Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.
Abrams, Kimberly R.
We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…
Olsen, Jørn; Bonde, Jens Peter; Basso, Olga
A correlation between birthweight and sperm counts in adult life was anticipated because impaired fetal growth could impair replication of Sertoli cells produced in fetal life. Furthermore, it was expected that males born with a high birthweight might have impaired sperm production as they are ex...
Weir, Ryan O
Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.
Ramli, Rindra M.
This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.
A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…
Bicalho, Gladys Gripp; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo
To assess the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. A case-control was carried out and 354 newborns of single labor with birthweight 3,000 g (controls) were analyzed. Caffeine consumption was calculated based on daily consumption of coffee, soft drinks and tea. Results were adjusted using multiple logistic regression for the following confounders: mother's age, schooling, income, marital status...
Ramli, Rindra M.
This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system
Ramli, Rindra M.
This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration
О Ю Заславская
Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.
Ramli, Rindra M.
This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.
This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...
Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory
Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...
Full Text Available Background: It is widely believed that in twin pairs, at birth, the first-born weigh more than the second-born but this concept has been challenged. Objective: To assess the truthfulness of this common concept that first-born twins are usually heavier than their second-born siblings at birth. Methods: In a series of 104 sets of live-born twins, the birth weights of first-born twins were compared with those of their second-born siblings, after controlling for gender. Their intra-pair birthweight differences were determined and twin pairs whose birthweight difference was 15% or more were designated as discordant. Results: Twin I was heavier than Twin II in 61.5% of cases while Twin II was heavier than Twin I in 28.9% of cases. Twins I and II had equal birthweights in 9.6% of cases. Comparing the mean birthweight of the first-born-male twin with that of second-born- male twin, it was 2515+427g (95% Confidence Interval, CI=2402-2628 versus 2432 +435g (95% CI=2321-2543 p>0.05. The mean birthweight of first-born-female twin was 2326+445g (95% CI=2214-2439 while that of the second-born-female twin was 2325+501g (95% CI=2197-2453 p>0.05. When the birthweight difference exceeded 750g, the probability that Twin I will be heavier than Twin II was 83.3% (5 of 6. Conclusion: Although the first-born twin was more often heavier than their second-born siblings, either could weigh more or less at birth. The larger the birthweight difference between growth-discordant twin pair, the greater the probability that the heavier twin would be delivered first
Anderson, Elsa K
To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft
respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...
The prevalence of birthweight discordance was 28.8% when a 15% cut-off point was used but dropped to. 9.6% when a 25% cut-off point was applied. Grand multiparity was associated with a significantly increased risk.
The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...
Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.
Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these
Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.
The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...
This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...
Pomerantz, Sarah B.
With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…
Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.
Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.
To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…
undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.
Mario Vianna Vettore
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between housing conditions and low birthweight and preterm low birthweight among low-income women. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with post-partum women living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in 2003-2005. Two groups of cases, low birthweight (n=96 and preterm low birthweight infants (n=68, were compared against normal weight term controls (n=393. Housing conditions were categorized into three levels: adequate, inadequate, and highly inadequate. Covariates included sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, risk behaviors, violence, anxiety, satisfaction during pregnancy, obstetric history and prenatal care. RESULTS: Poor housing conditions was independently associated with low birthweight (inadequate - OR 2.3 [1.1;4.6]; highly inadequate - OR 7.6 [2.1;27.6] and preterm low birthweight (inadequate - OR 2.2 [1.1;4.3]; highly inadequate - OR 7.6 [2.4;23.9] and factors associated with outcomes were inadequate prenatal care and previous preterm birth. Low income and low maternal body mass index remained associated with low birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Poor housing conditions were associated with low birthweight and preterm low birthweight.
This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...
The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...
Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.
Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.
The Euler Project. Karlsruhe
The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.
Lee, Stuart D
This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.
Ирина Карловна Войтович
Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.
Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.
Jessica A. Grieger
Full Text Available Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary patterns, on infant birthweight. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken via the electronic databases Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Included articles were those published in English, in scholarly journals, and which provided information about diet and nutrition during pregnancy and infant birthweight. There is insufficient evidence for omega-3 fatty acid supplements’ ability to reduce risk of low birthweight (LBW, and more robust evidence from studies supplementing with zinc, calcium, and/or vitamin D needs to be established. Iron supplementation appears to increase birthweight, particularly when there are increases in maternal hemoglobin concentrations in the third trimester. There is limited evidence supporting the use of folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for LBW; however, supplementation may increase birthweight by ~130 g. Consumption of whole foods such as fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean meats throughout pregnancy appears beneficial for appropriate birthweight. Intervention studies with an understanding of optimal dietary patterns may provide promising results for both maternal and perinatal health. Outcomes from these studies will help determine what sort of dietary advice could be promoted to women during pregnancy in order to promote the best health for themselves and their baby.
Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.
From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme
Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.
The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...
Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat
Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)
Olena Yu. Balalaieva
Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.
This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...
Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...
This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…
Roman, Eve; Lightfoot, Tracy; Smith, Alexandra G
-control studies ever conducted. METHODS: Birthweight and gestational age on 4075 children with ALL and 12,065 controls were collected during the course of three studies conducted in the USA, the UK and Germany in the 1990s. Information was obtained from mothers at interview, and the impact of bias was evaluated...
Takito, Monica Yuri; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira
To analyze the relationship between maternal posture/physical activity and inadequate birthweight. Prospective cohort study involving 152 pregnant women from a public low-risk antenatal care facility. Three interviews evaluating the frequency of physical activity were administered to each pregnant woman during gestation. Birthweight (inadequate when or =3,000 g) was the dependent variable and the frequency of physical activity the independent variable. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic univariate analysis and multiple regression controlling for schooling, smoking, living with spouse, and baseline nutritional status. The practice of walking for at least 50 minutes during the first period of pregnancy was identified as a protective factor against inadequate birthweight (adjusted OR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.98). Standing for 2.5 hours or longer during the second semester of pregnancy was associated with increased risk (adjusted OR=3.23; 95% CI: 1.30-7.99). Dose-response relationships were identified for washing clothing by hand and cooking (p-value for linear trend clothing during the second trimester of gestation remained statistically significant. Our results show the importance of medical orientation regarding posture and physical activity during antenatal care, aiming at the reduction of inadequate birthweight.
Anatoliy V. Loban
Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.
Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn
Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups. PMID:21081308
Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.
Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes. (orig.)
Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.
Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes.
Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian
Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...
The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.
Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas
Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…
The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…
Torche, Florencia; Echevarría, Ghislaine
Intra-uterine growth is a powerful predictor of infant mortality and of health, developmental and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The question about whether this relationship is causal rather than driven by unobserved characteristics of low-weight infants is, however, still open. We use twin models to examine the hypothesis that in utero growth has a detrimental impact on cognitive development in childhood. We merge birth registry information on birthweight with standardized Math and Spanish test scores for all fourth graders in Chile to create a prospective data set. Twin fixed-effects models are used to estimate the causal effect of intra-uterine growth on test scores. Fixed-effect estimates are compared with traditional regression results in a cross-section of births to gauge the omitted variable bias emerging from unobserved genetic, maternal and pregnancy-related factors in cross-sectional models. Birthweight differences within twin pairs have a substantial effect on test scores. A 400-g increase in birthweight results in a 15% standard deviation increase in Math scores. The effect is larger among (estimated) monozygotic than dizygotic pairs, reaching >20% standard deviation. The effect varies across family socioeconomic status. It is strong among disadvantaged families but it nearly disappears among advantaged ones. Scarcity of uterine resources resulting in intra-uterine growth restriction has a detrimental effect on cognitive development in childhood. This effect interacts with family socioeconomic status (SES), so that low-SES families reinforce the effect of low birthweight and high-SES families fully compensate for it. Findings are particularly relevant in the developing world, where intra-uterine growth restriction is the main determinant of low birthweight.
Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.
Liang, Huan; Yin, Chuanmin; Dong, Xinran; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian
Gestational weight gain varies widely among different populations, and an inappropriate gestational weight gain is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate week-specific serial changes in gestational weight gain in an urban Chinese population to derive clusters of gestational weight gain patterns and explore the impact of gestational weight gain patterns on birthweight. This was an observational cohort study of 6130 women delivered at a university hospital in Shanghai, China. Pre-pregnancy bodyweight, height, week-specific and total gestational weight gain, pregnancy outcome and birthweight were extracted using electronic medical records. The association between gestational weight gain and gestational age was tested using linear regression, and week-specific reference percentiles for gestational weight gain were calculated. Hierarchical clustering was used to derive gestational weight gain clusters. Mean birthweight among the clusters was compared using Dunnet's test. We found a significant linear association between gestational weight gain and gestational age (r = 0.56; p gain pattern were identified. The birthweight significantly correlated with gestational weight gain (r = 0.28; p gain throughout the pregnancy, the mean birthweight among the clusters that had abnormal gestational weight gain (inadequate or excessive) in the third trimester was significantly different (p gain (between 5 and 95 percentile) in the third-trimester had similar mean birthweight. Women with abnormal gestational weight gain before the third-trimester still had a fair chance of delivering a normal birthweight baby if their gestational weight gain was normal in the third-trimester, suggesting that interventions started even late in pregnancy may have a positive effect on fetal growth. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Dahl, Christian M.; Bache, Stefan Holst; Kristensen, Johannes Tang
Low birthweight outcomes are associated with considerable social and economic costs, and therefore the possible determinants of low birthweight are of great interest. One such determinant which has received considerable attention is maternal smoking. From an economic perspective this is in part d...... includes many relevant control variables for socio-economic, wealth, and personal characteristics....
Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo
Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A reference range for the birthweight of multiple births neonates is necessary for the assessment for intrauterine growth. Methods Pairs of multiple births were identified by birthplace, the ages of the parents, gestational age, and the year and month of birth. We studied a total of 32,232 livebirth-livebirth pairs of twins, 1894 triplet live births, and 206 quadruplet live births. Results The median birthweight of males, taking gestational age into account, was ca. 0.05 kg–0.1 kg heavier than that of females. Compared to singleton neonates, the median birthweight of twins was ca. 0.15 kg smaller at the gestational age of 34 weeks, increasing to ca. 0.5 kg at 42 weeks of gestation. As for birth order, the mean birthweight of the first-born twin was heavier than that of the second-born. The standard deviation of birthweight was larger for second-born twins. The birthweight of twins from multiparous mothers was greater than those from primiparous mothers. The median birthweight according to gestational age was found to be the greatest in twins, lower in triplets and the lowest in quadruplets. In triplets, the 50th percentile was 0.08 kg heavier in boys than for girls. Conclusion Our results can be used for assessment of birthweight of multiple births in Japan.
Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire
birthweight at term (weight PM2·5), less than 10 μm (PM10), and between 2·5 μm and 10 μm during pregnancy were estimated at maternal home addresses with temporally...... adjusted land-use regression models, as was PM2·5 absorbance and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides. We also investigated traffic density on the nearest road and total traffic load. We calculated pooled effect estimates with random-effects models. FINDINGS: A 5 μg/m(3) increase...... in concentration of PM2·5 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of low birthweight at term (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·18, 95% CI 1·06-1·33). An increased risk was also recorded for pregnancy concentrations lower than the present European Union annual PM2·5 limit of 25 μg/m(3) (OR for 5 μg/m(3...
Gielen, M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Derom, C; Vlietinck, R; Nijhuis, J G; Zeegers, M P A; Boomsma, D I
In recent decades, the overall rate of preterm births has increased. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this trend is also seen for multiple gestations. More specifically, we examined if there has been a decrease in gestational age for live born monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins and if there has been a simultaneous change in birthweight. The contributions of fertility treatments and Caesarean sections were taken into consideration. All analyses were carried out in two large European twin cohorts. Cross-sectional study of 6310 live born twin pairs, born between 1964-2007, from the Belgian East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey and 14,712 twin pairs, born between 1990-2006, from the Netherlands Twin Register. Multiple regression analyses were performed with gestational age as outcome variable, and multilevel analysis with birthweight as outcome variable. All analyses were performed with and without adjustment for zygosity, parity, maternal age, mode of conception and delivery and, for the analyses of birthweight, gestational age. Gestational age decreased in a linear fashion from 1964 to 2007 with a decrease of 0.25 days per year in a similar way for MZ and DZ twins. Changes in birthweight depended on gestational age: up to 32 weeks, birthweight decreased and after 32 weeks birthweight increased. The frequency of infertility treatment and Caesarean sections, primiparity and advanced maternal age increased over the years, but none of these factors influenced the secular trends in gestational age and birthweight. The decrease in gestational age and change in birthweight in twins are sources of concern, especially for very preterm twins, for whom birthweight decreased. For twins born after 32 weeks, an increase in birthweight was observed and this is very likely the explanation for the decrease in gestational age.
Hawsawi, Abdulrhman M; Bryant, Lawrence O; Goodfellow, Lynda T
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy may have adverse effects on the mother and infant. This study investigates the association of maternal exposure to SHS with low birthweight (LBW) in infants. Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to multiple complications for both mother and infant. To examine association of LBW and environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy, we reviewed 20 articles. Articles were accessed using the following electronic databases: CINAHL Plus with full text (EBSCO), PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE. The findings of this review revealed that maternal exposure to environmental smoke is correlated with LBW in infants as well as numerous other adverse effects. The majority of the studies found negative consequences of SHS on the birthweight of infants born to nonsmoking women. Thus, this review helps to confirm the association between maternal exposure to SHS and LBW in infants. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Barilo, Nick F.
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.
Smith, Fred Hewitt
Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.
Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K
Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half
Bache, Stefan Holst; Dahl, Christian Møller; Kristensen, Johannes Tang
to the possibility that smoking habits can be influenced through policy conduct. It is widely believed that maternal smoking reduces birthweight; however, the crucial difficulty in estimating such effects is the unobserved heterogeneity among mothers. We consider extensions of three panel data models to a quantile......Low birthweight outcomes are associated with large social and economic costs, and therefore the possible determinants of low birthweight are of great interest. One such determinant which has received considerable attention is maternal smoking. From an economic perspective this is in part due...... regression framework in order to control for heterogeneity and to infer conclusions about causality across the entire birthweight distribution. We obtain estimation results for maternal smoking and other interesting determinants, applying these to data obtained from Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby...
Frost, M; Petersen, I; Brixen, K
Low birthweight (BW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared glucose metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins, thereby controlling for genetic factors and rearing environment....
Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare
BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing
Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica
This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…
A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro
Kelvin C. Fong
Full Text Available Natural vegetation, or greenness, may benefit maternal health and consequently, fetal growth, by providing opportunities for physical activity and psychological restoration, and decreasing detrimental environmental exposures. We retrieved Massachusetts Birth Registry data from 2001–2013 and investigated the association between residential greenness and birthweight in full-term births (≥37 weeks gestation. We calculated average residential greenness during pregnancy using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from satellites. We estimated associations between greenness and continuous birthweight, term low birthweight (TLBW: <2500 g, and small for gestational age (SGA: <10th percentile of birthweight stratified by sex and gestational age adjusted for individual and neighborhood covariates and considered nonlinearity and effect modification. Higher greenness exposure was associated with higher birthweight with stronger associations in the lower than higher range of greenness. Greenness was associated with lower odds of TLBW (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97, 0.99 per 0.1 increase in NDVI and SGA (OR 0.98; 95% 0.97, 0.99 and associations varied by population density (TLBW and socioeconomic status (TLBW, SGA. Our results suggest that greenness is beneficial to fetal growth exhibited by higher birthweight and lower odds of TLBW and SGA. Unlike prior studies, associations with TLBW and SGA appeared stronger among those with higher socioeconomic status.
... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.
Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah
Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…
... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.
The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...
Sternberg, R J
The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.
Smith, Fred Hewitt
Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.
