitability of dumping sites proposed by Participating countries and to keep under review those previously thought suitable. The aim of this volume is to provide a further interim description of the North-East Atlantic dumpsite itself. Quantities of known wastes dumpings are summarized. A review of the available data on sediment distribution in the area is presented. The flow field at the site is described so that an experiment to determine the influence on the deep flow of large scale topographic features at the dumpsite. The tide gauge results are briefly presented. The state of knowledge of the hydrographic and chemical conditions prior to 1977 is reviewed; recent results are added. The results of the radioactivity determination in the surface layer (3cm thick) of box cored sediments and the vertical radioactivity profiles are presented in tables. Some results on adsorption and geochemical partitioning of long-lived radionuclides on dumpsite sediments are briefly reviewed. Biological studies have been undertaken: concentration of radionuclides in biological materials, radiation effects on the dumpsite fauna. A dose-limit (critical group) calculation model is presented. Collective dose commitment and mass transfer are briefly discussed. The concentration of radionuclides in sediments and some organisms of the Bay of Biscay has been evaluated. Some isopycnal data for the eastern Atlantic, windstress and stratification are briefly mentioned

  14. Earthquake related tsunami hazard along the western coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Løvholt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary background for the present study was a project to assist the authorities in Thailand with development of plans for how to deal with the future tsunami risk in both short and long term perspectives, in the wake of the devastating 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and tsunami. The study is focussed on defining and analyzing a number of possible future earthquake scenarios (magnitudes 8.5, 8.0 and 7.5 with associated return periods, each one accompanied by specific tsunami modelling. Along the most affected part of the western coast of Thailand, the 2004 tsunami wave caused a maximum water level ranging from 5 to 15 m above mean sea level. These levels and their spatial distributions have been confirmed by detailed numerical simulations. The applied earthquake source is developed based on available seismological and geodetic inversions, and the simulation using the source as initial condition agree well with sea level records and run-up observations. A conclusion from the study is that another megathrust earthquake generating a tsunami affecting the coastline of western Thailand is not likely to occur again for several hundred years. This is in part based on the assumption that the Southern Andaman Microplate Boundary near the Simeulue Islands constitutes a geologic barrier that will prohibit significant rupture across it, and in part on the decreasing subduction rates north of the Banda Ache region. It is also concluded that the largest credible earthquake to be prepared for along the part of the Sunda-Andaman arc that could affect Thailand, is within the next 50–100 years an earthquake of magnitude 8.5, which is expected to occur with more spatial and temporal irregularity than the megathrust events. Numerical simulations have shown such earthquakes to cause tsunamis with maximum water levels up to 1.5–2.0 m along the western coast of Thailand, possibly 2.5–3.0 m on a high tide. However, in a longer time perspective

  15. Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelkov, A. S.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Zahibo, N.

    2004-12-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea.

  16. Upwelling along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    but with the following differences: (1) Off Madras and Karaikal, weak upwelling is indicated. Water from shallow depths reach the surface nearshore and there is no marked lowering of the surface temperature near the coast. (2) Upwelling is prominent off Waltair during...

  17. Submarine canyons off the Coromandel coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    During the 26th Cruise of I.N.S. `KISTNA', a bathymetric survey was carried out in some detail off the Pondicherry coast. This survey has revealed the existence of three sets of distinctly separate canyons between Cuddalore and Palar River...

  18. Synthetic tsunamis along the Israeli coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joshua; Stiassnie, Michael

    2012-04-13

    The new mathematical model for tsunami evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic tsunami database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal tsunami amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented.

  19. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2015-07-01

    Scientific debate on whether or not the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks represents a true rise in their abundance has outlined a lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different jellyfish data sets produced within the EU programme EURO-BASIN. These data were assembled with the aim of creating an improved baseline and providing new data that can be used to evaluate the current diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, cnidarians and ctenophores were collected from the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between lat 59 and 68° N and long 62° W and 5° E. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic Basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation to different water masses and bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where the communities tend to be more diverse due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparison of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise shows that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of Ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009 to 2012, blooms of cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic Basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the CPR is able to detect

  20. An approach to study the effect of harvest and wildfire on watershed hydrology and sediment yield in a coast redwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Surfleet; Arne Skaugset; Brian Dietterick

    2012-01-01

    The Little Creek watershed, within California State Polytechnic University’s Swanton Pacific Ranch, is the location of a paired and nested watershed study to investigate the watershed effects of coast redwood forest management. Streamflow, suspended sediment, and stream turbidity have been collected during storms at two locations on the North Fork Little Creek and at...

