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Sample records for bisbenzamidine derivative pentamidine

  1. Alkanediamide-Linked Bisbenzamidines Are Promising Antiparasitic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eynde, Jean J.; Mayence, Annie; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Bacchi, Cyrus J.; Yarlett, Nigel; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Huang, Tien L.

    2016-01-01

    A series of 15 alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines and related analogs was synthesized and tested in vitro against two Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) subspecies: T.b. brucei and T.b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and two Plasmodium falciparum subspecies: a chloroquine-sensitive strain (NF54) and a chloroquine-resistant strain (K1). The in vitro cytotoxicity was determined against rat myoblast cells (L6). Seven compounds (5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15) showed high potency against both strains of T. brucei and P. falciparum with the inhibitory concentrations for 50% (IC50) in the nanomolar range (IC50 = 1–96 nM). None of the tested derivatives was significantly active against T. cruzi or L. donovani. Three of the more potent compounds (5, 6, 11) were evaluated in vivo in mice infected with the drug-sensitive (Lab 110 EATRO and KETRI 2002) or drug-resistant (KETRI 2538 and KETRI 1992) clinical isolates of T. brucei. Compounds 5 and 6 were highly effective in curing mice infected with the drug-sensitive strains, including a drug-resistant strain KETRI 2538, but were ineffective against KETRI 1992. Thermal melting of DNA and molecular modeling studies indicate AT-rich DNA sequences as possible binding sites for these compounds. Several of the tested compounds are suitable leads for the development of improved antiparasitic agents. PMID:27104545

  2. Alkanediamide-Linked Bisbenzamidines Are Promising Antiparasitic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean J. Vanden Eynde

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of 15 alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines and related analogs was synthesized and tested in vitro against two Trypanosoma brucei (T.b. subspecies: T.b. brucei and T.b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and two Plasmodium falciparum subspecies: a chloroquine-sensitive strain (NF54 and a chloroquine-resistant strain (K1. The in vitro cytotoxicity was determined against rat myoblast cells (L6. Seven compounds (5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15 showed high potency against both strains of T. brucei and P. falciparum with the inhibitory concentrations for 50% (IC50 in the nanomolar range (IC50 = 1–96 nM. None of the tested derivatives was significantly active against T. cruzi or L. donovani. Three of the more potent compounds (5, 6, 11 were evaluated in vivo in mice infected with the drug-sensitive (Lab 110 EATRO and KETRI 2002 or drug-resistant (KETRI 2538 and KETRI 1992 clinical isolates of T. brucei. Compounds 5 and 6 were highly effective in curing mice infected with the drug-sensitive strains, including a drug-resistant strain KETRI 2538, but were ineffective against KETRI 1992. Thermal melting of DNA and molecular modeling studies indicate AT-rich DNA sequences as possible binding sites for these compounds. Several of the tested compounds are suitable leads for the development of improved antiparasitic agents.

  3. Alkanediamide-Linked Bisbenzamidines Are Promising Antiparasitic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eynde, Jean J; Mayence, Annie; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Bacchi, Cyrus J; Yarlett, Nigel; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Huang, Tien L

    2016-01-01

    A series of 15 alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines and related analogs was synthesized and tested in vitro against two Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) subspecies: T.b. brucei and T.b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and two Plasmodium falciparum subspecies: a chloroquine-sensitive strain (NF54) and a chloroquine-resistant strain (K1). The in vitro cytotoxicity was determined against rat myoblast cells (L6). Seven compounds (5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15) showed high potency against both strains of T. brucei and P. falciparum with the inhibitory concentrations for 50% (IC50) in the nanomolar range (IC50 = 1-96 nM). None of the tested derivatives was significantly active against T. cruzi or L. donovani. Three of the more potent compounds (5, 6, 11) were evaluated in vivo in mice infected with the drug-sensitive (Lab 110 EATRO and KETRI 2002) or drug-resistant (KETRI 2538 and KETRI 1992) clinical isolates of T. brucei. Compounds 5 and 6 were highly effective in curing mice infected with the drug-sensitive strains, including a drug-resistant strain KETRI 2538, but were ineffective against KETRI 1992. Thermal melting of DNA and molecular modeling studies indicate AT-rich DNA sequences as possible binding sites for these compounds. Several of the tested compounds are suitable leads for the development of improved antiparasitic agents. PMID:27104545

  4. Sequence-selective DNA recognition with peptide-bisbenzamidine conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mateo I; Vázquez, Olalla; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2013-07-22

    Transcription factors (TFs) are specialized proteins that play a key role in the regulation of genetic expression. Their mechanism of action involves the interaction with specific DNA sequences, which usually takes place through specialized domains of the protein. However, achieving an efficient binding usually requires the presence of the full protein. This is the case for bZIP and zinc finger TF families, which cannot interact with their target sites when the DNA binding fragments are presented as isolated monomers. Herein it is demonstrated that the DNA binding of these monomeric peptides can be restored when conjugated to aza-bisbenzamidines, which are readily accessible molecules that interact with A/T-rich sites by insertion into their minor groove. Importantly, the fluorogenic properties of the aza-benzamidine unit provide details of the DNA interaction that are eluded in electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA). The hybrids based on the GCN4 bZIP protein preferentially bind to composite sequences containing tandem bisbenzamidine-GCN4 binding sites (TCAT⋅AAATT). Fluorescence reverse titrations show an interesting multiphasic profile consistent with the formation of competitive nonspecific complexes at low DNA/peptide ratios. On the other hand, the conjugate with the DNA binding domain of the zinc finger protein GAGA binds with high affinity (KD≈12 nM) and specificity to a composite AATTT⋅GAGA sequence containing both the bisbenzamidine and the TF consensus binding sites.

  5. Pentamidine Is Not a Permeant but a Nanomolar Inhibitor of the Trypanosoma brucei Aquaglyceroporin-2.

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    Jie Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic arsenal against human African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, is limited and can cause severe, often fatal, side effects. One of the classic and most widely used drugs is pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine compound introduced in the 1940s. Recently, a genome-wide loss-of-function screen and a subsequently generated trypanosome knockout strain revealed a specific aquaglyceroporin, TbAQP2, to be required for high-affinity uptake of pentamidine. Yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we show that TbAQP2 is not a direct transporter for the di-basic, positively charged pentamidine. Even though one of the two common cation filters of aquaglyceroporins, i.e. the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, is unconventional in TbAQP2, positively charged compounds are still excluded from passing the channel. We found, instead, that the unique selectivity filter layout renders pentamidine a nanomolar inhibitor of TbAQP2 glycerol permeability. Full, non-covalent inhibition of an aqua(glyceroporin in the nanomolar range has not been achieved before. The remarkable affinity derives from an electrostatic interaction with Asp265 and shielding from water as shown by structure-function evaluation and point mutation of Asp265. Exchange of the preceding Leu264 to arginine abolished pentamidine-binding and parasites expressing this mutant were pentamidine-resistant. Our results indicate that TbAQP2 is a high-affinity receptor for pentamidine. Taken together with localization of TbAQP2 in the flagellar pocket of bloodstream trypanosomes, we propose that pentamidine uptake is by endocytosis.

  6. Pentamidine Is Not a Permeant but a Nanomolar Inhibitor of the Trypanosoma brucei Aquaglyceroporin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Baker, Nicola; Rothert, Monja; Henke, Björn; Jeacock, Laura; Horn, David; Beitz, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The chemotherapeutic arsenal against human African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, is limited and can cause severe, often fatal, side effects. One of the classic and most widely used drugs is pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine compound introduced in the 1940s. Recently, a genome-wide loss-of-function screen and a subsequently generated trypanosome knockout strain revealed a specific aquaglyceroporin, TbAQP2, to be required for high-affinity uptake of pentamidine. Yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we show that TbAQP2 is not a direct transporter for the di-basic, positively charged pentamidine. Even though one of the two common cation filters of aquaglyceroporins, i.e. the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, is unconventional in TbAQP2, positively charged compounds are still excluded from passing the channel. We found, instead, that the unique selectivity filter layout renders pentamidine a nanomolar inhibitor of TbAQP2 glycerol permeability. Full, non-covalent inhibition of an aqua(glycero)porin in the nanomolar range has not been achieved before. The remarkable affinity derives from an electrostatic interaction with Asp265 and shielding from water as shown by structure-function evaluation and point mutation of Asp265. Exchange of the preceding Leu264 to arginine abolished pentamidine-binding and parasites expressing this mutant were pentamidine-resistant. Our results indicate that TbAQP2 is a high-affinity receptor for pentamidine. Taken together with localization of TbAQP2 in the flagellar pocket of bloodstream trypanosomes, we propose that pentamidine uptake is by endocytosis. PMID:26828608

  7. Nebulized Pentamidine-Induced Acute Renal Allograft Dysfunction

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    Siddhesh Prabhavalkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a recognised complication of intravenous pentamidine therapy. A direct nephrotoxic effect leading to acute tubular necrosis has been postulated. We report a case of severe renal allograft dysfunction due to nebulised pentamidine. The patient presented with repeated episodes of AKI without obvious cause and acute tubular necrosis only on renal histology. Nebulised pentamidine was used monthly as prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and administration preceded the creatinine rise on each occasion. Graft function stabilised following discontinuation of the drug. This is the first report of nebulized pentamidine-induced reversible nephrotoxicity in a kidney allograft. This diagnosis should be considered in a case of unexplained acute renal allograft dysfunction.

  8. Enucleation following treatment with intravenous pentamidine for Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis

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    Rebecca A Kuennen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca A Kuennen, Reynell Harder Smith, Thomas F Mauger, Elson CraigDepartment of Ophthalmology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USAPurpose: To describe the course and outcome of treatment of advanced Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis with intravenous pentamidine.Methods: A case of advanced Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis was resistant to conventional therapy and was treated with intravenous pentamidine. The eye was later removed due to incapacitating pain.Results: The eye showed Acanthamoeba organisms within the cornea and evidence of acute and chronic inflammation throughout the remainder of the eye. The patient has survived without orbital recurrence for 2 years.Conclusions: This case demonstrates late inflammation with active Acanthameoba keratitis following systemic pentamidine therapy.Keywords: keratitis, scleritis

  9. Evaluation of treatment with pentamidine for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. van der Meide; L.O.A. Sabajo; A.J. Jensema; I. Peekel; W.R. Faber; H.D.F.H. Schallig; R.F.M.L.A. Fat

    2009-01-01

    In Suriname, pentamidine isethionate (PI) is the only drug available for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Recently, local dermatologists have observed an increase in CL patients not responding adequately to the standard doses. In this study, patient compliance to PI treatment was asses

  10. Domiciliary nebulized pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, S. T.; Nathwani, D.; Christie, P.R; Goldberg, D J; Kennedy, D. H.; Love, W C

    1990-01-01

    The viability of a programme for delivering aerosolized pentamidine within the patient's home setting for the secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has been explored with seven homosexual AIDS patients, the major objectives being the assessment of the safety and acceptability of the treatment and the discovery of the most suitable care setting (home, ward, outpatient clinic) for the administration of therapy. It is concluded that a domiciliary prophylaxis programme is ...

  11. Acute, rapidly progressive renal failure with simultaneous use of amphotericin B and pentamidine.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniskis, D.; Larsen, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We report four cases of acute reversible renal failure in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who received both amphotericin B (for systemic mycoses) and pentamidine isethionate (for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia). The concurrent use of amphotericin B with either inhaled pentamidine or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole did not cause significant renal impairment.

  12. Pulmonary deposition of nebulised pentamidine isethionate: effect of nebuliser type, dose, and volume of fill.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Doherty, M; Thomas, S.; Page, C.; Bradbeer, C; Nunan, T.; Bateman, N

    1990-01-01

    An estimate of the absolute pulmonary deposition of nebulised pentamidine isethionate was obtained in nine patients with AIDS. Two nebuliser systems were compared, System 22 Mizer (Medic-Aid) and Respirgard II (Marquest), with 50 and 150 mg doses of pentamidine in a 3 ml solution driven by an air flow of 6 l/min with the patient in the sitting position. The 50 mg pentamidine dose was repeated with a 6 ml fill with both devices. The nebuliser cloud was labelled with technetium-99m human serum ...

  13. Molecular determinants of pentamidine-induced hERG trafficking inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Adrienne T; Wang, Lu; Wan, Hanlin; Nassal, Drew; Deschenes, Isabelle; Ficker, Eckhard

    2012-02-01

    Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal compound that clinically causes acquired long QT syndrome (acLQTS), which is associated with prolonged QT intervals, tachycardias, and sudden cardiac arrest. Pentamidine delays terminal repolarization in human heart by acutely blocking cardiac inward rectifier currents. At the same time, pentamidine reduces surface expression of the cardiac potassium channel I(Kr)/human ether à-go-go-related gene (hERG). This is unusual in that acLQTS is caused most often by direct block of the cardiac potassium current I(Kr)/hERG. The present study was designed to provide a more complete picture of how hERG surface expression is disrupted by pentamidine at the cellular and molecular levels. Using biochemical and electrophysiological methods, we found that pentamidine exclusively inhibits hERG export from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface in a heterologous expression system as well as in cardiomyocytes. hERG trafficking inhibition could be rescued in the presence of the pharmacological chaperone astemizole. We used rescue experiments in combination with an extensive mutational analysis to locate an interaction site for pentamidine at phenylalanine 656, a crucial residue in the canonical drug binding site of terminally folded hERG. Our data suggest that pentamidine binding to a folding intermediate of hERG arrests channel maturation in a conformational state that cannot be exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. We propose that pentamidine is the founding member of a novel pharmacological entity whose members act as small molecule antichaperones. PMID:22046004

  14. Enzymatic response of the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to a bis-benzamidine proteinase Inhibitor. i.

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    Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Lourenção, A L; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A; Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A

    2012-10-01

    Ingestion of proteinase inhibitors leads to hyperproduction of digestive proteinases, limiting the bioavailability of essential amino acids for protein synthesis, which affects insect growth and development. However, the effects of proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzymes can lead to an adaptive response by the insect. In here, we assessed the biochemical response of midgut proteinases from the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) to different concentrations of berenil, a bis-benzamidine proteinase inhibitor, on eucalyptus. Eucalyptus leaves were immersed in berenil solutions at different concentrations and fed to larvae of T. arnobia. Mortality was assessed daily. The proteolytic activity in the midgut of T. arnobia was assessed after feeding on plants sprayed with aqueous solutions of berenil, fed to fifth instars of T. arnobia for 48 h before midgut removal for enzymatic assays. Larvae of T. arnobia were able to overcome the effects of the lowest berenil concentrations by increasing their trypsin-like activity, but not as berenil concentration increased, despite the fact that the highest berenil concentration resulted in overproduction of trypsin-like proteinases. Berenil also prevented the increase of the cysteine proteinases activity in response to trypsin inhibition. PMID:23950094

  15. Factors determining pulmonary deposition of aerosolized pentamidine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although aerosolized pentamidine (AP) has recently been approved for prophylaxis and is undergoing clinical trials for treatment of pneumocystis, pneumonia (PCP), factors important in the deposition of AP have not been described. Using radioaerosol techniques, deposition was measured in 22 patients receiving AP for prophylaxis or treatment of PCP. In all patients total and regional deposition of pentamidine, breathing pattern, pulmonary function (PFT), regional ventilation, and type of nebulizer were analyzed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after inhalation to assess the relationship between pentamidine levels in BAL fluid and measured aerosol deposition. The nebulizers tested were the Marquest Respirgard II and the Cadema AeroTech II, both previously characterized in our laboratory. The aerosol particles consist of water droplets containing dissolved pentamidine and technetium 99m bound to albumin. Analysis of particles sampled during inhalation via cascade impaction confirmed a close relationship between radioactivity in the droplets and the concentration of pentamidine as measured by HPLC (r = 0.971, p less than 0.0001; n = 18). Deposition was measured by capturing inhaled and exhaled particles on absolute filters and measuring radioactivity. This technique allows the determination of the deposition fraction (DF, the fraction of the amount inhaled that is deposited), which provides information on factors strictly related to the patient. To confirm the filter measurements, pentamidine deposition was also measured by gamma camera. The camera measurement was possible because each patient's thoracic attenuation of radioactivity was determined by a quantitative perfusion scan. Regional lung volume and ventilation were determined by xenon 133 equilibrium scan and washout

  16. Pentamidine blocks the interaction between mutant S100A5 and RAGE V domain and inhibits the RAGE signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-08-19

    The human S100 protein family contains small, dimeric and acidic proteins that contain two EF-hand motifs and bind calcium. When S100A5 binds calcium, its conformation changes and promotes interaction with the target protein. The extracellular domain of RAGE (Receptor of Advanced Glycation End products) contain three domains: C1, C2 and V. The RAGE V domain is the target protein of S100A5 that promotes cell survival, growth and differentiation by activating several signaling pathways. Pentamidine is an apoptotic and antiparasitic drug that is used to treat or prevent pneumonia. Here, we found that pentamidine interacts with S100A5 using HSQC titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A5 with RAGE V domain and pentamidine using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. We generated two binary models-the S100A5-RAGE V domain and S100A5-Pentamidine complex-and then observed that the pentamidine and RAGE V domain share a similar binding region in mS100A5. We also used the WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A5, RAGE V domain and pentamidine. These results indicated that pentamidine blocks the binding between S100A5 and RAGE V domain. This finding is useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. PMID:27297108

  17. Cardiac arrest during treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with intravenous pentamidine isethionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Berild, D; Nielsen, T L

    1992-01-01

    A 27-year-old man, HIV-positive for 4 years, developed ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest during treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with intravenous pentamidine isethionate. The dosage was 4 mg/kg/day for 18 days. Nephrotoxicity occurred and raised serum potassium. The plasma...

  18. Distribution of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients receiving aerosol pentamidine as prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the records and chest radiographs of 64 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Parenchymal abnormalities were present in 63 of 64 patients (98%). Pleural effusion (six of 64 patients [9%]), adenopathy (five of 64 [8%]), and cystic changes (five of 64 [8%]) were uncommon. Patients receiving prophylaxis with aerosol pentamidine (n = 23) and those with a history of prior P carinii pneumonia (n = 10) were more likely to have an upper-lobe predominance of involvement by P carinii pneumonia than were patients lacking these factors (n = 31). A failure of deposition and/or retention of the aerosol pentamidine in the former, and structural changes resulting from previous P carinii pneumonia in the latter, may be responsible

  19. Aerosolized pentamidine: Effect on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of previous aerosolized pentamidine therapy on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. This was a retrospective study of fifty-two consecutive patients with P. carinii pneumonia and underlying infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had bronchoscopy. Twenty-one patients who were on aerosolized pentamidine therapy served as the study group. Thirty-one patients who had not received the drug served as the control group. The yield of bronchoalveolar lavage for P. carinii pneumonia was 62% for the study group and 100% for the control group (P less than 0.05). This lower yield was significant for the subset of patients having their first episode of P. carinii pneumonia. The yield of transbronchial biopsy was similar for both groups of patients (81% compared with 84%). The yield of bronchoscopy was not influenced by use of zidovudine. Review of lavage specimen slides suggested that there may be fewer organisms present in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine. An atypical roentgenographic presentation of upper lobe predominant infiltrates was seen in 38% of the study patients and 7% of the control patients. In addition, pneumothoraces and cystic changes were also frequently seen in the study patients. Gallium scans, when done, were also atypical in the study group. Markers of the severity of disease, however, were similar in both groups. The yield of bronchoalveolar lavage for P. carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients is lower in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine. Unusual roentgenographic presentations and atypical gallium scans are also found in this setting

  20. Serial use of pentamidine and miltefosine for treating Leishmania infantum-HIV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Jean-François; Morquin, David; Reynes, Jacques; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Le Moing, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    Liposomal amphotericin B (LAmb) may fail to heal Leishmania infantum visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the immunodeficient host. There are currently no guidelines on how to treat such patients and efficacy of miltefosine monotherapy seems limited in this indication. We present 2 cases of patients with VL and AIDS for which LAmb had to be interrupted (one because of toxicity, one because of treatment failure) and who were treated effectively with pentamidine followed by miltefosine. PMID:27353022

  1. Pentamidine rescues contractility and rhythmicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy heart dysfunction

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    Mouli Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to 80% of individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 will develop cardiac abnormalities at some point during the progression of their disease, the most common of which is heart blockage of varying degrees. Such blockage is characterized by conduction defects and supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, and carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite its importance, very few animal model studies have focused on the heart dysfunction in DM1. Here, we describe the characterization of the heart phenotype in a Drosophila model expressing pure expanded CUG repeats under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific driver GMH5-Gal4. Morphologically, expression of 250 CUG repeats caused abnormalities in the parallel alignment of the spiral myofibrils in dissected fly hearts, as revealed by phalloidin staining. Moreover, combined immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization of Muscleblind and CUG repeats, respectively, confirmed detectable ribonuclear foci and Muscleblind sequestration, characteristic features of DM1, exclusively in flies expressing the expanded CTG repeats. Similarly to what has been reported in humans with DM1, heart-specific expression of toxic RNA resulted in reduced survival, increased arrhythmia, altered diastolic and systolic function, reduced heart tube diameters and reduced contractility in the model flies. As a proof of concept that the fly heart model can be used for in vivo testing of promising therapeutic compounds, we fed flies with pentamidine, a compound previously described to improve DM1 phenotypes. Pentamidine not only released Muscleblind from the CUG RNA repeats and reduced ribonuclear formation in the Drosophila heart, but also rescued heart arrhythmicity and contractility, and improved fly survival in animals expressing 250 CUG repeats.

  2. Pentamidine rescues contractility and rhythmicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy heart dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mouli; Selma-Soriano, Estela; Magny, Emile; Couso, Juan Pablo; Pérez-Alonso, Manuel; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Artero, Ruben; Llamusi, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Up to 80% of individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) will develop cardiac abnormalities at some point during the progression of their disease, the most common of which is heart blockage of varying degrees. Such blockage is characterized by conduction defects and supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, and carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite its importance, very few animal model studies have focused on the heart dysfunction in DM1. Here, we describe the characterization of the heart phenotype in a Drosophila model expressing pure expanded CUG repeats under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific driver GMH5-Gal4. Morphologically, expression of 250 CUG repeats caused abnormalities in the parallel alignment of the spiral myofibrils in dissected fly hearts, as revealed by phalloidin staining. Moreover, combined immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization of Muscleblind and CUG repeats, respectively, confirmed detectable ribonuclear foci and Muscleblind sequestration, characteristic features of DM1, exclusively in flies expressing the expanded CTG repeats. Similarly to what has been reported in humans with DM1, heart-specific expression of toxic RNA resulted in reduced survival, increased arrhythmia, altered diastolic and systolic function, reduced heart tube diameters and reduced contractility in the model flies. As a proof of concept that the fly heart model can be used for in vivo testing of promising therapeutic compounds, we fed flies with pentamidine, a compound previously described to improve DM1 phenotypes. Pentamidine not only released Muscleblind from the CUG RNA repeats and reduced ribonuclear formation in the Drosophila heart, but also rescued heart arrhythmicity and contractility, and improved fly survival in animals expressing 250 CUG repeats. PMID:26515653

  3. Pentamidine rescues contractility and rhythmicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy heart dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mouli; Selma-Soriano, Estela; Magny, Emile; Couso, Juan Pablo; Pérez-Alonso, Manuel; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Artero, Ruben; Llamusi, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Up to 80% of individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) will develop cardiac abnormalities at some point during the progression of their disease, the most common of which is heart blockage of varying degrees. Such blockage is characterized by conduction defects and supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia, and carries a high risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite its importance, very few animal model studies have focused on the heart dysfunction in DM1. Here, we describe the characterization of the heart phenotype in a Drosophila model expressing pure expanded CUG repeats under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific driver GMH5-Gal4. Morphologically, expression of 250 CUG repeats caused abnormalities in the parallel alignment of the spiral myofibrils in dissected fly hearts, as revealed by phalloidin staining. Moreover, combined immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization of Muscleblind and CUG repeats, respectively, confirmed detectable ribonuclear foci and Muscleblind sequestration, characteristic features of DM1, exclusively in flies expressing the expanded CTG repeats. Similarly to what has been reported in humans with DM1, heart-specific expression of toxic RNA resulted in reduced survival, increased arrhythmia, altered diastolic and systolic function, reduced heart tube diameters and reduced contractility in the model flies. As a proof of concept that the fly heart model can be used for in vivo testing of promising therapeutic compounds, we fed flies with pentamidine, a compound previously described to improve DM1 phenotypes. Pentamidine not only released Muscleblind from the CUG RNA repeats and reduced ribonuclear formation in the Drosophila heart, but also rescued heart arrhythmicity and contractility, and improved fly survival in animals expressing 250 CUG repeats.

  4. Chimerization at the AQP2–AQP3 locus is the genetic basis of melarsoprol–pentamidine cross-resistance in clinical Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice E. Graf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaglyceroporin-2 is a known determinant of melarsoprol–pentamidine cross-resistance in Trypanosoma brucei brucei laboratory strains. Recently, chimerization at the AQP2–AQP3 tandem locus was described from melarsoprol–pentamidine cross-resistant Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from sleeping sickness patients in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Here, we demonstrate that reintroduction of wild-type AQP2 into one of these isolates fully restores drug susceptibility while expression of the chimeric AQP2/3 gene in aqp2–aqp3 null T. b. brucei does not. This proves that AQP2–AQP3 chimerization is the cause of melarsoprol–pentamidine cross-resistance in the T. b. gambiense isolates.