McFadyen, I R; Campbell-Brown, M; Abraham, R; North, W R; Haines, A P
The birthweights of 664 Hindu and 132 Moslem babies were compared with those of 486 European babies born at the same hospital. The mean birthweight of the Europeans was 3362 g, compared with 3146 g for the Moslems and 2960 g for the Hindus. The Asian women were smaller than the European and tended to have a shorter length of gestation. Forty-four per cent of the Asians and 46% of the European mothers were of social classes I and II; 28% of the Europeans and 2% of the Asians smoked. There were no significant differences between Asians and Europeans in the effects of maternal size, parity, gestational age and fetal sex on birthweight. After adjustment for these variables and for cigarette smoking there was no significant difference in birthweight between the Moslems and the Europeans, but the mean birthweight of the Hindus was about 190 g lighter than that of the Europeans. Hindus from East Africa had lighter babies than those from India.
Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.
Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)
The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.
Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of
This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…
Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…
Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.
In this study,birthweight, good mothering and survival in the Nigerian small ruminants were examined using a questionnaire administered by enumerators. Sheep and goat farmers in Nigeria were the respondents. In the year 1988, Nigeria had only 21 states plus the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), with each states having ...
Van Goethem, H; Malvaux, P
Two male siblings and one girl with the 3-M syndrome are reported. The main clinical features include low birthweight, proportionate dwarfism, hatched-shaped cranio-facial configuration, abnormalities of mouth and teeth, short broad neck with prominent trapezius, pectus deformity, transverse grooves of anterior chest, and winged scapulae.
Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-designed clinical studies on the palatal development in preterm and low birthweight infants are desirable because the literature is characterized by contradictory results. It could be shown that knowledge about 'normal' palatal development is still weak as well (Part 1. The objective of this review is therefore to contribute a fundamental analysis of methodologies, confounding factors, and outcomes of studies on palatal development in preterm and low birthweight infants. Methods An electronic literature search as well as hand searches were performed based on Cochrane search strategies including sources of more than a century in English, German, and French. Original data were recalculated from studies which primarily dealt with both preterm and term infants. The extracted data, especially those from non-English paper sources, were provided unfiltered for comparison. Results Seventy-eight out of 155 included articles were analyzed for palatal morphology of preterm infants. Intubation, feeding tubes, feeding mode, tube characteristics, restriction of oral functions, kind of diet, cranial form and birthweight were seen as causes contributing to altered palatal morphology. Changes associated with intubation concern length, depth, width, asymmetry, crossbite, and contour of the palate. The phenomenon 'grooving' has also been described as a complication associated with oral intubation. However, this phenomenon suffers from lack of a clear-cut definition. Head flattening, pressure from the oral tube, pathologic or impaired tongue function, and broadening of the alveolar ridges adjacent to the tube have been raised as causes of 'grooving'. Metrically, the palates of intubated preterm infants remain narrower, which has been examined up to the age of the late mixed dentition. Conclusion There is no evidence that would justify the exclusion of any of the raised causes contributing to palatal alteration. Thus, early orthodontic and
Hanley, Gillian E; Janssen, Patricia A
We aimed to determine whether ethnicity-specific birthweight distributions more accurately identify newborns at risk for short-term neonatal morbidity associated with small for gestational age (SGA) birth than population-based distributions not stratified on ethnicity. We examined 100,463 singleton term infants born to parents in Washington State between Jan. 1, 2006, and Dec. 31, 2008. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we compared the ability of an ethnicity-specific growth distribution and a population-based growth distribution to predict which infants were at increased risk for Apgar score distributions had the highest rates of each of the adverse outcomes assessed-more than double those of infants only considered SGA by the population-based standards. When controlling for mother's age, parity, body mass index, education, gestational age, mode of delivery, and marital status, newborns considered SGA by ethnicity-specific birthweight distributions were between 2 and 7 times more likely to suffer from the adverse outcomes listed above than infants who were not SGA. In contrast, newborns considered SGA by population-based birthweight distributions alone were at no higher risk of any adverse outcome except hypothermia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.55) and neonatal intensive care unit admission (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.67). Ethnicity-specific birthweight distributions were significantly better at identifying the infants at higher risk of short-term neonatal morbidity, suggesting that their use could save resources and unnecessary parental anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L
Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.
Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.
Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C
Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.
Anton M. Avramchuk
Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.
Pharoah, P O; Stevenson, C J; Cooke, R W; Stevenson, R C
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of behaviour disorders in low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Children of birth weight < or = 2000 g born to mothers resident in Merseyside in 1980-1 assessed using the Rutter parent and teacher behaviour questionnaires and the Conner modification of the Rutter teacher questionnaire. Children attending normal schools were assessed with controls matched for age, sex, and class in school. Children attending special schools were assessed unmatched. SUBJECTS--2...
Chux Gervase Iwu
Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.
Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H
We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Full Text Available Objectives: We investigate the differences in birthweight between first- and second-borns, evaluating the impact of changes in pregnancy (e.g., gestational age, demographic (e.g., age, and social (e.g., education level, marital status maternal characteristics. Data and Methods: All analyses are performed on data collected in Umbria (Italy taking into account a set of 792 women who delivered twice from 2005 to 2008. Firstly, we use a univariate paired t-test for the comparison between weights of first- and second-borns; Secondly, we use linear and nonlinear regression approaches in order to: (i evaluate the effect of demographic and social maternal characteristics and (ii predict the odds-ratio of low and high birthweight infants, respectively. Results: We find that the birthweight of second-borns is significantly higher than that of first-borns. Statistically significant effects are related with a longer gestational age, an increased number of visits during the pregnancy, and the gender of infants. On the other hand, we do not observe any significant effect related with mother’s age and with other characteristics of interest.
Osypuk, Theresa L; Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores
Examining whether contextual factors influence the birth outcomes of Mexican-origin infants in the US may contribute to assessing rival explanations for the so-called Mexican health paradox. We examined whether birthweight among infants born to Mexican-origin women in the US was associated with Mexican residential enclaves and exposure to neighborhood poverty, and whether these associations were modified by nativity (i.e. mother's place of birth). We calculated metropolitan indices of neighborhood exposure to Mexican-origin population and poverty for the Mexican-origin population, and merged with individual-level, year 2000 natality data (n=490,332). We distinguished between neighborhood exposure to US-born Mexican-origin population (i.e. ethnic enclaves) and neighborhood exposure to foreign-born (i.e. Mexico-born) Mexican-origin population (i.e. immigrant enclaves). We used 2-level hierarchical linear regression models adjusting for individual, metropolitan, and regional covariates and stratified by nativity. We found that living in metropolitan areas with high residential segregation of US-born Mexican-origin residents (i.e. high prevalence of ethnic enclaves) was associated with lower birthweight for infants of US-born Mexican-origin mothers before and after covariate adjustment. When simultaneously adjusting for exposure to ethnic and immigrant enclaves, the latter became positively associated with birthweight and the negative effect of the former increased, among US-born mothers. We found no contextual birthweight associations for mothers born in Mexico in adjusted models. Our findings highlight a differential effect of context by nativity, and the potential health effects of ethnic enclaves, which are possibly a marker of downward assimilation, among US-born Mexican-origin women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong
Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.
Х А Гербеков
Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.
Ramli, Rindra M.
An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables
Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo
(Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…
Galina P. Lavrentieva
Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.
A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov
Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...
McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C
The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent
Elizabeth Shira Davenport
Full Text Available Preterm and low birthweight (PTLBW continues to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity across the world. In recent years, maternal periodontal disease has been implicated as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is conflicting evidence to support such an outcome as illustrated by descriptive, case control and randomised controlled trials involving pregnant women from across the world, using different measurement tools to determine the level of periodontal disease. Whilst considering the literature, there is evidence for both arguments, based on the effect of periodontal inflammatory by products. Bacteria associated with periodontal disease are not dissimilar to those known to be associated with genito-urinary bacterial infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several groups have demonstrated the apparent translocation of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonus gingivalis, Treponema denticola to the foetal placental unit whereby a maternal or foetal response has been detected resulting in premature birth or low birthweight. The normal process of parturition involves a cascade of events including a build-up of inflammatory mediators as linked to inflammation, whereby the maternal environment becomes hostile and threatens the well-being of the infant, and the foetus expelled. The question remains therefore, is there a greater risk of delivering a PTLBW infant when the mother has detectable periodontal disease, or is the release of inflammatory mediators and their translocation via the haematogenous route sufficient to induce a poor pregnancy outcome? The data investigated would suggest that there is a positive outcome when certain oral gram-negative bacteria create a cumulative effect sufficient to trigger early delivery, which represents the final straw to result in preterm or low birthweight delivery. There is equally sufficient epidemiological evidence that does not support this
Lund, R; Modvig, J; Hilden, J
The purpose of this survey was to investigate the small-area variations in low birthweight within social services districts in Copenhagen and the relation of such variations to the socioeconomic characteristics of the district. The study was based on register data and included all live-born single...... on births to women living in the city of Copenhagen from 1987-90. We found a statistically significant association between district and risk of newborns being small-for-gestational age (SGA). This association was independent of adjustment for maternal age and parity. Only part of the association...
A. V. Loban
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a
Dumoulin, John C.; Land, Jolande A.; Van Montfoort, Aafke P.; Nelissen, Ewka C.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Schreurs, Inge L.; Dunselman, Gerard A.; Kester, Arnold D.; Geraedts, Joep P.; Evers, Johannes L.
In animal models, in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos has been shown to be a risk factor for abnormal fetal outcome, including high and low birthweight. In the human, mean birthweight of singletons after in vitro fertilization (IVF) is considerably lower than after natural conception, but it
Uddenfeldt Wort, Ulrika; Warsame, Marian; Brabin, Bernard J.
Objective: Birthweight outcomes in rural Tanzania were determined in relation to place of delivery (hospital, dispensary or home), parity and maternal age (adolescent or non-adolescent) in order to evaluate the usefulness of birthweight data for monitoring malaria control in pregnancy. Study design:
Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter
Background. Links are well established between both family history of diabetes and reduced birthweight and increased risk of diabetes in adulthood. Objectives. 1) To investigate the influence of parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on offspring birthweight and adult offspring glucose tolera...
Mortensen, Laust H; Diderichsen, Finn; Smith, George Davey
Maternal education is associated with the birthweight of offspring. We sought to quantify the role of maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking as intermediary variables between maternal education and birthweight at term.......Maternal education is associated with the birthweight of offspring. We sought to quantify the role of maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking as intermediary variables between maternal education and birthweight at term....
Ozanne, SE; Jensen, CB; Tingey, KJ
muscle in a human cohort and a rat model. METHODS: We recruited 20 young men with low birthweight (mean birthweight 2702+/-202 g) and 20 age-matched control subjects (mean birthweight 3801+/-99 g). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle and protein expression of selected insulin......-signalling proteins was determined. Rats used for this study were male offspring born to dams fed a standard (20%) protein diet or a low (8%) protein diet during pregnancy and lactation. Protein expression was determined in soleus muscle from adult offspring. RESULTS: Low-birthweight subjects showed reduced muscle...... expression of protein kinase C (PKC)zeta, p85alpha, p110beta and GLUT4. PKCzeta, GLUT4 and p85 were also reduced in the muscle of rats fed a low-protein diet. Other proteins studied were unchanged in low-birthweight humans and in rats fed a low-protein diet when compared with control groups. CONCLUSIONS...
For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.
Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N
Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.
Bhatia, Jatinder; Gates, Amy
Optimal fetal growth resulting in a 'normally grown' term infant is of paramount importance for assuring a healthy start for postnatal growth and development. Fetal, infant and childhood growth restriction is an important clinical problem for obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatricians and globally, for public health. Worldwide, an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birthweight and a substantial proportion are small for gestational age. Many advances have been made in defining growth restriction by prenatal techniques, thus allowing the recognition of intrauterine growth restriction. Distinguishing infants who are small but have appropriate growth potential from those with growth restriction is important in order to apply obstetric surveillance, anticipate neonatal problems and plan for postneonatal guidance. It is clear that the fetus in growth-restricted pregnancies has limited supply of nutrients and oxygen. The resultant changes, if involving the placenta as well, can lead to circulatory and metabolic changes affecting both short- and long-term survival and development. In this paper, the causes and immediate consequence of being born with low birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction or small for gestational age will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birthweight is used as an indicator of intrauterine growth, and determinants of birthweight are widely studied. Less is known about determinants of deviating patterns of growth in utero. We aimed to study the effects of maternal characteristics on both birthweight and fetal growth in third trimester and introduce placental weight as a possible determinant of both birthweight and fetal growth in third trimester. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective cohort study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (age, parity, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of birthweight and fetal growth estimated by biometric ultrasound measures were explored by linear regression models. Two models were fitted, one with only maternal characteristics and one which included placental weight. RESULTS: Placental weight was a significant determinant of birthweight. Parity, BMI, weight gain and fasting glucose remained significant when adjusted for placental weight. Introducing placental weight as a covariate reduced the effect estimate of the other variables in the model by 62% for BMI, 40% for weight gain, 33% for glucose and 22% for parity. Determinants of fetal growth were parity, BMI and weight gain, but not fasting glucose. Placental weight was significant as an independent variable. Parity, BMI and weight gain remained significant when adjusted for placental weight. Introducing placental weight reduced the effect of BMI on fetal growth by 23%, weight gain by 14% and parity by 17%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we find that placental weight is an important determinant of both birthweight and fetal growth. Our findings indicate that placental weight markedly modifies the effect of maternal determinants of both birthweight and fetal growth. The differential effect of third trimester glucose on birthweight and growth parameters illustrates that
Krutova Anzhelika S.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and
Maria D. Tukalo
Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.
Anton M. Avramchuk
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.
Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi
Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection
Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis
Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code
Anton M. Avramchuk
The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...
Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh
Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the
Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin
Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Klebanoff, Mark A
Increasing paternal birthweight has been associated with increased risk of fathering a preterm infant, causing speculation that a fetus programmed to grow rapidly can trigger preterm labor. Pregnancies occurring from 1974-1989 among women themselves born in the Danish Perinatal Study (1959-1961) were identified through the Population Register; obstetric records were abstracted. Paternal birthweight was obtained by linking Personal Identification Numbers of the fathers to archived midwifery records. Paternal birthweight was not associated with preterm infants overall. However, there was a significant interaction between paternal and maternal birthweights (P = .003). When the mother weighed less than 3 kg at birth, increasing paternal birthweight was associated with increased occurrence of preterm birth (P for trend = .02); paternal birthweight was unassociated with preterm birth for mothers weighing 3 kg or more at birth (P = .34). When the mother was born small, increasing paternal birthweight was associated with increased risk of preterm birth, suggesting that a fetus growing faster than its mother can accommodate might trigger preterm birth.
Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John
Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…
Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui
This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lin, Shengli; Li, Ming; Lian, Ying; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping
Does the type of media used to culture embryos for IVF influence the birthweight and length of neonates? No significant differences were observed in birthweight and length among the three embryo culture media used for in vitro embryo culture. Since the establishment of IVF as an assisted reproductive technology (ART), many different culture systems have been used for the development of human embryos. Some studies have shown that the types of culture media influence the newborn birthweight; however, other studies have shown no effect. To further explore this contradictory issue, we compared the birthweight and length of neonates born after the transfer of embryos cultured in one of three commercially available media. This retrospective analysis of birthweight and length of newborns included 1201 women who delivered singletons and 445 women who delivered twins. The following three commercially available culture media were used: G5™, Global and Quinn's advantage media. Women who underwent IVF-ET cycles between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed. Patients younger than 40 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) culture medium. Inter-twin mean birthweight and length disparities were analyzed, but were not shown to be significantly different. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that maternal weight, maternal height, gestational age and infant gender were significantly related to birthweight, and paternal height, gestational age and newborn complications were significantly associated with birth length. The current study showed that birthweight and length of newborns were not associated with the embryo culture medium. More research needs to be performed to analyze the effects of other culture medium formulations and to evaluate the long-term effects of embryo culture medium on the health of children conceived through ART. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THESE FINDINGS: Our retrospective study suggests that embryo culture medium does not influence neonatal birthweight and length
Zandstra, Heleen; Van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Dumoulin, John C M
Do culture media influence birthweight of children born after IVF? Some studies have observed a significant effect of culture media on birthweight, while others have not, but since most studies compared different culture media, conventional meta-analysis was not possible. Animal studies suggest that in vitro culture of embryos can have a significant effect on the birthweight of offspring when compared with in vivo developed embryos. The type of culture medium (or certain components of the medium) used is one of the causal factors. We reviewed all available literature reporting on a relation between culture medium and birthweight in human studies and a selection of animal studies. An extensive literature search on Pubmed and Medline was performed with relevant search criteria relating to IVF, birthweight and culture medium. Eleven studies reporting on a relationship between culture medium and birthweight in human were included in this review. Five of these found significant differences in birthweight when offspring born after culture in different culture media were compared. The remaining studies did not find differences in birthweight after changing culture medium. The number of human studies is limited and different culture media with different compositions are compared which makes a comparison between the studies difficult, if not impossible. Furthermore, most study designs were retrospective with consecutive use of different culture media and limited sample sizes, which makes bias of the results likely. If it could be confirmed that the type of culture medium used does indeed influence phenotypic characteristics (such as birthweight) of children born after IVF, it would underline the importance of monitoring the health of IVF children in relation to aspects of the laboratory techniques used during embryo culture. No funding was applicable to this study. No conflict of interest is declared. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
Georgsdóttir, Ingibjœrg; Sæmundsen, Evald; Símonardóttir, Ingibjœrg; Halldórsson, Jónas G; Egilson, Snæfríður Thorn; Leósdóttir, Thornóra; Ingvarsdóttir, Brynhildur; Sindrason, Einar; Dagbjartsson, Atli
Survival of extremely low birthweight infants (BWastma (p=0.001), convulsions (p=0.001), difficulties in swallowing (p=0.001) and weight gaining (p=0.005). At five years of age significantly more ELBW children born in 1991-95 compared to control children had abnormal general physical examination (p=0.001), neurological examination (p=0.001) and motor skills (p=0.001). Scores on developmental testing were significantly lower (p=0.002). The proportion of ELBW children with disabilities was 16% in 1982-90 and 14% in 1991-95. The two groups of ELBW infants born in 1982-90 and 1991-95 are similar regarding problems during pregnancy, birth and newborn period. The proportion of children with disabilities is similar in both periods although survival was significantly increased. When compared to matched control children, ELBW children born in 1991-95 suffer significantly more longterm health and developmental problems.
Goodfellow, L M
A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.
Jewell, R Todd; Triunfo, Patricia
This study analyzes prenatal care and birthweight in Uruguay. These data are unique since they represent a population of urban, poor women who gave birth in a health care system that provides both prenatal and obstetric care free of charge. This study finds a positive effect of increased prenatal care use on birthweight and evidence of bias in OLS estimates, similar to studies that use US data. The results highlight the usefulness of existing methodologies for estimating the effect of prenatal care on birthweight and the importance of extending these methodologies to data from countries other than the US. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ramli, Rindra M.
An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.
Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)
KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.
José Manuel Terán
Conclusions: Results support the consideration of establishing parity and type of delivery-specific birthweight references. These new charts enable a better evaluation of the impact of the demographic, reproductive and obstetric trends currently in Spain on fetal growth.
Suzumura, H; Sakurai, K; Kano, K; Ichimura, T
A case of Coffin-Siris syndrome in a male of extremely low birthweight with severe kyphoscoliosis is reported. His birthweight was 965 g, the lowest reported in the world for an infant with this syndrome. Coffin-Siris syndrome is characterized by nail hypoplasia of the fingers and toes, eyebrow hypertrichosis, prominent lips and prenatal or postnatal growth retardation. He was the only case who was mechanically ventilated from birth because of birth asphyxia. He died at 12 days of age because of sepsis, a poor immune system as in other extremely low birthweight infants, and because he easily suffered from upper respiratory infection as a result of Coffin-Siris syndrome. Kyphoscoliosis is suggested as one of the important features in low birthweight cases of Coffin-Siris syndrome in previous reports and in the present case.
Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van der Wal, Marcel F.; van Eijsden, Manon; Bonsel, Gouke J.
Objectives. We investigated the relationship between women's first-trimester working conditions and infant birthweight. Methods. Pregnant women (N=8266) participating in the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development study completed a questionnaire gathering information on employment and working
Malavika A Subramanyam
Full Text Available National data on birthweight from birth certificates or medical records are not available in India. The third Indian National Family Health Survey included data on birthweight of children obtained from health cards and maternal recall. This study aims to describe the population that these data represent and compares the birthweight obtained from health cards with maternal recall data in terms of its socioeconomic patterning and as a risk factor for childhood growth failure.The analytic sample consisted of children aged 0 to 59 months with birthweight data obtained from health cards (n = 3227 and maternal recall (n = 16,787. The difference between the card sample and the maternal recall sample in the distribution across household wealth, parental education, caste, religion, gender, and urban residence was compared using multilevel models. We also assessed the ability of birthweight to predict growth failure in infancy and childhood in the two groups. The survey contains birthweight data from a majority of household wealth categories (>5% in every category for recall, both genders, all age groups, all caste groups, all religion groups, and urban and rural dwellers. However, children from the lowest quintile of household wealth were under-represented (4.73% in card and 8.62% in recall samples. Comparison of data across health cards and maternal recall revealed similar social patterning of low birthweight and ability of birthweight to predict growth failure later in life. Children were less likely to be born with low birthweight if they had mothers with over 12 years of education compared to 1-5 years of education with relative risk (RR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52, 1.2 in the card sample and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.84 in the recall sample. A 100 gram difference in a child's birthweight was associated with a decreased likelihood of underweight in both the card (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.96 and recall (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.96, 0
Arrieta, A; Guillen, J
To assess the effect of mining pollution on birthweight. A retrospective before-and-after study with an untreated comparison group. La Oroya, a mining town in the Peruvian Andes, considered the most contaminated town in the Andean region. All pregnant women who delivered in the social security healthcare system in years 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2009. A total of 214 983 births records were used, 957 from La Oroya and 214 026 from the rest of the country. A difference-in-difference estimation is used to assess the effect of mining pollution on birthweight before and after two business policy changes: a partial environmental improvement and a subsequent closure of smelter operations in La Oroya. Birthweight was compared with a group not affected by the environmental changes in La Oroya. Birthweight in grams. A steep reduction in mining pollution due to the closure of smelter operations in La Oroya showed an increased birthweight of 71.6 g after controlling for socio-economic and medical characteristics. None of the environmental improvements prior to the closure had a statistically significant effect on birthweight. Mining pollution in La Oroya had a negative impact on birthweight. Partial environmental improvements were not enough to improve birthweight. Only after the closure of all mining and smelter operations in La Oroya was a significant gain in birthweight shown. The closure of the most contaminated mine site in the Andean region increased birthweight by 72 g. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Sol Pía Juárez
Full Text Available Current observational evidence indicates that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with reduced birthweight in offspring. However, less is known about the effect of smokeless tobacco on birthweight and about the possible mechanisms involved in this relationship. This paper studies the effect of Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus on offspring birthweight comparing the results obtained from a conventional linear regression analysis and from a quasi-experimental sibling design using a multilevel linear regression analysis. From the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we investigated 604,804 singletons born between 2002 and 2010. From them, we isolated 8,861 siblings from 4,104 mothers with discrepant snus-use habits (i.e., women who had at least one pregnancy during which they used snus and at least one other pregnancy in which they did not. The conventional analysis shows that continuous snus use throughout the pregnancy reduces birthweight in 47 g while quitting or relapsing snus has a minor and statistically non-significant effect (-6 g and -4 g, respectively. However, using a sibling analysis the effect observed for mothers who continue to use snus during pregnancy is less intense than that observed with previous conventional analyses (-20 g, and this effect is not statistically significant. Sibling analysis shows that quitting or relapsing snus use after the first trimester slightly reduces birthweight (14 g. However, this small change is not statistically significant. The sibling analysis provides strong causal evidence indicating that exposure to snus during pregnancy has a minor effect on birthweight reduction. Our findings provide a new piece of causal evidence concerning the effect of tobacco on birthweight and support the hypothesis that the harmful effect of smoking on birthweight is not mainly due to nicotine.
Khashan, Ali S
There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of coeliac disease (CD) in the father on birthweight and preterm birth. We investigated the association between paternal CD and birthweight and preterm birth. Medical records of all singleton live-born children in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 were linked to information about parents\\' diseases. Fathers who were diagnosed with CD were then identified. Fathers with CD were considered treated if they were diagnosed before pregnancy and untreated if they were diagnosed after the date of conception. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small-for-gestational age (birthweight<10th centile for gestational age) and preterm birth (<37 weeks). We compared the offspring of men without CD (n = 1 472 352) and offspring of those with CD [untreated (n = 138) and treated (n = 473)]. There was no significant association between untreated CD in the father and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -3 g; [95% CI -46, 40]) or preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, [95% CI 0.53, 1.37]) (compared with no CD). There was some evidence for an association between treated paternal CD and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -81 g; [95% CI -161, -3]), but not preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.76, [95% CI 0.95, 3.26]). Untreated paternal CD was not associated with an increased risk of reduced birthweight, or of preterm birth. There was some evidence that diagnosis and presumed treatment of paternal CD with a gluten-free diet is associated with reduced birthweight.
Berrocal, Veronica J.; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holland, David M.; Burke, Janet; Miranda, Marie Lynn
In relating pollution to birth outcomes, maternal exposure has usually been described using monitoring data. Such characterization provides a misrepresentation of exposure as it (i) does not take into account the spatial misalignment between an individual’s residence and monitoring sites, and (ii) it ignores the fact that individuals spend most of their time indoors and typically in more than one location. In this paper, we break with previous studies by using a stochastic simulator to describe personal exposure (to particulate matter) and then relate simulated exposures at the individual level to the health outcome (birthweight) rather than aggregating to a selected spatial unit. We propose a hierarchical model that, at the first stage, specifies a linear relationship between birthweight and personal exposure, adjusting for individual risk factors and introduces random spatial effects for the census tract of maternal residence. At the second stage, our hierarchical model specifies the distribution of each individual’s personal exposure using the empirical distribution yielded by the stochastic simulator as well as a model for the spatial random effects. We have applied our framework to analyze birthweight data from 14 counties in North Carolina in years 2001 and 2002. We investigate whether there are certain aspects and time windows of exposure that are more detrimental to birthweight by building different exposure metrics which we incorporate, one by one, in our hierarchical model. To assess the difference in relating ambient exposure to birthweight versus personal exposure to birthweight, we compare estimates of the effect of air pollution obtained from hierarchical models that linearly relate ambient exposure and birthweight versus those obtained from our modeling framework. Our analysis does not show a significant effect of PM2.5 on birthweight for reasons which we discuss. However, our modeling framework serves as a template for analyzing the relationship
Dare Samuel Adeleke
Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.
Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca
Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for
Abbott, Michael B.
The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).
Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed
Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.
Okuda, Paola Matiko Martins; Swardfager, Walter; Ploubidis, George B; Pangelinan, Melissa; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo
Birthweight is an important predictor of various fundamental aspects of childhood health and development. To examine the impact of birthweight on childhood balance performance classification and verify if this is replicable and consistent in different populations. Prospective birth cohort study. To describe heterogeneity in balance skills, latent class analyses were conducted separately with data from the 1958 National Child Development Study - NCDS (n = 12,778), and the 1970 British Cohort Study - BCS (n = 12,115). Four balance tasks for NCDS and five balance tasks for BCS. Birthweight was assessed as a predictor of balance skills. In both cohorts, two latent classes (good and poor balance skills) were identified. In both cohorts, higher birthweight was associated with a higher likelihood of having good balance skills. Boys were less likely to have good balance compared to girls. The results establish the reproducibility and consistency of the effect of birthweight on balance skills and point to early intervention for individuals with lower birthweight to mitigate the impact of motor impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age.Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model.In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%. Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models.Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth.
Sheri L Lewis
Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.
Urquia, Marcelo L; Sørbye, Ingvil K; Wanigaratne, Susitha
There is an increasing body of literature focusing on differences in newborn size between different population subgroups defined by racial, ethnic, and immigration status. The interpretation of these differences as pathological or as merely reflecting normal variability is not straightforward and may have consequences for the provision of obstetric and neonatal care to minority populations. In this review, we critically assess some methodological issues affecting the assessment of newborn size and their potential implications for minority populations. In particular, we discuss the pros and cons of different types of newborn birth-weight (BW) charts (i.e., single local population-based references, minority-specific references, and a single international standard) to determine abnormal newborn size, with emphasis on immigrant populations. We conclude that size alone is not enough to inform clinical decisions and that all newborn size charts should be used as screening tools, not as diagnostic tools. Parental minority status may be regarded as a marker and used to further inquire about individual risk factors, particularly among immigrants who may not have a complete medical history in the new country. Finally, we outline areas for further research and recommendations for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scharf, Rebecca J; Stroustrup, Annemarie; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D
To examine the relationships between growth (birth to age 2 years) and developmental outcomes in children born with very low birthweight (VLBW). Motor and mental development in children born with VLBW were regressed on anthropometric measurements at birth, 9 months and 2 years using multivariable regression. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal cohort, community sample, designed to be representative of children born across the USA. 950 children born with VLBW (children exhibited poor growth, with length-for-age z-scores children at 9 months (adjusted for prematurity) and 34.2% of children at 2 years. Compared with children having z-scores >-2, children with growth shortfalls in head circumference, length and weight had a higher adjusted OR (aOR) of low Bayley motor scores at 9 months and 2 years (aOR ranging from 1.8 to 3.3, all pchildren born with VLBW. While careful length measures may be a particularly useful marker, deficits in all anthropometric measures were risk factors for developmental delays. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2
Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary
The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…
Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo
The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…
Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu
Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Catalano, Ralph; Karasek, Deborah; Gemmill, Alison; Falconi, April; Goodman, Julia; Magganas, Aristotle; Hartig, Terry
Much medical literature attributes persistently high rates of very low birthweight (VLBW) to “dysregulated” gestation. We offer the alternative view that natural selection conserved well-regulated, though nonconscious, decisional biology that protects the reproductive fitness of women by spontaneously aborting gestations that would otherwise yield frail infants, particularly small males. Modern obstetric practice, however, converts some fraction of these erstwhile spontaneous abortions into live births of very small infants. We further propose that the nonconscious decisional biology of gestation exhibits preferences also seen in consciously made decisions. We hypothesize that the incidence of VLBW among male infants should vary with the population's self-reported intentions to assume financial risk. We apply time-series modeling to monthly birth counts by sex and weight from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry between January 1993 and December 2010. We gauge risk aversion with monthly data from the Micro Index of the Swedish Consumer Tendency Survey (MISCT). Consistent with our argument that nonconscious decisional biology shares risk aversion with conscious decisions, we find that the incidence of VLBW among male infants in Sweden varies with the population's self-reported intentions to assume financial risk. We find increases above expected odds of a very low weight infant among males born 1 month after increases above expected levels of self-reported risk aversion in the Swedish population. We offer this finding as support for the argument that persistently high rates of VLBW arise, at least in part, from a combination of medical interventions and mechanisms conserved by natural selection to protect reproductive fitness. PMID:24593927
Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala
The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…
Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur
With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of
could be detrimental to health later in life. Current epigenetic studies using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling have discovered molecular evidence confirming that, as important early life events, both low birth-weight and premature birth can result in long-lasting epigenetic consequences...... that impact health at adult ages. Results from our epigenome-wide association studies indicate that the two moderately correlated traits of adverse pregnancy outcome could be linked to increased susceptibility to different health problems with low birth-weight more relevant to metabolic disorders, while......Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period which...
Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and fetal growth (birthweight and small for gestational age). Stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Mothers of 1.38 million singleton live births in Denmark between January 1......). There was a significant association between maternal exposure to death of a relative and risk of a baby weighing below the 10th percentile (adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.22) and 5th percentile (adjusted RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.29). CONCLUSIONS: Mothers exposed to severe life events before...... conception or during pregnancy have babies with significantly lower birthweight. If this association is causal, the potential mechanisms of stress-related effects on birthweight include changes in lifestyle due to the exposure and stress-related dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during...