  1. Headland sediment bypassing and beach rotation in a rocky coast: an example at the western Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mónica; Taborda, Rui; Lira, Cristina; Bizarro, Aurora; Oliveira, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    Headland sediment bypassing plays a major role in definition of coastal sedimentary budget and consequently in coastal management. This process is particularity important at headland-bay beaches on rocky coasts. However, headland-bay beach research is usually focused on the beach rotation since these beaches are generally regarded as closed systems. The sediment bypassing mechanisms have been extensively studied in the context of artificial structures (e.g. groins and jetties) but studies of natural headland sediment bypassing are scarce and usually applied to decadal time scales. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of headland sediment bypassing processes in non-artificial environments, taking as a case study a natural coastal stretch at the Portuguese west coast. The study is supported on the analysis of planform beach changes using Landsat satellite images (with an acquisition frequency of 16 days) complemented with field surveys with DGPS-RTK and ground-based photographic monitoring. The study area can be described as a cliffed rocky coast that accommodates a series of headland-bay beaches with different geometries: some are encased in the dependence of fluvial streams, while others correspond to a narrow and elongated thin sand strip that covers a rocky shore platform. This coast is generally characterized by a weak, but active, sediment supply and high levels of wave energy due to the exposure to the swells generated in the North Atlantic. The long-term stability of the beaches in conjunction with active sediment supply along the study area (from streams and cliff erosion) and a sink at the downdrift end of this coastal stretch (an active dune system) support the existence of headland sediment bypassing. The analysis of planform beach changes show a coherent signal in time but with a range that depends on the orientation of the stretch where each beach is included. In general, beaches displays a clockwise rotation during summer related to the NW

  2. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    with seasonal morphological changes and annual cyclicity. The coastal zone in Goa is exposed to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Some of the factors attributing to these pressures can be due to demographic settings and population growth, rapid urbanization, migration, recreation and tourism activities, fishery activities, transportation problems, socio-economic shift and transformation in occupation like, fishing, tourism, trade, salt industry; wetlands conversion, degradation of agriculture land and fallow lands. Shoreline changes observed overlapping the data after 32 years showed that all along the coast of Goa, from north to south, there is large variation in depositional and erosional processes. Deposition is specifically observed at Morjim, Baga, Campal, Miramar, Mobor and erosion is specifically observed at Kerim, Anjuna, Velsao. The present study reveals that all along the estuarine systems, there is net deposition. Further change detection study carried out overlapping the data after 38 years showed transformation of Khazan lands, conversion of marshy swampy and water logged areas, increase in Mangrove areas and decrease in salt pans. The present paper has succeeded in delineating various coastal ecosystems, coastal land forms, their resource potentials and transformation, if any. The study has helped earmarking the coastal region into conservation, development and utilization areas.

  3. Rare earth element behavior during groundwater-seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Dianne; Fackrell, Joseph; Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Chevis, Darren A.; Telfeyan, Katherine; White, Christopher D.; Burdige, David J.

    2017-02-01

    free metal ion activity in solution and the concomitant increase in the amount of each REE that occurs in solution as dicarbonato complexes [i.e., Ln(CO3)2-] as pH increases across the salinity gradient. Input-normalized REE patterns of Kona Coast groundwater and coastal seawater are nearly identical and relatively flat compared to North Pacific seawater, indicating that SGD is the chief source of these trace elements to the ocean along the Kona Coast. Additionally, REE concentrations of the coastal seawater are between 10 and 50 times higher than previously reported open-ocean seawater values from the North Pacific, further demonstrating the importance of SGD fluxes of REEs to these coastal waters. Taken together, these observations indicate that large-scale removal of REEs, which characterizes the behavior of REEs in the low salinity reaches of many surface estuaries, is not a feature of the subterranean estuary along the Kona Coast. A large positive gadolinium (Gd) anomaly characterizes groundwater from the vicinity of the WWTF. The positive Gd anomaly can be traced to the coastal ocean, providing further evidence of the impact of SGD on the coastal waters. Estimates of the SGD fluxes of the REEs to the coastal ocean along the Kona Coast (i.e., 1.3-2.6 mmol Nd day-1) are similar to recent estimates of SGD fluxes of REEs along Florida's east coast and to Rhode Island Sound, all of which points to the importance of SGD as significant flux of REEs to the coastal ocean.