  5. Mapping of a Leishmania major gene/locus that confers pentamidine resistance by deletion and insertion of transposable element

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    Coelho Adriano C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentamidine (PEN is an alternative compound to treat antimony-resistant leishmaniasis patients, which cellular target remains unclear. One approach to the identification of prospective targets is to identify genes able to mediate PEN resistance following overexpression. Starting from a genomic library of transfected parasites bearing a multicopy episomal cosmid vector containing wild-type Leishmania major DNA, we isolated one locus capable to render PEN resistance to wild type cells after DNA transfection. In order to map this Leishmania locus, cosmid insert was deleted by two successive sets of partial digestion with restriction enzymes, followed by transfection into wild type cells, overexpression, induction and functional tests in the presence of PEN. To determine the Leishmania gene related to PEN resistance, nucleotide sequencing experiments were done through insertion of the transposon Mariner element of Drosophila melanogaster (mosK into the deleted insert to work as primer island. Using general molecular techniques, we described here this method that permits a quickly identification of a functional gene facilitating nucleotide sequence experiments from large DNA fragments. Followed experiments revealed the presence of a P-Glycoprotein gene in this locus which role in Leishmania metabolism has now been analyzed.

  6. Use of Pentamidine As Secondary Prophylaxis to Prevent Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV Infected Patients, the First Twelve Months of a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermias Diro

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has become an important opportunistic infection in persons with HIV-infection in VL-endemic areas. The co-infection leads to profound immunosuppression and high rate of annual VL recurrence. This study assessed the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of monthly pentamidine infusions to prevent recurrence of VL in HIV co-infected patients.A single-arm, open-label trial was conducted at two leishmaniasis treatment centers in northwest Ethiopia. HIV-infected patients with a VL episode were included after parasitological cure. Monthly infusions of 4 mg/kg pentamidine-isethionate diluted in normal-saline were started for 12 months. All received antiretroviral therapy (ART. Time-to-relapse or death was the primary end point.Seventy-four patients were included. The probability of relapse-free survival at 6 months and at 12 months was 79% and 71% respectively. Renal failure, a possible drug-related serious adverse event, occurred in two patients with severe pneumonia. Forty-one patients completed the regimen taking at least 11 of the 12 doses. Main reasons to discontinue were: 15 relapsed, five died and seven became lost to follow-up. More patients failed among those with a CD4+cell count ≤ 50 cells/μl, 5/7 (71.4% than those with counts above 200 cells/μl, 2/12 (16.7%, (p = 0.005.Pentamidine secondary prophylaxis led to a 29% failure rate within one year, much lower than reported in historical controls (50%-100%. Patients with low CD4+cell counts are at increased risk of relapse despite effective initial VL treatment, ART and secondary prophylaxis. VL should be detected and treated early enough in patients with HIV infection before profound immune deficiency installs.

  7. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed. PMID:21552747

  8. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  9. Pentamidine Isethionate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of your treatment using laboratory tests and physical examinations. It is important to keep all appointments ... health care provider as soon as possible: tenderness warmth irritation drainage redness swelling pain ¶ These branded products ...

  10. Pentamidine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. ...

  11. Deriving Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Soklakov, Andrei N.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative Structuring is a rigorous framework for the design of financial products. We show how it incorporates traditional investment ideas while supporting a more accurate expression of clients' views on the market. We briefly touch upon adjacent topics regarding the safety of financial derivatives and the role of pricing models in product design.

  12. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren......Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  13. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...

  14. Estudo comparativo da eficácia de isotionato de pentamidina administrada em três doses durante uma semana e de N-metil-glucamina 20mgSbV/kg/dia durante 20 dias para o tratamento da forma cutânea da leishmaniose tegumentar americana A comparative study between the efficacy of pentamidine isothionate given in three doses for one week and N-methil-glucamine in a dose of 20mgSbV/day for 20 days to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Déa Ribeiro de Paula

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e nove pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana, forma cutânea, foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo experimental (I, formado por 38 pessoas que receberam isotionato de pentamidina, 4mg/kg/dia, três aplicações, IM, durante uma semana, e o grupo controle (II, formado por 41 doentes tratados com N-metilglucamina, 20mgSbV/kg/dia por 20 dias, EV. Foram identificados, por técnica de anticorpos monoclonais, 21 isolados com predominância de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Encontrou-se cura clínica em 71,05% do grupo experimental e 73,17% do grupo controle (p=0,47. Alterações de ECG foram mais freqüentes utilizando antimonial pentavalente, com significância (pSeventy-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were included in this study. The experimental group (n = 38 was treated with pentamidine isothionate in a dose of 4mg/kg/day on alternate days, for one week. The control group (n = 41 was treated with N-methylglucamine in a dose of 20mgSbV/kg/day for 20 days. Twenty-one isolates were identified using monoclonal antibody technique. We characterized Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, most frequently. There was a cure rate of 71.05% of the patients in the experimental group and 73.17% in the control group (p = 0.47.We found a statistical significance regarding frequency of ECG alterations between the experimental and control group (p<0.05. In our study pentamidine was as effective as antimonial for the treatment of american cutaneous leishmaniasis. It proved to be a safer drug considering heart toxicity. Moreover, it requires less time to complete the treatment.

  15. Financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gray and Joanna Place

    2006-01-01

    Derivatives, ranging from relatively simple forward contracts to complicated options products, are an increasingly important feature of financial markets worldwide. They are already being used in many emerging markets, and as the financial sector becomes deeper and more stable, their use is certain to grow. This Handbook provides a basic guide to the different types of derivatives traded, including the pricing and valuation of the products, and accounting and statistical treatment. Also, it a...

  16. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  17. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  18. Reversible supramolecular assembly at specific DNA sites: nickel-promoted bivalent DNA binding with designed peptide and bipyridyl-bis(benzamidine) components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mateo I; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2014-09-01

    At specific DNA sites, nickel(II) salts promote the assembly of designed components, namely a bis(histidine)-modified peptide that is derived from a bZIP transcription factor and a bis(benzamidine) unit that is equipped with a bipyridine. This programmed supramolecular system with emergent properties reproduces some key characteristics of naturally occurring DNA-binding proteins, such as bivalence, selectivity, responsiveness to external agents, and reversibility.

  19. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  20. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892

  1. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... derivatives transactions independently. \\9\\ 77 FR 5416 (Feb. 3, 2012). Question One. The Board asked if NCUA.... Conduct: Collateral Accounting reporting......... management. Counterparty exposure Transaction management... permitted under applicable state law to engage in derivatives transactions. It requires any credit...

  2. A NEW FRACTAL DERIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Huan He

    2011-01-01

    A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.

  3. Deriving Verbs in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Phonological and semantic principles which underlie the derivation of verbs from nouns and adjectives in English are examined. There is intricate phonological conditioning for suffix "-ize" and for suffix "-(i)fy"; a third major process is zero derivation. These derivational processes cover more than a score of semantic relations (some with…

  4. Generalized \\delta-Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygorodov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We defined generalized \\delta-derivations of algebra A as linear mapping \\chi associated with usual \\delta-derivation \\phi by the rule \\chi(xy)=\\delta(\\chi(x)y+x\\phi(y))=\\delta(\\phi(x)y+x\\chi(y)) for any x,y \\in A. We described generalized \\delta-derivations of prime alternative algebras, prime Lie algebras and superalgebras, unital algebras, and semisimple finite-dimensional Jordan superalgebras. In this cases we proved that generalized \\delta-derivation is a generalized derivation or \\delta...

  5. Direct Density Derivative Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroaki; Noh, Yung-Kyun; Niu, Gang; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the derivatives of probability density functions is an essential step in statistical data analysis. A naive approach to estimate the derivatives is to first perform density estimation and then compute its derivatives. However, this approach can be unreliable because a good density estimator does not necessarily mean a good density derivative estimator. To cope with this problem, in this letter, we propose a novel method that directly estimates density derivatives without going through density estimation. The proposed method provides computationally efficient estimation for the derivatives of any order on multidimensional data with a hyperparameter tuning method and achieves the optimal parametric convergence rate. We further discuss an extension of the proposed method by applying regularized multitask learning and a general framework for density derivative estimation based on Bregman divergences. Applications of the proposed method to nonparametric Kullback-Leibler divergence approximation and bandwidth matrix selection in kernel density estimation are also explored. PMID:27140943

  6. Fractional Derivative and Integral

    OpenAIRE

    Aygören, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this thesis we studied fractional order derivative and integral. In Chapter1, a brief history on the foundation of fractional derivative and integration has been given. In the second chapter, some definitions and theorems have been provided. Also some needed special functions such as Gamma, Beta, Mittag-Leffler and Wright function have taken place in this chapter. Properties of fractional derivative and integral are discussed in Chapter 3. We started to this chapter by the dis...

  7. Developing a derivatives generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Petic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to highlight the particularities of the derivational morphology mechanisms that will help in lexical resources extension. Some computing approaches for derivational morphology are given for several languages, inclusively for Romanian. This paper deals with some preprocessing particularities, that are needed in the process of automatic generation. Then, generative mechanisms are presented in the form of derivational formal rules separately for prefixation and suffixation. The article ends with several approaches in automatic new generated words validation.

  8. The Dangers of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)

  9. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  10. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum;

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...

  11. Numerical Integration with Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    A new formula with derivatives for numerical integration was presented. Based on this formula and the Richardson extrapolation process, a numerical integration method was established. It can converge faster than the Romberg's. With the same accuracy, the computation of the new numerical integration with derivatives is only half of that of Romberg's numerical integration.

  12. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with.......The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...

  13. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are...

  14. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  15. American derivatives : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives an overview over the theory of pricing and hedging financial derivatives that can be exercised at any time during a fixed time interval [0, T]. The analysis makes use of the theory of optimal stopping, and as such it constitutes an interesting application of probability theory to the theory of financial economics. In this paper we concentrate on the main principles involved only, which means, for example, that we abstract from derivatives where the underlying asset pays ou...

  16. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective an...... injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules.......Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective and...

  17. Deriving diffeomorphism symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kleppe, Astri

    2014-01-01

    In an earlier article, we have "derived" space, as a part of the Random Dynamics project. In order to get locality we need to obtain reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. There we sketched a procedure for how to get locality by first obtaining reparametrization symmetry, or equivalently, diffeomorphism symmetry. This is the object of the present article.

  18. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...

  19. Ferroelectricity in corundum derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meng; Vanderbilt, David

    2016-04-01

    The search for new ferroelectric (FE) materials holds promise for broadening our understanding of FE mechanisms and extending the range of application of FE materials. Here we investigate a class of A B O3 and A2B B'O6 materials that can be derived from the X2O3 corundum structure by mixing two or three ordered cations on the X site. Most such corundum derivatives have a polar structure, but it is unclear whether the polarization is reversible, which is a requirement for a FE material. In this paper, we propose a method to study the FE reversal path of materials in the corundum derivative family. We first categorize the corundum derivatives into four classes and show that only two of these allow for the possibility of FE reversal. We then calculate the energy profile and energy barrier of the FE reversal path using first-principles density functional methods with a structural constraint. Furthermore, we identify several empirical measures that can provide a rule of thumb for estimating the energy barriers. Finally, the conditions under which the magnetic ordering is compatible with ferroelectricity are determined. These results lead us to predict several potentially new FE materials.

  20. Metal derivatives of tetrazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponik, Pavel N; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Ivashkevich, Oleg A [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-06-30

    Published data on the synthesis, structure, properties and applications of metal derivatives of tetrazoles are generalised and described systematically. Compounds based on the anionic and neutral tetrazole forms, C- and N-mono- and C,N-disubstituted tetrazoles are considered.

  1. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...

  2. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...

  3. Learning, investments and derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Soklakov, Andrei N.

    2011-01-01

    The recent crisis and the following flight to simplicity put most derivative businesses around the world under considerable pressure. We argue that the traditional modeling techniques must be extended to include product design. We propose a quantitative framework for creating products which meet the challenge of being optimal from the investors point of view while remaining relatively simple and transparent.

  4. Home price derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    O. Emre Ergungor

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, homeowners had no way to protect the value of their homes against losses that could result from housing market downturns. With the derivatives contracts introduced by the CME last year, homeowners now have some means of protection, and new and better products are more likely to follow from them.

  5. Biotechnology and derived products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  6. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  7. Pushing schedule derivation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez, B. [Compania Siderurgica Huachipato S.A., Talcahuano (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  8. Systems of integrable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Bonanzinga

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a commutative k-algebra, with k a subring of A. We give the definition of n-dimensional differentiation of A over k which formally extends the known one of unidimensional differentiation and we study the group of all n-dimensional differentiation of A over k. In the second part of the work we give some theorems of strong integrability for systems of derivations in terms of n-dimensional differentiation.

  9. Endostatin derivative angiogenesis inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Meng-jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To throw light on the superiority of the anti-angiogenesis activity of endostatin (ES) derivatives by reviewing the recent progress in the field of ES molecular structure modification.Data sources The data used in this article were mainly from PubMed with relevant English articles published from 1971 to May 2008.The search terms were "endostatin" and "angiothesis".Study selection Articles involved in the ES molecular structure modification and the original milestone articles were selected.Results A number of ES derivatives were designed and studied to improve its clinical relevance.The modified ES with polyethylene glycol (PEG),low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and IgG Fc domain extended the circulation half-life.Meanwhile the recombinant ESs showed more potent anti-tumor activity than native ES in mouse xenografts.Mutated ES also changed its anti-angiogenesis activity.Conclusions The anti-angiogenesis treatment remains a promising tumor therapeutic strategy.New ES derivatives would be a good choice to meet the future challenge on clinical application of ES.

  10. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  11. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...... develop a framework for analyzing the tradeoff between productive and de-structive proxy-entrepreneurship. We link this analysis to the employment relation and ownership structure, providing new insights into these and related issues in the eco-nomic theory of the firm.Keywords: Judgment, entrepreneur...

  12. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far we...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....... found to be multiple organ carcinogens. The aminoimidazoazaarenes are metabolically activated by hydroxylation of the exocyclic aminogroup to the N-hydroxyamino derivative. The resultant proximate mutagens often need further activation by phase II transferases for formation of reactive species that form...

  13. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  14. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  15. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  16. Design, synthesis and in vitro trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of novel semicarbazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marina A; de Queiroz, Aline C; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; Varela, Javier; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Doriguetto, Antonio C; Landre, Iara M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Lima, Lídia M

    2015-07-15

    Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites that cause various diseases in human, such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and sleeping sickness. The highly syntenic genomes of the trypanosomatid species lead the assumption that they can encode similar proteins, indicating the possibility to design new antitrypanosomatid drugs with dual trypanosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities. In this work a series of compounds (6a-h and 7a-h), containing a semicarbazone scaffold as a peptide mimetic framework, was designed and synthesized. From this series compound 7g (LASSBio-1483) highlighted, showing dual in vitro trypanosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities, with potency similar to the standard drugs nifurtimox and pentamidine. This data, taken together with its good in silico druglikeness profile and its great chemical and plasma stability, make LASSBio-1483 (7g) a new antitrypanosomatid lead-candidate. PMID:26069927

  17. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  18. On Q-derived polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  19. Data Derivation Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kadam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system  properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  20. Data Derivation Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kadam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malicious software is a major issue in today’s computer world. Such software can silently reside in user’s computer and can easily interact with computing resources. It is necessary to improve the honesty of host and its system data. For improvement in security and honesty of host, this work is introduced. This mechanism ensures the correct origin or provenance of critical system information and prevents utilization of host resources by malware. Using this mechanism the source where a piece of data is generated can be identified. A cryptographic origin approach ensures system properties and system- data integrity at kernel level. A frame work is used for restricting outbound malware traffic. This frame work identifies network activities of malware. This frame work can be used as powerful personal firewall for investigating outgoing traffic of a host. Specifically, our derivation verification scheme requires outgoing network packets to flow through a checkpoint on a host, to obtain proper origin proofs for later verification.

  1. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  2. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

  3. Derivations, Products of Derivations, and Commutativity in Near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard E. Bell; Nurcan Argac

    2001-01-01

    For a zero-symmetric 3-prime near-ring N, we study three kinds of conditions: (a) conditions involving two derivations d1, d2 which imply that d1 = 0 or d2 = 0; (b) conditions involving derivations which force (N, +) to be abelian or N to be a commutative ring; (c) the condition that dn (S) is multiplicatively central for some derivation d and subset S of N.

  4. Glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to glycerin derivatives with thiocyanic group. The results of studies of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of chlorine atom in linear and cyclic glycerin derivatives on thiocyanic group were considered. The composition, structure and purity of synthesized substances was defined by means of element analysis, molecular refraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thin-layer chromatography methods.

  5. Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(苏育才)

    2003-01-01

    A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.

  6. Unethical dilemmas in derivatives practice

    OpenAIRE

    Alqatawni, Tahsen

    2013-01-01

    The current global economic crisis and its aftermath resulted of unethical practices of the companies' leaders and their financial management by improper usage of financial derivative, which turned the financial derivatives into a source of gambling, and spread to extremely large volume. Although, the unethical practices from a financial institution observing lack of ethics is made due to self interest that maximizes immediate profit putting shareholder wealth and small investor at risk rat...

  7. Synthesis of new xanthene derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kotaskova, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Xanthene dyes, including fluorescein, are a well-known class of fluorescent dyes, which have widespread applications in natural sciences. The synthesis of xanthene derivatives via acid catalyzed condensation of substituted phenols with phthalic anhydride, to afford the asymmetric derivatives, is well established. The high temperature, harsh reaction conditions and often low yields make this method less convenient. The synthesis of xanthene dyes by direct modification of the fluorophore moiety...

  8. Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Spamann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...

  9. Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Weberszpil, José

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.

  10. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  11. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  12. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  13. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  14. MCR Synthesis of Praziquantel Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Domling, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction follo

  15. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...

  16. Derived Categories of BHK Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Favero, David

    2016-01-01

    We prove a derived analogue to the results of Borisov, Clarke, Kelly, and Shoemaker on the birationality of Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirrors. Heavily bootstrapping off work of Seidel and Sheridan, we obtain Homological Mirror Symmetry for Berglund-Hubsch-Krawitz mirror pencils to hypersurfaces in projective space.

  17. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca

    2013-01-01

    The elicitation of efficient antitumor immune responses requires the optimal activation of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs). Our comparison of the effect of various immunostimulatory treatments on DCs revealed that the best predictor of the success of immunotherapy is not the activation of existing DC populations, but the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DC in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

  18. Derivations of certain operator algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankui Li

    2000-01-01

    conditions under which any derivation δ from into L(H must be inner. The conditions include (1 H−≠H, (2 0+≠0, (3 there is a nontrivial projection in which is in , and (4 δ is norm continuous. We also give some pplications.

  19. Push-outs of derivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Let A be a Banach algebra and let X be a Banach A-bimodule. In studying H¹(A,X) it is often useful to extend a given derivation D: A->X to a Banach algebra B containing A as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approx...

  20. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  1. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  2. Berberine derivatives as antileishmanial drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Vennerstrom, J L; Lovelace, J K; Waits, V B; Hanson, W L; Klayman, D L

    1990-01-01

    Berberine, a quaternary alkaloid, and several of its derivatives were tested for efficacy against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania braziliensis panamensis in golden hamsters. Tetrahydroberberine was less toxic and more potent than berberine against L. donovani but was not as potent as meglumine antimonate (Glucantime), a standard drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Only berberine and 8-cyanodihydroberberine showed significant activity (greater than 50% suppression of lesion size) again...

  3. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time, the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of...

  4. Functional linear regression with derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, André; Pumo, Besnik

    2006-01-01

    International audience We introduce a new model of linear regression for random functional inputs taking into account the first order derivative of the data. We propose an estimation method which comes down to solving a special linear inverse problem. Our procedure tackles the problem through a double and synchronized penalization. An asymptotic expansion of the mean square prevision error is given. The model and the method are applied to a benchmark dataset of spectrometric curves and com...

  5. Derivatives of Parsing Expression Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new memoized derivative parsing algorithm for recognition of parsing expression grammars. The algorithm runs in worst case quartic time and cubic space. However, existing research suggests that due to the limited amount of backtracking and recursion in real-world grammars and input, practical performance may be closer to linear time and constant space; experimental validation of this conjecture is in progress.

  6. Unified derivation of evolution equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hsiang-nan

    1998-01-01

    We derive the evolution equations of parton distribution functions appropriate in different kinematic regions in a unified and simple way using the resummation technique. They include the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation for large momentum transfer $Q$, the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equation for a small Bjorken variable $x$, and the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation which embodies the above two equations. The relation among these equations is explored, and p...

  7. On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two

  8. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kwiecień; Zbigniew Ciunik

    2015-01-01

    Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constitut...

  9. Holographic QSAR of estradiol derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Holographic QSAR model is constructed to predict relative binding affinities of estradiol derivatives with lamb uterine estrogen receptor. The method does not require the generation of three-dimensional structure of the compounds. The factors that influence the quality of QSAR model are discussed. The result indicates that the model has good predictability and yields a high q2LOO value of 0.897. Compared to other QSAR methods, the HQSAR technique is suitable for use in screening large database of chemicals.

  10. Generalized derivations and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, M; Pysiak, L; Sasin, W

    2013-01-01

    We construct differential geometry (connection, curvature, etc.) based on generalized derivations of an algebra A. Such a derivation, introduced by Bresar in 1991, is given by a linear mapping u: A -> A such that there exists a usual derivation d of A satisfying the generalized Leibniz rule u(a b) = u(a) b + a d(b) for all a,b in A. The generalized geometry "is tested" in the case of the algebra of smooth functions on a manifold. We then apply this machinery to study the generalized general relativity. We define the Einstein-Hilbert action and deduce from it Einstein's field equations. We show that for a special class of metrics containing, besides the usual metric components, only one non-zero term, the action reduces to O'Hanlon action that is a Brans-Dicke action with potential and with the parameter \\omega equal to zero. We also show that the generalized Einstein equations (with zero energy-stress tensor) are equivalent to those of the Kaluza-Klein theory satisfying a "modified cylinder condition" and hav...

  11. Push-Outs of Derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niels Grønbæk

    2008-05-01

    Let $\\mathfrak{A}$ be a Banach algebra and let be a Banach $\\mathfrak{A}$-bimodule. In studying $\\mathcal{H}^1(\\mathfrak{A},X)$ it is often useful to extend a given derivation $D:\\mathfrak{A}→ X$ to a Banach algebra $\\mathfrak{B}$ containing $\\mathfrak{A}$ as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using (bounded/unbounded) approximate identities to obtain the extension as a limit of operators $b\\mapsto D(ba)-b.D(a), a\\in\\mathfrak{A}$ in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations in all situations at the cost of enlarging the module. We use our construction to give improvements and shorter proofs of some results from the literature and to give a necessary and sufficient condition that biprojectivity and biflatness is inherited to ideals.

  12. Whither the common law derivative action

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, JL

    2009-01-01

    The common law derivative action was developed as a result of decades of case law in common law jurisdictions. Hong Kong and Singapore continue to retain the common law derivative action within their respective legal frameworks, despite both having enacted statutory derivative actions. This paper considers the situations in which the common law derivative action continues to have practical application in each of these jurisdictions. It then considers whether the common law derivative acti...

  13. Antiparasitic activity of prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-03-01

    Fractionation of dichloromethane extracts from the leaves of Piper heterophyllum and P. aduncum afforded three prenylated hydroxybenzoic acids, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-13-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-14-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,15-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with the known compounds, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(E,E,E-11-formyl-3,7,15-trimethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid (arieianal), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with data reported in the literature. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the compounds as racemates. The antiparasitic activity of the compounds were tested against three strains of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. The results showed that 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid exhibited potent and selective activity against L. braziliensis (IC(50) 6.5 microg/ml), higher that pentamidine used as control. Moreover, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl- 2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid showed moderate antiplasmodial (IC(50) 3.2 microg/ml) and trypanocidal (16.5 microg/ml) activities, respectively. PMID:19361822

  14. Chemistry of Bicyclic Endoperoxides Derived from Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Attempted Synthesis of Polyhydroxypiperidine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Emine; BAYRAM, Beyhan

    2006-01-01

    To achieve the synthesis of azasugar derivatives with the utilization of singlet oxygen, pyridine was used as the starting material. The reduction of pyridine followed by a singlet oxygen reaction afforded cyclic aza-endoperoxides (14 and 16). However, many attempts were made to convert the aza-endoperoxides to the corresponding di- and triacetates without success. However, the base-catalyzed rearrangement of 14 gave unprecedented rearrangement products 23 and 24.