Mohammad Reza Davarpanah
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.
Pelinck, M. J.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Haadsma, M. L.; Nijhuis, W. L.; Kiewiet, S. M.; Hoek, A.; Heineman, M. J.; Middleburg, K. J.
Singletons born after IVF are at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The present study investigated the influence of ovarian stimulation and IVF laboratory procedure on birthweight. Birthweight of singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF treatment with (n = 161) and
Pelinck, M. J.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Haadsma, M. L.; Nijhuis, W. L.; Kiewiet, S. M.; Hoek, A.; Heineman, M. J.; Middelburg, K. J.
Singletons born after IVF are at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The present study investigated the influence of ovarian stimulation and IVF laboratory procedure on birthweight. Birthweight of singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF treatment with (n = 161) and
Vergouw, C.G.; Kostelijk, E.H.; Doejaaren, E.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Schats, R.
STUDY QUESTION Does the type of medium used to culture fresh and frozenthawed embryos influence neonatal birthweight after single embryo transfer (SET) in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER A comparison of two commercially available culture media showed no significant influence on mean birthweight and mean
Andersson, E A; Pilgaard, K; Pisinger, C
The fetal insulin hypothesis suggests that variation in the fetal genotype influencing insulin secretion or action may predispose to low birthweight and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between 25 confirmed type 2 diabetes risk variants and birthweight in individuals from the Danish Inte...
Risnes, Kari R; Vatten, Lars J; Baker, Jennifer L
. The studies were systematically reviewed and those reporting hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per kilogram (kg) increase in birthweight were included in generic inverse variance meta-analyses. RESULTS: For all-cause mortality, 36¿834 deaths were included and the results showed a 6.......07-1.19) for men and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.98-1.10) for women (P(interaction)¿=¿0.03). Residual confounding could not be eliminated, but is unlikely to account for the main findings. CONCLUSION: These results show an inverse but moderate association of birthweight with adult mortality from all-causes and a stronger...
Rogo, K; Nyagudi, O; Ferguson, A
Nine hundred ninety-nine newborns were examined in order to determine the relationship between birthweight and mid-arm and chest circumstances. An early neonatal mortality rate of 51/1000 was recorded, being much higher for preterm (301/1000) than term babies (2.5/1000). Both mid-arm and chest circumference showed highly significant correlations with birthweight (r = 0.872, P less than 0.0001 and r = 0.918, P less than 0.0001, respectively). The correlation between weight and chest circumstances was upheld even for very small babies.
Kaul, P P; Srivastava, R; Srivastava, S P; Kamboj, M; Chand, S
Transient complications of pregnancy (anemia, toxemia, proteinuria, arterial hypertension and hyperemesis) were studied in pregnant women from the general population reporting to local hospitals. Comparison of blood lead levels (PbB) was made between women with normal pregnancies and those with complications. Significantly higher PbB were found in women with pregnancy complications as compared to those with normal pregnancies. Increments in the PbB levels were accompanied by statistically significant decrements in neonate birthweights. Complications of pregnancy may be induced by higher PbB and may also compound the adverse effects of decrements of neonate birthweights
Amitha R Aroor
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical parameters, weight gain, osteopenia and phosphate supplementation in very low birth weight (VLBW neonates receiving early versus late parenteral nutrition (EPN versus LPN. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken in the level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman: from January 2007 to October 2008 (LPN group, n = 47 and from January 2009 to June 2010 (EPN group, n = 44. Demographic data, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were extracted from the electronic record system. Results: The mean age of PN initiation was LPN = 47.3 hours versus EPN = 14.3 hours. Biochemical parameters analysed during the first week of life revealed a reduction in hypernatraemia (12.7% versus 6.8% and non-oliguric hyperkalemia (12.7% versus 6.8% in EPN, with no significant differences in acidosis and urea levels between the two groups. Hyperglycemia >12 mmol/L in <1000g was higher in EPN. Nutritional parameters in 81 babies who survived/stayed in the unit up to a corrected gestational age (CGA of 34 weeks (40 in LPN and 41 in EPN, revealed a reduction in metabolic bone disease (osteopenia of prematurity [OOP], 17.5% versus 7.3% and the need for phosphate supplementation (22.5% versus 7.3% in the EPN group. There was no increase in acidosis or cholestasis. No difference was noted in albumin levels, time to full feeds, time to regain birthweight and mean weight gain per day till 34 weeks corrected CGA. Conclusion: EPN in VLBW newborns is well tolerated and reduces hypernatraemia, non-oliguric hyperkalemia, OOP and the need for phosphate supplementation.
Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.
H. M. Kravtsov
Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.
Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik
Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.
А. М. Гавриленко
Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…
This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.
Paneth, N.; Qiu, H.; Rosenbaum, P.; Saigal, S.; Bishai, S.; Jetton, J.; Ouden, L. den; Broyles, S.; Tyson, J.; Kugler, K.
The reliability of classification of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-birthweight children was assessed by using clinical and research study records sampled from population-based cohort studies in the USA, the Netherlands, Canada, and Germany. Records of neurological examination findings and functional
Goedhart, G.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Roseboom, T.J.; van der Wal, M.F.; Cuijpers, P.; Bonsel, G.J.
Maternal psychosocial problems may affect fetal growth through maternal cortisol. This large prospective cohort study examined among 2810 women (1) the association of maternal cortisol levels with offspring birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA) risk and (2) the mediating role of maternal
Dewan, N.; Brabin, B.; Wood, L.; Dramond, S.; Cooper, C.
Objectives. To compare the effect of smoking on the birthweight-for-gestational-age curves of teenage and adult primigravidae. Methods. A retrospective analysis of the perinatal. database at the Liverpool Women's Hospital for the years 1997-1999 for teenage and adult primigravidae. Results. Records
Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen
Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…
Broholm, Christa; Olsson, Anders H; Perfilyev, Alexander
Aims/hypothesis: Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with dysfunctions of adipose tissue and metabolic disease in adult life. We hypothesised that altered epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could play a role in programming adipose tissue dysfunction...
Helder, Onno K.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.
To compare effects on premature infants' weight gain of a computer-generated and a nurse-determined incubator humidity strategy. An optimal humidity protocol is thought to reduce time to regain birthweight. Prospective randomized controlled design. Level IIIC neonatal intensive care unit in the
Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob M. J.; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Eijsden, Manon van; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F.; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Håberg, Siri E.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Klümper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lerchundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Thiering, Elisabeth; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Wijga, Alet; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy
Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. Methods We pooled data from 14 population-based
Lumey, L. H.; Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.
Several studies have suggested that maternal recall of offspring birthweight compares well to data from birth certificates or medical records. However, these studies describe relatively short recall periods and pertain to populations where hospitalized childbirth is the norm. Accuracy of maternal
León, Gemma; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Castilla, Ane M; Basterrechea, Mikel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Blarduni, Elizabeth; Foradada, Carles M; Tardón, Adonina; Vioque, Jesús
Maternal clinical thyroid disorders can cause reproductive complications. However, the effects of mild thyroid dysfunctions are not yet well established. The aim was to evaluate the association of maternal thyroid function during the first half of pregnancy with birthweight and preterm delivery. We analysed data on 2170 pregnant women and their children from a prospective population-based cohort study in four Spanish areas. Mid-gestation maternal serum and urine samples were gathered to determine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4 ), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Thyroid status was defined according to percentile distribution as: euthyroid (TSH and fT4 >5th and 95th percentile and fT4 normal or 95 th percentile and TSH normal), and hyperthyroidism (TSH 95th percentile). Response variables were birthweight, small and large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and preterm delivery. An inverse association of fT4 and TSH with birthweight was found, the former remaining when restricted to euthyroid women. High fT4 levels were also associated with an increased risk of SGA [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 (95% CI 1.08, 1.51)]. Mean birthweight was higher in the hypothyroxinaemic group (β = 109, P < 0.01). Iodine intake and UIC were not associated with birth outcomes. High maternal fT4 levels during the first half of pregnancy were related to lower birthweight and increased risk of SGA newborns, suggesting that maternal thyroid function may affect fetal growth, even within the normal range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.
This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.
Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.
Sol Pía Juárez
Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from native Swedish mothers. From this population, we isolated 62,941 siblings from 28,768 mothers with discrepant habits of SDP. We applied conventional and mother-specific multilevel linear regression models to investigate the association between maternal SDP and offspring birthweight. Depending on the mother was light or heavy smoker and the timing of exposition during pregnancy (i.e., first or third trimester, the effect of smoking on birthweight reduction was between 6 and 78 g less marked in the sibling analysis than in the conventional analysis. Sibling analysis showed that continuous smoking reduces birthweight by 162 grams for mothers who were light smokers (1 to 9 cigarettes per day and 226 g on average for those who were heavy smokers throughout the pregnancy in comparison to non-smoker mothers. Quitting smoking during pregnancy partly counteracted the smoking-related birthweight reduction by 1 to 29 g, and a subsequent smoking relapse during pregnancy reduced birthweight by 77 to 83 g. The sibling analysis provides strong evidence that maternal SDP reduces offspring birthweight, though this reduction was not as great as that observed in the conventional analysis. Our findings support public health interventions aimed to prevent SDP and to persuade those who already smoke to quit and not relapse throughout the pregnancy. Besides, further analyses are needed in order to explain the mechanisms through which smoking reduces birthweight and to identify
Blumberg, Roger B.
This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…
The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…
Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff
As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…
Kaartinen, N M; Kananen, K M; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A; Tomás, C M; Huhtala, H Sa; Tinkanen, H I
Does extended embryo culture have a different effect on the birthweight of girls and boys? The mean birthweight of boys born after fresh and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer was increased compared with those born after cleavage stage embryo transfer. This effect was not detected among girls. Previous studies indicate that newborns from frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryos may present with a higher weight than newborns from fresh embryo transfers. With regard to fresh embryos, newborns after a blastocyst transfer have been reported as having higher birthweights than newborns from cleavage stage embryos. Retrospective multicentre case-control cohort study. All IVF/ICSI treatments were performed in the time-period from January 2008 to March 2014. Birthweight of singletons born at full-term (≥37 weeks), after fresh or frozen blastocyst embryo transfers (n = 277), were compared with weights of children born after fresh or frozen cleavage stage embryo transfers (Day 2-3) (n = 277). The cases and controls were matched by delivery week, and by gender. Data of IVF/ICSI treatments, and the treatments' outcomes were collected and analysed. The birthweight after a fresh blastocyst transfer was significantly higher (mean 3530.6 g) than that after a transfer of cleavage stage embryos (mean 3418.8 g; weight difference 111.8 g, P = 0.047). The weights of newborns after frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers (mean 3647.5 g) and the frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfers (mean 3650.9 g), were similar (weight difference 3.4 g, P = 0.95). The boys born after transfer of frozen-thawed blastocysts had a significantly higher birthweight (mean 3767.9 g) than girls (3525.2 g; weight difference 242.7 g, P = 0.002), whereas the difference of birthweights between genders was only 13.5 g in cleavage stage (P = 0.863). The same effect was seen after fresh blastocyst transfers (weight difference 211.5 g, P = 0.011), but not after fresh Day 2-3 embryo transfers (weight difference 53.6 g, P
Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.
This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…
King, Thomas F J
Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.
Wort, Ulrika Uddenfeldt; Hastings, Ian M.; Carlstedt, Anders; Mutabingwa, T. K.; Brabin, Bernard J.
Background Malaria infection increases low birthweight especially in primigravidae. Malaria epidemics occur when weather conditions favour this vector borne disease. Forecasting using the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may assist in anticipating epidemics and reducing the impact of a disease
Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Brok, Jesper Sune
of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycNET, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on the Health Sciences (LILACS), and Virtual Health Library (VHL) with equivalent search expressions (from the databases inception to June 2011). Also, we screened reference lists...
Overland, Eva A; Vatten, Lars J; Eskild, Anne
We estimated the associations of parity and offspring birthweight with the risk of shoulder dystocia, and studied whether the association of offspring birthweight differed by parity. Population-based register study. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was used to identify all deliveries between 1967 and 2006. All vaginal deliveries of a singleton offspring in cephalic presentation during the period 1967-2006 (n=1,914,544). Shoulder dystocia at delivery. Shoulder dystocia occurred in 0.68% (13,109/1,914,544) of all deliveries. There was a strong positive association of birthweight with risk of shoulder dystocia, and 75% (9765/13,109) of all cases occurred in deliveries of offspring weighing 4000g or more. The association of birthweight displayed similar patterns across parities, but the association was slightly stronger in parous than in primiparous women. Among first-time mothers, 0.12% (320/276,614) with offspring weighing 3000-3499g (reference) experienced shoulder dystocia, compared with 13.30% (169/1244) with offspring birthweight higher than 5000g [odds ratio (OR) 135.7, 95%CI 111.6-165.1]. The corresponding results for women with one previous delivery were 0.08% (161/201,572) and 16.45% (501/3054) (OR 246.4, 95%CI 205.4-295.5). High offspring birthweight is the major risk factor for shoulder dystocia, constituting most cases. The positive association of birthweight with shoulder dystocia showed similar patterns across parities, but high birthweight parous women were at greater risk of shoulder dystocia compared with primiparous women. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Zeitlin, Jennifer; Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt; Piedvache, Aurelie
AIM: This study assessed the prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm (VPT) infants using national and European intrauterine references. METHODS: We generated country-specific and common European intrauterine growth references for 11 European countries, according to Gardosi...... with lower term birthweights (39.9%) - Portugal, Italy and France - and higher term birthweights, namely Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden (28.9%; p third...
Spencer, Michael D; Moorhead, T William J; Gibson, Rod J; McIntosh, Andrew M; Sussmann, Jessika E D; Owens, David G C; Lawrie, Stephen M; Johnstone, Eve C
Although neuroanatomical and cognitive sequelae of low birthweight and preterm birth have been investigated, little is understood as to the likely prevalence of a history of low birthweight or preterm birth, or neuroanatomical correlates of such a history, within the special educational needs population. Our aim was to address these issues in a sample of young people receiving additional learning support. One hundred and thirty-seven participants aged 13-22 years, receiving additional learning support, were recruited via their schools or colleges and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Obstetric records, available in 98 cases, included birthweight and gestational data in 90 and 95 cases, respectively. Both qualitative and quantitative voxel-based analyses of MRI data were conducted. A history of low birthweight and preterm birth was present in 13.3% and 13.7% of cases, respectively. Low birthweight and preterm birth were associated with specific qualitative anomalies, including enlargement of subarachnoid cisterns and thinning of the corpus callosum. Low birthweight was associated with reduced grey matter density (GMD) in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) bilaterally, left inferior temporal gyrus and left insula. Prematurity of birth was associated with reduced GMD in the STG bilaterally, right inferior frontal gyrus and left cerebellar hemisphere. Comparison of subjects with no history of low birthweight or preterm birth with a previously defined control sample of cognitively unimpaired adolescents (n = 72) demonstrated significantly greater scores for several anomalies, including thinning of the corpus callosum, loss of white matter and abnormalities of shape of the lateral ventricles. Although a two-fold increased prevalence of a history of low birthweight and preterm birth exists within the special educational needs population, other aetiological factors must be considered for the overwhelming majority of cases. Neuroanatomical findings
Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred
The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramli, Rindra M.
An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.
Ramli, Rindra M.
An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.
Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.
Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.
King, Thomas F J; Bergin, David A; Kent, Etaoin M; Manning, Fiona; Reeves, Emer P; Dicker, Patrick; McElvaney, Noel G; Sreenan, Seamus; Malone, Fergal D; McDermott, John H
Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to ascertain whether EPC number or function was reduced in mothers of low-birthweight infants. This was a prospective cohort study in a general antenatal department of a university maternity hospital. Twenty-three mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (birthweight mothers of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (birthweight ≥ 10th centile) were recruited. Maternal EPC number and function, conventional cardiovascular risk markers, and cord blood adiponectin were measured. Median EPC count was lower (294 vs. 367, P = 0.005) and EPC migration was reduced (0.91 vs. 1.59, P < 0.001) in SGA compared with AGA infants, with no difference in EPC adhesion (0.221 vs. 0.284 fluorescence units, P = 0.257). Maternal triglyceride levels were higher in SGA than AGA infants (0.98 vs. 0.78 mmol/liter, P = 0.006), but there was no difference in cholesterol, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, adiponectin, or blood pressure. There was a moderate monotone (increasing) relationship between birthweight and umbilical cord blood adiponectin (r = 0.475, P = 0.005). Giving birth to an SGA infant was associated with lower maternal EPC number and reduced migratory function. Cord blood adiponectin was significantly correlated with birthweight.