  4. Rare earth element behavior during groundwater – seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Dianne; Fackrell, Joseph; Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Chevis, Darren A.; Telfeyan, Katherine; White, Christopher D.; Burdige, David J.

    2017-01-01

    free metal ion activity in solution and the concomitant increase in the amount of each REE that occurs in solution as dicarbonato complexes [i.e., Ln(CO3)2-] as pH increases across the salinity gradient. Input-normalized REE patterns of Kona Coast groundwater and coastal seawater are nearly identical and relatively flat compared to North Pacific seawater, indicating that SGD is the chief source of these trace elements to the ocean along the Kona Coast. Additionally, REE concentrations of the coastal seawater are between 10 and 50 times higher than previously reported open-ocean seawater values from the North Pacific, further demonstrating the importance of SGD fluxes of REEs to these coastal waters. Taken together, these observations indicate that large-scale removal of REEs, which characterizes the behavior of REEs in the low salinity reaches of many surface estuaries, is not a feature of the subterranean estuary along the Kona Coast. A large positive gadolinium (Gd) anomaly characterizes groundwater from the vicinity of the WWTF. The positive Gd anomaly can be traced to the coastal ocean, providing further evidence of the impact of SGD on the coastal waters. Estimates of the SGD fluxes of the REEs to the coastal ocean along the Kona Coast (i.e., 1.3 – 2.6 mmol Nd day-1) are similar to recent estimates of SGD fluxes of REEs along Florida’s east coast and to Rhode Island Sound, all of which points to the importance of SGD as significant flux of REEs to the coastal ocean.

  5. Trends in marine debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i 1998-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Rugg, David J; Erdmann, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai'i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30-40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai'i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Trends in Marine Debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; Rugg, David J.; Erdmann, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai’i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30–40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai’i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found.

  7. A synthetic map of the north-west European Shelf sedimentary environment for applications in marine science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Speirs, Douglas C.; Sabatino, Alessandro; Heath, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Seabed sediment mapping is important for a wide range of marine policy, planning and scientific issues, and there has been considerable national and international investment around the world in the collation and synthesis of sediment datasets. However, in Europe at least, much of this effort has been directed towards seabed classification and mapping of discrete habitats. Scientific users often have to resort to reverse engineering these classifications to recover continuous variables, such as mud content and median grain size, that are required for many ecological and biophysical studies. Here we present a new set of 0.125° by 0.125° resolution synthetic maps of continuous properties of the north-west European sedimentary environment, extending from the Bay of Biscay to the northern limits of the North Sea and the Faroe Islands. The maps are a blend of gridded survey data, statistically modelled values based on distributions of bed shear stress due to tidal currents and waves, and bathymetric properties. Recent work has shown that statistical models can predict sediment composition in British waters and the North Sea with high accuracy, and here we extend this to the entire shelf and to the mapping of other key seabed parameters. The maps include percentage compositions of mud, sand and gravel; porosity and permeability; median grain size of the whole sediment and of the sand and the gravel fractions; carbon and nitrogen content of sediments; percentage of seabed area covered by rock; mean and maximum depth-averaged tidal velocity and wave orbital velocity at the seabed; and mean monthly natural disturbance rates. A number of applications for these maps exist, including species distribution modelling and the more accurate representation of sea-floor biogeochemistry in ecosystem models. The data products are available from https://doi.org/10.15129/1e27b806-1eae-494d-83b5-a5f4792c46fc.

  8. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data...