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  16. Deriving bases for Abelian functions

    CERN Document Server

    England, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method to explicitly define Abelian functions on algebraic curves, for the purpose of finding bases for the relevant vector spaces of such functions. We demonstrate the procedure with the functions associated to a trigonal curve of genus four. The main motivation for the construction of such bases is that it allows systematic methods for the derivation of the addition formulae and differential equations satis?ed by the functions. We present a new 3-term 2-variable addition formulae and a complete set of differential equations to generalise the classic Weierstrass identities for the case of the trigonal curve of genus four.

  17. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.

  18. Synthesis of oleanolic disaccharide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Chen Pei; Jian Bo Wu; Fan Lei; Shan Qian; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Oleanolic acid 1 exists widely in food,medicinal herbs and other plants and possesses many attractive biological activities.Recently,some oleanolic derivatives were reported to have interesting anti-tumor activities.Herein,using association principle of drug design,OA disaccharide 17 was designed and synthesized by coupling α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl disaccharide moiety,which has proved to be a unique sugar sequence with strongly antitumor activity,and modified OA with a nitrile at C-17.

  19. Derivatives Pricing in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lappo, P.; Zuev, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the one-period (B, S) - market model with two securities is considered. In the introduction a replicating portfolio for the derivative security is obtained when the securities are primitive. In the second part we consider the situation where the stock price could have more than two values. We build an approximation of such a market using a fictive (B, S*) - market where the stock price could take only two values. In the third part the numerical illustration of the approximation i...

  20. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  1. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecień, Anna; Ciunik, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure. PMID:26258772

  2. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  3. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  4. Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Yong PAN

    2016-01-01

    Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.

  5. Synthesis of novel bioactive doxycycline derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Usai, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Novel doxycycline derivatives were synthesized taking advantage of modern synthetic methods for diverse biological experiments. Neuartige Doxycyclin-Derivate wurden unter Zuhilfenahme moderner Synthesemethoden für verschiedene biologische Tests hergestellt.

  6. Higgs Potential from Derivative Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Quadri, A

    2016-01-01

    A formulation of the linear $\\sigma$ model with derivative interactions is studied. The theory is on-shell equivalent to the model with a quartic Higgs potential. The mass of the scalar mode only appears in the quadratic part and not in the interaction vertices, unlike in the ordinary formulation of the theory. Renormalization of the model is discussed. A natural non power-counting renormalizable extension of the theory is presented. The model is physically equivalent to the inclusion of a dimension six effective operator $\\partial_\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi) \\partial^\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi)$. The resulting UV divergences are arranged in a perturbation series around the power-counting renormalizable theory. UV completion of the non-power-counting renormalizable model through a symmetric deformation of the propagator of the massive physical scalar is addressed.

  7. Towards a Derivation of Space

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, H B

    2014-01-01

    This attempt to "derive" space is part of the Random Dynamics project. The Random Dynamics philosophy is that what we observe at our low energy level can be interpreted as some Taylor tail of the physics taking place at a higher energy level, and all the concepts like numbers, space, symmetry, as well as the known physical laws, emerge from a "fundamental world machinery" being a most general, random mathematical structure. Here we concentrate on obtaining spacetime in such a Random Dynamics way. Because of quantum mechanics, we get space identified with about half the dimension of the phase space of a very extended wave packet, which we call "the Snake". In the last section we also explain locality from diffeomorphism symmetry.

  8. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  10. Topological Derivatives in Shape Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Antonio André

    2013-01-01

    The topological derivative is defined as the first term (correction) of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to a small parameter that measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes, inclusions, defects, source-terms and cracks. Over the last decade, topological asymptotic analysis has become a broad, rich and fascinating research area from both theoretical and numerical standpoints. It has applications in many different fields such as shape and topology optimization, inverse problems, imaging processing and mechanical modeling including synthesis and/or optimal design of microstructures, sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics and damage evolution modeling. Since there is no monograph on the subject at present, the authors provide here the first account of the theory which combines classical sensitivity analysis in shape optimization with asymptotic analysis by means of compound asymptotic expansions for elliptic boundary value problems. This book is intende...

  11. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...

  12. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like am
    option based on gold, when national currency has a great float.
    Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  13. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  14. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  15. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  16. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...

  17. Derivations and identities for Kravchuk polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Bedratyuk, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Kravchuk derivations of the polynomial algebra. We prove that any element of the kernel of the derivation gives a polynomial identity satisfied by the Kravchuk polynomials. Also, we prove that any kernel element of the basic Weitzenb\\"ok derivations yields a polynomial identity satisfied by the Kravchuk polynomials. We describe the corresponding intertwining maps.

  18. The irony in the derivatives discounting

    OpenAIRE

    Henrard, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A simple and fundamental question in derivatives pricing is the way (contingent) cash-flows should be discounted. As cash can not be invested at Libor the curve is probably not the right discounting curve, even for Libor derivatives. The impact on derivative pricing of changing the discounting curve is discussed. The pricing formulas for vanilla products are revisited in the funding framework described.

  19. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    CERN Document Server

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  20. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    Working knowledge of the relations of various quantities and their derivatives across a shock wave is useful for any advanced research involving shock waves. Although these relations can be derived in principle by any diligent student of the subject, the derivations are often not trivial, and once derived, neither the approach nor the result can be confidently verified. Comprehensive and analytical, Shock Wave Dynamics: Derivatives and Related Topics includes not only the final results but also the methods, which are of great practical value as examples of mathematical procedure in this field.

  1. Jordan Higher Derivable Mappings on Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a ring. We say that a family of maps D={dn}n∈N is a Jordan higher derivable map (without assumption of additivity on R if d0=IR (the identity map on R and dn(ab+ba=∑p+q=n‍dp(adq(b+∑p+q=n‍dp(bdq(a hold for all a,b∈R and for each n∈N. In this paper, we show that every Jordan higher derivable map on a ring under certain assumptions becomes a higher derivation. As its application, we get that every Jordan higher derivable map on Banach algebra is an additive higher derivation.

  2. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  3. Time derivative of earthquake acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Tong; Guo-Quan Wang; George C.Lee

    2005-01-01

    Unlike acceleration, velocity, and displacement, the time derivative of acceleration (TDoA) of ground motion has not been extensively studied. In this paper, the basic characteristics of TDoA are evaluated based on records from the 1999Chi-Chi, earthquake (Mw 7.6) and one of its aftershocks (Mw 6.2). It is found that the maximum TDoA at a free-field station was over 31,200 crm/s3 (31.8 g/s); and the duration of "strong" TDoA, between the first and the last time points exceeding 2,000 cm/s3 (2 g/s), was almost one minute near the epicenter area. Since ground TDoA sensors are not commonly available,the time series are calculated by direct numerical differentiation of acceleration time series. Relative error analysis shows that the error is non-transitive and total error is within 4%. The density function of TDoA amplitude, frequency content and spatial distribution of peak ground jerk (PGJ) are evaluated. The study also includes examination of some TDoA responses from a seven-story building and comparison of ground TDoA with the limit TDoA used in the transportation industry for ride comfort. Some potential impacts of TDoA on humans have also been reviewed.

  4. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  5. Die derivation der slowenischen substantive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ]ože Toporišič

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick­ sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im

  6. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  7. Speeding up Derivative Configuration from Product Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Heradio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturers try to differentiate their products by focusing on individual customer needs. Fulfilling this goal requires that companies shift from mass production to mass customization. Under this approach, a generic architecture, named product platform, is designed to support the derivation of customized products through a configuration process that determines which components the product comprises. When a customer configures a derivative, typically not every combination of available components is valid. To guarantee that all dependencies and incompatibilities among the derivative constituent components are satisfied, automated configurators are used. Flexible product platforms provide a big number of interrelated components, and so, the configuration of all, but trivial, derivatives involves considerable effort to select which components the derivative should include. Our approach alleviates that effort by speeding up the derivative configuration using a heuristic based on the information theory concept of entropy.

  8. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  9. Derivatives Effect on Monetary Policy Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad Vrolijk

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the monetary policy transmission mechanism in the presence of derivatives markets. The effect of adding derivatives markets is analyzed independently for each of the main channels of monetary policy transmission: interest rates, credit, and exchange rates. Theoretically, derivatives trading speeds up transmission to financial asset prices, but changes in the transmission to the real economy are ambiguous. Using the structural vector autoregression methodology, a...

  10. Credit Derivatives, Disintermediation, and Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Morrison

    2005-01-01

    The credit derivatives market provides a liquid but opaque forum for secondary market trading of banking assets. I show that when entrepreneurs rely upon the certification value of bank debts to obtain cheap bond market insurance, the existance of a credit derivatives market may cause them to issue sub-investment grade bonds instead, and to engage in second-best behaviour. Credit derivatives can therefore cause disintermediation and thus reduce welfare. I argue that this effect can be most ef...

  11. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  12. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  13. Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  14. Anisotropic higher derivative gravity and inflationary universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, W F

    2006-01-01

    Stability analysis of the Kantowski-Sachs type universe in pure higher derivative gravity theory is studied in details. The non-redundant generalized Friedmann equation of the system is derived by introducing a reduced one dimensional generalized KS type action. This method greatly reduces the labor in deriving field equations of any complicate models. Existence and stability of inflationary solution in the presence of higher derivative terms are also studied in details. Implications to the choice of physical theories are discussed in details in this paper.

  15. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  16. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

  17. Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Gaikwad

    2013-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione ) i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II) complex is newly reported here

  18. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited

  19. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  20. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  1. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  2. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  3. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  4. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  5. Nickel Complexes of Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives of Lawsone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gaikwad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiosemicarbazone derivative at 1 position of the Lawsone ( 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione i.e. 1-TSCND is an important derivative, Which possesses a powerful chelating ability, appreciable analytical utility and significant biological activity[1]. Its Nickel (II complex is newly reported here

  6. Biology-Derived Algorithms in Engineering Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Biology-derived algorithms are an important part of computational sciences, which are essential to many scientific disciplines and engineering applications. Many computational methods are derived from or based on the analogy to natural evolution and biological activities, and these biologically inspired computations include genetic algorithms, neural networks, cellular automata, and other algorithms.

  7. An All-Orders Derivative Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Gerald(Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, U.S.A.)

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate the exact $QED_{2+1}$ effective action for fermions in the presence of a family of static but spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field profiles. This exact result yields an all-orders derivative expansion of the effective action, and indicates that the derivative expansion is an asymptotic, rather than a convergent, expansion.

  8. Derivation in the Advanced Course of Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that one method to help advanced language students acquire new vocabulary is to study word formation and derivation. Suggests ways in which this can be done in the teaching of Italian. Discusses the process of derivation from three perspectives: (1) contrastive analysis, (2) lexical fields, and (3) etymology. (SED)

  9. The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop o

  10. Derived Picard groups of selfinjective Nakayama algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov, Yury; Zvonareva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In our proceeding paper a generating set of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra was constructed combining some previous results for Brauer tree algebras and the technique of orbit categories developed there. In this paper we finish the computation of the derived Picard group of a selfinjective Nakayama algebra.

  11. Microbial Degradation of Indole and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole and its derivatives, including 3-methylindole and 4-chloroindole, are environmental pollutants that are present worldwide. Microbial degradation of indole and its derivatives can occur in several aerobic and anaerobic pathways; these pathways involve different known and characterized genes. In this minireview, we summarize and explain the microbial degradation of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-chloroindole, and methylindole.

  12. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1 of this thesis we discuss some appl

  13. Eulerian Derivation of the Coriolis Force

    CERN Document Server

    Kageyama, A; Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose, but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.

  14. Eulerian derivation of the Coriolis force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Akira; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2006-02-01

    In textbooks of geophysical fluid dynamics, the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force in a rotating fluid system are derived by making use of the fluid parcel concept. In contrast to this intuitive derivation to the apparent forces, more rigorous derivation would be useful not only for the pedagogical purpose but also for the applications to other kinds of rotating geophysical systems rather than the fluid. The purpose of this paper is to show a general procedure to derive the transformed equations in the rotating frame of reference based on the local Galilean transformation and rotational coordinate transformation of field quantities. The generality and usefulness of this Eulerian approach is demonstrated in the derivation of apparent forces in rotating fluids as well as the transformed electromagnetic field equation in the rotating system.

  15. Stereoselective Synthesis of 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic Acid Derivatives via Ylide Cyclopropanation of Dehydroamino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui; Deng Xianming; Zheng Juncheng; Shen Qi; Sun Xiuli; Tang Yong

    2011-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid derivatives are synthesized from readily available dehydroamino acid de-rivatives via sulfur ylide. A range of different ylides are employed and the corresponding aminocyclopropanes are afforded with reasonable diastereoselection in good yields.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is secreted by cells into fermentation broth and converted to chymosin by acid treatment. All... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet...

  17. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  18. Anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activity of diindolylmethane derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakina Hayat BENABADJI; Ren WEN; Jian-bin ZHENG; Xiao-chun DONG; Shen-gang YUAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the synthesis methods and the bioactivity of diindolylmethane (DIM) derivatives. METHODS:1) A 3D-Quantitative Structure-Active Relationships (QSAR) Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) study of 14 DIM derivatives was investigated to predict their anticarcinogenic activity. 2) Based on CoMFA model, a series of new derivatives of DIM were designed and synthesized. 3) Their free radical scavenging and antioxidant potentials were tested using in-vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene antioxidant models. 4) The anticarcinogenic activities of some compounds were tested by using microculture tetrazolium assay (MTT) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) proteochromosomic assays. RESULTS: 1) The CoMFA model derived from DIM analogues proved a good predictive ability with q2 value of 0.827. 2) New designed compounds 3c and 4c exhibited 3-fold more potent radical scavenging activity than reference substance Vitamin E in DPPH model expressed by IC50 values. 3) The primary antitumor screening essay showed that some DIM derivatives designed exhibited the inhibitory activities to some tumor cell growth at relatively high concentration, and DIM was the most effective among them. CONCLUSION: DIM's 3D-QSAR model is reliable. According to it, eleven DIM derivatives were synthesized, and two derivatives of them possess potent radical scavenging activities and some showed the inhibitory activities in primary anticancer assay in vitro.

  19. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  20. Test Derivation Through Critical Path Transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 魏道政

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique called test derivation is presented,aiming at the promotion of the random testing efficiency for combinational circuits,Combined with a fault simulator based on critical path tracing method,we introduce the concept of seed test derivation and attempt to generate a group of new tests from the seed test by means of critical path transition.The neccessary conditions and efficient algorithms are proposed to guarantee the usefulness of the newly derived tests and the correctness of the critical path transitions.Also,examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  1. [Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-09-20

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury. PMID:26383983

  2. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TITANOCENE POLYMER DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhuting; SUN Shumen

    1988-01-01

    Titanocene polymer derivatives with potential antitumor properties were synthesized by interfacial condensation. The preformed polymers used are PAA (polyacrylic acid), CPSMA (1:1 alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride) and DVEMA (1:2 copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride). The ratio of practical and theoretical titanium content is 73.6%, 92.2% and 86.2% for PAA, CPSMA and DVEMA polymer derivatives respectively. The IR spectra of the polymer derivatives possess the characteristic absorptions of titanocene. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) of O1s and Ti2p3/2 supports the existence of Ti-O bonding.

  3. Catalytic Synthesis Methods for Triazolopyrimidine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new method for catalyzed synthesis of triazolopyrimidine derivatives is reported. Aikylamine reaction with dialkyl cyanodithioiminocarbonate was catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts at room temperature to yield 3-alkylamine-5-amino-1,2,4-triazole in good quality and high yields. After imidization and reaction with an α,β-unsaturated acid derivative, the reaction intermediate was hydrolyzed in the presence of a Lewis acid to obtain the target product. This novel catalytic method for triazolopyrimidine derivatives can be carried out under inexpen-sive and mild conditions, and is safe and environmentally friendly. IH NMR results for all intermediates are re-ported.

  4. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei YAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  5. Phytol-derived novel isoprenoid immunostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Roy Chowdhury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the adjuvanticity of novel diterpenoids (synthetic phytol derivatives compared to some commercially available adjuvants. The efficacy of the phytol-derived immunostimulants was evaluated in terms of their ability to activate innate immunity, amplify various antigen-specific immune responses and engender immunological memory with no discernible adverse effects in both competent and immune-deficient mice. The profile that emerges out of these studies reveals that the phytol derivatives are excellent immunostimulants, superior in many respects to a number of commercial adjuvants.

  6. Entanglement entropy in higher derivative holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda

    2013-08-01

    We consider holographic entanglement entropy in higher derivative gravity theories. Recently Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] have provided a method to derive the equations for the entangling surface from first principles. We use this method to compute the entangling surface in four derivative gravity. Certain interesting differences compared to the two derivative case are pointed out. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we show that in the regime where this method is applicable, the resulting equations coincide with proposals in the literature as well as with what follows from considerations of the stress tensor on the entangling surface. Finally we demonstrate that the area functional in Gauss-Bonnet holography arises as a counterterm needed to make the Euclidean action free of power law divergences.

  7. Sums and Differences vs. Integrals and Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Gilbert

    1990-01-01

    Offers an approach to the understanding and to the teaching of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Stresses teaching the relation between a function and its derivative and the functions themselves. (YP)

  8. Frequency analysis of photoplethysmogram and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Fletcher, Richard R; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale

    2015-12-01

    There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG). We investigate the PPG signal and its derivatives for heat stress assessment using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The preliminary results of this study indicate that applying the first and second derivatives to PPG waveforms is useful for determining heat stress level using 20-s recordings. Interestingly, Welch's and Yule-Walker's methods in agreement that the second derivative is an improved detector for heat stress. In fact, both spectral estimation methods showed a clear separation in the frequency domain between measurements before and after simulated heat-stress induction when the second derivative is applied. Moreover, the results demonstrate superior performance of the Welch's method over the Yule-Walker's method in separating before and after the three simulated heat-stress inductions. PMID:26498064

  9. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  10. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  11. Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉

    2002-01-01

    Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphi-philicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around C.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.

  12. Prediction on amphiphilicity of hypocrellin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢杰; 马江华; 赵井泉

    2002-01-01

    Hypocrellins are most suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the diseases occurring in the superficial layer, such as microvascular diseases, because of their special absorption spectral properties. However, hypocrellins and most of their derivatives are basically lipophilic, while the hydrophilic derivatives lose the PDT activity in vivo. Therefore, the key problem for practical application of PDT of microvascular diseases focuses on finding the derivatives which possess optimized amphiphilicity. Herein, we developed a theoretical method to estimate the amphiphilicity of a molecule by the calculated average polarity. Compared with the experimentally measured results, the method is proved to be applicable. Based on the computation and available experimental results, it can be concluded that the derivative must have the polarities around 0.22 for optimized amphiphilicity.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FURAN DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anupam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Furan derivative are an important class of heterocyclic compound that possess important biological properties. From last few decades a considerable amount of attention has been focussed on synthesis of Furan derivatives and screening them for different pharmacological activities.The furan ring system is the basic skeleton of numerous compounds possessing cardiovascular activities. An iodinated lipophilic furan derivative is widely used in the treatment of ventricular and atrial fibrillation. These moieties are widely employed as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antitumor, Antihyperglycemic, Analgesic, Anticonvulsant etc. Slight change in substitution pattern in furan nucleus causes distinguishable difference in their biological activities. In this review we are discussing about synthesis and various biological activities of newly synthesized furan derivatives.

  14. Synthesis of Nucleoside Derivatives Containing Benzophenoxazinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu GAO; Wu Xin ZOU; Ling WU; Jin Shui LI; Ji Tao WANG; Ji Ben MENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new nucleoside derivatives containing benzophenoxazinone moiety were synthesized. Their luminescence spectra show that they have strong near infrared fluorescence. Our study provides a new method for direct introduction of near infrared fluorescent probe to bioactive molecules.

  15. A New Synthetic Approach to Coumestan Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG, Deng-Huang; LI, Chao-Zhong; YUAN, Cheng-Ye

    2001-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of coumestan derivatives was described involving an intramolecular palladium-catalyzed ring closure reaction of coumarins obtained from condensation of substituted o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and o-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  16. Higher Derivative Corrections To Extended Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, G A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate higher-derivative terms in N = 2 supersymmetric effective actions. We systematically construct such terms in harmonic superspace despite the infinite redundancy in their description due to the infinite number of auxiliary fields. We write all 3- and 4-derivative terms on Higgs, Coulomb, and mixed branches, modulo the existence of superspace Chern-Simons-like terms. Among these terms are several with only holomorphic dependence on fields, and at least one satisfies a non-renormalization theorem. We then search for superspace Chern-Simons-like terms, which are those gauge-invariant terms which cannot be written solely in terms of field strength superfields and covariant derivatives, but in which gauge potential superfield appears explicitly. We find a class of four- derivative terms with N = 2 supersymmetry which, though locally on the Coulomb branch can be written solely in terms of field strengths, globally on the Coulomb branch are superspace Chern- Simons-like.

  17. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  18. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could...... be divided further, the synthesis and Langmuir-Blodgett results are intertwined in such a way that it would be more confusing to pre-sent them separately. The Langmuir-Blodgett deposition also played a crucial, but more isolated, part in the investigation of graphene derivatives as interface material....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...

  19. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH, β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group. β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  20. Hilfer-Prabhakar Derivatives and Some Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Garra, Roberto; Gorenflo, Rudolf; Polito, Federico; Tomovski, Zivorad

    2014-01-01

    We present a generalization of Hilfer derivatives in which Riemann--Liouville integrals are replaced by more general Prabhakar integrals. We analyze and discuss its properties. Further, we show some applications of these generalized Hilfer-Prabhakar derivatives in classical equations of mathematical physics, like the heat and the free electron laser equations, and in difference-differential equations governing the dynamics of generalized renewal stochastic processes.

  1. Estimating derivatives and integrals with Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Emmanuel; Walter, Eric

    2005-01-01

    International audience This paper formalizes a methodology based on Kriging, a technique developped by geostatisticians, for estimating derivatives and integrals of signals that are only known via possibly irregularly spaced and noisy observations. This finds direct applications, e.g., in system identification when differential algebra is used to express parameters as nonlinear functions of the inputs and outputs and their derivatives. The procedure is quite simple to implement, and allows...

  2. Derivation of Crustal Magnetic Anomalies from MAGSAT

    OpenAIRE

    YANAGISAWA, Masahisa

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes various characteristics of the magnetospheric field, induction field, and ionospheric field observed by MAGSAT (Magnetic Field Satellite) and the derivation of crustal magnetic anomalies free from disturbance fields. After eliminating the effect of the disturbance field, anomaly maps were derived for the Japanese area and for the Shatsky Rise area. The magnetic field observed by satellites consists of a core field, induction field, crustal field, ionospheric field, and ma...

  3. Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading

  4. Growth Optimal Investment and Pricing of Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Aurell; Roberto Baviera; Ola Hammarlid; Maurizio Serva; Angelo Vulpiani

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a criterion how to price derivatives in incomplete markets, based on the theory of growth optimal strategy in repeated multiplicative games. We present reasons why these growth-optimal strategies should be particularly relevant to the problem of pricing derivatives. We compare our result with other alternative pricing procedures in the literature, and discuss the limits of validity of the lognormal approximation. We also generalize the pricing method to a market with correlated s...

  5. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG LingLing; ZHANG Xiu; MA Jie; ZHONG ZhenZhen; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Yan; WANG JianBo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH.,β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group.β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  6. Deriving modified rankin scores from medical records

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, T J; Ray, G.; Atula, S.; Walters, M.R.; Dawson, J.; Lees, K R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Modified Rankin score (mRS) is traditionally graded using a face-to-face or telephone interview. Certain stroke assessment scales can be derived from a review of a patient’s case-record alone. We hypothesized that mRS could be successfully derived from the narrative within patient case-records. Methods: Sequential patients attending our cerebrovascular outpatient clinic were included. Two independent, blinded clinicians, trained in mRS, assessed case-records to der...

  7. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...

  8. DERIVATIONS AND EXTENSIONS OF LIE COLOR ALGEBRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qingcheng; Zhang Yongzheng

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors obtain some results concerning derivations of fi-nitely generated Lie color algebras and discuss the relation between skew derivation space SkDer(L) and central extension H2(L, F) on some Lie color algebras. Meanwhile, they generalize the notion of double extension to quadratic Lie color algebras, a sufficient con-dition for a quadratic Lie color algebra to be a double extension and further properties are given.

  9. Generalized entropy and higher derivative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Joan

    2013-01-01

    We derive an extension of the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription for generic theories of gravity in the bulk. This results in a new entangling functional, that contains a correction to Wald's entropy. The new term is quadratic in the extrinsic curvature. The coefficient of this correction is a second derivative of the lagrangian with respect to the Riemann tensor. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, the new functional reduces to Jacobson-Myers'.

  10. Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hypocrellins are a novel type of photosensitizers. A series of new hypocrellin B (HB) derivatives have been synthesized to overcome their limitations, I.e. To improve their red absorption and amphiphilicity. The generation of reactive oxygen species (including superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) is investigated in the presence of oxygen. The chemical structures of HB derivatives affect not only the generation efficiencies of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, but also quantum yields of singlet oxygen.

  11. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. Th...

  12. Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hammoudeh, Shawkat; McAleer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel econometric, financial econometric and empirical finance methods have contributed significantly to the analysis of risk management, with an emphasis on financial derivatives, specifically conditional corr...