Laughon, S Katherine; Catov, Janet; Roberts, James M
We sought to investigate whether uric acid concentrations are increased in pregnant women with insulin resistance and to correlate both with fetal growth. Uric acid, glucose, and insulin were measured in plasma at 20.4 (+/-2.0) weeks' gestation in 263 women. The association between uric acid and insulin resistance, as estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), was analyzed and related to birthweights. In 212 (80.6%) women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy, HOMA increased 1.23 U per 1-mg/dL increase in uric acid (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.42; P=.003). Infants born to normotensive women in the upper quartile of uric acid and lowest HOMA quartile weighed 435.6 g less than infants of women with highest uric acid and HOMA quartiles (Pinsulin resistance in midpregnancy. Hyperuricemia was associated with lower birthweight in normotensive women, and this effect was attenuated by insulin resistance.
Guimarães, P V; Fonseca, S C; Pinheiro, R S; Aguiar, F P; Camargo, K R; Coeli, C M
This study tested the hypothesis that the birthweight paradox would not be observed when assessing the effect of maternal education on neonatal mortality in the presence of socioeconomic inequality in access to health care. Non-concurrent cohort study. Passive follow-up of live-born infants using probabilistic record linkage of birth and death records for Rio de Janeiro (2004-2010; n = 1 445 367). Maternal age, birthweight and neonatal death were evaluated according to maternal educational level strata (disadvantages faced by low maternal education women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality......: the MRR of vitamin A supplementation compared with placebo, controlled for randomisation to "early BCG" versus "no early BCG" was 1.08 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.47). Stratification by sex revealed a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (P=0.046), the MRR of vitamin A supplementation...
Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Fristad, R.F.; Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)
Seafood is an important part of a healthy diet. Polyunsaturated fatty acids present in seafood play an essential role in the development of the central nervous system, of special importance to the brain development. The long chain n-3 fatty acids have also been reported to increase gestational length. Fish intake during pregnancy has been associated with both increased birthweight and gestational length. Birthweight is considered to be a predictor of a number of disorders in infant and adult life. However, negative effects may arise in connection with fish and shellfish intake. Seafood can be a major source of environmental contaminants, and correspondingly, adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes have been reported. In contrast, in a publication review carried out on the relationship between PCBs and related chemicals on several pregnancy outcomes, Kimbrough and Krouskas claim that none of the reviewed studies provided evidence on the existence of adverse effects on birthweight. Distinction between consumption of different types of seafood and its relation to pregnancy outcomes is scarce in the literature. Since the source of environmental contaminants is mainly in the marine fat, and that fat content potentially differ in the various categories of seafood items, it is plausible that different categories of seafood may have distinct health effects on fetal growth and gestational length. The objective of this study was to investigate the consumption of three major categories of seafood (fatty fish, lean/half-fatty fish and shellfish), potentially differing in their content of environmental toxicants, and its effects on pregnancy outcomes, specifically, birthweight and gestational length.
Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.
Schempf, Ashley; Strobino, Donna; O'Campo, Patricia
Neighborhood characteristics have been proposed to influence birth outcomes through psychosocial and behavioral pathways, yet empirical evidence is lacking. Using data from an urban, low-income sample, this study examined the impact of the neighborhood environment on birthweight and evaluated mediation by psychosocial and behavioral factors. The sample included 726 women who delivered a live birth at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, USA between 1995 and 1996. Census-tract data were used to create a principal component index of neighborhood risk based on racial and economic stratification (% Black, % poverty), social disorder (violent crime rate), and physical deterioration (% boarded-up housing) (alpha=0.82). Information on sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors was gathered from a postpartum interview and medical records. Random intercept multilevel models were used to estimate neighborhood effects and assess potential mediation. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, a standard deviation increase in neighborhood risk conferred a 76g birthweight decrement. This represents an approximate 300g difference between the best and worst neighborhoods. Although stress (daily hassles), perceived locus-of-control, and social support were related to birthweight, their adjustment reduced the neighborhood coefficient by only 12%. In contrast, the neighborhood effect was reduced by an additional 30% and was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for the behavioral factors of smoking, drug use, and delayed prenatal care. These findings suggest that neighborhood factors may influence birthweight by shaping maternal behavioral risks. Thus, neighborhood level interventions should be considered to address multiple maternal and infant health risks. Future studies should examine more direct measures of neighborhood stress, such as perceived neighborhood disorder, and evaluate alternative mechanisms by which neighborhood factors
Schempf, Ashley; Strobino, Donna; O’Campo, Patricia
Neighborhood characteristics have been proposed to influence birth outcomes through psychosocial and behavioral pathways, yet empirical evidence is lacking. Using data from an urban, low-income sample, this study examined the impact of the neighborhood environment on birthweight and evaluated mediation by psychosocial and behavioral factors. The sample included 726 women who delivered a live birth at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland USA between 1995 and 1996. Census tract data we...
Pharoah, P O; Stevenson, C J; Cooke, R W; Stevenson, R C
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of subclinical deficits in cognitive and motor function in low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Children of birth weight < or = 2000 g born to mothers resident in Merseyside in 1980-1 assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Neale analysis of reading ability, and the Stott-Moyes-Henderson test of motor impairment (TOMI). Children attending normal schools assessed with controls matched for age, sex, and class in school. Children...
Vergouw, Carlijn G; Kostelijk, E Hanna; Doejaaren, Els; Hompes, Peter G A; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Schats, Roel
Does the type of medium used to culture fresh and frozen-thawed embryos influence neonatal birthweight after single embryo transfer (SET) in IVF? A comparison of two commercially available culture media showed no significant influence on mean birthweight and mean birthweight adjusted for gestational age, gender and parity (z-scores) of singletons born after a fresh or frozen-thawed SET. Furthermore, we show that embryo freezing and thawing cycles may lead to a significantly higher mean birthweight. Animal studies have shown that culture media constituents are responsible for changes in birthweight of offspring. In human IVF, there is still little knowledge of the effect of medium type on birthweight. Until now, only a small number of commercially available culture media have been investigated (Vitrolife, Cook(®) Medical and IVF online medium). Our study adds new information: it has a larger population of singleton births compared with the previously published studies, it includes outcomes of other media types (HTF and Sage(®)), not previously analysed, and it includes data on frozen-thawed SETs. This study was a retrospective analysis of birthweights of singleton newborns after fresh (Day 3) or frozen-thawed (Day 5) SET cycles, using embryos cultured in either of two different types of commercially available culture media, between 2008 and 2011. Before January 2009, a single-step culture medium was used: human tubal fluid (HTF) with 4 mg/ml human serum albumin. From January 2009 onwards, a commercially available sequential medium was introduced: Sage(®), Quinn's advantage protein plus medium. Singletons born after a fresh SET (99 embryos cultured in HTF and 259 in Sage(®)) and singletons born after a frozen-thawed SET (32 embryos cultured in HTF only, 41 in HTF and Sage(®) and 86 in Sage(®) only) were analysed. Only patients using autologous gametes without the use of a gestational carrier were considered. Also excluded were (vanishing) twins, triplets
Terán, José Manuel; Varea, Carlos; Bernis, Cristina; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio
Birthweight by gestational age charts enable fetal growth to be evaluated in a specific population. Given that maternal profile and obstetric practice have undergone a remarkable change over the past few decades in Spain, this paper presents new Spanish reference percentile charts stratified by gender, parity and type of delivery. They have been prepared with data from the 2010-2014 period of the Spanish Birth Statistics Bulletin. Reference charts have been prepared using the LMS method, corresponding to 1,428,769 single, live births born to Spanish mothers. Percentile values and mean birth weight are compared among newborns according to gender, parity and type of delivery. Newborns to primiparous mothers show significantly lower birthweight than those born to multiparous mothers (pparity and type of delivery-specific birthweight references. These new charts enable a better evaluation of the impact of the demographic, reproductive and obstetric trends currently in Spain on fetal growth. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Periodontal diseases have a high prevalence worldwide. Existing evidence support the concept that gingivitis and periodontitis are potentially infectious and they present inflammatory reservoirs that can be threatening to the fetoplacental unit. The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status between women with normal delivery and those with preterm low-birthweight delivery. Materials and Methods: This study included 200 postpartum women whose periodontal and obstetrical parameters were taken. The periodontal condition was assessed bedside according to the modified criteria established by Machtei, while the birthweight and gestational age were assessed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results: Women with periodontitis are statistically at 3.2 times higher risk to deliver a child with low weight, and at 3.4 times higher risk to deliver preterm, compared to women without periodontitis. The women with preterm low-birthweight babies had deeper periodontal pockets (2.49mm ± 0.49mm than women with normal delivery (2.26mm ± 0.49mm. Conclusions: Periodontal disease in pregnant women with a reservoir of organisms and their products can be considered a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome.
Zhang, X; Platt, R W; Cnattingius, S; Joseph, K S; Kramer, M S
The objective of this study was to critically examine potential artifacts and biases underlying the use of 'customised' standards of birthweight for gestational age (GA). Population-based cohort study. Sweden. A total of 782,303 singletons > or =28 weeks of gestation born in 1992-2001 to Nordic mothers with complete data on birthweight; GA; and maternal age, parity, height, and pre-pregnancy weight. We compared perinatal mortality in four groups of infants based on the following classification of small for gestational age (SGA): non-SGA based on either population-based or customised standards (the reference group), SGA based on the population-based standard only, SGA based on the customised standard only, and SGA according to both standards. We used graphical methods to compare GA-specific birthweight cutoffs for SGA using the two standards and also used logistic regression to control for differences in GA and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in the four groups. Perinatal mortality, including stillbirth and neonatal death. Customisation led to a large artifactual increase in the proportion of SGA infants born preterm. Adjustment for differences in GA and maternal BMI markedly reduced the excess risk among infants classified as SGA by customised standards only. The large increase in perinatal mortality risk among infants classified as SGA based on customised standards is largely an artifact due to inclusion of more preterm births.
Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John
Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.
Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.
Lemmen, J G; Pinborg, A; Rasmussen, S; Ziebe, S
Is there a difference in birthweight distribution in ART singletons born after IVF culture in two different culture media? There is no effect of culture media on both crude and adjusted birthweight distributions in ART singletons from nulliparous mothers. Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. This study was a retrospective comparison of birthweights in IVF/ICSI singletons conceived after fresh embryo transfer following embryo culture in Cook or Medicult medium and in a national cohort of naturally conceived singletons in nulliparous women. The study compares four independent groups consisting of singletons in nulliparous women from Cook-d2: 2-day culture in Cook medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 974), Medicult-d2: 2-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 147), Medicult-d3: 3-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium with and without added GM-CSF (n = 204), and DK: pregnancies from the Danish birth registry (n = 106842). The study compares the birthweights of singletons from nulliparous women in the four independent groups mentioned above; Cook-d2: Medicult-d2: Medicult-d3: and DK. In addition, distributions of large and small for gestational age infants were compared between the groups and a multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine which factors determined birthweight. We found no significant difference in the crude birthweight distributions between singletons born after culture in Cook-d2 or Medicult-groups. Singleton girls from the Cook-d2 group weighed 3302 ± 28 g, versus 3252 ± 76 in the Medicult-d2 group (difference 50 g; P = 0.547). Singleton boys from the Cook-d2 group weighed 3430 ± 27 g, versus 3354 ± 56 in the Medicult-d2 group (difference 76 g; P = 0.279). In the background population, mean
Platt, Mary Jane; Cans, Christine; Johnson, Ann
BACKGROUND: The risk of cerebral palsy, the commonest physical disability of children in western Europe, is higher in infants of very low birthweight (VLBW)--those born weighing less than 1500 g--and those from multiple pregnancies than in infants of normal birthweight. An increasing proportion....... The frequency of cerebral palsy was higher in male than female babies in the group of birthweight 1000-1499 g (61.0 [53.8-68..2] vs 49.5 [42.8-56.2] per 1000 livebirths; p=0.0025) but not in the group of birthweight below 1000 g. INTERPRETATION: These data from a large population base provide evidence...
Khashan, A S
BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with maternal celiac disease (CD). In this study, we investigate the effect of treated and untreated maternal CD on infant birthweight and preterm birth. METHODS: A population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 was used. A total of 1,504,342 babies were born to 836,241 mothers during the study period. Of those, 1105 babies were born to women with diagnosed CD and 346 were born to women with undiagnosed CD. Women with diagnosed CD were considered as treated with a gluten free diet while women with undiagnosed CD were considered as untreated. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA: birthweight <10th centile), very small for gestational age (VSGA: birthweight <5th centile) and preterm birth. We compared these measures in treated and untreated women with those of a reference group (no history of CD). RESULTS: Women with untreated CD delivered smaller babies [difference = -98 g (95% CI: -130, -67)], with a higher risk of SGA infants [OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.63)], VSGA infants [OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.03)] and preterm birth [OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72)] compared with women without CD. Women with treated CD had no increased risk of reduced mean birthweight, risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants or preterm birth compared with women without CD. CONCLUSION: Untreated maternal CD increases the risk of reduced birthweight, the risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants and preterm birth. Diagnosis and presumed treatment of maternal CD with a gluten-free diet appeared to result in a birthweight and preterm birth rate similar to those in women without CD.
Bonellie, Sandra R
To illustrate the use of regression and logistic regression models to investigate changes over time in size of babies particularly in relation to social deprivation, age of the mother and smoking. Mean birthweight has been found to be increasing in many countries in recent years, but there are still a group of babies who are born with low birthweights. Population-based retrospective cohort study. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models are used to analyse data on term 'singleton births' from Scottish hospitals between 1994-2003. Mothers who smoke are shown to give birth to lighter babies on average, a difference of approximately 0.57 Standard deviations lower (95% confidence interval. 0.55-0.58) when adjusted for sex and parity. These mothers are also more likely to have babies that are low birthweight (odds ratio 3.46, 95% confidence interval 3.30-3.63) compared with non-smokers. Low birthweight is 30% more likely where the mother lives in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, (odds ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.40). Smoking during pregnancy is shown to have a detrimental effect on the size of infants at birth. This effect explains some, though not all, of the observed socioeconomic birthweight. It also explains much of the observed birthweight differences by the age of the mother. Identifying mothers at greater risk of having a low birthweight baby as important implications for the care and advice this group receives. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.
Marius Daniel MAREŞ
The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.