  9. Recent marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Recent marine archaeological explorations have brought to light data on the existence of ancient ports at Miyani and Kindari Creek (Mul Dwarka) on the Saurashtra coast. A large number and varieties of stone anchors have been documented at both sites...

  10. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery Management Council's website at http://www...--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The authority citation for part 660 is amended to read as follows...

  11. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  12. California coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  13. Washington coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  14. US Coast Guard Stations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USCG [coast_guard_stations_USCG_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of eight US Coast Guard stations in Louisiana. The attributes include name, address, latitude (NAD27),...

  15. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program, as required by the... affect all trawl rationalization program sectors (Shorebased Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program...

  16. 78 FR 3848 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule Extension AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations. This emergency rule... trawl rationalization program. Background on this rule was provided in the proposed rule, published on...

  17. Subtidal benthic macrofauna of the Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    Subtidal macrobenthic fauna from the Mangalore Coast was studied from the shelf areas between the old Mangalore Port and Suratkal, covering an area of approximately 40 km sup(2). Benthic bivalves were the most abundant group, (36160/m sup(2...

  18. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  19. Assessment of contaminant exposure, diet, and population metrics of river otters (Lontra canadensis) along the coast of southern Vancouver Island

    OpenAIRE

    Guertin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) are useful indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, but obtaining information on populations is difficult and expensive. By combining non-invasive faecal sampling with DNA genotyping techniques, I investigated: (i) environmental contaminant exposure, (ii) diet, and (iii) population metrics of river otters along the urban coast of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. In Victoria Harbour, mean faecal concentrations of polychlorinate...

  20. Reproductive ecology of the common rock chiton Acanthopleura gemmata (mollusca: polyplacophora) in the Northwestern coast of the red sea

    OpenAIRE

    El Soliman, F. [فتحي السيد سليمان محفوظ; Hussein, M. A.; Elmaraghi, A. H.; Yousif, T. N.

    1996-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of the chiton, Acanthopleura gemmata was studied by observing the gonad indices at two localities in the North-western coast of the Red Sea, from January 1988 to December, 1989. The interrelationships between gonad, general viscera and body wall indices were evaluated. The gonad indices showed an inverse relationship with both the general viscera and the body wall indices. Spawning occurred once a year during the autumn. The annual and local changes in the reproductive ...

  1. Occurrence of Porphyra vietnamensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Agadi, V.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The occurrence of a red alga, Porphyra vietnamensis has been studied along the Goa Coast (west coast of India). The growth period was observed during the monsoon (July-October) and optimum growth was recorded during August, when temperature...

  2. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    subcommittee of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Vice Admiral John P. Currier, the Vice Commandant of the Coast Guard, testified...55 Calvin Biesecker, “Coast Guard Requests Information On Heavy Polar Icebreaker,” Defense...

  3. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian, T.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  4. Coast Guard Strategic Management: Law Enforcement in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Di NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL. Monterey, California In 0 SRDDTIC S ELECTE MARO 11991 THESIS B . . COAST GUARD STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT : LAW ENFORCEMENT IN...NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO. 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) COAST GUARD STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT : LAW...GROUP SUB-GROUP 8oas Guar strategy; Coast Guara Strategc Management; Coast Guard Strategic Management -- Law Enforcement 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  5. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol... impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and specimens is shown in Figure 50.10-25(b...

  6. Capture and utilization of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) on the northern Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Menezes Pessanha; Ricardo José Soavinski; Régis Pinto de Lima; Fábia de Oliveira Luna; Janaina Pauline de Araújo; José Zanon de Oliveira Passavante

    2008-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is now considered to be the most endangered aquatic mammal of Brazil. During 1992 and 1993, we surveyed 3000km of the coastal area of the Maranhão (MA), Pará (PA) and Amapá (AP) states where we visited 145 localities and performed 262 interviews aiming to identify the hunting pressure on the species, and how the population actually uses the manatees hunted on the Brazilian north coast. The people interviewed were involved in fishing activitie...