  13. Entropic-gravity derivation of MOND

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2012-01-01

    A heuristic entropic-gravity derivation has previously been given of the gravitational two-body force of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). Here, it is shown that also another characteristic of MOND can be recovered, namely, the external field effect (implying a violation of the Strong Equivalence Principle). In fact, the derivation gives precisely the modified Poisson equation which Bekenstein and Milgrom proposed as a consistent nonrelativistic theory of MOND.

  14. Intercepting Bacterial Indole Signaling with Flustramine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bunders, Cynthia A.; Minvielle, Marine J.; Worthington, Roberta J.; Ortiz, Minoshka; Cavanagh, John; Melander, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Indole signaling is one of the putative universal signaling networks in bacteria. We have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives for the inhibition of biofilm formation through modulation of the indole-signaling network in E. coli and S. aureus. We have found dFBr derivatives that are 10-1000 times more active than indole itself, demonstrating that the flustramine family of indolic natural products represent a privileged scaffold for the design of molecules to cont...

  15. Machian derivation of the Friedmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Telkamp, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Despite all fundamental objections against Newtonian concepts in cosmology, the Friedmann equation derives from these in an astoundingly simple way, invoking both the shell theorem and conservation of energy in an infinite universe. However, in the presence of a gravitational horizon the application of the shell theorem fails. We derive the Friedmann equation in the presence of a gravitational horizon using Machian arguments and without using the shell theorem.

  16. The period functions' higher order derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We prove a formula for the $n$-th derivative of the period function $T$ in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For $n = 1$, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative \\cite{FGG}. We apply such a result to hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order O.D.E.'s to be convex.

  17. Functional Determinants in Higher Derivative Lagrangian Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Di Criscienzo, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the considerable success of alternative theories of gravity, we consider the toy model of a higher derivative Lagrangian theory, namely the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator studied in a recent paper by Hawking-Hertog. Its Euclidean Path Integral is studied with a certain detail and a pedagogical derivation of the propagator, which makes use of a Theorem due to Forman, is consequently proposed

  18. Three essays on credit derivatives and liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Arakelyan, Armen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of three empirical essays on pricing credit derivatives and the impact of liquidity on the prices of credit derivatives. In essay one, I investigate empirically the pricing of Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDO) within the framework of copula models. In essay two I analyze the impact of illiquidity on Credit Default Swap (CDS) spreads on an individual level. In essay three I analyze the effect of market wide illiquidity on portfolio CDS spreads on an aggrega...

  19. Complexes of salicylic acid and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalization and systematization have been made of literature data on complexing of various elements, including beryllium, cadmium, boron, indium, rare-earth elements, actinides, and transition elements with salicylic acid and it derivatives (amino-, nitro- and halosalicylic acids). The effect of the position and nature of the substitute, in the case of salicylic acid derivatives, on the complexing process is discussed. Certain physicochemical properties of the complexes under consideration are described along with data indicative of their stability

  20. On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.

    The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.

  1. Endogenous credit derivatives and bank behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pausch, Thilo

    2007-01-01

    Instruments for credit risk transfer arise endogenously from and interact with optimizing behavior of their users. This is particularly true with credit derivatives which are usually OTC contracts between banks as buyers and sellers of credit risk. Recent literature, however, does not account for this fact when analyzing the effects of these instruments on banking. The present paper closes this gap by explicitly modelling the market for credit derivatives and its interaction with banks? loan ...

  2. Synthesis of Some New Condensed Pyrimidine Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclodehydration of 6-amino-5-cyano pyrimidine derivative (2) afforded pyrimidoisoindole derivatives (3). Compound (3) reacted with carbethoxymethylene derivative to give pyridopyrimidine derivatives (5a,b). Compound (3) was also reacted with formamide to give the corresponding pyrimidopyrimdine derivatives (6) that condensed with benzaldehyde to give Schiff's base (7). Refluxing of compound (3) with triethyl orthoformate afforded compound (8) that cyclized with ammonium hydroxide giving the same compound (6). Compound (8) cyclized with hydrazine hydrate giving compound (9) which also cyclized with triethyl orthoformate affording compound (10). Diazotization of compound (3) led to the formation of triazinopyrimidine derivative (11). Cyclization of compound (11) upon treatment with hydrazine hydrate afforded compound (12). Compound (15) was prepared from reaction of compound (3) and ethylenediamine in presence of carbon disulfide. The behaviour of compound (15) toward benzoyl chloride, triethyl orthoformate, nitrous acid and/or carbon disulfide was also described. All proposed structures were supported by elemental analyses, spectroscopic data and some of the new products showed antimicrobial activity

  3. Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap

    OpenAIRE

    Han,Lu

    2006-01-01

    The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...

  4. Additive Lie (ζ-Lie) Derivations and Generalized Lie (ζ-Lie)Derivations on Prime Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fei QI; Jin Chuan HOU

    2013-01-01

    The additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on prime algebras are characterized.It is shown,under some suitable assumptions,that an additive map L is an additive generalized Lie derivation if and only if it is the sum of an additive generalized derivation and an additive map from the algebra into its center vanishing all commutators; is an additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivation with ζ ≠ 1 if and only if it is an additive (generalized) derivation satisfying L(ζA) =ζL(A) for all A.These results are then used to characterize additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on several operator algebras such as Banach space standard operator algebras and von Neumman algebras.

  5. On an algebraic method for derivatives estimation and parameter estimation for partial derivatives systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ushirobira, Rosane; Korporal, Anja; PERRUQUETTI, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    International audience — In this communication, we discuss two estimation problems dealing with partial derivatives systems. Namely, estimating partial derivatives of a multivariate noisy signal and identifying parameters of partial differential equations. The multivariate noisy signal is expressed as a truncated Taylor expression in a small time interval. An algebraic method can be then used to estimate its partial derivatives in the opera-tional domain. The same approach applies for the ...

  6. Structure Activity Relationship of Brevenal Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Goodman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brevenal is a ladder frame polyether produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism is also responsible for the production of the neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. Ingestion or inhalation of the brevetoxins leads to adverse effects such as gastrointestinal maladies and bronchoconstriction. Brevenal shows antagonistic behavior to the brevetoxins and shows beneficial attributes when administered alone. For example, in an asthmatic sheep model, brevenal has been shown to increase tracheal mucosal velocity, an attribute which has led to its development as a potential treatment for Cystic Fibrosis. The mechanism of action of brevenal is poorly understood and the exact binding site has not been elucidated. In an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action of brevenal and potentially develop a second generation drug candidate, a series of brevenal derivatives were prepared through modification of the aldehyde moiety. These derivatives include aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrazide derivatives. The brevenal derivatives were tested using in vitro synaptosome binding assays to determine the ability of the compounds to displace brevetoxin and brevenal from their native receptors. A sheep inhalation model was used to determine if instillation of the brevenal derivatives resulted in bronchoconstriction. Only small modifications were tolerated, with larger moieties leading to loss of affinity for the brevenal receptor and bronchoconstriction in the sheep model.

  7. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new tonantzitlolone-derived diterpene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Torsten; Dräger, Gerald; Kunst, Eike; Benson, Hannah; Sasse, Florenz; Siems, Karsten; Kirschning, Andreas

    2016-10-14

    The synthesis of the diterpene (+)-tonantzitlolone A and a series of derivatives is reported. The study includes the determination of their antiproliferative activities against selected cancer cell lines.

  8. Adaptive synchronization of the complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.

  9. Conversion of 3-Carbethoxy-4-methyl Coumarin Derivatives into Several New Annelated Coumarin Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAKEER; HadeerMohammed

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of ethyl esters of 4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-l-benzo(naphtho) pyran.3-carboxylic acids (1) with aromatic aldehy-des in the presence of piperidine yielded 4-styryl-3-carboxami-dopiperidyl connmrin derivatives 4. The reaction of hydrazlne hydrate with 1 gave acetophenone hydrozone derivatives 5 and acetophenone azine derivatives 6. The reaction of 1 with prima-ry amines afforded compomlds 7—9. And the treatment of la with Grignard reagents afforded 3-aroyl-4-methyl coumarin derivatives 10.

  10. Gateaux and Frechet Derivative in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Linear spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, B.; Samanta, T. K.; Bera, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitionistic Fuzzy derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are defined and a few of their properties are studied. The relation between Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are emphasized.

  11. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  12. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  13. Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin;

    2015-01-01

    of diuretics such as bumetanide. Bumetanide was discovered by screening ∼5000 3-amino-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives, long before NKCC2 was identified in the kidney. Therefore, structure-activity studies on effects of bumetanide derivatives on NKCC2 are not available. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study......, the effect of a series of diuretically active bumetanide derivatives was investigated on human NKCC2 variant A (hNKCC2A) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. KEY RESULTS: Bumetanide blocked hNKCC2A transport with an IC50 of 4 μM. There was good correlation between the diuretic potency of bumetanide and its...... of the structural requirements that determine relative potency of loop diuretics on human NKCC2 splice variants, and may lead to the discovery of novel high-ceiling diuretics....

  14. Optimal hedging of Derivatives with transaction costs

    CERN Document Server

    Aurell, E; Aurell, Erik; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal strategy over a finite time horizon for a portfolio of stock and bond and a derivative in an multiplicative Markovian market model with transaction costs (friction). The optimization problem is solved by a Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi equation, which by the verification theorem has well-behaved solutions if certain conditions on a potential are satisfied. In the case at hand, these conditions simply imply arbitrage-free ("Black-Scholes") pricing of the derivative. While pricing is hence not changed by friction allow a portfolio to fluctuate around a delta hedge. In the limit of weak friction, we determine the optimal control to essentially be of two parts: a strong control, which tries to bring the stock-and-derivative portfolio towards a Black-Scholes delta hedge; and a weak control, which moves the portfolio by adding or subtracting a Black-Scholes hedge. For simplicity we assume growth-optimal investment criteria and quadratic friction.

  15. Derivatives on the isotropic tensor functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUI; Guansuo; WANG; Zhengdao; JIN; Ming

    2006-01-01

    The derivative of the isotropic tensor function plays an important part in continuum mechanics and computational mechanics, and also it is still an opening problem. By means of a scalar response function and solving a tensor equation, this problem is well studied. A compact explicit expression for the derivative of the isotropic tensor function is presented, which is valid for both distinct and repeated eigenvalue cases. Throughout the analysis, the formulation holds for general isotropic tensor functions without need to solve eigenvector problems or determine coefficients. On the theoretical side, a very simple solution of a tensor equation is obtained. As an application to continuum mechanics, a base-free expression for the Hill's strain rate is given, which is more compact than the existent results. Finally, with an example we compute the derivative of an exponent tensor function. And the efficiency of the present formulations is demonstrated.

  16. Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Blender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...

  17. Photochemistry of hypocrellin derivatives under anaerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To improve the red absorption and solubility of hypocrellin, we have synthesized a series of hypocrellin B derivatives. The photochemistry of these new compounds in anaerobic media has been investigated by using electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spectrophotometric methods. The semiquinone anion radicals can be produced by self-electron transfer on irradiation, with the formation efficiency and EPR hyperfine structures of the semiquinone anion radicals dependent on the structures of the derivatives. When an electron donor is present, the electron transfer from electron donor to hypocrellin B derivatives enhanced the production of the corresponding semiquinone anion radical; in addition, the semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone can be detected spectrophotometrically. Structural modifications exert little effect on the absorption position of semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone, but influence their formation efficiency significantly.

  18. Horava gravity with mixed derivative terms

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, Mattia; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Horava gravity has been constructed so as to exhibit anisotropic scaling in the ultraviolet, as this renders the theory power-counting renormalizable. However, when coupled to matter, the theory has been shown to suffer from quadratic divergences. A way to cure these divergences is to add terms with both time and space derivatives. We consider this extended version of the theory in detail. We perform a perturbative analysis that includes all modes, determine the propagators and discuss how including mixed-derivative terms affects them. We also consider the Lifshitz scalar with mixed-derivative terms as a toy model for power counting arguments and discuss the influence of such terms on renormalizability.

  19. Dielectric transition of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Zhou, Lei; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao

    2014-09-01

    The dielectric behavior of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers formed at different carbonization temperatures was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data are presented in the form of Cole-Cole plots and four equivalent electrical circuits are derived. It is found that by increasing carbonization temperature from 500 to 800 °C, a strong capacitive element in the parallel equivalent circuit is transformed into an inductive element, while the contact resistance and parallel resistance are significantly decreased. Along with the morphological and chemical structural evolution, respectively witnessed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the dielectric transition deduced from the transformation of electrical circuits can be correlated to the proposed microstructural changes of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers and the interaction/interference among them.

  20. Another derivation of generalized Langevin equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dengler, R

    2015-01-01

    The formal derivation of Langevin equations (and, equivalently Fokker-Planck equations) with projection operator techniques of Mori, Zwanzig, Kawasaki and others can well be called a pearl of theoretical physics. The derivation relies on classical mechanics, and encompasses everything an omnipotent engineer can construct from point particles and potentials: solids, liquids, liquid crystals, conductors, polymers, systems with spin-like degrees of freedom ... Einstein relations and Onsager reciprocity theorem come for free. It apparently not has widely found its way into textbooks, but has been reproduced dozens of times on the fly with many references to the literature and without adding much substantially new. Here we follow the tradition, but strive to produce a self-contained text. Furthermore, we address questions that naturally arise in the derivation. Among other things the meaning of the divergence of the Poisson brackets is explained, and the role of nonlinear damping coefficients is clarified.

  1. Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development. PMID:19226745

  2. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  3. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  4. Ethanolamine derivatives of dysprosium and holmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation and properties of dysprosium and holmium derivatives of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolamine derivatives are described. Compounds of general formulae: Ln(OPrsup(i))2(mea), Ln(OPrsup(i))(mea)2, Ln(mea)3, Ln(OPrsup(i))(dea), Ln2(dea)3, Ln(dea)(deaH) and Ln(tea) (where Ln = Dy or Ho and mea, dea and tea are the anions of respective ethanolamine) were obtained and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. (author)

  5. A 'simple' hybrid model for power derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a method for valuing power derivatives using a supply-demand approach. Our method extends work in the field by incorporating randomness into the base load portion of the supply stack function and equating it with a noisy demand process. We obtain closed form solutions for European option prices written on average spot prices considering two different supply models: a mean-reverting model and a Markov chain model. The results are extensions of the classic Black-Scholes equation. The model provides a relatively simple approach to describe the complicated price behaviour observed in electricity spot markets and also allows for computationally efficient derivatives pricing. (author)

  6. Access to new antimicrobial 4-methylumbelliferone derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marwa Zayane; Anis Romdhane; Mejda Daami-Remadi; Hichem Ben Jannet

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of some novel coumarin esters has been accomplished through iodine-catalyzed method using 4-methylumbelliferone as the starting material. Condensation of hydrazide, which was obtained in two steps from 4-methylumbelliferone, with some arylaldhydes provided hydrazone derivatives, while the reaction with phenylthioisocyanate leads to the thiosemicarbazide that evolved into two new compounds. Finally, condensation reaction of hydrazide with three diketones afforded new pyrrole and pyrazole derivatives. Structures of all synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ES-HRMS. They were finally tested for their antimicrobial activity and the structure-activity relationship was discussed.

  7. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvio, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)

  8. Generalized entropy and higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive an extension of the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription for curvature squared theories of gravity in the bulk, and comment on a prescription for more general theories. This results in a new entangling functional, that contains a correction to Wald’s entropy. The new term is quadratic in the extrinsic curvature. The coefficient of this correction is a second derivative of the lagrangian with respect to the Riemann tensor. For Gauss-Bonnet gravity, the new functional reduces to Jacobson-Myers’

  9. Mesogenic benzothiazole derivatives with methoxy substituents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Prajapati; N L Bonde

    2006-03-01

    Two new mesogenic homologous series containing 6-methoxybenzothiazole ring at the terminus of the molecule, viz. 2-(4'--alkoxyphenylazo)-6-methoxybenzothiazoles and 2-[4'-(4"--alkoxybenzoyloxy) phenylazo]-6-methoxybenzothiazoles were synthesized. In series I, -butyloxy to -tetradecyloxy derivatives exhibit nematic mesophase. Smectic A mesophase commences from the -dodecyloxy derivative as a monotropic phase and is retained up to the last member synthesized. All the members of series II exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. The mesomorphic properties of the present series are compared with other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of the benzothiazole ring and the methoxy substituent on mesomorphism.

  10. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)

  11. On Dirichlet's Derivation of the Ellipsoid Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, W

    2016-01-01

    Newton's potential of a massive homogeneous ellipsoid is derived via Dirichlet's discontinuous factor. At first we review part of Dirichlet's work in an English translation of the original German, and then continue with an extension of his method into the complex plane. With this trick it becomes possible to first calculate the potential and thereafter the force components exerted on a test mass by the ellipsoid. This is remarkable in so far as all other famous researchers prior to Dirichlet merely calculated the attraction components. Unfortunately, Dirichlet's derivation is to a large extent mathematically unacceptable which, however, can be corrected by treating the problem in the complex plane.

  12. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  13. Synthesis of isothiocyanate-derived mercapturic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Zwanenburg, B.; Chittenden, G.J.F.; Verhagen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve mercapturic acids derived from saturated and unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic isothiocyanates were synthesised, by adding isothiocyanate to a solution of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium bicarbonate, in a typical yield of 77%. Isothiocyanates were synthesised first by adding the corresponding

  14. Measurements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Klein, Anders Bue; Vinberg, Maj;

    2007-01-01

    Although numerous studies have dealt with changes in blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), methodological issues about BDNF measurements have only been incompletely resolved. We validated BDNF ELISA with respect to accuracy, reproducibility and the effect of storage and repeated freezin...

  15. Derivation of a poroelastic flexural shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Mikelic, Andro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the limit behavior of the solution to quasi-static Biot's equations in thin poroelastic flexural shells as the thickness of the shell tends to zero and extend the results obtained for the poroelastic plate by Marciniak-Czochra and Mikeli\\'c. We choose Terzaghi's time corresponding to the shell thickness and obtain the strong convergence of the three-dimensional solid displacement, fluid pressure and total poroelastic stress to the solution of the new class of shell equations. The derived bending equation is coupled with the pressure equation and it contains the bending moment due to the variation in pore pressure across the shell thickness. The effective pressure equation is parabolic only in the normal direction. As additional terms it contains the time derivative of the middle-surface flexural strain. Derivation of the model presents an extension of the results on the derivation of classical linear elastic shells by Ciarlet and collaborators to the poroelastic shells case. The n...

  16. Chemistry of Phosphorylated Formaldehyde Derivatives. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily P. Morgalyuk

    2014-01-01

    The underinvestigated derivatives of unstable phosphorylated formaldehyde acetals and some of the structurally related compounds, such as thioacetals, aminonitriles, aminomethylphosphinoyl compounds, are considered. Separately considered are halogen aminals of phosphorylated formaldehyde, acetals of phosphorylated formaldehyde of H-phosphinate-type and a phosphorylated gem-diol of formaldehyde. Synthetic methods, chemical properties and examples of practical applications are given.

  17. Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylee, J. Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

  18. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  19. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...

  20. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification...

  1. Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophenols (CPs) and their derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants which are used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides and other industrial products. CPs, which include monochlorophenols, polychlorophenols, chloronitrophenols, chloroaminophenols and chloromethylphenols, are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Several physico-chemical and biological methods have been used for removal of CPs from the environment. B...

  2. Unedoside derivatives in Nuxia and their biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Ravnkilde, Lene; Schripsema, Jan

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia showed that this genus is characterized by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2 "-acetyl-3 "-cinnamoyl-nuxioside were isol...

  3. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  4. Efficient pricing algorithms for exotic derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lord (Roger)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSince the Nobel-prize winning papers of Black and Scholes and Merton in 1973, the derivatives market has evolved into a multi-trillion dollar market. Structures which were once considered as exotic are now commonplace, appearing in retail products such as mortgages and investment notes.

  5. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  6. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H.; Nakagawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml.

  7. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters...

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Sulfonylurea Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-liang; LI Yao-xian; ZHANG Suo-qin; GAO Fei-fei

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of study on the mechanism of action of sulfonylurea herbicides, nine sulfonylurea derivatives of iso-xazolidinone were designed and synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by means of IR, MS, NMR and elemental analysis. The results of preliminary active tests indicate that the compounds have some herbicidal activity. The structure-activity relationship was also studied.

  9. Supersymmetric higher derivative couplings and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodato, I.

    2014-01-01

    After an elementary introduction on black hole physics, supersymmetry and effective theories, which motivates the importance of higher derivative couplings in supergravity, we give an exhaustive treatment of the covariant phase space formalism with many examples explicitly worked out. This sets the

  10. Chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, Rostislav F.; Trofimov, A. V.; Tsaplev, Yuri B.

    2010-02-01

    The results of studies on chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives are critically analyzed. It is shown that chemical transformations of indoles lead, depending on the structure and experimental conditions, to various electronically excited products and emission of light. Many reactions considered are used as a basis for highly sensitive methods for detection of indoles in biology, medicine, ecology and forensics.

  11. Diclofenac derivatives with insulin-sensitizing activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ta Wang; Ying Wang; Ji Quan Zhang; Xing Cui; Yi Zhang; Gao Feng Zhu; Lei Tang

    2011-01-01

    A series of diclofenac derivatives were synthesized. The insulin-sensitizing activity of 28 new compounds was evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells. The compounds 10a and 10f exhibited similar insulin-sensitizing activity with positive drag rosiglitazone.

  12. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  13. Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel econome

  14. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of...

  15. Theoretical derivation of heliostat tracking errors distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)

    2008-12-15

    The tracking error probability distribution is derived on a pure theoretical basis. Methods of integral geometry and geometrical probabilities are used to this purpose. The distribution performs reasonably well when compared with measurements from a small database. The performance of the theoretical distribution is compared with that of other (empirical) probability distributions. The practical relevance of using the present approach is also explained. (author)

  16. Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing trie

  17. Generalized Voigt functions and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India) and Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in; Nagendra, K.N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Frisch, H. [Laboratoire Cassiopee (CNRS, UMR 6202), Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2007-03-15

    This paper deals with a special class of functions called generalized Voigt functions H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a) and their partial derivatives, which are useful in the theory of polarized spectral line formation in stochastic media. For n=0 they reduce to the usual Voigt and Faraday-Voigt functions H(x,a) and G(x,a). A detailed study is made of these new functions. Simple recurrence relations are established and employed for the calculation of the functions themselves and of their partial derivatives. Asymptotic expansions are given for large values of x and a. They are used to examine the range of applicability of the recurrence relations and to construct a numerical algorithm for the calculation of the generalized Voigt functions and of their derivatives valid in a large (x,a) domain. It is also shown that the partial derivatives of the usual H(x,a) and G(x,a) can be expressed in terms of H{sup (n)}(x,a) and G{sup (n)}(x,a)

  18. Higher-Derivative Supergravity and Moduli Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciupke, David; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachberich Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik

    2015-05-15

    We review the ghost-free four-derivative terms for chiral superfields in N=1 supersymmetry and supergravity. These terms induce cubic polynomial equations of motion for the chiral auxiliary fields and correct the scalar potential. We discuss the different solutions and argue that only one of them is consistent with the principles of effective field theory. Special attention is paid to the corrections along flat directions which can be stabilized or destabilized by the higher-derivative terms. We then compute these higher-derivative terms explicitly for the type IIB string compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with fluxes via Kaluza-Klein reducing the (α'){sup 3}R{sup 4} corrections in ten dimensions for the respective N=1 Kaehler moduli sector. We prove that together with flux and the known (α'){sup 3}-corrections the higher-derivative term stabilizes all Calabi-Yau manifolds with positive Euler number, provided the sign of the new correction is negative.

  19. Synthesis and application of epoxy starch derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Haar, ter R.; Schols, H.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy starch derivatives were synthesized by epoxidation of allylated starch. The reaction was performed with low substituted 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl-waxy maize starch (AHP-WMS; degree of substitution (DS) of 0.23) using hydrogen peroxide and acetonitrile Via a two step spectrophotometric assay,

  20. Polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives from Cuban propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ingrid Márquez; Fernandez, Mercedes Campo; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-06-01

    Three new polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives, propolones B-D (5-7), together with garcinielliptone I (8) and hyperibone B (9), were isolated from Cuban propolis. All the structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and computer-generated molecular modeling. PMID:15974622

  1. Stereoselective Synthesis of Butenolide and Butyrolactone Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    SIRIT, Abdulkadir

    2000-01-01

    Optically active butenolide and g-butyrolactone derivatives were prepared by removing (R)-phenyl glycinol and (1R, 2R)-norpseudoephedrine used as chiral auxiliaries from butenolides and g-butyrolactones in two steps. The structures of these products were determined using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass spect., IR and microanalysis.