To determine the incremental cost of improving the outcome for extremely low birthweight (ELBW, birthweight 500-999 g) infants born in Victoria after the introduction of exogenous surfactant (the post surfactant era). This was a geographically determined cohort study of ELBW children in Victoria, Australia of consecutive livebirths born in three distinct eras: (i) 1979-80 (n = 351); (ii) 1985-87 (n = 560); and (iii) 1991-92 (n = 429). Exogenous surfactant was first used in Victoria in March, 1991. The consumption of nursery resources per livebirth, and the survival and sensorineural disability rates at 2 years of age for each era were investigated. Utilities were assigned as follows: 0 for dead, 0.4 for severe disability, 0.6 for moderate disability, 0.8 for mild disability, and 1 for no disability. Utilities were multiplied for more than one disability. Dollar costs were assumed to be $1470 ($A 1992) per day of assisted ventilation, and one dose of exogenous surfactant was assumed to be equivalent to one third of a day of assisted ventilation. Cost-effectiveness (additional costs per additional survivor or life-year gained) and cost-utility (additional costs per additional quality-adjusted survivor or life-year gained) ratios were calculated for the pre-surfactant era (1985-87 vs 1979-80), and for the post surfactant era (1991-92 vs 1985-87). Considering only the costs incurred during the primary hospitalization, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios were lower (i.e. economically better) in the post surfactant era than in the pre-surfactant era (pre-surfactant vs post surfactant; $7040 vs $4040 per life year gained; $6700 vs $5360 per quality-adjusted life year gained). Both ratios fell with increasing birthweight. In contrast with the pre-surfactant era, cost-utility ratios were less favourable than cost-effectiveness ratios in the post surfactant era. With costs for long-term care of severely disabled children added, both cost ratios were higher in the post
Li, Zhuoyang; Wang, Yueping A; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A
What is the standard of birthweight for gestational age for babies following assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment? Birthweight for gestational age percentile charts were developed for singleton births following ART treatment using population-based data. Small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) births are at increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. A birthweight percentile chart allows the detection of neonates at high risk, and can help inform the need for special care if required. This population study used data from the Australian and New Zealand Assisted Reproduction Database (ANZARD) for 72 694 live born singletons following ART treatment between January 2002 and December 2010 in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 69 315 births (35 580 males and 33 735 females) following ART treatment were analysed for the birthweight percentile. Exact percentiles of birthweight in grams were calculated for each gestational week between Week 25 and 42 for fresh and thaw cycles by infant sex. Univariate analysis was used to determine the exact birthweight percentile values. Student t-test was used to examine the mean birthweight difference between male and female infants, between single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) and between fresh and thaw cycles. Preterm births (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) and low birthweight (fetal growth standards but only the weight of live born infants at birth. The comparison of birthweight percentile charts for ART births and general population births provide evidence that the proportion of SGA births following ART treatment was comparable to the general population for SET fresh cycles and significantly lower for thaw cycles. Both fresh and thaw cycles showed better outcomes for singleton births following SET compared with DET. Policies to promote single embryo transfer should be considered in order to minimize the adverse perinatal outcomes associated
Kent, Etaoin M; Breathnach, Fionnuala M; Gillan, John E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael P; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Hunter, Alyson; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Carroll, Stephen; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Tully, Elizabeth; Malone, Fergal D
We sought to evaluate the association between placental histological abnormalities and birthweight discordance and growth restriction in twin pregnancies. We performed a multicenter, prospective study of twin pregnancies. Placentas were examined for evidence of infarction, retroplacental hemorrhage, chorangioma, subchorial fibrin, or abnormal villus maturation. Association of placental lesions with chorionicity, birthweight discordance, and growth restriction were assessed. In all, 668 twin pairs were studied, 21.1% monochorionic and 78.9% dichorionic. Histological abnormalities were more frequent in placentas of smaller twins of birthweight discordant pairs (P = .02) and in placentas of small for gestational age infants (P = .0001) when compared to controls. The association of placental abnormalities with both birthweight discordance and small for gestational age was significant for dichorionic twins (P = .01 and .0001, respectively). No such association was seen in monochorionic twins. In a large, prospective, multicenter study, we observed a strong relationship between abnormalities of placental histology and birthweight discordance and growth restriction in dichorionic, but not monochorionic, twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nakagawa, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Satake, Eiichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Saegusa, Hirokazu; Kubota, Akira; Natsume, Hiromune; Shibata, Yukinobu; Fujisawa, Yasuko
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of early postnatal growth by birthweight and detect early predictive factors for pediatric obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and degree of obesity were examined in children in the fourth year of elementary school and second year of junior high school. Their BMI at birth and three years of age were also examined. Based on birthweight, participants were divided into three groups: low ( 3500 g). Furthermore, according to the degree of obesity, they were divided into two groups: obese (20% ≤) and non-obese (20% >). The change of BMI from birth to three years of age (ΔBMI) showed a strong inverse relationship with birthweight and was significantly different among the three birthweight groups (low > middle > high). The ΔBMI and BMI at three years of age were higher in obese than in non-obese children and showed significant positive correlations with the degree of obesity. Early postnatal growth might be determined by birthweight and was higher in obese than in non-obese children. The ΔBMI from birth to three years of age and BMI at age of three years could be predictive factors for pediatric obesity. PMID:29403153
Kabir, Z; Clarke, V; Conroy, R; McNamee, E; Daly, S; Clancy, L
It is well-established that maternal smoking has adverse birth outcomes (low birthweight, LBW, and preterm births). The comprehensive Irish workplace smoking ban was successfully introduced in March 2004. We examined LBW and preterm birth rates 1 year before and after the workplace smoking ban in Dublin. A cross-sectional observational study analysing routinely collected data using the Euroking K2 maternity system. Coombe University Maternal Hospital. Only singleton live births were included for analyses (7593 and 7648, in 2003 and 2005, respectively). Detailed gestational and clinical characteristics were collected and analysed using multivariable logistic regression analyses and subgroup analyses. Maternal smoking rates, mean birthweights, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of LBW and preterm births in 2005 versus 2003. There was a 25% decreased risk of preterm births (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.96), a 43% increased risk of LBW (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.10-1.85), and a 12% fall in maternal smoking rates (from 23.4 to 20.6%) in 2005 relative to 2003. Such patterns were significantly maintained when specific subgroups were also analysed. Mean birthweights decreased in 2005, but were not significant (P=0.99). There was a marginal increase in smoking cessation before pregnancy in 2005 (P=0.047). Significant declines in preterm births and in maternal smoking rates after the smoking ban are welcome signs. However, the increased LBW birth risks might reflect a secular trend, as observed in many industrialised nations, and merits further investigations.
Gjessing, H K; Grøttum, P; Økland, I; Eik-Nes, S H
To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non-linear regression method. The population-based approach, using bias-free ultrasound gestational age, produces stable estimates of size-for-age and weight-for-age curves in the range 24-42 weeks' gestation. There is a close correspondence between percentage deviations and percentiles of birth weight by gestational age, making it easy to convert between the two. The variance of birth weight that can be 'explained' by ultrasound increases from 8% at 20 weeks up to 67% around term. Intrauterine estimated fetal weight is 0-106 g higher than median birth weight in the preterm period. The new population-based birth-weight prediction model provides a simple summary measure, the 'percentage birth-weight deviation', to be used for fetal size monitoring throughout the third trimester. Predictive quality of the model can be measured directly from the population data. The model computes both median observed birth weight and intrauterine estimated fetal weight. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John
He, Jian-Rong; Xia, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M; Feng, Qiong; Schooling, C Mary; Qiu, Xiu
To formulate a new birthweight reference for different gestational ages in Guangzhou, southern China, and compare it with the currently used reference in China and the global reference. All singleton live births of more than 26 weeks' gestational age recorded in the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 (n=510 837) were retrospectively included in the study. In addition, the study sample was supplemented by all singleton live births (n=3538) at gestational ages 26-33 weeks from 2007 and 2008. We used Gaussian mixture models and robust regression to exclude outliers of birth weight and then applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) to generate smoothed percentile curves separately for gender and parity. Of infants defined as small for gestational age (SGA) in the new reference, 15.3-47.7% (depending on gestational age) were considered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) by the currently used reference of China. Of the infants defined as SGA by the new reference, 9.2% with gestational ages 34-36 weeks and 14.3% with 37-41 weeks were considered AGA by the global reference. At the 50th centile line, the new reference curve was similar to that of the global reference for gestational ages 26-33 weeks and above the global reference for 34-40 weeks. The new birthweight reference based on birthweight data for neonates in Guangzhou, China, differs from the reference currently used in China and the global reference, and appears to be more relevant to the local population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Witt, Whitney P.; Mandell, Kara C.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Wakeel, Fathima; Park, Hyojun; Zarak, Dakota
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among preconception stressful life events (PSLEs), women’s alcohol and tobacco use before and during pregnancy, and infant birthweight. METHODS Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n=9,350). Data were collected in 2001. Exposure to PSLEs was defined by indications of death of a parent, spouse, or previous live born child; divorce or marital separation; or fertility problems prior to conception. Survey data determined alcohol and tobacco usage during the three months prior to and in the final three months of pregnancy. We used staged multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of women’s substance use and PSLEs on the risk of having a very low (<1,500 grams, VLBW) or low (1,500–2,499 grams, LBW) birthweight infant, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS Women who experienced any PSLE were more likely to give birth to VLBW infants (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.66) than women who did not experience any PSLE. Compared to women who never smoked, women who smoked prior to conception (AOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.04–1.66) or during their last trimester (AOR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.56–2.52) were more likely to give birth to LBW infants. CONCLUSIONS PSLEs and women’s tobacco use before and during pregnancy are independent risk factors for having a lower birthweight baby. Interventions to improve birth outcomes may need to address women’s health and health behaviors in the preconception period. PMID:26767530
To compare between eras the early care of extremely low birthweight (birthweight eras, 1979-1980 and 1985-1987. PATIENTS AND OUTCOMES: Mortality data to two years of age were available for all infants liveborn in non-level-III centres in the two eras (1979-1980, n = 106; 1985-1987, n = 129). In 1979-1980, 47 of 52 infants transferred to a level-III centre were transported by the Newborn Emergency Transport Service (NETS); in 1985-1987, all 49 infants transferred were transported by NETS. Data concerning the immediate care after birth and during transport to a level-III centre were available for all infants transferred by NETS. All survivors were assessed for sensorineural impairments and disabilities at two years of age, corrected for prematurity. In both eras, 18 children born outside and transferred to a level-III centre survived to two years of age. Survivors in both eras had almost identical mean birthweights and gestational ages. There were trends for more survivors to be referred by paediatricians--1979-1980, 61%; 1985-1987, 83%; odds ratio (OR), 2.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-12.4--and for quicker referral times to NETS in 1985-1987 (1979-1980, median 34.5 minutes after birth; 1985-1987, median 21.5 minutes after birth; z = 1.91, P = 0.056). It was possible only during 1985-1987 to monitor transcutaneous PO2 during transport. Durations of transport were similar in both eras. However, only in 1985-1987 was it possible in survivors to reduce significantly the inspired oxygen concentration during transport (median reductions in inspired oxygen, 1979-1980 3.5%; 1985-1987 20%; P = 0.028). Neurological impairment rates were substantially lower in survivors transported in the latter era (1979-1980 72% impaired; 1985-1987 22% impaired; OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.52). Of the neurological impairments, fewer had severe developmental delay alone (1979-1980 22%; 1985-1987 0%; OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.018-0.46), and the rate of blindness was lower, but the latter difference
Adegboye, A R A; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
the two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high......OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR...
Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott
Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044
Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.
Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela; Pinborg, Anja; Rasmussen, S
IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION......: This study was a retrospective comparison of birthweights in IVF/ICSI singletons conceived after fresh embryo transfer following embryo culture in Cook or Medicult medium and in a national cohort of naturally conceived singletons in nulliparous women. The study compares four independent groups consisting...... of singletons in nulliparous women from Cook-d2: 2-day culture in Cook medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 974), Medicult-d2: 2-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 147), Medicult-d3: 3-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium with and without added GM-CSF (n = 204), and DK...
Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions
Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.
It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied
Richardson, Elizabeth A; Shortt, Niamh K; Mitchell, Richard; Pearce, Jamie
Birthweight is an important determinant of health across the life course. Maternal exposure to natural space has been linked to higher birthweight, but stronger evidence of a causal link is needed. We use a quasi-experimental sibling study design to investigate if change in the mother's exposure to natural space between births was related to birthweight, in urban Scotland. Amount (% area) of total natural space, total accessible (public) natural space, parks, woodlands and open water within 100 m of the mother's postcode was calculated for eligible births (n = 40 194; 1991-2010) in the Scottish Longitudinal Study (a semi-random 5.3% sample of the Scottish population). Associations between natural space and birthweight were estimated, using ordinary least squares and fixed effects models. Birthweight was associated with the total amount of natural space around the mother's home (+8.2 g for interquartile range increase), but was unrelated to specific types of natural space. This whole-sample relationship disappeared in the sibling analysis, indicating residual confounding. The sibling models showed effects for total natural space with births to women who already had children (+20.1 g), and to those with an intermediate level of education (+14.1 g). The importance of total natural space for birthweight suggests that benefits can be experienced near to as well as within natural space. Ensuring expectant mothers have good access to high quality neighbourhood natural space has the potential to improve the infant's start in life, and consequently their health trajectory over the life course. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...
Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike
infants. In the third trimester, the pregnant women completed questionnaires, and clinical examination included birthweight, head circumference, and infant length at age 14 days. RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of the newborn population had UC 25(OH)D ... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...
Owens David GC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although neuroanatomical and cognitive sequelae of low birthweight and preterm birth have been investigated, little is understood as to the likely prevalence of a history of low birthweight or preterm birth, or neuroanatomical correlates of such a history, within the special educational needs population. Our aim was to address these issues in a sample of young people receiving additional learning support. Methods One hundred and thirty-seven participants aged 13–22 years, receiving additional learning support, were recruited via their schools or colleges and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Obstetric records, available in 98 cases, included birthweight and gestational data in 90 and 95 cases, respectively. Both qualitative and quantitative voxel-based analyses of MRI data were conducted. Results A history of low birthweight and preterm birth was present in 13.3% and 13.7% of cases, respectively. Low birthweight and preterm birth were associated with specific qualitative anomalies, including enlargement of subarachnoid cisterns and thinning of the corpus callosum. Low birthweight was associated with reduced grey matter density (GMD in the superior temporal gyrus (STG bilaterally, left inferior temporal gyrus and left insula. Prematurity of birth was associated with reduced GMD in the STG bilaterally, right inferior frontal gyrus and left cerebellar hemisphere. Comparison of subjects with no history of low birthweight or preterm birth with a previously defined control sample of cognitively unimpaired adolescents (n = 72 demonstrated significantly greater scores for several anomalies, including thinning of the corpus callosum, loss of white matter and abnormalities of shape of the lateral ventricles. Conclusion Although a two-fold increased prevalence of a history of low birthweight and preterm birth exists within the special educational needs population, other aetiological factors must be considered for
Jacobsen, Stine C; Gillberg, Linn; Bork-Jensen, Jette
The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW...... individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after...... a control and a 5 day high-fat overfeeding diet....
Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J
The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.
Chalashika, P; Essex, C; Mellor, D; Swift, J A; Langley-Evans, S
A better understanding of the nutritional status of infants who are HIV-Exposed-Uninfected (HEU) and HIV-Unexposed-Uninfected (HUU) during their first 1000 days is key to improving population health, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study compared the nutritional status, feeding practices and determinants of nutritional status of HEU and HUU infants residing in representative selected districts in Botswana during their first 1000 days of life. Four hundred and thirteen infants (37.3% HIV-exposed), aged 6-24 months, attending routine child health clinics, were recruited. Anthropometric, 24-h dietary intake and socio-demographic data was collected. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards. Modelling of the determinants of malnutrition was undertaken using logistic regression. Overall, the prevalences of stunting, wasting and being underweight were 10.4%, 11.9% and 10.2%, respectively. HEU infants were more likely to be underweight (15.6% versus 6.9%), (P economic status. HEU infants aged 6-24 months had worse nutritional status compared to HUU infants. Low birthweight was the main predictor of undernutrition in this population. Optimisation of infant nutritional status should focus on improving birthweight. In addition, specific interventions should target HEU infants aiming to eliminate growth disparity between HEU and HUU infants. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Davies, M J; March, W A; Willson, K J; Giles, L C; Moore, V M
The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown and contested. While it has been suggested that PCOS could have origins in perturbed development, epidemiological findings have been inconclusive. We aimed to examine potential fetal origins of PCOS. A retrospective birth cohort of 948 singleton female babies born at one hospital in South Australia in 1973-1975 was assembled. Birth characteristics were obtained from hospital records and PCOS symptoms were identified through interview and clinical examination when women were ~30 years old. Based on the combination of PCOS symptoms, women formed seven outcome groups. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between birth characteristics and these outcome groups. After adjusting for gestational age, two distinct birth characteristics were associated with two PCOS symptom groups. Each 100 g increase in birthweight increased the risk of hyperandrogenism (as a single symptom) in adulthood by 5% [relative risk ratio: 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.09]. In contrast, each one unit increase in the ponderal index at birth decreased the risk of all three key PCOS symptoms (hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovaries) by 21% (0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.93). These results suggest two discrete fetal programming pathways (related to high birthweight and to thinness at birth) are operating. Our findings point to differing aetiologies for symptom clusters, and inform the debate over symptoms that best represent the disorder.