  7. Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes along the east coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, R. E., Sr.; Pyle, R. B.; Henderson, R. W.; Orville, R. E., Jr.; Weisman, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A magnetic direction-finding network for the detection of lightning cloud-to-ground strikes has been installed along the east coast of the United States. Most of the lightning occurring from Maine to Florida and as far west as Ohio is detected. Time, location, flash polarity, stroke count, and peak signal amplitude are recorded in real time. Flash locations, time, and polarity are displayed routinely for research and operational purposes. Flash density maps have been generated for the summers of 1983 and 1984, when the network only extended to North Carolina, and show density maxima in northern Virginia and Maryland.

  8. 47 CFR 80.72 - Antenna requirements for coast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for coast stations. 80.72 Section 80.72 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.72 Antenna requirements for coast stations. All emissions of a coast station a marine-utility...

  9. A description of the tides in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Gómez, Begoña Pérez; Sánchez-Arévalo, Ignacio Rodríguez

    A description of the Eastern North Atlantic tidal dynamics (in a region spanning from 20°N to 48°N in latitude and from 34°W to 0° in longitude) is obtained by means of new in situ measurements and numerical modelling based on TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived data sets. The main source of measurements is the tide gauge network REDMAR (RED de MAReógrafos de Puertos del Estado), operative since July 1992 and managed by Clima Marítimo (Puertos del Estado). Results derived from the harmonic analysis of the first years of measurements are presented and compared with model results. In order to obtain a global picture of the tides in the region, a large compilation of harmonic constants obtained from other institutes is included. The availability of new TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived harmonic constants data sets provides a chance to include the benefits derived from satellite altimetry in high resolution regional applications of numerical models. Richard Ray's tidal model (Ray et al., 1994), based on a response type tidal analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data, was employed within a model of the studied area. The numerical model employed is HAMSOM, a 3-D finite difference code developed both by the Institut für Meereskunde (Hamburg University) and Clima Marítimo. Results from simulations of seven major harmonics are presented, providing a comprehensive view of tidal dynamics, including current information. The results of tidal simulations show good agreement between semidiurnal harmonic components and the values measured by both coastal and pelagic tidal gauges and by current meters. The modelled diurnal constituents show larger relative differences with measurements than semidiurnal harmonics, especially concerning the phase lags. The non-linear transfer of energy from semidiurnal to higher order harmonics, such as M 4 and M 6, was mapped. Those transfers were found to be important only in two areas: the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay and the widest part of the African

  10. Influence of sea ice on Arctic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Kay, J. E.; Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Coasts form the dynamic interface between the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a focal point for population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A key difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Changes in sea ice cover can influence the coast because (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the location of the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can interact with open ocean water, which in turn governs nearshore water level and wave field. We first focus on the interaction of sea ice and ice-rich coasts. We combine satellite records of sea ice with a model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to estimate how changes in the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment along Alaska's Beaufort Sea Coast for the period 1979-2012. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic: the median length of the open-water season has expanded by 90 percent, while coastal erosion rates have more than doubled from 8.7 to 19 m yr-1. At Drew Point, NW winds increase shoreline water levels that control the incision of a submarine notch, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. The maximum water-level setup at Drew Point has increased consistently with increasing fetch. We extend our analysis to the entire Arctic using both satellite-based observations and global coupled climate model output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project. This 30-member ensemble employs a 1-degree version of the CESM-CAM5 historical forcing for the period 1920-2005, and RCP 8.5 forcing from 2005-2100. A control model run with constant pre-industrial (1850) forcing characterizes internal variability in a constant climate. Finally, we compare observations and model results to

  11. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  12. Recent changes in the summer distribution of the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus off western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Yésou

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveys carried out in the 1980s showed that 8,000-10,000 Balearic shearwaters regularly gathered in inshore waters of central and northern Biscay, particularly off the coast of Vendée and in the Mor-Braz area, western France. This distribution, apparently linked to particular oceanographical conditions (thermal front, was strikingly overlapping with that of clupeid fish, particularly anchovies. Recent surveys (1999-2000 have shown that the species has become far less numerous in these "traditional" haunts. Conversely, its abundance has increased in the western Channel, some hundreds of kilometres to the North, during the 1990s. Reasons for this northward shift (e.g. changes in prey distribution due to fishing activities or water warming in Biscay remain hypothetical and further study is needed.