  2. Facile synthesis of acacetin and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Li; Sui, Qiang; Lin, Feng; Jiang, Wen; Chen, Jianli; Lu, Weigeng; Gao, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Acacetin, a O-methylated bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Xuelianhua (Saussurea tridactyla), is a promising orally effective atrium-selective antiarrhythmic agent for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here we describe an efficient two-component method for the synthesis of acacetin and its derivatives. PMID:27321812

  3. Synthesis of [60]Fullerene-Podophyllotoxin Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Li-Wei(郭礼伟); GAO,Xiang(高翔); ZHANG,Dan-Wei(张丹维); WU,Shi-Hui(吴世晖); WU,Hou-Ming(吴厚铭)

    2002-01-01

    The [60]fullerene-podophyllotoxin derivative (3) was obtained by the phosphine promeoted[2 + 3]cycloaddition reaction ofpodophyllotoxin buta-2,3-dienoate (2) and [60]fullerene. The structures of starting mateerial (2) and product (3) were confirmed by UV-vis, IR, NMR and MS spectroscopies.

  4. Current-induced forces: a simple derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todorov, Tchavdar N.; Dundas, Daniel; Lü, Jing-Tao;

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the problem of forces on atoms under current in nanoscale conductors. We derive and discuss the five principal kinds of force under steady-state conditions from a simple standpoint that-with the help of background literature-should be accessible to physics undergraduates. The discussio...

  5. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...

  6. Testing Expected Shortfall Models for Derivative Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the tail

  7. Actuarial risk measures for financial derivative pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Goovaerts; R.J.A. Laeven

    2008-01-01

    We present an axiomatic characterization of price measures that are superadditive and comonotonic additive for normally distributed random variables. The price representation derived involves a probability measure transform that is closely related to the Esscher transform, and we call it the Esscher

  8. Interest Rate Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of exotic derivative pricing models is to enable financial institutions to quantify and manage their financial risk, arising from large books of portfolios. These portfolios consist of many non-standard exotic financial products. Risk is managed by means of the evaluation of sensitivity

  9. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pepper, Peter; Smith, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the up

  10. The methods of synthesis of glycerin derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book authors present some methods of synthesis of glycerin derivatives, in particular, synthesis of 3-met oxi-1.2-propandiol, 1.3-di-benzil-oxi-2-propanol, 1-ge xi-lox-3-chlorine-2-propanol and other

  11. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  12. $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizabalaga, A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the method of $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories. There, two complications arise, namely the violation of Bose symmetry in correlation functions and the gauge dependence. For the latter we argue that the error introduced by the gauge dependent terms is controlled, therefore not invalidating the method.

  13. Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical...

  14. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

  15. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...

  16. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. Th

  17. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. Th

  18. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  19. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  20. A New Grünwald-Letnikov Derivative Derived from a Second-Order Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel derivation of a second-order accurate Grünwald-Letnikov-type approximation to the fractional derivative of a function is presented. This scheme is shown to be second-order accurate under certain modifications to account for poor accuracy in approximating the asymptotic behavior near the lower limit of differentiation. Some example functions are chosen and numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficacy of this new method over some other popular choices for discretizing fractional derivatives.

  1. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  2. Renminbi Derivatives: Recent Development and Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Peng; Chang Shu; Raymond Yip

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the developments in the onshore and offshore renminbi derivatives markets. The onshore market has seen a rapid build-up in the market infrastructure and price discovery mechanism in the past year, with empirical evidence suggesting that its pricing is increasingly determined by financial fundamentals, such as the covered interest rate parity. However, the growth of the market has been restrained by restrictions on the participant base, limited variations in the RMB/US$ exchange rate, market participants'lack of technical capacity and experience, and inadequate supporting financial market infrastructure. The non-deliverable forward (NDF) market, concentrated in Hong Kong and Singapore, is more developed, but has the drawback that its pricing is not tied to financial fundamentals. The comparison between onshore and offshore markets suggests that two issues are of particular importance for future derivatives market development in China: the balance between regulation and development, and the relationship between onshore and offshore markets.

  3. Carbon gels derived from natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Celzard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most carbon gels investigated so far and reportedin the literature were prepared from resorcinolcrosslinked with formaldehyde in water, and weregenerally dried with supercritical CO2 before beingpyrolysed. In the present paper, through someselected examples, we show how valuable carbongels can be derived from other phenolic resourceshaving a natural origin. Special emphasis is givento tannin and lignin, both derived from wood, aspotential precursors of carbon aero- and cryogels.However, natural compounds not obeying the usualconcepts of sol-gel chemistry may also be used forpreparing carbon gels, such as cellulose, and evenglucose. In the latter case, hydrothermal treatmentforces the phase separation to occur, and leads tomonoliths which can be advantageously convertedinto carbon aerogels by supercritical drying andsubsequent pyrolysis.

  4. Electrochemical Behavior of Biologically Important Indole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Karaaslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric techniques are most suitable to investigate the redox properties of a new drug. Use of electrochemistry is an important approach in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, and determination of physiological activity. The indole nucleus is an essential element of a number of natural and synthetic products with significant biological activity. Indole derivatives are the well-known electroactive compounds that are readily oxidized at carbon-based electrodes, and thus analytical procedures, such as electrochemical detection and voltammetry, have been developed for the determination of biologically important indoles. This paper explains some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry processes and parameters mainly related to biologically important indole derivatives in view of drug discovery and analysis.

  5. Fundamentals and advanced techniques in derivatives hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the theory of derivatives pricing and hedging as well as techniques used in mathematical finance. The authors use a top-down approach, starting with fundamentals before moving to applications, and present theoretical developments alongside various exercises, providing many examples of practical interest. A large spectrum of concepts and mathematical tools that are usually found in separate monographs are presented here. In addition to the no-arbitrage theory in full generality, this book also explores models and practical hedging and pricing issues. Fundamentals and Advanced Techniques in Derivatives Hedging further introduces advanced methods in probability and analysis, including Malliavin calculus and the theory of viscosity solutions, as well as the recent theory of stochastic targets and its use in risk management, making it the first textbook covering this topic. Graduate students in applied mathematics with an understanding of probability theory and stochastic calculus will find this b...

  6. Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R

    2011-09-01

    An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated.

  7. Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanam, Barchand; Dewan, K. K.

    2007-12-01

    Let , 1[less-than-or-equals, slant][mu][less-than-or-equals, slant]n, be a polynomial of degree n such that p(z)[not equal to]0 in z0, then for 0Yadav and Pukhta [K.K. Dewan, R.S. Yadav, M.S. Pukhta, Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 2 (2) (1999) 203-205] proved Equality holds for the polynomial where n is a multiple of [mu]E In this paper, we obtain an improvement of the above inequality by involving some of the coefficients. As an application of our result, we further improve upon a result recently proved by Aziz and Shah [A. Aziz, W.M. Shah, Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative, Math. Inequal. Appl. 7 (3) (2004) 379-391].

  8. Arbitrage-free valuation of energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on techniques available for valuing energy-contingent claims and develops an arbitrage-free framework to value energy derivatives. The relationship between the spot, forward and futures prices is explained. Option valuation with deterministic convenience yields is discussed using an extension of the Black (1976) framework, and details of the risk-neutral valuation of European options, and valuation of American and European-style options are given. Option valuations with stochastic convenience yields, the evolution of the term structure of convenience yield, and a tree approach to valuing American and other options are discussed. Applications and limitations of the models for pricing energy derivative products are considered. The stochastic differential equation for the futures prices when the convenience yields are stochastic is presented in an appendix

  9. Photocatalytic Based Degradation Processes of Lignin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Awungacha Lekelefac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis, belonging to the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs, is a potential new transformation technology for lignin derivatives to value added products (e.g., phenol, benzene, toluene, and xylene. Moreover, lignin represents the only viable source to produce aromatic compounds as fossil fuel alternative. This review covers recent advancement made in the photochemical transformation of industrial lignins. It starts with the photochemical reaction principle followed by results obtained by varying process parameters. In this context, influences of photocatalysts, metal ions, additives, lignin concentration, and illumination intensity and the influence of pH are presented and discussed. Furthermore, an overview is given on several used process analytical methods describing the results obtained from the degradation of lignin derivatives. Finally, a promising concept by coupling photocatalysis with a consecutive biocatalytic process was briefly reviewed.

  10. Synthesis of metronidazole derivatives as antigiardiasis agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabnadideh S.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MTZ and its derivatives have been extensively used to treat infections caused by protozoa and anaerobic bacteria. In this investigation several novel imidazole and nitroimidazol derivatives namely: 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1a, 2-(2-methyl-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1b, 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-phenyl-1-ethanol 1c, 2-(1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2d and 2-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1H-1-imidazolyl-1-cyclohexanol 2e were prepared by the reaction of the corresponding imidazoles with styrene oxide or cyclohexene oxide respectively and their biological activity against Giardia lamblia cyst in compareison with MTZ were determined by flotation technique based on Bingham method. These compounds were less active than metronidazole but showed significant antigiardiasis activity.

  11. Feynman graph derivation of Einstein quadrupole formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one graviton transition operator, and consequently, the classical energy loss formula for gravitational radiation are derived from the Feynman graphs of helicity +- 2 theories of gravitation. The calculations are done both for the case of electromagnetic and gravitational scattering. The departure of the in and out states from plane waves owing to the long range nature of gravitation is taken into account to improve the Born approximation calculations. This also includes a long range modification of the graviton wave function which is shown to be equivalent to the classical problem of the true light cones deviating logarithmically at large distances from the flat space light cones. The transition from the S-matrix elements calculated graphically to the graviton transition operator is done by using complimentarity of space-time and momentum descriptions. The energy loss formula derived originally by Einstein is shown to be correct. (Auth.)

  12. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  13. Perturbative unitarity of Higgs derivative interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuta, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    We study the perturbative unitarity bound given by dimension six derivative interactions consisting of Higgs doublets. These operators emerge from kinetic terms of composite Higgs models or integrating out heavy particles that interact with Higgs doublets. They lead to new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. One of characteristic contributions by derivative interactions appear in vector boson scattering processes. Longitudinal modes of massive vector bosons can be regarded as Nambu Goldstone bosons eaten by each vector field with the equivalence theorem. Since their effects become larger and larger as the collision energy of vector bosons increases, vector boson scattering processes become important in a high energy region around the TeV scale. On the other hand, in such a high energy region, we have to take the unitarity of amplitudes into account. We have obtained the unitarity condition in terms of the parameter included in the effective Lagrangian for one Higgs doublet models. Applying it to some of mode...

  14. Modelling of lossy coils using fractional derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Ingo [Federal Armed Forces Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics Research Institute, D-24148 Kiel (Germany); Krueger, Klaus [Institute of Automation Technology, Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Armed Forces, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-02-21

    Coils exposed to eddy current and hysteresis losses are conventionally described by an inductance with equivalent core-loss resistance connected in parallel. The value of the equivalent core-loss resistance depends on the working frequency and the external wiring. Thus the model is less than satisfactory. The authors propose to describe loss inductance using fractional derivatives containing both a loss term and a storage term. After introducing the theory of fractional derivatives, the operating mode of the fractional coil model is explained by the example of an RLC oscillating circuit. Subsequent measurements of a series resonant circuit with a lossy coil impressively confirm the theoretical model with regard to both the frequency and time domains.

  15. Liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives for mirrorless lasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzlik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis cholesteric films made of liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives with improved optical properties were prepared. The choice of the solvent, hydrogen bond influencing additives, the synthetic realization of a very high degree of substitution on the cellulosic polymer and the use of mechanical stirring at the upper concentration limit of the liquid crystalline range were the basis for an improved alignment of the applied cellulose tricarbamates. In combination with a tuned subs...

  16. FOREST AREA DERIVATION FROM SENTINEL-1 DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clusterin...

  17. Information Asymmetry in Pricing of Credit Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hillairet, Caroline; Jiao, Ying

    2010-01-01

    We study the pricing of credit derivatives with asymmetric information. The managers have complete information on the value process of the firm and on the default threshold, while the investors on the market have only partial observations, especially about the default threshold. Different information structures are distinguished using the framework of enlargement of filtrations. We specify risk neutral probabilities and we evaluate default sensitive contingent claims in these cases.

  18. Solgel-derived photosensitive germanosilicate glass monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, A D; Erdogan, T

    2000-12-15

    We demonstrate volume gratings written in solgel-derived, Ge-doped silica monoliths. Glass was fabricated both with and without germanium oxygen deficient center (GODC) defects. The UV absorption and UV-induced index changes of these glasses, with and without hydrogen loading, are reported. The presence of GODC defects greatly enhances the photosensitivity of Ge-doped silica with and without the presence of hydrogen. PMID:18066337

  19. A Facile Synthesis of Pyrrolidine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Zhi-Hui; CHEN Jing-Bo; WANG Cheng-Ying; LIU Xiao-Long; REN Zhou-Yang; TU Yong-Qiang; ZHANG Hong-Bin

    2003-01-01

    @@ The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids have attracted considerable attention for their interesting biological activities. [1] Many of these tyrosine derived alkaloids[2] incorporate a hexahydroindole moiety in the structural skeletons. New approaches towards the synthesis of hexahydroindole core have been a topical interest for the synthetic community.Herein we report an experimentally very simple method for the synthesis of hexahydroindole by aminocylization. Four kinds of N-substituted have been demonstrate to be effective to this cyclization. The results were summarized in Figure 1.

  20. On Butterfly effect in Higher Derivative Gravities

    CERN Document Server

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2016-01-01

    We study butterfly effect in $D$-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  1. Higher derivative super Yang-Mills theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Rakowski, M.; Sezgin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most general higher derivative Yang-Mills actions of the type (F^2 + α^2F^4) which are globally supersymmetric up to order α^2 in six- and ten-dimensional spacetimes are given. The F^4-terms turn out to occur in the combination α^2[tr F^4 - ¼(tr F^2)^2], where the trace is over the Lorentz i

  2. Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Abourashed, Ehab A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belo...

  3. Supersymmetric higher derivative couplings and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lodato, I.

    2014-01-01

    After an elementary introduction on black hole physics, supersymmetry and effective theories, which motivates the importance of higher derivative couplings in supergravity, we give an exhaustive treatment of the covariant phase space formalism with many examples explicitly worked out. This sets the stage for the two distinct analyses that follow. The first analysis relies on the superconformal formalism of supergravity and its multiplet structure. We explicitly construct a new class of N=2 hi...

  4. Antifungal activities of some indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Nine indole derivatives were evaluated in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum, and Alternaria brassicae. Most of the compounds were found to possess antifungal activities. Especially compounds 2, 5, 8, and 9 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activities against the above-mentioned seven phytopathogenic fungi, and showed more potent activities than hymexazole, a commercial agricultural fungicide. PMID:20737910

  5. VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastav Sanchit; Pandeya S.N

    2011-01-01

    Oxadiazole, a five-membered heterocycle having two carbon atoms, two nitrogen atoms, one oxygen atom, and two double bonds, inclusive of inductive effect & having efficient anticancer, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-allergic activity etc... The presence of heterocyclic structures exerts various physiologic effects on the body. In the present study we have reviewed several newer approches of synthesizing the substituted oxadiazole derivatives via catalytic reaction & by the appl...

  6. Derivative Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ondansetron and Paracetamol

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kumar, P.; M Murali Krishna; P. Bhanu Prakash; B. Anil Kumar; P. Madhusudhan

    2006-01-01

    A simple and reproducible spectrophotometric method, requiring no prior separation, has been developed for the estimation of ondansetron and paracetamol in combined dosage form. First order derivative spectroscopy method is adopted to eliminate spectral interference. The methods obey Beer’s Law in concentration ranges employed for evaluation. Ondansetron and paracetamol have λmax at 302 nm and 246 nm respectively in methanol. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recov...

  7. Recursively implementating the Gaussian and its derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Deriche, Rachid

    1993-01-01

    Gaussian filtering is one of the most successfully operation in computer vision in order to reduce noise, calculating the gradient intensity change or performing Laplacian or the second directional derivative of an image. However, it is well known that in a multi-resolution context, where the need for large filters is required, this technique suffers from the fact it is a computationally expensive since the number of operations per point in convolving an image with a Gaussian filter is direct...

  8. Service component derivation and composition in Arctis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration based development has its main focus on service level composition. Services are considered as reusable units and modeled as collaborations among roles performed by possibly distributed components. The problem addressed in this thesis is how components can be derived from the service models and how such components can be composed together in order to make a composite component and eventually a system. The purpose is to gain benefits such as flexibility in composition, allow compo...

  9. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; A Beesham; R V Deshpande

    2000-05-01

    The effect of particle production on the evolution of the spatially flat Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production gives rise to a supplementary negative creation pressure in addition to the thermodynamic pressure. The dynamical behaviour of both exponential as well as power law solutions have been discussed.

  10. Pricing Credit Derivatives with Rating Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Das, Sanjiv Ranjan; Rangarajan K. Sundaram

    2002-01-01

    We develop a model for pricing risky debt and valuing credit derivatives that is easily calibrated to existing variables. Our approach is based on expanding the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (1990) term-structure model and its extension, the Das-Sundaram (2000) model to allow for defaultable debt with rating transitions. The framework has two salient features, comprising extensions over the earlier work: (i) it employs a rating transition matrix as the driver for the default process, and (ii) the entir...

  11. CREDIT DERIVATIVES PRICING WITH STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    CARL CHIARELLA; SAMUEL CHEGE MAINA; CHRISTINA NIKITOPOULOS SKLIBOSIOS

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for pricing credit derivatives in a defaultable HJM framework. The model features hump-shaped, level dependent, and unspanned stochastic volatility, and accommodates a correlation structure between the stochastic volatility, the default-free interest rates, and the credit spreads. The model is finite-dimensional, and leads (a) to exponentially affine default-free and defaultable bond prices, and (b) to an approximation for pricing credit default swaps and swaptions...

  12. Credit Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility Models

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Samuel Chege Maina; Christina Nikitopoulos-Sklibosios

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for pricing credit derivatives within the defaultable Markovian HJM framework featuring unspanned stochastic volatility. Motivated by empirical evidence, hump-shaped level dependent stochastic volatility specifications are proposed, such that the model admits finite dimensional Markovian structures. The model also accommodates a correlation structure between the stochastic volatility, default-free interest rates and credit spreads. Default free and defaultable ...

  13. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  14. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    In-Yup Jeon; Jong-Beom Baek

    2010-01-01

    Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organ...

  15. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spi...

  16. Aminopyrimidine derivatives as adenosine antagonists / Janke Kleynhans

    OpenAIRE

    Kleynhans, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Aims of this project - The aim of this study was to design and synthesise novel 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives as potential adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists. Background and rationale - Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (after Alzheimer’s disease) and is characterised by the selective death of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigro-striatal pathway. Distinctive motor symptoms include bradykinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor, while non-m...

  17. Use of sulphamide derivatives as neuroprotectors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez Pérez, Juan; Romero, Miguel; Fernández Espejo, Emilio; Goya, Pilar; Páez, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to the use of a group of sulphamide derivatives with neuroprotective capacity that are of use in the treatment and/or prevention of diseases associated with cell death, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (sporadic fonns and hereditary fonns), cerebral ischaemia, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, post encephalitic parkinsonism, and also other rare diseases involving neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease and spino-cerebellar ataxias.

  18. Einstein solvmanifolds with a simple Einstein derivation

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolayevsky, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a solvable Lie groups admitting an Einstein left-invariant metric is, in a sense, completely determined by the nilradical of its Lie algebra. We give an easy-to-check necessary and sufficient condition for a nilpotent algebra to be an Einstein nilradical whose Einstein derivation has simple eigenvalues. As an application, we classify filiform Einstein nilradicals (modulo known classification results on filiform graded Lie algebras).

  19. Literature Review of Polymer Derived Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reuben James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs), also known as preceramic polymers, are valuable coating agents that are used to produce surface barriers on substrates such as stainless steel. These barriers protect against a multitude of environmental threats, and have been used since their research and development in 19772. This paper seeks to review and demonstrate the remarkable properties and versatility that PDCs have to offer, while also giving a brief overview of the processing techniques used today.

  20. Synthesis and bioactivity of novel phthalimide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Yi Hua Zhang; Hui Ji; Yan Ping Chen; Si Xun Peng

    2008-01-01

    Novel phthalimide derivatives (4a, 4b and 6a-6e) were designed as hybrids of thalidomide and NO-ASA, and their chemicalsynthesis and in vitro biological activities were presented. The preliminary results showed that compared to thalidomide 4a and 4bexhibited enhanced activities against ECV304 and HepG2 cells, whereas 6c was more potent against HepG2 cells.

  1. Waste-Wood-Derived Fillers for Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    English, Brent; Clemons, Craig M.; Stark, Nicole; Schneider, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper fiber, are also effective as fillers. The goal of this project was to generate commercial interest in using waste-wood–paper-...

  2. Photopolymerization induced by a benzophenone derivative photoinitiator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A benzophenone derivative photoinitiator, HBP-TDI-HQ-TDI-HBP (HTCTH), was synthesized based on 4-hydroxy benzophenone (HBP), toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroquinone (HQ). HTCTH was a more effective photoinitiator which had longer wavelength absorption in the UV-vis absorption spectra than the low molecular counterpart benzophenone (BP). It showed that both rate of polymerization (Rp) and final conversion (P) increased with increase of amine and HTCTH concentration in photopolymerization.

  3. TD-DFT Study on Pyrazoline Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The molecular structures of ground state and first single excited state for pyrazoline derivatives are optimized with DFT B3LYP method and ab initio "configuration interaction with single excitations"(CIS) method, respectively. The frontier molecular orbital characteristics have been analyzed systematically, and the electronic transition mechanism has been discussed. Electronic spectra are calculated by using TD-DFT method. These results are consistent with those from the experiment.

  4. A new bibenzyl derivative from Pleione bulbocodioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Qiao Liu; Qiao Yu Yuan; Yuan Qiang Guo

    2008-01-01

    A new bibenzyl derivative 1, named 2-(4"-hydrixybenzyl)-3-(3'-hydroxyphenethyl)-5-methoxy-cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, and two known stilbenoids (2, 3) were isolated from the tubers of Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe. Their structureswere elucidated by spectroscopic methods.2008 Xin Qiao Liu. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for plutonium isotopes in materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are calculated using assumptions concerning the habits and location of the critical group of exposed individuals in the population. They are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for plutonium radionuclides in air, water, soil, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for plutonium radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  6. Long-memory volatility in derivative hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Abby

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this work is to take into account the effects of long memory in volatility on derivative hedging. This idea is an extension of the work by Fedotov and Tan [Stochastic long memory process in option pricing, Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 8 (2005) 381-392] where they incorporate long-memory stochastic volatility in option pricing and derive pricing bands for option values. The starting point is the stochastic Black-Scholes hedging strategy which involves volatility with a long-range dependence. The stochastic hedging strategy is the sum of its deterministic term that is classical Black-Scholes hedging strategy with a constant volatility and a random deviation term which describes the risk arising from the random volatility. Using the fact that stock price and volatility fluctuate on different time scales, we derive an asymptotic equation for this deviation in terms of the Green's function and the fractional Brownian motion. The solution to this equation allows us to find hedging confidence intervals.

  7. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄. PMID:27483572

  8. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    KAUST Repository

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Time series associated with single-molecule experiments and/or simulations contain a wealth of multiscale information about complex biomolecular systems. We demonstrate how a collection of Penalized-splines (P-splines) can be useful in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between curves associated with different SDEs partially reflects noise induced by motion evolving on a slower time scale. P-splines assist in "semiparametrically" estimating nonlinear SDEs in situations where a time-dependent external force is applied to a single-molecule system. The P-splines introduced simultaneously use function and derivative scatterplot information to refine curve estimates. We refer to the approach as the PuDI (P-splines using Derivative Information) method. It is shown how generalized least squares ideas fit seamlessly into the PuDI method. Applications demonstrating how utilizing uncertainty information/approximations along with generalized least squares techniques improve PuDI fits are presented. Although the primary application here is in estimating nonlinear SDEs, the PuDI method is applicable to situations where both unbiased function and derivative estimates are available.

  9. Forest Area Derivation from SENTINEL-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.

  10. 14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500... PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application of derivative classification markings is a responsibility of those who incorporate, paraphrase, restate,...

  11. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick-Soon Chang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  12. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  13. The Synthesis of 6-Alkyl-5-Fluorouracil Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    6-alkyl-5-fluorouracil derivatives (5a~5f) were synthesized by facile alkylation of lithiation of 5-fluorouracil derivatives with mthyl iodide (MeI) or alkyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (ROTf) in yield of 42~58%. We found that the methylated product was ethyl-substituted derivatives, not methyl-substituted derivatives.

  14. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  15. Data on correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived myocardial extracellular volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Kurita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes data related to a research article titled “Estimation of myocardial extracellular volume fraction with cardiac CT in subjects without clinical coronary artery disease: A feasibility study”, Kurita et al. (in press [1]. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV is an imaging biomarker that can elevate in various heart diseases. This article describes correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived ECV in 24 myocardial segments in 8 patients. CT-derived ECV was obtained from pre-contrast and delayed-phase images acquired by using dual-source CT system. MRI-derived ECV was obtained by using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence implemented on a 3 T MRI system.

  16. Adipose-derived stem cells versus bone marrow-derived stem cells for vocal fold regeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiwatashi, Nao; Hirano, Shigeru; Mizuta, Masanobu; Tateya, Ichiro; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Ito, Juichi

    2014-01-01

    [Objectives/Hypothesis]Vocal fold scarring presents therapeutic challenges. Recently, cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells has become a promising approach. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) with bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) for vocal fold regeneration. [Study Design]Prospective animal experiments with controls. [Methods]The vocal folds of Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally injured. Two months after injury, rat...