Homer, C J; James, S A; Siegel, E
We investigated whether work-related psychologic stress--defined as work characterized by both high psychologic demands and limited control over the response to these demands--increases a woman's risk of delivering a preterm, low birthweight infant. We studied 786 employed pregnant women included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth Cohort (NLSY), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young adults. Data concerning work status, job title, and other factors affecting pregnancy outcome were obtained from the NLSY. Assessment of job experience was based on job title, using an established catalogue of occupation characteristics. After accounting for the physical exertion entailed in a job, occupational psychologic stress as measured by job title was not associated with preterm, low birthweight delivery for the sample as a whole (Relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval .45, 2.95). For those women who did not want to remain in the work force, work-related stress increased their risk of experiencing this outcome (RR = 8.1, 95% CI 1.5, 50.2). Personal motivation toward work, as well as the physical effort of work, should be considered in evaluating the impact of a job's psychologic characteristics on pregnancy outcome.
Gillberg, Linn; Perfilyev, Alexander; Brøns, Charlotte
Aims/hypothesis: Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after...... in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Conclusions/interpretation: Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding...... a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. Methods: mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. Results: We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false...
Ольга Юрьевна Заславская
Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.
Ольга Николаевна Крылова
Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.
Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona
In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…
Kent, Etaoin M; Breathnach, Fionnuala M; Gillan, John E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael P; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Carroll, Stephen; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Malone, Fergal D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of noncentral placental cord insertion on birthweight discordance in twins. We performed a multicenter, prospective trial of twin pregnancies. Placental cord insertion was documented as central, marginal, or velamentous according to a defined protocol. Association of the placental cord insertion site with chorionicity, birthweight discordance, and growth restriction were assessed. Eight hundred sixteen twin pairs were evaluated; 165 pairs were monochorionic, and 651 pairs were dichorionic. Monochorionic twins had higher rates of marginal (P = .0068) and velamentous (P < .0001) placental cord insertion. Noncentral placental cord insertion was more frequent in smaller twins of discordant pairs than control pairs (29.8% vs 19.1%; P = .004). Velamentous placental cord insertion in monochorionic twins was associated significantly with birthweight discordance (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-9.4) and growth restriction (odds ratio, 4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-14.3). Noncentral placental cord insertion contributes to birthweight discordance in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Sonographic delineation of placental cord insertion may be of value in antenatal assessment of twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Heersema, D. J.; Baerts, W.; Fetter, W. P. F.; Smrkovsky, M.; van Hof-van Duin, J.; Sauer, P. J. J.
In order to determine the relationship between visual functions and neonatal cerebral ultrasound, neurological examinations and cognitive development, a prospective longitudinal study was conducted in 69 high-risk very-low-birthweight children. Visual development was studied at 1 and 2.6 years of
Ross, Gail; Demaria, Rebecca; Yap, Vivien
Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine if there is a specific association between motor delays and receptive and expressive language function, respectively, in prematurely born children. Method: Retrospective data review: 126 premature children = 1,250-g birthweight from English-speaking families were evaluated on motor development…
de Kieviet, J.F.; Zoetebier, L.; van Elburg, R.M.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Oosterlaan, J.
Aim The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born <32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing <1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge,
de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Aim The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born <32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing <1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. METHOD The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge,
Walker, Patrick G. T.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Garske, Tini; Menendez, Clara; Ghani, Azra C.
Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to adverse outcomes including low birthweight; however, contemporary estimates of the potential burden of malaria in pregnancy in Africa (in the absence of interventions) are poor. We aimed to estimate the need to protect pregnant women from
Hille, E.T.M.; Dorrepaal, C.; Perenboom, R.; Gravenhorst, J.B.; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Objective: To assess social lifestyle, risk-taking behavior, and psychopathology in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birthweight. Study design: This study was part of the 19-year follow-up in a large ongoing collaborative study in the Netherlands (the POPS study) on the long-term
Hille, Elysée T. M.; Dorrepaal, Caroline; Perenboom, Rom; Gravenhorst, Jack Bennebroek; Brand, Ronald; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. Pauline; Hille, E. T. M.; de Groot, C. H.; Kloosterboer-Boerrigter, H.; den Ouden, A. L.; Rijpstra, A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P.; Vogelaar, J. A.; Kok, J. H.; Ilsen, A.; van der Lans, M.; Boelen-van der Loo, W. J. C.; Lundqvist, T.; Heymans, H. S. A.; Duiverman, E. J.; Geven, W. B.; Duiverman, M. L.; Geven, L. I.; Vrijlandt, E. J. L. E.; Mulder, A. L. M.; Gerver, A.; Kollée, L. A. A.; Reijmers, L.; Sonnemans, R.; Wit, J. M.; Dekker, F. W.; Finken, M. J. J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Keijzer-Veen, M. G.; van der Heijden, A. J.; van Goudoever, J. B.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.; Cranendonk, A.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A.; de Groot, L.; Samsom, J. F.; de Vries, L. S.; Rademaker, K. J.; Moerman, E.; Voogsgeerd, M.; de Kleine, M. J. K.; Andriessen, P.; Dielissen-van Helvoirt, C. C. M.; Mohamed, I.; van Straaten, H. L. M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess social lifestyle, risk-taking behavior, and psychopathology in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birthweight. STUDY DESIGN: This study was part of the 19-year follow-up in a large ongoing collaborative study in The Netherlands (the POPS study) on the long-term
Simental-Mendía Luis E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated that low and high birth-weight at birth are risk factors of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if the abnormal birth-weight is related with hyperinsulinemia and elevated index of the Homeostasis Model assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR at birth, in at term newborns. Methods Newborns with gestational age between 38 and 41 weeks, products of normal pregnancies of healthy mothers aged 18 to 39 years, were eligible to participate. Small-for-gestational age (SGA and large-for-gestational age (LGA newborns were compared with appropriate-for-gestational (AGA age newborns. Incomplete or unclear data about mother’s health status, diabetes, gestational diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other conditions that affect glucose metabolism were exclusion criteria. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by serum insulin levels ≥13.0 μU/mL and IR by HOMA-IR ≥2.60. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio (OR that computes the association between birth-weight (independent variable with hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR index (dependent variables. Results A total of 107 newborns were enrolled; 13, 22, and 72 with SGA, LGA, and AGA, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia was identified in 2 (15.4%, 6 (27.3%, and 5 (6.9% with SGA, LGA, and AGA (p=0.03, whereas IR in 3 (23.1%, 8 (36.4%, and 10 (13.9% newborns with SGA, LGA and AGA (p=0.06. The LGA showed a strong association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 5.02; CI 95%, 1.15-22.3; p=0.01 and HOMA-IR (OR 3.54; CI 95%, 1.03-12.16; p=0.02; although without statistical significance, the SGA showed a tendency of association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.43; CI 95%, 0.43-17.3 p=0.29 and HOMA-IR (OR 1.86; CI 95%, 0.33-9.37; p=0.41. Conclusions Our results suggest that LGA is associated with hyperinsulinemia and elevated HOMA-IR at birth whereas the SGA show a tendency of
Yarde, F; Broekmans, F J M; van der Pal-de Bruin, K M; Schönbeck, Y; te Velde, E R; Stein, A D; Lumey, L H
Is there an association between acute prenatal famine exposure or birthweight and subsequent reproductive performance and age at menopause? No association was found between intrauterine famine exposure and reproductive performance, but survival analysis showed that women exposed in utero were 24% more likely to experience menopause at any age. Associations between prenatal famine and subsequent reproductive performance have been examined previously with inconsistent results. Evidence for the effects of famine exposure on age at natural menopause is limited to one study of post-natal exposure. This cohort study included men and women born around the time of the Dutch famine of 1944-1945. The study participants (n = 1070) underwent standardized interviews on reproductive parameters at a mean age of 59 years. The participants were grouped as men and women with prenatal famine exposure (n = 407), their same-sex siblings (family controls, n = 319) or other men and women born before or after the famine period (time controls, n = 344). Associations of famine exposure with reproductive performance and menopause were analysed using logistic regression and survival analysis with competing risk, after controlling for family clustering. Gestational famine exposure was not associated with nulliparity, age at birth of first child, difficulties conceiving or pregnancy outcome (all P> 0.05) in men or women. At any given age, women were more likely to experience menopause after gestational exposure to famine (hazard ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.51). The association was not attenuated with an additional control for a woman's birthweight. In this study, there was no association between birthweight and age at menopause after adjustment for gestational famine exposure. Age at menopause was self-reported and assessed retrospectively. The study power to examine associations with specific gestational periods of famine exposure and reproductive function was limited. Our findings support
Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando
Recent studies have demonstrated that low and high birth-weight at birth are risk factors of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if the abnormal birth-weight is related with hyperinsulinemia and elevated index of the Homeostasis Model assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) at birth, in at term newborns. Newborns with gestational age between 38 and 41 weeks, products of normal pregnancies of healthy mothers aged 18 to 39 years, were eligible to participate. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns were compared with appropriate-for-gestational (AGA) age newborns. Incomplete or unclear data about mother's health status, diabetes, gestational diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other conditions that affect glucose metabolism were exclusion criteria. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by serum insulin levels ≥13.0 μU/mL and IR by HOMA-IR ≥2.60. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) that computes the association between birth-weight (independent variable) with hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR index (dependent variables). A total of 107 newborns were enrolled; 13, 22, and 72 with SGA, LGA, and AGA, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia was identified in 2 (15.4%), 6 (27.3%), and 5 (6.9%) with SGA, LGA, and AGA (p=0.03), whereas IR in 3 (23.1%), 8 (36.4%), and 10 (13.9%) newborns with SGA, LGA and AGA (p=0.06). The LGA showed a strong association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 5.02; CI 95%, 1.15-22.3; p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (OR 3.54; CI 95%, 1.03-12.16; p=0.02); although without statistical significance, the SGA showed a tendency of association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.43; CI 95%, 0.43-17.3 p=0.29) and HOMA-IR (OR 1.86; CI 95%, 0.33-9.37; p=0.41). Our results suggest that LGA is associated with hyperinsulinemia and elevated HOMA-IR at birth whereas the SGA show a tendency of association.
De Vos, A; Janssens, R; Van de Velde, H; Haentjens, P; Bonduelle, M; Tournaye, H; Verheyen, G
Does the type of in vitro culture medium or the duration of in vitro culture influence singleton birthweight after IVF/ICSI treatment? In a comparison of two culture media, neither the medium nor the duration of culture (Day 3 versus Day 5 blastocyst transfer) had any effect on mean singleton birthweight. Previous studies indicated that in vitro culture of human embryos may affect birthweight of live born singletons. Both the type of culture medium and the duration of culture may be implicated. However, these studies are small and report conflicting results. A large retrospective analysis was performed including all singleton live births after transferring fresh Day 3 or Day 5 embryos. IVF and ICSI cycles performed between April 2004 and December 2009 at a tertiary care centre were included for analysis. A total of 2098 singleton live births resulting from singleton pregnancies were included for analysis. Two different sequential embryo culture media were concurrently used in an alternating way: Medicult (n = 1388) and Vitrolife (n = 710). Maternal age, maternal and paternal BMI, maternal parity, maternal smoking, main cause of infertility, cycle rank, stimulation protocol, method of fertilization (IVF or ICSI), time in culture and number of embryos transferred were taken into account. Embryo transfers were performed either on Day 3 (n = 1234) or on Day 5 (n = 864). Singleton birthweight was the primary outcome parameter. Gestational age and gender of the newborn were accounted for in the multiple regression analysis. No significant differences in mean singleton birthweight were observed between the two culture media: Medicult 3222 g (±15 SE) and Vitrolife 3251 g (±21 SE) (P = 0.264). The mean singleton birthweight was not different between Day 3 embryo transfers (3219 ± 16 g) and Day 5 blastocyst transfers (3250 ± 19 g; P = 0.209). Multiple regression analysis controlling for potential maternal, paternal, treatment and newborn confounders confirmed the non
International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational
West, Jane; Wright, John; Fairley, Lesley; Sattar, Naveed; Whincup, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A
There is evidence that South Asian individuals have higher fat mass for a given weight than Europeans. One study reported that the greater fatness for a given birthweight may increase with increasing birth weight, suggesting that any attempt to increase mean birth weight in South Asians would markedly increase their fatness. Our objective was to examine whether differences in cord leptin values between White British and Pakistani infants vary by birth weight category. We examined the difference in cord leptin levels between 659 White British and 823 Pakistani infants recruited to the Born in Bradford cohort study, by clinical categories and thirds of the birth weight distribution. Pakistani infants had a lower mean birthweight but higher cord leptin levels than White British infants [ratio of geometric mean(RGM) of cord leptin adjusted for birth weight = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26,1.46)]. Birthweight was positively associated with cord leptin levels in both groups, with no evidence that the regression lines in the two groups diverged from each other with increasing birthweight.The relative ethnic difference in cord leptin was similar in low (distribution [RGM (95% CI) in lowest, mid and highest thirds were 1.37 (1.20, 1.57), 1.36 (1.20, 1.54) and 1.31 (1.16, 1.52), respectively, P-interaction = 0.51]. We found marked differences in cord leptin levels between Pakistani and White British infants but no evidence that this difference increases with increasing birthweight.
Wen, Li Ming; Simpson, Judy M; Rissel, Chris; Baur, Louise A
A high infant birthweight is associated with future risk of a range of adverse health consequences. This study sought to determine whether maternal "junk food" diet (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) predicts high birthweight in first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted with a total of 368 first-time mothers and their newborns. Information about maternal "junk food" diet, including high consumption of soft drink, fast food, and/or processed meat and chips, and self-reported prepregnant weight and height of first-time mothers was collected by a face-to-face interview with mothers between 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Birthweight was measured in hospital and reported by the mother, together with gestational age, when the baby was 6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the factors predicting birthweight greater than 4.0 kg. Eleven percent of newborns weighed more than 4.0 kg (12% boys, 9% girls). Compared with mothers who had a "junk food" diet, mothers who had not consumed "junk food" during pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a newborn weighing more than 4.0 kg, with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.36, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.91, p = 0.03, after adjusting for maternal weight status and gestational age. Compared with healthy and underweight mothers, overweight or obese mothers were more likely to have a newborn weighing more than 4.0 kg (AOR overweight 3.03, 95% CI 1.35-6.80; obese 3.79, 95% CI 1.41-10.25) after allowing for "junk food" diet and gestational age. Maternal "junk food" diet during pregnancy and prepregnant overweight and obesity were independent predictors of high infant birthweight. Early childhood obesity interventions should consider addressing these factors. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
O'Connor, Clare; O'Higgins, Amy; Segurado, Ricardo; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M
The early detection of foetal growth restriction and macrosomia is an important goal of modern obstetric care. Aberrant foetal growth is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Current modalities for detecting the abnormal foetal growth are often inadequate. Pulse wave analysis using applanation tonometry is a simple and non-invasive test that provides information about the cardiovascular system. Arterial elasticity has previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular disease. Our study examined the relationship between maternal arterial elasticity and birthweight by using pulse wave analysis. We discovered that increased large artery elasticity predicted a larger baby at birth. Large artery elasticity therefore has the potential to act as a useful screening tool which may help in the prediction of women who are at risk of aberrant foetal growth.
Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Heitmann, B.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR...... and the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). SETTING: Schools in Odense, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1271 and 678 mothers of school children participated with information in the accuracy studies of BW and GA, respectively. The reliability sample of BW was composed of 359 women. METHOD: The agreement between...... the two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high...