  13. Patterns of significant seismic quiescence on the Mexican Pacific coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Rudolf-Navarro, A. H.; Angulo-Brown, F.; Barrera-Ferrer, A. G.

    Many authors have proposed that the study of seismicity rates is an appropriate technique for evaluating how close a seismic gap may be to rupture. We designed an algorithm for identification of patterns of significant seismic quiescence by using the definition of seismic quiescence proposed by Schreider (1990). This algorithm shows the area of quiescence where an earthquake of great magnitude may probably occur. We have applied our algorithm to the earthquake catalog on the Mexican Pacific coast located between 14 and 21 degrees of North latitude and 94 and 106 degrees West longitude; with depths less than or equal to 60 km and magnitude greater than or equal to 4.3, which occurred from January, 1965 until December, 2014. We have found significant patterns of seismic quietude before the earthquakes of Oaxaca (November 1978, Mw = 7.8), Petatlán (March 1979, Mw = 7.6), Michoacán (September 1985, Mw = 8.0, and Mw = 7.6) and Colima (October 1995, Mw = 8.0). Fortunately, in this century earthquakes of great magnitude have not occurred in Mexico. However, we have identified well-defined seismic quiescences in the Guerrero seismic-gap, which are apparently correlated with the occurrence of silent earthquakes in 2002, 2006 and 2010 recently discovered by GPS technology.

  14. Measured wind speed trends on the west coast of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Stanton E.

    2004-09-01

    Trends in measured wind speed are discussed for four stations on the west coast of Canada. Periods of record vary with the station. They begin in the late 1940s or the 1950s and run through to the early to mid 1990s. The most prominent feature of the time series was a decline in mean annual and winter wind speeds at Cape St James, Victoria International Airport, and Vancouver International Airport during the middle portion of the record. Declines in mean annual wind speed are matched by increases in the percentage of calms and decreases in high wind speed observations. The pressure gradient between Victoria, Vancouver and Comox, the Pacific North American index, the Pacific decadal oscillation index, and other climate elements in British Columbia and the northwestern USA show trends at roughly the same time, indicating a natural cause of the wind speed decrease. Comox Airport mean wind speeds increased, however, perhaps the result of reduced friction in the vicinity of the anemometer outweighing the decrease in the regional pressure gradient.

  15. OTEC thermal resource report for Western Coast Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, W. A.

    1979-05-01

    The site chosen for study off the western coast of Mexico between 20--23/sup 0/ North latitude, 105--110/sup 0/ West longitude has a temperature difference resource which is more than adequate for potential OTEC use. The annual mean ..delta..T to 1000 meters is 20.9/sup 0/C. An annual mean ..delta..T of 20.0/sup 0/C is available at 800 meters. The monthly mean ..delta..T for the coldest month of the year is 17.2/sup 0/C; at 800 meters while there is some variation in the monthly mean temperature difference, even the coldest month is adequate. The mixed layer depth is very shallow throughout the entire year. Storms are a problem for this area between May and November. Low sea and swell predominate throughout the year. The surface currents are generally weak to moderate with some variation in direction during the year. The continental shelf is fairly wide for most of the region making the distance to shore from depths of 1000 meters somewhat large. There is one bay from which deep water can be reached within 5 kilometers.

  16. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North Carolina Eastern Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2016-10-01

    We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum by DNA amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the east coast of North Carolina, US. Molecular prevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. No DNA of other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was identified.

  17. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  18. Elaphomyces appalachiensis and E. verruculosus sp. nov. (Ascomycota Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Gonzalo Guevara Guerrero; Jesus Garcia Jimenez; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    We describe Elaphomyces verruculosus as new species from eastern North America, ranging from Quebec, Canada south along the eastern USA and along the Gulf Coast to northeastern México. E. verruculosus is similar in overall morphology to E. granulatus of Europe. In addition we re-describe E....

  19. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  20. Differential growth of larval sprat Sprattus sprattus across a tidal front in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Spatial variations in abundance and growth of larval sprat Sprattus sprattus L. were examined across a tidal front in the eastern North Sea, off the west coast of Denmark. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential advantage for sprat larvae of residing in the vicinity of a tidal front...