  17. Syntheses of 4-Indolylquinoline Derivatives via Reductive Cyclization of Indolylnitrochalcone Derivatives by Fe/HCl

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chang Chen; Chan-Chieh Lin; Veerababurao Kavala; Chun-Wei Kuo; Chia-Yu Huang; Ching-Fa Yao

    2015-01-01

    An easy and efficient procedure for the synthesis of 4-indolylquinoline derivatives is described. This process involves two steps, the first of which is the Michael addition of indole to nitrochalcones promoted by sulfamic acid under solvent free conditions and the second step is a reductive cyclization of the indolylnitrochalcone intermediates to 4-indolylquinoline derivatives by Fe/HCl in ethanol. In both steps, the reactions are clean and the yields of products are high.

  18. MODERN TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DERIVATIVES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shelydko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of structure and peculiarities of development of the international derivatives market. The history of formation of the international derivatives market is investigated. The nature, functions and advantages of use of derivatives, and also their role in the modern international securities market are defined. Classification of financial derivatives is considered. Product lines of financial derivatives are analyzed. The regional structure of the international derivatives market and dynamics of its development are investigated. The comparative characteristic of volumes and structure of exchange and over-the-counter segments of international derivatives market are carried out. Dynamics and structure of international markets of interest-bearing derivatives and currency derivatives are analyzed. The fundamental trends of development of the modern international derivatives market are defined.

  19. ON THE DERIVATIVE OF SMOOTH MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The derivative of a function f in n variables at a point x* is one of the most important tools in mathematical modelling. If this object exists, it is represented by the row n-tuple f(x* = [∂f/∂xi(x*] called the gradient of f at x*, abbreviated: “the gradient”. The evaluation of f(x* is usually done in two stages, first by calculating the n partials and then their values at x = x*. In this talk we give an alternative approach. We show that one can characterize the gradient without differentiation! The idea is to fix an arbitrary row n-tuple G and answer the following question: What is a necessary and sufficient condition such that G is the gradient of a given f at a given x*? The answer is given after adjusting the quadratic envelope property introduced in [3]. We work with smooth, i.e., continuously differentiable, functions with a Lipschitz derivative on a compact convex set with a non-empty interior. Working with this class of functions is not a serious restriction. In fact, loosely speaking, “almost all” smooth meaningful functions used in modelling of real life situations are expected to have a bounded “acceleration” hence they belong to this class. In particular, the class contains all twice differentiable functions [1]. An important property of the functions from this class is that every f can be represented as the difference of some convex function and a convex quadratic function. This decomposition was used in [3] to characterize the zero derivative points. There we obtained reformulations and augmentations of some well known classic results on optimality such as Fermats extreme value theorem (known from high school and the Lagrange multiplier theorem from calculus [2, 3]. In this talk we extend the results on zero derivative points to characterize the relation G = f(x*, where G is an arbitrary n-tuple. Some special cases: If G = O, we recover the results on zero derivative points. For functions of a single

  20. Higher Derivative Correction to the Hawking Flux via Trace Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaka, Akihide

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we derive Hawking radiation of black holes with higher derivative corrections by the method of trace anomaly. Firstly we derive Hawking radiation for general spherical black holes. We introduce a modified tortoise coordinate to it and find the analyticity of the coordinate. Secondly we apply its method to a black hole with a higher derivative correction and derive the Hawking radiation of it. We found that as an ordinary case the flux depends only on the surface gravity.

  1. Black holes in higher derivative gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-05-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.

  2. Analytically Derived Wind Wave Growth Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管长龙; 孙群

    2002-01-01

    By the use of the 3/2 power law presented by Toba combined with the significant wave energy balance equation forwind wave, wind wave growth at a limited fetch is analytically investigated. The new wind wave growth relations(WWGRs) are analytically derived with sheltering coefficient and wind drag coefficient as parameters. The geometricalaverage of observational values of sheltering coefficient and the arithmetic average of observational values of wind drag co-efficient are applied to determine the new WWGRs. Comparisons with existing empirical WWGRs are made.

  3. Multiple operator integrals and higher operator derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Peller, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the existence of higher derivatives of the function $t\\mapsto\\f(A+tK)$, where $\\f$ is a function on the real line, $A$ is a self-adjoint operator, and $K$ is a bounded self-adjoint operator. We improve earlier results by Sten'kin. In order to do this, we give a new approach to multiple operator integrals. This approach improves the earlier approach given by Sten'kin. We also consider a similar problem for unitary operators.

  4. N-Salicylideneamine Derivatives with TEMPO Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin’ichi Nakatsuji

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three N-salicylideneamine derivatives bearing TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetra- methyl-1-piperidinyloxy substituents were prepared in order to study their structure and property relationships and to investigate the possibilities of the existence of heat and/or light responsive magnetic properties. Curie-Weiss behavior with weak ferromagnetic intermolecular spin-spin interactions was observed in one of the radicals, while antiferromagnetic interactions were predominant for the other radicals and the structure-property relationships were investigated for the radical compounds from their crystal structures obtained by X-ray analyses. Preliminary results of the examination of their responses towards light and heat are also described.

  5. Synthesis and antifungal activity of trichodermin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li Cheng; Yong Zhou; Jin Hao Zhao; Chu Long Zhang; Fu Cheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    A series of derivatives were synthesized from trichodermin(1)which was an antifungal metabolite produced by Trichoderma taxi sp.nov.Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR,MS spectrum.Their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro.The preliminary structure activity relationships(SAR)results indicated that the double bond,epoxide moiety and ester group were main pharmacophore elements,the stereochemistry of C4 position played a key role as well,and the compounds 1e-1g displayed stronger antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea than 1.

  6. A New Bezoxepine Derivative from Senecio desfontainei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamid Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Senecio desfontainei afforded one new benzoxepin derivative, Senecioside (1 along with eleven known compounds (2-12. Their structures were assigned from 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT and by 2D COSY, NOE, HSQC and HMBC experiments. All these compounds were tested for antioxidant activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9 showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals.

  7. [A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling

    2013-10-01

    A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24422395

  8. Molecular Recognition Studies on Naphthyridine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Iglesias-Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association constants Kb of three hosts I–III designed to have both enhanced hydrogen bonding donor strength and conformational preorganization with biotin analogues 1–5 are reported. 1H-NMR titrations under two different concentration conditions have been employed to determine the association constants Kb. A statistical analysis using a presence absence matrix has been applied to calculate the different contributions. Hydrogen bond interactions make naphthyridine derivatives II and III potent binders and effective receptors for (+-biotin methyl ester (1, due to the complex stabilization by additional hydrogen bonds.

  9. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs

  10. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  11. Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Abourashed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belonging to the above mentioned classes of natural antioxidants. In addition, related reviews published during the same period have been cited. A brief introduction to general bioavailability-related definitions, procedures and considerations is also included.

  12. Portfolio Selection Model with Derivative Securities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春峰; 杨建林; 蒋祥林

    2003-01-01

    Traditional portfolio theory assumes that the return rate of portfolio follows normality. However, this assumption is not true when derivative assets are incorporated. In this paper a portfolio selection model is developed based on utility function which can capture asymmetries in random variable distributions. Other realistic conditions are also considered, such as liabilities and integer decision variables. Since the resulting model is a complex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, simulated annealing algorithm is applied for its solution. A numerical example is given and sensitivity analysis is conducted for the model.

  13. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Graphene and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Adán-Más

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and its derivatives combine a numerous range of supreme properties that can be useful in many applications. The purpose of this review is to analyse the photoelectrochemical properties of pristine graphene, graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO and their impact on semiconductor catalysts/quantum dots. The mechanism that this group of materials follows to improve their performance will be cleared by explaining how those properties can be exploited in several applications such as photo-catalysts (degradation of pollutants and photovoltaics (solar cells.

  14. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  15. Black holes in higher derivative gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-05-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics. PMID:25978224

  16. ISOMORPHISMS AND DERIVATIONS IN C*-ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee Jung-Rye; Shin Dong-Yun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of the following Cauchy-Jensen functional inequality:||f(x) + f(y) + 2f(z) + 2f(w)|| ≤ ||2f (x +y /2+ z +w)|| (0.1)This is applied to investigate isomorphisms between C*-algebras, Lie C*-algebras and JC*-algebras, and derivations on C*-algebras, Lie C*-algebras and JC*-algebras, associated with the Cauchy-Jensen functional equation2f(x+y/2+z+w)=f(x)+f(y)+2f(z)+2f(w).(0.2)

  17. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373

  18. Derivational and Semantic Relations of Croatian Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Šojat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with certain morphosemantic relations between Croatian verbs and discusses their inclusion in Croatian WordNet. The morphosemantic relations in question are the semantic relations between unprefixed infinitives and their prefixed derivatives. We introduce the criteria for the division of aspectual pairs and further discuss verb prefixation which results in combinations of prefixes and base forms that can vary in terms of meaning from compositional to completely idiosyncratic. The focus is on the regularities in semantic modifications of base forms modified by one prefix. The aim of this procedure is to establish a set of morphosemantic relations based on regular or reoccuring meaning alternations.

  19. VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Ashish

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Imidazole, a five-membered heterocycle having three carbon atoms, two nitrogen atoms, and two double bonds, having efficient antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coil, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anti-cancer, mutagenic activity against Salmonella typhimurium, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-allergic activity etc. The presence of heterocyclic structures exerts various physiologic effects on the body. In the present study we have reviewed several newer approches of synthesizing the substituted imidazole derivatives via catalytic reaction & by the application of various suitable reagents.

  20. Efficient pricing algorithms for exotic derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Roger

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSince the Nobel-prize winning papers of Black and Scholes and Merton in 1973, the derivatives market has evolved into a multi-trillion dollar market. Structures which were once considered as exotic are now commonplace, appearing in retail products such as mortgages and investment notes. At the same time, new and more complex structures are invented on a regular basis. To price and risk manage such products, a financial engineer will typically: (1) choose a model which is both econ...

  1. Synthesis of novel fused quinazolinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mohammad; Lotfi, Vahid; Saeedi, Mina; Kianmehr, Ebrahim; Shafiee, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    A four-step synthetic route was developed for the synthesis of novel fused quinazolinones, quinazolino[3,4-a]quinazolinones, and isoinodolo[2,1-a]quinazolino[1,2-c]quinazolineones. Reaction of isatoic anhydride and different amines gave various 2-aminobenzamides. Then, reaction of 2-aminobenzamides with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by the reduction of nitro group afforded 2-(2-aminophenyl)-3-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives. Finally, reaction of the latter compounds with aromatic aldehydes or 2-formylbenzoic acid led to the formation of the corresponding products. PMID:27209476

  2. [A new eremophilane derivative from Senecio dianthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, He-Dong; Hu, Hai-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ling

    2013-10-01

    A new eremophilane derivative, 4,5,11-trimethyl-9( 10), 7 ( 11) -eremophiladien-8-keto-12-carboxylic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside( which named dianthuside A) 1 and four known compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonone-3-0-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin-3-0-beta-D-glucoside(3) ,hyperin(4) and rutin(5) have been isolated from the aerial part of Senecio dianthus. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  3. Nullification in scalar theories with derivative couplings

    OpenAIRE

    Argyres, E. N.; Papadopoulos, C. G.; Bruinsma, M.; Kleiss, R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the structure of scalar field theories having the property that all on-shell S-matrix elements vanish in tree approximation. It is shown that there exists a large class of such theories, with derivative couplings, which are all locally related to a free theory by a nonlinear transformation. It is also shown that a field-dependent wave-function renormalization provides all necessary counterterms so that all on-shell S-matrix elements vanish also at the one-loop level.

  4. Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Diterpenylnaphthoquinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New diterpenylquinones, combining a diterpene diacid and a naphthoquinone, were prepared from junicedric acid and lapachol. The new derivatives were assessed as gastroprotective agents by the HCl-EtOH-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as for basal cytotoxicity on the following human cell lines: Normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2. Several of the new compounds were significantly active as antiulcer agents and showed selective cytotoxicity against AGS cells.

  5. Deriving the unit hydrograph by root selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. E.; Dooge, J. C. I.; Bree, T.

    1989-09-01

    De Laine's method of deriving the unit hydrograph from the common roots of polynomials corresponding to different storms is used as a basis for proposing a new procedure in which the unit hydrograph roots can be selected from among the polynomial roots for the runoff of a single storm. The selection is made on the basis that the complex unit hydrograph roots form a characteristic "skew circle" pattern when plotted on an Argand diagram. The application of the procedure to field data is illustrated for both a single-peaked and a double-peaked event.

  6. A Simplified Procedure for Safety Requirements Derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ioan Gergely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a procedure for analysis of PLC-controlled system risk due to component failure and for derivation of safety integrity requirements for components, focusing on software requirements. The approach allows fully integrated treatment of random and systematic failure. It can be applied at different levels of design detail and at different stages of the system development lifecycle. The procedure does not address how to assess failure rates, but provides a foundation for integrating PLC software assessment into system riskassessment and for making trade-offs in design.

  7. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  8. Stable Tricyclic Antitubercular Ozonides Derived from Artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Vashundhra; Jaiswal, Pradeep K; Gaikwad, Anil N; Sinha, Sudhir K; Puri, Sunil K; Sharon, Ashoke; Maulik, Prakas R; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2015-10-16

    New, highly stable tricyclic antitubercular ozonides 9 and 10 derived from artemisinin are reported in 39 and 9% yields, respectively. The ozonide groups of 9 and 10 were found to be stable under strong basic and acidic conditions. The absolute configuration of ozonides 9 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Ozonide 10 shows promising antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MIC values of 0.39 and 3.12 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26430796

  9. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Smith, Douglas R

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the upper reaches of a family of concurrent garbage collectors by refinement from a formal specification, emphasizing the application of domain-independent design theories and transformations. A key contribution is an extension to the classical lattice-theoretic fixpoint theorems to account for the dynamics of concurrent mutation and collection.

  10. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  11. Derivation of an applied nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laine, Mark Richard [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwarz, Jens [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rambo, Patrick K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  12. Black Holes in Higher-Derivative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, H; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-01-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this paper we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.

  13. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  14. Studies on some derivatives of oxamniquine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    el-Hamouly, W.; Pica-Mattoccia, L.; Cioli, D.; Schwartz, H.M.; Archer, S.

    1988-08-01

    On the basis of the remarkable biological similarities between hycanthone and oxamniquine and as a sequel to our finding that some esters of hycanthone are active against hycanthone-resistant schistosomes, we prepared oxamniquine acetate, oxamniquine N-methylcarbamate, and four substituted phenylsulfonohydrazones of oxamniquine aldehyde. These compounds were tested for their effect on survival of and on (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation into hycanthone-sensitive and -resistant Schistosoma mansoni. All of these derivatives were effective to a greater or lesser degree in killing worms and in inhibiting (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation in the sensitive strain, but none was effective in the resistant strain.

  15. New naphthoquinone derivatives against glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Pezzani, Raffaele; Pasquale, Riccardo; Pavan, Valeria; Crisma, Marco; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed to the development of a set of new naphtoquinone derivatives that can act against glioma. The compounds were tested in order to find out their ability to inhibit the growth of glioma cells, and the results of these assays were correlated with electrochemical analysis and NMR-based reoxidation kinetic studies, suggesting that a redox mechanism underlies and may explain the observed biological behavior. In addition to a full description of the synthetic pathways, electrochemistry, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are provided. PMID:25916907

  16. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  17. Quenching of nucleotide-derived radicals by bisbenzimidazole derivative Hoechst-33258 in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Mohan; A Adhikary; V Jain; J P Mittal

    2000-08-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique has been employed to investigate the reaction of DNA-minor-groove ligand bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33258 with pyrimidine and purine nucleotide-derived radicals. Formation of an N-centred Hoechst-33258 radical is observed. Bimolecular rate constants and the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical have been evaluated. While the rate constant for the reaction of pyrimidine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258 remained the same (1-2) × 109 dm3 mol-1s-1, the yields of the Hoechst-33258 radical varied from 25% (5 -cytidine monophosphate) to 75% (5 -guanosine monophosphate) under anoxic conditions. The rate constant values for the reaction of purine-derived radicals with Hoechst-33258, under oxic and anoxic conditions, remained the same whereas with pyrimidine-derived radicals, the rate constant value under oxic conditions was about two orders of magnitude lower than under anoxic conditions. The difference in the yields of Hoechst-33258 radical with various nucleotide-derived radicals suggest the formation of different types of radicals and that the reaction mainly occurs by electron transfer from Hoechst-33258 to the nucleotide radicals.

  18. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  19. Scalar wormholes with nonminimal derivative coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider static spherically symmetric wormhole configurations in a gravitational theory of a scalar field with a potential V(Π) and nonminimal derivative coupling to the curvature described by the term (εgμν + κGμν)Π, μΠ, ν in the action. We show that the flare-out conditions providing the geometry of a wormhole throat could be fulfilled both ifΠμ = -1 (phantom scalar) and Πμ = +1 (ordinary scalar). Supposing additionally a traversability, we construct numerical solutions describing traversable wormholes in the model with arbitrary κ, Πμ = -1 and V(Π) 0 (no potential). The traversability assumes that the wormhole possesses two asymptotically flat regions with corresponding Schwarzschild masses. We find that asymptotical masses of a wormhole with nonminimal derivative coupling could be positive and/or negative depending on κ. In particular, both masses are positive only provided κ 1 ≤ 0; otherwise, one or both wormhole masses are negative. In conclusion, we give qualitative arguments that a wormhole configuration with positive masses could be stable. (paper)

  20. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

  1. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  2. Einstein's 1916 derivation of the Field Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2013-01-01

    In his first November 4, 1915 paper Einstein wrote the Lagrangian form of his field equations. In the fourth November 25, 1915 paper, Einstein added a trace term of the energy-momentum tensor on the right-hand side of the generally covariant field equations. The main purpose of the present work is to show that in November 4, 1915, Einstein had already explored much of the main ingredients that were required for the formulation of the final form of the field equations of November 25, 1915. The present work suggests that the idea of adding the second-term on the right-hand side of the field equation might have originated in reconsideration of the November 4, 1915 field equations. In this regard, the final form of Einstein's field equations with the trace term may be linked with his work of November 4, 1915. The interesting history of the derivation of the final form of the field equations is inspired by the exchange of letters between Einstein and Paul Ehrenfest in winter 1916 and by Einstein's 1916 derivation ...

  3. Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozekicioglu Seda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

  4. Very Massive Tracers and Higher Derivative Biases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Senatore, Leonardo; Vlah, Zvonimir; Angulo, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Most of the upcoming cosmological information will come from analyzing the clustering of the Large Scale Structures (LSS) of the universe through LSS or CMB observations. It is therefore essential to be able to understand their behavior with exquisite precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a consistent framework to make predictions for LSS observables in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper we focus on biased tracers. We argue that in calculations at a given order in the dark matter perturbations, highly biased tracers will underperform because of their larger higher derivative biases. A natural prediction of the EFTofLSS is therefore that by simply adding higher derivative biases, all tracers should perform comparably well. We implement this prediction for the halo-halo and the halo-matter power spectra at one loop, and the halo-halo-halo, halo-halo-matter, and halo-matter-matter bispectra at tree-level, and compare with simulations. We find good agreement ...

  5. Chromoionophoric Recognition of Alkylamines by Nitro Derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular design of efficient and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic ionophore systems for the sensing of chemically and biologically important ionic guests has attracted much attention in the past decade. Many of the compounds are based on the well-known molecular framework of crown ethers, calixarenes, and other EDTA type efficient chelating compounds. Among them the calix[4]arenes are particularly attractive for their selective ionophoric properties toward many of interesting organic ammonium guests. Particularly, the calix[4]arene-crown ethers are known to have unique binding properties toward some of alkali, alkaline earth metal ions, and biogenic amines. Many of the chromogenic sensing materials are developed by conjugating molecular framework of calix[4]- arene-crown ethers with suitable signaling functions of azophenols, thiazoles, and indophenols. Quite unexpectedly, however, the ionophoric properties of simple nitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown ethers were not reported, except for the closely related structure having ester-ether functions in crown moiety, in spite of their synthetically easy availability and expectedly efficient ionophoric properties toward organic amine guests. In this paper, we report the ionophoric properties of dinitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown-5 ether 1 toward representative alkylammonium ions aiming for the development of efficient and selective chromogenic sensing material for the biologically important organic amine guests. The Ba2+-selective chromogenic behavior of 1 over the representative alkali and alkaline earth metal ions has been reported earlier.

  6. A One Line Derivation of EGARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McAleer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular univariate asymmetric conditional volatility models is the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH specification. In addition to asymmetry, which captures the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, EGARCH can also accommodate leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. However, the statistical properties of the (quasi- maximum likelihood estimator of the EGARCH parameters are not available under general conditions, but rather only for special cases under highly restrictive and unverifiable conditions. It is often argued heuristically that the reason for the lack of general statistical properties arises from the presence in the model of an absolute value of a function of the parameters, which does not permit analytical derivatives, and hence does not permit (quasi- maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown in this paper for the non-leverage case that: (1 the EGARCH model can be derived from a random coefficient complex nonlinear moving average (RCCNMA process; and (2 the reason for the lack of statistical properties of the estimators of EGARCH under general conditions is that the stationarity and invertibility conditions for the RCCNMA process are not known.

  7. Cinnoline derivatives as human neutrophil elastase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Maria Paola; Schepetkin, Igor A; Crocetti, Letizia; Ciciani, Giovanna; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Guerrini, Gabriella; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Quinn, Mark T; Vergelli, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Compounds that can effectively inhibit the proteolytic activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) represent promising therapeutics for treatment of inflammatory diseases. We present here the synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, and biological evaluation of a new series of HNE inhibitors with a cinnoline scaffold. These compounds exhibited HNE inhibitory activity but had lower potency compared to N-benzoylindazoles previously reported by us. On the other hand, they exhibited increased stability in aqueous solution. The most potent compound, 18a, had a good balance between HNE inhibitory activity (IC50 value = 56 nM) and chemical stability (t1/2 = 114 min). Analysis of reaction kinetics revealed that these cinnoline derivatives were reversible competitive inhibitors of HNE. Furthermore, molecular docking studies of the active products into the HNE binding site revealed two types of HNE inhibitors: molecules with cinnolin-4(1H)-one scaffold, which were attacked by the HNE Ser195 hydroxyl group at the amido moiety, and cinnoline derivatives containing an ester function at C-4, which is the point of attack of Ser195. PMID:26194018

  8. Atroposelective Synthesis of Axially Chiral Thiohydantoin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigul, Sevgi; Dogan, Ilknur

    2016-07-15

    Nonracemic axially chiral thiohydantoins were synthesized atroposelectively by the reaction of o-aryl isothiocyanates with amino acid ester salts in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). The synthesis of the nonaxially chiral derivatives, however, gave thiohydantoins racemized at C-5 of the heterocyclic ring. The micropreparatively resolved enantiomers of the nonaxially chiral derivatives from the racemic products were found to be optically stable under neutral conditions. On formation of the 5-methyl-3-arylthiohydantoin ring, bulky o-aryl substituents at N3 were found to suppress the C-5 racemization and in this way enabled the transfer of chirality from the α-amino acid to the products. The corresponding 5-isopropylthiohydantoins turned out to be more prone to racemization at C-5 during the ring formation. The isomer compositions of the synthesized axially chiral thiohydantoins have been determined through HPLC analyses with chiral stationary phases. In most cases a high prevalence of the P isomers over the M isomers has been obtained. The barriers to rotation determined around the Nsp(2)-Caryl chiral axis were found to be dependent upon the size of the o-halo aryl substituents. PMID:27322739

  9. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area

  10. Derivative Securities on Romanian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria GOGONCEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the world wide agreed models of valuation of derivates may be properly applied to the Romanian capital market, obtaining reliable results for decision makers. The most common valuation models take into account market data such as, interest and exchange rates, volatilities and the price of the underlying instrument. The procedures for valuation must clearly define the nature of the market data to be taken into consideration (for example the zero-coupon curve for the valuation of swaps and the independent reference base to be used (Reuters at a given time, bid/offer or mid price, broker. In order to be able to obtain the results, I based my study on a self-developed software which can calculate the price and characteristics for different types of derivatives securities once the primary data are filled in. I compared the results obatined usig the valuation models with the actual prices on the Romanian capital market. I expected that the results obtained to be more accurate as the parameters used in the calculation models properly reflect market data as at that date being as widely as possible.. These assumptions were only supported for certain value orientations. In conclusion, explanations for these results are given and limitations for this study are discussed. Also, suggestions for future research are presented in the final part of the article.

  11. Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.

  12. New derivative of carnosine for nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, Francesco; Oliveri, Valentina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Vecchio, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is an endogenous dipeptide, extensively studied owing to its multifunctional activity exhibited in tissues of several animal species. This natural compound may act as a physiological buffer, ion-chelating agent (especially for copper(II) and zinc(II)), antioxidant and antiglycating agent. The main limit for the therapeutical uses of carnosine is the rapid hydrolysis mostly in human plasma by carnosinase. The chemical derivatization of carnosine is a promising strategy to improve the bioavailability of the dipeptide and facilitating the site-specific transport to different tissues. On this basis, a new carnosine derivative with biotin was synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and MS measurements, with aim of exploiting the avidin-biotin technology that offers a universal system for selective delivery of any biotinylated agent. The stability of the new carnosine derivative towards the hydrolytic action of serum carnosinase as well as the copper(II) binding ability of the carnosine-biotin conjugate were also assessed. The binding affinity of the new molecular entity to avidin and streptavidin, investigated by a spectrophotometric assay, was exploited to functionalize avidin- and streptavidin-gold nanoparticles with the carnosine-biotin conjugate. PMID:24158014

  13. Formulation of benzoporphyrin derivatives in Pluronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Rubinah K; Chansarkar, Namrata; Sharif, Isha; Hioka, Noboru; Dolphin, David

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of Pluronics for the formulation of tetrapyrrole-based photosensitizers, with a particular focus on B-ring benzoporphyrin derivatives. The B-ring derivatives have a high tendency to aggregate in aqueous solutions, and this poses a significant formulation problem. Pluronics are ABA-type triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide section with two hydrophilic polyethylene oxide sections of equal length at either end. Out of a range of different commercially available block copolymers studied, it was found that the longer the hydrophobic block, the better the stabilization of tetrapyrrolic drugs in monomeric form in aqueous suspensions. Of these the best performance was observed in the micelle-forming Pluronic P123. Micelle size determination by laser light scattering confirmed that particle size in stable Pluronic formulations was around 20 nm. Pluronics such as L122 formed emulsions spontaneously without the need for emulsion stabilizers; emulsions were highly stable at ambient temperatures over several days and also highly effective as potential drug delivery agents. PMID:12685658

  14. Boson Stars in Higher Derivative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baibhav, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have constructed Boson star (BS) solutions in four dimensional scalar-Gauss-Bonnet (sGB) theory. In order to have non-trivial effect from Gauss-Bonnet term, we invoked non-minimal coupling between a complex scalar field and the Gauss-Bonnet term with a coupling parameter, $\\alpha$. We show that the scalar field can no longer take arbitrary value at the center of the star. Furthermore, boson-stars in our higher derivative theory turn out to be slightly massive but much more compact than those in the usual Einstein's gravity. Interestingly, we found that for $\\alpha0.8$, binding energy for all possible boson stars is always negative. This implies that these stars are intrinsically stable against the decay by dispersion. We also present the mass-radius and mass-frequency curves for boson-star and compare them with other compact objects in gravity models derived from Gauss-Bonnet term.

  15. GENERALIZED DERIVATIONS ON PARABOLIC SUBALGEBRAS OF GENERAL LINEAR LIE ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正新

    2014-01-01

    Let P be a parabolic subalgebra of a general linear Lie algebra gl(n, F) over a field F, where n ≥ 3, F contains at least n different elements, and char(F) 6= 2. In this article, we prove that generalized derivations, quasiderivations, and product zero derivations of P coincide, and any generalized derivation of P is a sum of an inner derivation, a central quasiderivation, and a scalar multiplication map of P. We also show that any commuting automorphism of P is a central automorphism, and any commuting derivation of P is a central derivation.

  16. Fractional derivatives. An introduction; Derivate frazionarie. Che cosa sono, a cosa servono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this item is presented a brief survey of fractional calculus and of the relevant applications. In the work are discussed different points of view of the operation of fractional derivative and present a unifying definition. The role played by fractional derivatives and integrals within the framework of integral transform is analyzed. [Italian] In questo articolo si traccia un profilo del cosidetto calcolo frazionario e delle relative applicazioni a problemi di matematica pura ed applicata. Si discutono varie definizioni dell'operazione di derivata frazionaria, non tutte coincidenti fra loro, e si mostra come sia possibile proporre una definizione univoca che inglobi tutte le altre. Si analizza infine il ruolo giocato dalle derivate e dagli integrali frazionari e, piu' in generale, quello degli operatori differenziali ad esponente frazionario, nell'ambito della teoria delle rappresentazioni integrali.

  17. A new diketopiperazine derivative from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minghe; Tang, Guiling; Ju, Jianhua; Lu, Laichun; Huang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    A new diketopiperazine (DKP) derivative, (6R,3Z)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutyl-1-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (1), as well as five known DKPs 2-6 was isolated from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496. The structure of 1 was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and chiral-phase HPLC techniques. Compounds 1-6 did not show cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 100 μM in bioactivity assay.

  18. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  19. A note on the derivation of the derivatives of invariants of stretch tensor to the right Cauchy-Green tensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Dongyan; JIN Ming; DUI Guansuo

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for the derivation of the principal invariants of the stretch tensor with respect to the right Cauchy Green tensor is presented in this paper. According to the definition of the derivation of tensor function, the three first-order derivatives for the principal invariants of the stretch tensor are obtained through derivation directly to the right Cauchy-Green tensor by incremental method. Then the three second-order derivatives are yielded by the derivation to the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor directly. Furthermore, an explicit expression of the tangent modulus of the general Varga material is given as an example.

  20. Free radicals of benzo(a)pyrene and derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, P D

    1985-01-01

    The evidence for biological involvement, the spectroscopic properties (especially EPR), and the reactions, of free radicals derived from benzo(a)pyrene and its methylated, hydroxylated, and fluorinated derivatives are reviewed.

  1. Functional derivatives, Schr\\"{o}dinger equations, and Feynman integration

    OpenAIRE

    Dynin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Schr\\"{o}dinger equations in \\emph{functional derivatives} are solved via quantized Galerkin limit of antinormal functional Feynman integrals for Schr\\"{o}dinger equations in \\emph{partial derivatives

  2. Prophage-Cured Derivatives of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris

    OpenAIRE

    Gasson, Michael J.; Davies, F. Lyndon

    1980-01-01

    Prophage curing was achieved in Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, and the cured derivatives were shown to be indicators for their temperate bacteriophages. Relysogenization of these cured derivatives completed the first formal demonstration of the lysogenic state in lactic streptococci.

  3. Derivations and Generating Degrees in the Ring of Arithmetical Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexandru Zaharescu; Mohammad Zaki

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we study a family of derivations in the ring of arithmetical functions of several variables over an integral domain, and compute the generating degrees of the ring of arithmetical functions over the kernel of these derivations.

  4. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  5. STUDY OF ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF SOME HYDRAZONE PINOSTROBIN DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Mukusheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New derivatives on the basis of hydrazone pinostrobin molecule were synthesized. Significant antiviral activity of received samples of new hydrazone pinstrobin derivatives was identified.

  6. Synthesis of Heterocylic Compounds of Biological Interest from Carbohydrate Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Martinez Esperón; Fascio, M. L.; N. B. D’Accorso

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of some isoxazolic compounds from carbohydrate derivatives is described. These products are obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction and their functionalization leads to derivatives with potential biological activities.

  7. Synthesis and antitumor activity of derivatives of 23-hydroxybetulinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of natural product 23-hydroxybetulinic acid derivatives were prepared. In the preparation of mono-O-benzoyl ester derivative, it was observed that benzoyl group migrated from 3-O- to 23-O-position during the detritylation.

  8. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Hydroxy Semicarbazone Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hariri, Elham; Mahboubi, Arash; Rahmani, Parisa; Hajmohammadebrahimtehrani, K.; Babaeian, Mohammad; Mashayekhi, V.; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    A series of hydroxysemicarbazone derivatives of substituted diaryl ketones and acetophenones were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by analytical and spectroscopic methods including elemental analysis, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The derivatives were prepared

  9. On an Inequality Concerning the Polar Derivative of a Polynomial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Aziz; N A Rather

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we present a correct proof of an -inequality concerning the polar derivative of a polynomial with restricted zeros. We also extend Zygmund’s inequality to the polar derivative of a polynomial.

  10. ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVED FUNCTION IN UNIT CIRCULAR DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Yingying; Sun Daochun

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors define the derived function of an algeboidal function in the unit disc, prove it is an algabriodal function, and study the order of algebroidal function and that of its derived function in unit circular disc.

  11. Generalized Holographic Superconductors with Higher Derivative Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings between the field strength tensor and a complex scalar field, in four dimensional AdS black hole backgrounds. We study this theory in the probe limit, as well as with backreaction. There are multiple tuning parameters in the theory, and with two non-zero parameters, we show that the theory has a rich phase structure, and in particular, the transition from the normal to the superconducting phase can be tuned to be of first order or of second order within a window of one of these. This is established numerically as well as by computing the free energy of the boundary theory. We further present analytical results for the critical temperature of the model, and compare these with numerical analysis. Optical properties of this system are also studied numerically in the probe limit, and our results show evidence for negative refraction at low frequencies.

  12. Minimizing shortfall risk for multiple assets derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Barski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The risk minimizing problem $\\mathbf{E}[l((H-X_T^{x,\\pi})^{+})]\\overset{\\pi}{\\longrightarrow}\\min$ in the Black-Scholes framework with correlation is studied. General formulas for the minimal risk function and the cost reduction function for the option $H$ depending on multiple underlying are derived. The case of a linear and a strictly convex loss function $l$ are examined. Explicit computation for $l(x)=x$ and $l(x)=x^p$, with $p>1$ for digital, quantos, outperformance and spread options are presented. The method is based on the quantile hedging approach presented in \\cite{FL1}, \\cite{FL2} and developed for the multidimensional options in \\cite{Barski}.

  13. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...... the relationship between inventory and volatility, we use the information available in options traded on futures. Second, performance assessment in the previous literature has primarily evolved around explaining moments of data or forecasting prices of futures. Instead, we asses the performance of our model...... by considering both the ability of explaining prices in-sample and out-of-sample - assessing both the pricing-performance and the hedging-performance of the models. Third, we model the futures surface rather than the spot price process, and from the no-arbitrage relationship between spot and futures prices we...

  14. Pyrolisis of municipal solid waste derived fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study of pyrolytic processes for refuse derived fuel from municipal solid wastes, the main process parameters affecting the yield and the physical-chemical characteristics of products (gases, liquids and solids) were identified and analyzed. From the experimental results, one can observe that the pyrolytic process reduces the volume of produced emissions with respect to the conventional incinerators and allows, at the same time, the recovery of a gas with a significant heat capacity (14,000-19,000 kj/nmc) according to the process temperature, two other fuels, a tar and a solid with low ash content. It seems also that the strong environmental impact associable to this process is due to the water fraction of the produced liquid, whose main pollutants were also identified

  15. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the biological basis of personality is a timely research endeavor, with the aim of deepening our understanding of human nature. In recent years, a growing body of research has investigated the role of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the context of individual differences across human beings, with a focus on personality traits. A large number of different approaches have been chosen to illuminate the role of BDNF for personality, ranging from the measurement of BDNF in the serum/plasma to molecular genetics to (genetic brain imaging. The present review provides the reader with an overview of the current state of affairs in the context of BDNF and personality.

  16. New Thymol Derivate from Centipeda minima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shou-cheng; GUO Yuan-qiang; GAO Wen-yuan; ZHANG Tie-jun

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Centipeda minima(Compositae) is an annual herbaceous plant found in moist places throughout the plains mainly in the southern regions of the People's Republic of China, Eastern tropical Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islandst[1,2]. It is a commonly used Chinese folk medicine for colds, whooping cough, nasal allergy, malaria and asthma[2]. A number of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and triterpenes have previously been isolated from C. minima[2,3]. During our study on searching for biological active components from this plant, five compounds were isolated. Compound 1 was structurally elucidated as a new thymol derivate, and compounds 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  17. Grafting of chitosan with fatty acyl derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiandotti, Roberto S.; Rodrigues, Paula C.; Akcelrud, Leni, E-mail: leni@leniak.ne [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The internal plasticization of chitosan with covalently linked long aliphatic branches, typically 12C, was accomplished through the condensation of the amino groups of chitosan with acidic derivatives of lauric acid, as lauroyl anhydride or lauroyl chloride, that are more reactive than the fatty acid itself. The chemical pathway led to selective N-acylation. The degree of substitution was quantitatively determined by FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR and varied between 3 and 35%. The FTIR quantitative analysis was based in a calibration method with good accuracy. The modified chitosan products were soluble in neutral water and/or DMF according to the degree of substitution. The modified chitosan films were more flexible than the pristine, non-modified ones. (author)

  18. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Roberts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.

  19. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  20. Brane Cosmology and Higher Derivative Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered a cosmological model with density perturbation and decreasing cosmological constant of the form Lambda = 3beta (frac{dot{R}^2}{R^2}) + delta (frac{ddot{R}}{R}), beta, gamma = const. Inspired from brane cosmology, we supposed the presence of exotic density related to the cosmological constant by the formula 2Lambda = 3m^2, where m is a constant having the dimension of Hubble constant. Their effects on the evolution of the spatially, flat FRW cosmoligical model of the Universe is analyzed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The Universe is found to be accelerating with time with no initial singularity for beta < frac{1}{3} and the cosmological constant is found to decrease as t^{-2} but smaller than 3H^2. The presence of interacting scalar field is also discussed.

  1. Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soon Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

  2. Phenanthrene derivatives from the orchid Coelogyne cristata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, P L; Sen, S; Majumder, S

    2001-10-01

    Coeloginanthridin, a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative, and coeloginanthrin, the corresponding phenanthrene analogue, were isolated from the orchid Coelogyne cristata which earlier afforded coelogin (1a) and coeloginin (1b). The structures of coeloginanthridin and coeloginanthrin were established as 3,5,7-trihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2a) and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxyphenanthrene (2c), respectively, from spectral and chemical evidence including the conversion of coeloginanthridin triacetate (2b) to coeloginanthrin triacetate (2d) by dehydrogenation with DDQ. In the light of earlier reports on structurally similar compounds, 2a and 2c may have biological activities of phytoalexins and endogenous plant growth regulators. PMID:11576602

  3. Phytoestrogens: Plant-derived Estrogenic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Konar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a hormone, which is produced in ovary and testis; however, it has many biological effects besides the reproductive system. Phytoestrogens are the compounds, which have estrogen-like structure and activities, taking place in structure of various edible plants at different levels and in different compositions. These compounds attracted notice after the first quarter of 20th century upon they had been associated with infertility seen in some of animals fed with alfalfa, and these compounds have been identified in human-derived biological samples and its effects on health have been taken under study in the recent 30 years. These materials have especially antioxidant role in plants while they have activities in animals and humans as estrogen agonist and antagonists. Based on their chemical structure, they may be gathered under especially isoflavon and lignan groups while some of members of coumestan and stilbene groups are also identified as phytoestrogenic compound.

  4. Ecotoxicology a derivative of encyclopedia of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Fath, Brian D

    2010-01-01

    The compilation of the articles in this derivative emphasizes ecological components and fundamental paradigms of ecotoxicology. The alphabetical listing of toxic substances and chemicals in Part B and C serves as a quick reference for professionals. Additionally, the international focus of Ecotoxicology and the range of toxins it covers will make it an indispensable resource to scientists. The password protected companion website will contain Estimation of Ecotoxicological Parameters (EEP) software developed by the author. EEP allows users to get ecotoxicological properties of chemicals in data bases or they can estimate them (there are only a few percentages in the data base). There are very specific estimation methods that only estimate for instance the properties for halogenated aromatic compounds or there are very general estimation methods. EEP covers the very general methods and is fast to use but gives in general estimation of higher uncertainty than the very specific methods.

  5. Synthesis and Fluorescent Property of Pyrazoline Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆蓓琼; 章建民; 王明剑; 邹元海; 陈晓藿

    2012-01-01

    A series of fluorinated pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of fluorinated chalcone with hy- drazine ArNHNH2 (Ar=4-BrC6F4, 4-CIC6H4, C6Hs, 4-CH3C6H4 and 4-CH3OC6H4), The structures of all these compounds were fully supported by their spectroscopic data and one of products was further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The capability of fluorinated triaryl-2-pyrazolines to detect metal cations was in- vestigated, by monitoring changes in their fluorescence spectra in the presence of Cd^2+, Co^2+, Cu^2+, Mn^2+, Ni^2+ and Zn^2+.

  6. [Synthesis and cytotoxicity of allobetulin derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, O B; Smirnova, I E; Khusnutdinova, E F; Zhukova, O S; Fetisova, L V; Apryshko, G N; Medvedeva, N I; Iamansarov, E Iu; Baĭkova, I P; Nguen, Thanh Tra; Thu, Do Thi H

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and screening of antitumor activity in vitro (cytotoxicity) of various oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and platinum-containing derivatives of allobetulin, including different arrangements of the double bonds in the A and B rings, penta- and hexacyclic ring A, 21-acetyl-20,28-epoxy-18α,19βH-ursane-isomeric cycle E, was carry out. (3R,5R)-19β,28-Epoxy-4,5-seco-18α-olean-3(5)-ozonide and 2,3-indolo-21β-acetyl-20β,28-epoxy-18α, H-19β-ursane showed significant cytotoxic activity against melanoma MeWo and Leukemia SR cells, appropriately. (3S,5S)-Diastereomer of the first compound showed no cytotoxicity. PMID:25895356

  7. A topological derivative method for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norato, J.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Haber, RB;

    2007-01-01

    resource constraint. A smooth and consistent projection of the region bounded by the level set onto the fictitious analysis domain simplifies the response analysis and enhances the convergence of the optimization algorithm. Moreover, the projection supports the reintroduction of solid material in void......We propose a fictitious domain method for topology optimization in which a level set of the topological derivative field for the cost function identifies the boundary of the optimal design. We describe a fixed-point iteration scheme that implements this optimality criterion subject to a volumetric...... regions, a critical requirement for robust topology optimization. We present several numerical examples that demonstrate compliance minimization of fixed-volume, linearly elastic structures....

  8. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Coumarin Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chun-feng; ZENG He-ping

    2011-01-01

    Five new coumarin amide derivatives were synthesized with coupling reagent,the structures of which were characterized by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR,MS and element analysis.Their spectral properties were studied in dichloromethane,in N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF) and in solid state.Solvent polarity has less influence on the UV-Vis maximum absorption at about 430 nm.The maximum emission wavelengths change from 464 nm to 474 nm in dichloromethane,from 476 nm to 482 nm in DMF and from 521 nm to 548 nm in solid state,respectively.The fluorescence intensities of compounds 8 and 9 were extremely strong in solvents or in solid state.Compounds 8 and 9 exhibited high fluorescenct quantumn yields in solution compared to compounds 4-7.The fluorescence lifetimes of all the compounds in solvents were measured.

  9. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectra of Dipeptide Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO, Zaigang; ZENG, Chengchu; YANG, Daoshan; HUANG, Yali; WANG, Fang; DU, Hongguang; HU, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Based on the structure of the HIV integrase core domain, dipeptide derivatives, as a type of HIV integrase in- hibitor, were synthesized, and their fragmentation pathways were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spec- trometry (ESI-MSN) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In order to better understand the fragmentation pathways, the MS2 and MS3 spectra of the title compound were obtained. The main fragmentation pathways occur by the cleavage of the C-CO bonds between N-(benzothiazol-2-yl)aminocarbonyl and methylene, NH-CO bonds between the NH groups and carbonyl groups. Electrospray ionization was proven to be a good method for the structural characterization and identification of this kind of compound.

  10. Isocorydine Derivatives and Their Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the anticancer activity of isocorydine (ICD, ten isocorydine derivatives were prepared through chemical structure modifications, and their in vitro and in vivo activities were experimentally investigated. 8-Amino-isocorydine (8 and 6a,7-dihydrogen-isocorydione (10 could inhibit the growth of human lung (A549, gastric (SGC7901 and liver (HepG2 cancer cell lines in vitro. Isocorydione (2 could inhibit the tumor growth of murine sarcoma S180-bearing mice, and 8-acetamino-isocorydine (11, a pro-drug of 8-amino-isocorydine (8, which is instable in water solution at room temperature, had a good inhibitory effect on murine hepatoma H22-induced tumors. The results suggested that the isocorydine structural modifications at C-8 could significantly improve the biological activity of this alkaloid, indicating its suitability as a lead compound in the development of an effective anticancer agent.

  11. Power Cocentralizing Generalized Derivations on Prime Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vincenzo De Filippis

    2010-06-01

    Let be a prime ring, the Utumi quotient ring of $R,C=Z(U)$ the extended centroid of , a non-central Lie ideal of , and non-zero generalized derivations of . Suppose that there exists an integer $n≥ 1$ such that $(H(u)u-uG(u))^n=0$, for all $u\\in L$, then one of the following holds: (1) there exists $c\\in U$ such that $H(x)=xc,G(x)=cx;(2)R$ satisfies the standard identity $s_4$ and char ()=2; (3) satisfies $s4$ and there exist $a, b, c\\in U$, such that $H(x)=ax+xc,G(x)=cx+xb$ and $(a-b)^n=0$.

  12. Chaotic inflation in higher derivative gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Myrzakul, Shynaray; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate chaotic inflation from scalar field subjected to potential in the framework of $f(R^2, P, Q)$-gravity, where we add a correction to Einstein's gravity based on a function of the square of the Ricci scalar $R^2$, the contraction of the Ricci tensor $P$, and the contraction of the Riemann tensor $Q$. The Gauss-Bonnet case is also discussed. We give the general formalism of inflation, deriving the slow-roll parameters, the $e$-folds number, and the spectral indexes. Several explicit examples are furnished, namely we will consider the cases of massive scalar field and scalar field with quartic potential and some power-law function of the curvature invariants under investigation in the gravitational action of the theory. Viable inflation according with observations is analyzed.

  13. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  14. Peramivir Phosphonate Derivatives as Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Fang, Jim-Min; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Wang, Shi-Yun; Huang, Wen-I; Tseng, Yin-Chen; Cheng, Yih-Shyun E; Cheng, Ting-Jen Rachel; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2016-06-01

    Peramivir is a potent neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor for treatment of influenza infection by intravenous administration. By replacing the carboxylate group in peramivir with a phosphonate group, phosphono-peramivir (6a), the dehydration and deoxy derivatives (7a and 8a) as well as their corresponding monoalkyl esters are prepared from a pivotal intermediate epoxide 12. Among these phosphonate compounds, the dehydration derivative 7a that has a relatively rigid cyclopentene core structure exhibits the strongest inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.3-4.1 nM) against several NAs of wild-type human and avian influenza viruses (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, and H7N9), although the phosphonate congener 6a is unexpectedly less active than peramivir. The inferior binding affinity of 6a is attributable to the deviated orientations of its phosphonic acid and 3-pentyl groups in the NA active site as inferred from the NMR, X-ray diffraction, and molecular modeling analyses. Compound 7a is active to the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y strains of H1N1 and H5N1 viruses (IC50 = 73-86 nM). The phosphonate monoalkyl esters (6b, 6c, 7b, 7c, 8b, and 8c) are better anti-influenza agents (EC50 = 19-89 nM) than their corresponding phosphonic acids (EC50 = 50-343 nM) in protection of cells from the viral infection. The phosphonate monoalkyl esters are stable in buffer solutions (pH 2.0-7.4) and rabbit serum; furthermore, the alkyl group is possibly tuned to attain the desired pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:27167096

  15. Cyclic Benzimidazole Derivatives and Their Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karminski-Zamola, G.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years benzimidazole derivatives are one of the most extensively studied classes of heterocyclic compounds, and have received much attention from synthetic organic as well as medicinal chemists, because of their well known biological activities and their applications in several areas as materials in electronics, in electrochemistry as anticorrosive agents, as polymers or optical materials and fluorescent tags in DNA sequencing. The structure of vitamin B12, as an example, contains a benzimidazole group. Compounds containing benzimidazole nuclei show anticancer, antineoplastic, antiinfective, antibacterial, antifungal and many others activities. Due to the structural similarity of benzimidazole nuclei with some naturally occurring compounds such as purine, they can easily interact with biomolecules of the living systems. The introduction of an additional substituent on the benzimidazole nuclei has been increasing attention in the expectation that such changes could potentially affect the interaction of the molecules with biological targets. Fused cyclic benzimidazole derivatives, as benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines,benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines, benzimidazo[2,1-b]isoquinolines and many others, have also interesting biological activities and most of them are very good anticancer agents.DNA is the molecular target of many anticancer drugs in clinical use and development. Compounds which can bind to DNA with intercalative or non-intercalative mechanism play a major role in biological processes such as gene transcription or DNA replication. Benzoannulated benzimidazole analogues contain a planar chromophore and have the ability to become inserted between adjacent base pairs of DNA double helix. Intercalators are recognized as one of the most important classes of anticancer agents. So an understanding of the drug-DNA interactions is a promising approach to developing novel reagents and plays a key role in pharmacology today.

  16. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Challenges of Animal Derived Food Safety and Counter-measures

    OpenAIRE

    Yeping Tan; Changhua Lu; Yinong Hu

    2014-01-01

    The safety of animal derived food has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years. In this paper, we stress major animal derived food issues and challenges including microbial pathogens, food additives and chemical residues. In addition, the countermeasures to animal derived food issues including animal health and welfare, animal identification and traceability, antimicrobial interventions, new processes and technologies in the processing and preservation of animal derived food...

  18. Challenges of Animal Derived Food Safety and Counter-measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeping Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The safety of animal derived food has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years. In this paper, we stress major animal derived food issues and challenges including microbial pathogens, food additives and chemical residues. In addition, the countermeasures to animal derived food issues including animal health and welfare, animal identification and traceability, antimicrobial interventions, new processes and technologies in the processing and preservation of animal derived food products, and Risk assessment are discussed.

  19. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives in Russia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rotfuß, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This work provides a descriptive overview of Russian markets for financial derivatives. Available figures for the exchange-traded and over-the-counter-traded derivatives in Russia show that the Russian derivatives markets experienced enormous growth rates since the financial crisis in 1998. Starting from a very low level, turnover of exchange-traded derivatives in Russia rose from 2000 to 2006 on average 168 percent per year and reached a total turnover of EUR 102 billion in 2006. Among futur...

  20. Fractional variational calculus in terms of a combined Caputo derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the fractional Caputo derivative to the fractional derivative ${^CD^{\\alpha,\\beta}_{\\gamma}}$, which is a convex combination of the left Caputo fractional derivative of order $\\alpha$ and the right Caputo fractional derivative of order $\\beta$. The fractional variational problems under our consideration are formulated in terms of ${^CD^{\\alpha,\\beta}_{\\gamma}}$. The Euler-Lagrange equations for the basic and isoperimetric problems, as well as transversality conditions, are proved.

  1. Derivative encoding for parallel magnetic resonance imaging a

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a linear shift-invariant relationship between the partial derivatives of k space signals acquired using multichannel receive coils and to demonstrate that k space derivatives can be used for image unwrapping.Methods: Fourier transform of k space derivatives contains information on the spatial origins of aliased pixels; therefore, images can be reconstructed by k space derivatives. Fully sampled phantom and brain images acquired at 3 T using a standard eight channel recei...

  2. Credit Derivatives Pricing Model for Fuzzy Financial Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Wu; Yaming Zhuang; Xiaojing Lin

    2015-01-01

    With various categories of fuzziness in the market, the factors that influence credit derivatives pricing include not only the characteristic of randomness but also nonrandom fuzziness. Thus, it is necessary to bring fuzziness into the process of credit derivatives pricing. Based on fuzzy process theory, this paper first brings fuzziness into credit derivatives pricing, discusses some pricing formulas of credit derivatives, and puts forward a One-Factor Fuzzy Copula function which builds a fo...

  3. Managing credit risk with credit and macro derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Welzel, Peter; Schweimayer, Gerhard; Broll, Udo

    2003-01-01

    The industrial organization approach to the microeconomics of banking aug- mented by uncertainty and risk aversion is used to examine credit derivatives and macro derivatives as instruments to hedge credit risk for a large com- mercial bank. In a partial-analytic framework we distinguish between the probability of default and the loss given default, model different forms of derivatives, and derive hedge rules and strong and weak separation properties between deposit and loan decisions on the ...

  4. Weather Derivatives: A Contemporary Review and Its Application in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin LIU

    2006-01-01

    The weather has impact on both human activity and all forms of businesses. A variety of businesses including energy and power, agriculture, retail, insurance, and entertainment are either favorably or adversely by weather. Then a new class of financial derivatives--weather derivatives are evolved to manage the economic impact of weather events on the performance of business activities. To this day, the weather derivative market has developed throughout the world. Various of weather derivative...

  5. 21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.275 Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives identified in this section may be...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  7. Comment: on the derivation of coupled cluster equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paldus, J.; Cizek, J. (Waterloo Univ., Ontario (Canada))

    1985-02-01

    The derivation of an explicit form of the coupled cluster equations using the time-independent formalism and its various aspects are discussed in view of a recent derivation given by Dabrowski. Various earlier derivations are compared as well as different requirements needed in nuclear and molecular or atomic applications.

  8. Generalized Second-Order Partial Derivatives of 1/r

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnizdo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized second-order partial derivatives of 1/r, where r is the radial distance in three dimensions (3D), are obtained using a result of the potential theory of classical analysis. Some non-spherical-regularization alternatives to the standard spherical-regularization expression for the derivatives are derived. The utility of a…

  9. Characterizing Thematized Derivative Schema by the Underlying Emergent Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mercedes; Llinares, Salvador; Sanchez-Matamoros, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on different underlying structures of the derivative schema of three undergraduate students that were considered to be at the trans level of development of the derivative schema (action-process-object-schema). The derivative schema is characterized in terms of the students' ability to explicitly transfer the relationship between…

  10. Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-10-substituted Hymenialdisine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; WANG Yu; QIN Yong; SONG Hao

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel 2-phenyl-10-substituted hymenialdisine derivatives was synthesized via the microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of the 2-phenyl derivative of hymenialdisine and boronic acid,which enabled the successful introduction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups to the 2-phenylhymenialdisine derivatives in good yields.

  11. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H

    2006-09-01

    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  12. Pricing Model of Multiattribute Derivatives Based on Mixed Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By Analyzing the behavior and character of derivative security, the authorsestablished a pricing model of multiattribute derivative security whose underlying asset pricingprocess is a mixed process, and obtained a new model for option pricing of multiattribute derivatives based on mixed process, and improved some original results.

  13. Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopp, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for…

  14. Integration of Image-Derived and Pos-Derived Features for Image Blur Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Zhan, Kai-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    The image quality plays an important role for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)'s applications. The small fixed wings UAV is suffering from the image blur due to the crosswind and the turbulence. Position and Orientation System (POS), which provides the position and orientation information, is installed onto an UAV to enable acquisition of UAV trajectory. It can be used to calculate the positional and angular velocities when the camera shutter is open. This study proposes a POS-assisted method to detect the blur image. The major steps include feature extraction, blur image detection and verification. In feature extraction, this study extracts different features from images and POS. The image-derived features include mean and standard deviation of image gradient. For POS-derived features, we modify the traditional degree-of-linear-blur (blinear) method to degree-of-motion-blur (bmotion) based on the collinear condition equations and POS parameters. Besides, POS parameters such as positional and angular velocities are also adopted as POS-derived features. In blur detection, this study uses Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier and extracted features (i.e. image information, POS data, blinear and bmotion) to separate blur and sharp UAV images. The experiment utilizes SenseFly eBee UAV system. The number of image is 129. In blur image detection, we use the proposed degree-of-motion-blur and other image features to classify the blur image and sharp images. The classification result shows that the overall accuracy using image features is only 56%. The integration of image-derived and POS-derived features have improved the overall accuracy from 56% to 76% in blur detection. Besides, this study indicates that the performance of the proposed degree-of-motion-blur is better than the traditional degree-of-linear-blur.

  15. Recent updates on lignocellulosic biomass derived ethanol - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic (or cellulosic biomass derived ethanol is the most promising near/long term fuel candidate. In addition, cellulosic biomass derived ethanol may serve a precursor to other fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from unsustainable sources and/or are proposed to be derived from cellulosic biomass. However, the processing cost for second generation ethanol is still high to make the process commercially profitable and replicable. In this review, recent trends in cellulosic biomass ethanol derived via biochemical route are reviewed with main focus on current research efforts that are being undertaken to realize high product yields/titers and bring the overall cost down.

  16. How Ampere could have derived the Lorentz Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Faraco, G; Faraco, Gemma; Nistico', Giuseppe A.

    2005-01-01

    Lorentz Transformations of Special Relativity are derived from two postulates: the first is the Principle of Relativity, while the postulate of invariance of the velocity of light, used in usual derivations, is replaced by a law of lectro-magneto-statics and invariance of electrical charge. Our derivation does not require the assumption of regularity conditions of the Transformations, such as linearity and continuity required by other derivations. The level of the needed mathematics and physical concepts makes the proposed derivation suitable for Secondary School.

  17. Effects of Sulfate Chitosan Derivatives on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingming; WANG Yuanhong; JIANG Tingfu; LV Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentra-tion emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly amelio-rated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  18. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  19. Interest rate derivatives in developing countries in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Cerovic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still the main problem for the interest rate derivatives development is the lack of basic conditions, including inadequate measurement of interest rate risk exposure, underdevelopment of financial markets in general and especially of market instruments that underlying derivatives, weak and/or inadequate infrastructure and legal framework, misunderstanding and lack of experience in operations with financial derivatives and the complexity of the derivatives accounting.

  20. The derivative expansion approach to the interaction between close surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D; Mazzitelli, F D

    2014-01-01

    The derivative expansion approach to the calculation of the interaction between two surfaces, is a generalization of the proximity force approximation, a technique of widespread use in different areas of physics. The derivative expansion has so far been applied to seemingly unrelated problems in different areas; it is our principal aim here to present the approach in its full generality. To that end, we introduce an unified setting, which is independent of any particular application, provide a formal derivation of the derivative expansion in that general setting, and study some its properties. With a view on the possible application of the derivative expansion to other areas, like nuclear and colloidal physics, we also discuss the relation between the derivative expansion and some time-honoured uncontrolled approximations used in those contexts. By putting them under similar terms as the derivative expansion, we believe that the path is open to the calculation of next to leading order corrections also for tho...

  1. Fields of rational constants of cyclic factorizable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Zielinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe all rational constants of a large family of four-variable cyclic factorizable derivations. Thus, we determine all rational first integrals of their corresponding systems of differential equations. Moreover, we give a characteristic of all four-variable Lotka-Volterra derivations with a nontrivial rational constant. All considerations are over an arbitrary field of characteristic zero. Our main tool is the investigation of the cofactors of strict Darboux polynomials. Factorizable derivations are important in derivation theory. Namely, we may associate the factorizable derivation with any given derivation of a polynomial ring and that construction helps to determine rational constants of arbitrary derivations. Besides, Lotka-Volterra systems play a significant role in population biology, laser physics and plasma physics.

  2. Deriving Bathymetry from Multispectral Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Hernandez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive satellite sensor data in shallow waters is complicated by the combined atmospheric, water, and bottom signals. Accurate determination of water depth is important for monitoring underwater topography and detection of moved sediments and in support of navigation. A Worldview 2 (WV2 image was used to develop high-resolution bathymetric maps (four meters that were validated using bathymetry from an active sensor Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. The influence of atmospheric corrections in depth retrievals was evaluated using the Dark Substract, Fast Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH and the Cloud Shadow Approach (CSA atmospheric corrections. The CSA combined with a simple band ratio (Band2/Band3 provided the best performance, where it explained 82% of model values. The WV2 depth model was validated at another site within the image, where it successfully retrieved depth values with a coefficient of determination (r2 of 0.90 for all the depth values sampled, and an r2 of 0.70, for a depth range to 20 m. The WV2 bands in the visible region were useful for testing different band combinations to derive bathymetry that, when combined with a robust atmospheric correction, provided depth retrievals even in areas with variable bottom composition and near the limits of detection.

  3. Immunogenicity of umbilical cord tissue derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Patricia S; Messina, Darin J; Hirsh, Erica L; Chi, Nina; Goldman, Stephanie N; Lo, Diana P; Harris, Ian R; Popma, Sicco H; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A

    2008-01-01

    Umbilical cord tissue provides a unique source of cells with potential for tissue repair. Umbilical cord tissue-derived cells (UTCs) are MHC class I (MHCI) dull and negative for MHC class II (MHCII), but can be activated to increase MHCI and to express MHCII with IFN-gamma stimulation. Mesenchymal stem cells with similar characteristics have been inferred to be nonimmunogenic; however, in most cases, immunogenicity was not directly assessed. Using UTC from Massachusetts General Hospital MHC-defined miniature swine, we assessed immunogenicity across a full MHC barrier. Immunogenicity was assessed by in vitro assays including mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and flow cytometry to detect serum alloantibody. A single injection of MHC-mismatched unactivated UTCs did not induce a detectable immune response. When injected in an inflamed region, injected repeatedly in the same region or stimulated with IFN-gamma prior to injection, UTCs were immunogenic. As clinical cellular repair strategies may involve injection of allogeneic cells into inflamed regions of damaged tissue or repeated doses of cells to achieve the desired benefit, our results on the immunogenicity of these cells in these circumstances may have important implications for optimal success and functional improvement for this cellular treatment strategy for diseased tissues. PMID:17909081

  4. Surface Emissivity Derived From Multispectral Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Young, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surface emissivity is critical for remote sensing of surface skin temperature and infrared cloud properties when the observed radiance is influenced by the surface radiation. It is also necessary to correctly compute the longwave flux from a surface at a given skin temperature. Surface emissivity is difficult to determine because skin temperature is an ill-defined parameter. The surface-emitted radiation may arise from a range of surface depths depending on many factors including soil moisture, vegetation, surface porosity, and heat capacity. Emissivity can be measured in the laboratory for pure surfaces. Transfer of laboratory measurements to actual Earth surfaces, however, is fraught with uncertainties because of their complex nature. This paper describes a new empirical approach for estimating surface skin temperature from a combination of brightness temperatures measured at different infrared wavelengths with satellite imagers. The method uses data from the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager to determine multispectral emissivities from the skin temperatures derived over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain.

  5. Deception as a Derived Function of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Language may be one of most important attributes which separates humans from other animal species. It has been suggested by some commentators that the primary biological function of human language is to deceive and selfishly manipulate social competitors. However, despite the existence of a large body of relevant theoretical and empirical literature in favor of the social bonding hypothesis for language function, the ostensible evidence and arguments for the deception hypothesis have not been fully discussed. The following review analyses the evidence and theoretical arguments from human social behavior, comparative animal behavior, and developmental psychology and suggests that deception shows clear signs of a derived function for language. Furthermore, in addition to being used relatively infrequently across most human and non-human animal contexts, deception appears to be utilized just as often for prosocial and social bonding functions, as it is for antisocial purposes. Future studies should focus on theoretical and experimental investigations which explore interactions between deceptive and honest language use in the context of social bonding. PMID:27729895

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Isosteviol Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jing-Chao; Tian Guo-Qiang; Zhang Yan-Bing; Wu Ya; Liu Hong-Min

    2004-01-01

    Isosteviol (ent-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid, I) is a tetracyclic diterpenoid with a beyerane skeleton obtained by acid hydrolysis of stevioside.1 Several tetracyclic diterpenoids, specially the kaurenes, have important biological activities. Recent studies on the microbial transformation of isosteviol have revealed that it is metabolized by Cunninghamella bainieri, Actinoplanes sp., Mucor recurvatus, and Cunninghamella blackesleeana to yield five new metabolites.2 The hydroxylation pattern of these bioactive compounds may influence their binding on to the receptors, as was proposed for the Rabdosia diterpenoids. Therefore, the introduction of hydroxyl groups or unsaturated bonds in saturated and non-hydroxylated diterpenoids, like isosteviol, may enhance existing properties or lead to new biological activities. Although some beyeranes have been subjected to biotransformations by fungi,4 there are few report in the literature related the chemical transformation of Isosteviol. In the present study, we try to develop the chemical transformation of isosteviol and other beyeranes in order to obtaining some bioactive compounds with beyerane skeleton. Seven isosteviol derivatives, Ⅱ-Ⅷ, were therefore synthesized and characterized. The X-ray crystal strcture of H(R = H) was also determined.

  7. Towards Deriving Higgs Lagrangian from Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, N; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Sannino, Francesco

    1998-01-01

    A new method of deriving the Higgs Lagrangian from vector-like gauge theories is explored. After performing a supersymmetric extension of gauge theories we identify the auxiliary field associated with the "meson" superfield, in the low energy effective theory, as the composite Higgs field. The auxiliary field, at tree level, has a "negative squared mass". By computing the one-loop effective action in the low energy effective theory, we show that a kinetic term for the auxiliary field emerges when an explicit non-perturbative mechanism for supersymmetry breaking is introduced. We find that, due to the naive choice of the Kaehler potential, the Higgs potential remains unbounded from the below. A possible scenario for solving this problem is presented. It is also shown that once chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken via a non-zero vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field, the low energy composite fermion field acquires a mass and decouples, while in the supersymmetric limit it was kept massless by the 't Ho...

  8. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  9. Biological Derived Nanomotors in a ``Domino Fashion''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    For disproportionation of H2 O2 , we also considers an electrokinetic mechanism they appear.So far, the more efficient micro/nanoscale motors are derived from biological systems [2003]. Besides, a control experimenting using 3 stripped Au/Pt/Au rods with catalyzed the composition of H2 O2 , at a similar rate-Walter F Paxton: ``Catalytic Nanomotors,'' JACS, 2004. We also intended to accomaplishes the HCCI quotes from Marcin Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, just in several characters seems as twin of IGNITION through IceCube document project held since Oct 11, 2001 ever concludes as ``saw none'' so they can be follows the ITER/IFMIF. Refers to S29286 file in UI retrieved: ``magnetic quantum-dot cellular automata which is nonvolatile & lower power consist of nanomagnets. Since they are magnetically coupled, logic can be performed by switching, on the other hand in a DOMINO fashion..'' [A. Klenm: ``Fabrication of Magnetic Tunnel Junction-based Spintronic Devices..,'' convocation, Aug 11-14, 2010]. Acknowledgments devotes to BB Mandelbrot: ``Fractal Geometry: What is it & What Does it do?''.

  10. Synthesis of new condensed coumarin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekić Stojadin V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of 4-chloro-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonitrile (1 with 4-methylpyridin- 2-ylamine (2 and 6-methoxy-benzothiazol-2-ylamine (3 in acetonitrile containing a catalytic amount of triethylamine gave the new coumarin derivatives 7-imino-10-methyl-7H- 5-oxa-7a,12-diaza-benzo[a]anthracen-6-one (4 and 7-imino-10-methoxy-7H-5-oxa-12- thia-7a,13-diaza-indeno[1,2-b]phenanthren-6-one (5 in 52 and 39% yields, respectively. The novel compounds were subjected to acid hydrolysis giving the corresponding oxoderivatives 10-methyl-5-oxa-7a,12-diaza-benzo[a]anthracene-6,7-dione (6 and 10- methoxy-5-oxa-12-thia-7a,13-diaza-indeno[1,2-b]phenanthrene-6,7-dione (7 in 64 and 58% yields, respectively. The structural assignments of the synthesized compounds were based on elemental analyses, IR and proton NMR spectra. .

  11. Aggregation susceptibility on phototransformation of hematoporphyrin derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosensitizers used in PDT suffer degradation by light. In this work, photobleaching of Photogem® (PG), Photofrin® (PF), and Photosan® (PS), hematoporphyrin derivatives, were induced by light in the presence or absence of 1% Triton X-100. The degradation efficiency in the absence of 1% Triton X-100 follows the sequence: PF > PG > PS, which means that PF presented a greater degradation than PG and PS. However, in the presence of the surfactant the degradation efficiency is different: PG ≅ PS > PF. Besides aggregation susceptibility, studies in cell culture (tumor and non tumor cells) and in animals (depth of necrosis) were performed, trying to correlate the stability of these photosensitizers with their photodynamic effect. The results suggest that PF presents higher light induced photocytotoxicity than PG and PS for both types of cells. For the depth of necrosis studies, more aggregated photosensitizer showed a longer time to accumulate in liver (30 min for PG, 120 h for PF, and 720 h for PS). Then, to establish an ideal dosimetry in PDT, one must consider the intrinsic physical chemistry characteristics of the photosensitizer as well as their ability to undergo photobleaching

  12. Deriving Value in Digital Media Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morales-Arroyo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the analyzing revenue distribution in the delivery of digital content such as music, movies, games, books, and news. In such content delivery networks, there are various roles played by producers, consumers, syndicators, aggregators and distributors in the marketplace. We outline a framework for business modeling known as VISOR and adapt some ideas from game theory in order to investigate notions of efficiency and fairness in the digital media eco-system. This framework suggests that the revenue distribution within a business model is determined by the range between producers’ cost of production and consumers’ willingness to pay. The allocation of these revenues among the players is in turn determined by their value capacity which is a function of the interface for content, service platform, organizing model and revenue streams. The game-theoretic notions of fairness and efficiency are introduced as a strategy for stability in the workplace. The paper concludes that stability is the key to derivative value in a digital media network.

  13. Financial Derivatives Market for Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, David; Lindset, Snorre; Huuse, Henning

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis studies the feasibility and properties of a financial derivatives market on Grid computing, a service for sharing computing resources over a network such as the Internet. For the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to perform research with the world's largest and most complex machine, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), Grid computing was developed to handle the information created. In accordance with the mandate of CERN Technology Transfer (TT) group, this thesis is a part of CERN's dissemination of the Grid technology. The thesis gives a brief overview of the use of the Grid technology and where it is heading. IT trend analysts and large-scale IT vendors see this technology as key in transforming the world of IT. They predict that in a matter of years, IT will be bought as a service, instead of a good. Commoditization of IT, delivered as a service, is a paradigm shift that will have a broad impact on all parts of the IT market, as well as on the society as a whole. Political, e...

  14. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  15. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  16. Derivatives and credit contagion in interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, S.; Kühn, R.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of adequately modeling credit risk has once again been highlighted in the recent financial crisis. Defaults tend to cluster around times of economic stress due to poor macro-economic conditions, but also by directly triggering each other through contagion. Although credit default swaps have radically altered the dynamics of contagion for more than a decade, models quantifying their impact on systemic risk are still missing. Here, we examine contagion through credit default swaps in a stylized economic network of corporates and financial institutions. We analyse such a system using a stochastic setting, which allows us to exploit limit theorems to exactly solve the contagion dynamics for the entire system. Our analysis shows that, by creating additional contagion channels, CDS can actually lead to greater instability of the entire network in times of economic stress. This is particularly pronounced when CDS are used by banks to expand their loan books (arguing that CDS would offload the additional risks from their balance sheets). Thus, even with complete hedging through CDS, a significant loan book expansion can lead to considerably enhanced probabilities for the occurrence of very large losses and very high default rates in the system. Our approach adds a new dimension to research on credit contagion, and could feed into a rational underpinning of an improved regulatory framework for credit derivatives.

  17. Deriving Langevin equations in curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Rudnei O.; Tavares, Romulo F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Warm inflation is an inflationary scenario where the interactions between the inflaton and other degrees of freedom are considered. The effective equation of motion for the inflaton is in general of the form of a Langevin equation, that includes both quantum and thermal effects and where these effects manifest in the form of dissipation and stochastic noise terms, which are related by a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation. The dissipation term is related to the interactions of the inflaton with other degrees of freedom of the thermal bath that can be obtained from the appropriate Feynman propagators. As the inflaton evolves into an expanding metric, these effects have to be taken into account when calculating the Green functions and consequently the Feynman propagators. In this work we present the considerations that must be made to calculate the Green functions in curved space (expanding metric) and in the presence of radiation in order to proper derive the effective evolution of the inflaton in the warm-inflation scenario. (author)

  18. Synthesis of Tetraaza Derivatives of Benzoxazinophenothiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Ezema

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraaza benzoxazinophenothiazine heterocyclic rings were synthesized and characterized. The key intermediate, 11-amino-6-chlorobenzo[a]-8,10-diazaphenoxazin-5-one was prepared by reaction of 4,5-diamino-6-hydroxypyimidine with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone in anhydrous sodium carbonate. Whereas the parent tetraaza derivatives: 15-amino-8-bromo-6,9,12,14-tetraazabenzo[a][1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-c] phenothiazine, 9,15-diamino-6,8,12,14-tetraazabenzo[a][1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-c]pheno- thiazine and 15-amino-6,8,12,14-tetraazabenzo[a][1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-c]phenothiazine were synthesized by base catalyzed condensation reactions of 11-amino-6-chlorobenzo[a]-8,10-diazaphenoxazin-5-one with 2-amino-5-bromopyrazin-3-thiol, 4,6-diaminopyrimidine-5-thiol and 4-diaminopyrimidine-5-thiol respectively. The compounds are intensely coloured and are readily reduced with sodium dithionite to their leuco bases which can make them applicable as vat dyes. Their wash fastness, sublimation fastness and staining undyed fabric were evaluated.

  19. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  20. Apocarotenoids: A New Carotenoid-Derived Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Juan Camilo Moreno; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are precursors of carotenoid derived molecules termed apocarotenoids, which include isoprenoids with important functions in plant-environment interactions such as the attraction of pollinators and the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Apocarotenoids also include volatile aromatic compounds that act as repellents, chemoattractants, growth simulators and inhibitors, as well as the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactones. In plants, apocarotenoids can be found in several types of plastids (etioplast, leucoplast and chromoplast) and among different plant tissues such as flowers and roots. The structural similarity of some flower and spice isoprenoid volatile organic compounds (β-ionone and safranal) to carotenoids has led to the recent discovery of carotenoid-specific cleavage oxygenases, including carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and 9-cis-epoxydioxygenases, which tailor and transform carotenoids into apocarotenoids. The great diversity of apocarotenoids is a consequence of the huge amount of carotenoid precursors, the variations in specific cleavage sites and the modifications after cleavage. Lycopene, β-carotene and zeaxanthin are the precursors of the main apocarotenoids described to date, which include bixin, crocin, picrocrocin, abscisic acid, strigolactone and mycorradicin.The current chapter will give rise to an overview of the biosynthesis and function of the most important apocarotenoids in plants, as well as the current knowledge about the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase enzymes involved in these biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27485225