Francis, Andre; Hugh, Oliver; Gardosi, Jason
Fetal growth abnormalities are linked to stillbirth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, and use of the correct birthweight standard is essential for accurate assessment of growth status and perinatal risk. Two competing, conceptually opposite birthweight standards are currently being implemented internationally: customized gestation-related optimal weight (GROW) and INTERGROWTH-21 st . We wanted to compare their performance when applied to a multiethnic international cohort, and evaluate their usefulness in the assessment of stillbirth risk at term. We analyzed routinely collected maternity data from 10 countries with a total of 1.25 million term pregnancies in their respective main ethnic groups. The 2 standards were applied to determine small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) rates, with associated relative risk and population-attributable risk of stillbirth. The customized standard (GROW) was based on the term optimal weight adjusted for maternal height, weight, parity, and ethnic origin, while INTERGROWTH-21 st was a fixed standard derived from a multiethnic cohort of low-risk pregnancies. The customized standard showed an average SGA rate of 10.5% (range 10.1-12.7) and LGA rate of 9.5% (range 7.3-9.9) for the set of cohorts. In contrast, there was a wide variation in SGA and LGA rates with INTERGROWTH-21 st , with an average SGA rate of 4.4% (range 3.1-16.8) and LGA rate of 20.6% (range 5.1-27.5). This variation in INTERGROWTH-21 st SGA and LGA rates was correlated closely (R = ±0.98) to the birthweights predicted for the 10 country cohorts by the customized method to derive term optimal weight, suggesting that they were mostly due to physiological variation in birthweight. Of the 10.5% of cases defined as SGA according to the customized standard, 4.3% were also SGA by INTERGROWTH-21 st and had a relative risk of 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.1) for stillbirth. A further 6.3% (60% of the whole customized SGA) were not SGA
Suter, Melissa A; Anders, Amber M; Aagaard, Kjersti M
Although the association between maternal smoking and low birthweight infants has been well established, the mechanisms behind reduced fetal growth are still being elucidated. While many infants are exposed to tobacco smoke in utero, not all are born growth restricted or small for gestational age. Many hypotheses have emerged to explain the differential response to in utero maternal tobacco smoke exposure (MTSE). Studies have shown that both maternal and fetal genotypes may contribute to the discrepant outcomes. However, the contribution of epigenetic changes cannot be ignored. In this review we address two important questions regarding the effect of MTSE on the fetal epigenome. First, does exposure to maternal tobacco smoke in utero alter the fetal epigenome? Secondly, could these alterations be associated with the reduced fetal growth observed with MTSE?
Fernando C Barros
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of preterm birth among low birthweight babies in low and middle-income countries. METHODS: Major databases (PubMed, LILACS, Google Scholar were searched for studies on the prevalence of term and preterm LBW babies with field work carried out after 1990 in low- and middle-income countries. Regression methods were used to model this proportion according to LBW prevalence levels. RESULTS: According to 47 studies from 27 low- and middle-income countries, approximately half of all LBW babies are preterm rather than one in three as assumed in studies previous to the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: The estimate of a substantially higher number of LBW preterm babies has important policy implications in view of special health care needs of these infants. As for earlier projections, our findings are limited by the relative lack of population-based studies.
Gopal K. Singh
Full Text Available We examined the effects of prematurity (37 weeks of gestation and low birthweight (2500 g on mental health outcomes among US children aged 2–17 years. The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health ( = 95,677 was used to estimate prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems in children. Prevalence of mental disorders was 22.9% among children born prematurely, 28.7% among very-low-birth-weight (1500 g children, and 18.9% among moderately low-birth-weight (1500–2499 g children, compared with 15.5% in the general child population. Compared to those born full term, children born prematurely had 61% higher adjusted odds of serious emotional/behavioral problems, 33% higher odds of depression, and 58% higher odds of anxiety. Children born prematurely had 2.3 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 2.9 times higher odds of development delay, and 2.7 times higher odds of intellectual disability than term children. Very-low-birth-weight children had 3.2 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 1.7 times higher odds of ADD/ADHD, 5.4 times higher odds of development delay, and 4.4 times higher odds of intellectual disability than normal-birth-weight children. Social factors were significant predictors of mental disorders in both premature/low-birth-weight and term/normal-birth-weight children. Neurodevelopmental conditions accounted for the relationship between prematurity and depression/anxiety/conduct problems. Prematurity and low birthweight are significant risk factors for mental health problems among children.
Usuda, Touhei; Kobayashi, Takehiro; Sakakibara, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Kaneko, Takayuki; Wada, Masaki; Onozuka, Junya; Numata, Osamu; Torigoe, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Hajime; Sato, Takashi; Nagayama, Yoshihisa; Uchiyama, Makoto
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-6-634 polymorphism in neonatal disorders such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. This prospective cohort study included 202 infants (gestational age at birth, 23-34 weeks; birthweight, 500-1499 g). Genotypic analysis (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) was performed with DNA extracted from whole-blood samples. Genotype distribution (66.8% CC, 28.2% CG, 5.0% GG) was similar to that in the adult Japanese population. BPD occurred in 85 infants (42.1%) among 202 VLBW infants. The duration of O(2) therapy in infants with CG/GG genotypes was significantly longer than that in infants with the CC genotype (CG/GG vs CC: 40.3 ± 52.2 days vs 28.4 ± 32.6 days, P < 0.05), but the prevalence of BPD was not associated with the CG/GG genotype (CG/GG, 40.0%; CC, 46.3%, P= 0.24). Infants with CG/GG genotypes were more likely to have received postnatal corticosteroid therapy for BPD than those with the CC genotype (CG/GG vs CC: 20.9% vs 11.1%, P = 0.05). PVL occurred in six infants (3.0%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PVL among IL-6-634 polymorphisms (CG/GG, 3.0%; CC, 3.0%, P = 0.65). IL-6-634 polymorphism is associated with duration of oxygen therapy in VLBW infants. This suggests that the IL-6-634 polymorphism G allele is an aggravating factor of BPD. IL-6-634 polymorphism is not associated with PVL. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
Kanic, Zlatka; Micetic Turk, Dusanka; Burja, Silva; Kanic, Vojko; Dinevski, Dejan
Late-onset infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The purpose of our prospective randomised study was to establish whether a combination of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium infantum) affects the incidence of late-onset sepsis and other infections in very low birthweight infants (birthweight under 1500 g, gestational age under 33 weeks). From 80 included infants, one half received probiotics (L. acidophilus, E. faecium and B. infantum) in the ratio 1.5:1:1.5, at a dose of 0.6 × 107 colony-forming units twice daily, given with the first portions of milk until discharge, whereas the other half did not. In the group receiving probiotics, 16 children had late-onset sepsis compared with 29 in the group without probiotics; p = 0.006. The number of late-onset septic events was lower (30) in the group receiving probiotics than in the group that did not receive probiotics (69); p = 0.003. Furthermore, fewer children had at least one late-onset infection (20 infants in the group receiving probiotics compared with 32 in the group without them; p = 0.009). There were less episodes of late-onset infections in the group receiving probiotics (35) than in the group without probiotics (79); p = 0.002. A combination of probiotics at a low dose (1.2 × 107 colony-forming units) decreased the frequency of late-onset sepsis and other infections, as described in previous studies. In addition, children were discharged at a lower postmenstrual age. There were no side effects of probiotics reported.
Salihoglu, O.; Can, E.; Koc, M.O.; Durmus, E.; Hatipoglu, S.
To evaluate the effect of pentaglobin treatment on clinical and laboratory parametres and the major morbidities in very low birthweight neonates with nosocomial sepsis before and after pentaglobin treatment. Methods: The prospective interventional study was conducted from January 1 to December 31, 2010, at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Pentaglobin was initiated on the day of diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis to 13 pre-term neonates as a support therapy in addition to antibiotics; 5 ml/kg per day of pentaglobin was infused over a 4-hour period on 3 consecutive days. Clinical and laboratory parametres and major morbidities were recorded before and after pentaglobin treatment and compared using NCSS software. Results: Of the total, 8(66%) were females and 5 (40%) males. Following pentaglobin therapy, the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased, and the capillary pH and base excess were significantly increased (p 0.05). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=3; 23%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2; 15.3%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1; 7.7%) were identified in blood cultures. The presence of intraventricular haemorrhages, necrotising enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia, and patent ductus arteriosus was not changed following the treatment. Adverse effects and mortality were not observed during or after the therapy. Conclusion: Pentaglobin treatment of nosocomial sepsis could be used as an adjunct therapy without any adverse short-term reactions, even in very low birthweight pre-term infants. (author)
In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25
І. К. Журавльова
Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.
Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A
In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for
Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...
Petersen, Inge; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; McGue, Matt K.
Abstract Evidence of a positive association between birthweight and IQ has been established in several studies. Analyses of within twin pair differences in birthweight and IQ have been used to shed light on the basis of the association. The strength of this approach is the possibility of controll...... and school achievements at age 16. For both sexes we observed a monotonic increase in academic performance with increasing percentiles of birthweight. However, we did not find that this association is due to genetic mediation....... twin studies find no evidence of such mediation. In the present study we use a large population-based national register study of 2,413 Danish twin-pairs from birth cohorts 1986-1990, of which we have zygosity information on 74%. We perform individual level as well as intra-pair analyses of birthweight...
Petersen, Inge; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; McGue, Matt
Abstract Evidence of a positive association between birthweight and IQ has been established in several studies. Analyses of within twin pair differences in birthweight and IQ have been used to shed light on the basis of the association. The strength of this approach is the possibility of controll...... and school achievements at age 16. For both sexes we observed a monotonic increase in academic performance with increasing percentiles of birthweight. However, we did not find that this association is due to genetic mediation....... twin studies find no evidence of such mediation. In the present study we use a large population-based national register study of 2,413 Danish twin-pairs from birth cohorts 1986-1990, of which we have zygosity information on 74%. We perform individual level as well as intra-pair analyses of birthweight...
Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.
Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C
Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.
Klemm, Rolf D W; Merrill, Rebecca D; Wu, Lee; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P
Birth size is an important gauge of fetal and neonatal health. Birth size measurements were collected within 72 h of life for 16 290 live born, singleton infants in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2007. Gestational age was calculated based on the date of last menstrual period. Newborns were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) based on a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, using three sets of US reference data. Birth size distributions were explored based on raw values as well as after z-score standardisation in reference to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth standards. Mean (SD) birthweight (g), length (cm) and head circumference (cm) measurements, completed within [median (25th, 75th percentile)] 15 (8, 23) h of life, were 2433 (425), 46.4 (2.4) and 32.4 (1.6), respectively. Twenty-two per cent were born preterm. Over one-half (55.3%) of infants were born low birthweight; 46.6%, 37.0% and 33.6% had a weight, length and head circumference below -2 z-scores of the WHO growth standard at birth; and 70.9%, 72.2% and 59.8% were SGA for weight based on Alexander et al., Oken et al. and Olsen et al. references, respectively. Infants in this typical rural Bangladesh setting were commonly born small, reflecting a high burden of fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Our findings, produced by active birth surveillance, suggest that low birthweight is far more common than suggested by cross-sectional survey estimates. Interventions that improve fetal growth during pregnancy may have the largest impact on reducing SGA rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Bizzarri, Carla; Rosso, Chiara; Mosca, Antonella; Panera, Nadia; Veraldi, Silvio; Dotta, Andrea; Giannone, Germana; Raponi, Massimiliano; Cappa, Marco; Alisi, Anna; Nobili, Valerio
Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the correlation of birthweight with the severity of liver damage in a large cohort of children with NAFLD. Two hundred and eighty-eight consecutive Caucasian Italian overweight/obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. We examined the relative association of each histological feature of NAFLD with metabolic alterations, insulin-resistance, I148M polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene, and birthweight relative to gestational age. In the whole NAFLD cohort, 12.2% of patients were SGA, 62.8% appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and 25% large for gestational age (LGA). SGA children had a higher prevalence of severe steatosis (69%) and severe portal inflammation (14%) compared with the AGA and LGA groups. Notably, severe steatosis (>66%) was decreasing from SGA to AGA and LGA, whereas the prevalence of moderate steatosis (33-66%) was similar in three groups. The prevalence of type 1 NAFLD is higher in the LGA group with respect to the other two groups (25% vs.5.2% vs.9.4%), whereas the SGA group shows a higher prevalence of overlap type (85.8%) with respect to the LGA group (51.4%) but not compared with the AGA group (75%). At multivariable regression analysis, SGA at birth increased fourfold the likelihood of severe steatosis (odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-10.9, P=0.008) and threefold the likelihood of NAFLD Activity Score (NAS)≥5 (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.06-8.33, P=0.037) independently of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and PNPLA3 genotype. The PNPLA3-CC wild-type genotype was the strongest independent predictor of the absence of significant fibrosis (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.13-0.52, P=<0.001). In children with NAFLD, the risk of severe steatosis is increased by SGA at birth, independent of and in addition to other
Kanda, Takeshi; Takeda, Ayano; Hirose, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Urai, Hidenori; Inokuchi, Mikako; Wakino, Shu; Tokumura, Mitsuaki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Hiroshi
Low birthweight (LBW) is a worldwide public health problem, demonstrating an increasing incidence in developed countries, including Japan. LBW is also a risk factor for later development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). To date, studies have not evaluated the population impacts of increasing LBW rates on renal function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was evaluated in 3737 Japanese adolescent males (15-16 years old) using annual cross-sectional data over an 18-year period (1998-2015). Between the initial (1998-2003) and final (2010-15) periods of the study, the mean birthweight decreased from 3213.4 ± 383.8 to 3116.2 ± 382.3 g and the LBW rate increased from 2.5 to 5.5% (both P ≤ 0.01). Additionally, the mean eGFR decreased from 105.1 ± 15.9 to 97.4 ± 13.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the prevalence of mildly reduced renal function (eGFR ≤ 60- <90 mL/min/1.73 m2) increased from 16.4 to 30.0% (both P ≤ 0.01), most evident in the LBW group (from 10.3 to 41.7%, P ≤0.01). The prevalence of proteinuria also increased significantly. Mildly reduced renal function was significantly associated with LBW [odds ratio (LBW 3000-3999 g) 1.51; 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.55; P = 0.047]. In this population of Japanese adolescents, the frequency of mildly reduced renal function increased as the LBW frequency increased. Our findings may have implications for the broader Japanese population as well as for other populations in which the prevalence of LBW is increasing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.
Carlsen, E M; Renault, K M; Nørgaard, K; Nilas, L; Jensen, J E B; Hyldstrup, L; Michaelsen, K F; Cortes, D; Pryds, O
This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. We recruited 231 obese and 80 normal weight mothers and their newborn infants and assessed the babies' body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The total and abdominal fat masses of infants born to mother who were obese before pregnancy were 135 g (p weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p gestational age (15.3%) than small for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p < 0.001). Lower birthweight z-score was associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight was associated with a lower crude abdominal fat mass, but a higher proportion of total fat mass placed abdominally. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Hille, E T M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Finken, M J J; Wit, J M; van Buuren, S; van Goudoever, J B; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P
To examine the effect of intrauterine and neonatal growth, prematurity and personal and environmental risk factors on intelligence in adulthood in survivors of the early neonatal intensive care era. A large geographically based cohort comprised 94% of all babies born alive in the Netherlands in 1983 with a gestational age below 32 weeks and/or a birth weight >1500 g (POPS study). Intelligence was assessed in 596 participants at 19 years of age. Intrauterine and neonatal growth were assessed at birth and 3 months of corrected age. Environmental and personal risk factors were maternal age, education of the parent, sex and origin. The mean (SD) IQ of the cohort was 97.8 (15.6). In multiple regression analysis, participants with highly educated parents had a 14.2-point higher IQ than those with less well-educated parents. A 1 SD increase in birth weight was associated with a 2.6-point higher IQ, and a 1-week increase in gestational age was associated with a 1.3-point higher IQ. Participants born to young mothers (intelligence after early (symmetric) intrauterine growth retardation was more pronounced than after later (asymmetric) intrauterine or neonatal growth retardation. These differences in mean IQ remained when participants with overt handicaps were excluded. Prematurity as well as the timing of growth retardation are important for later intelligence. Parental education, however, best predicted later intelligence in very preterm or very low birthweight infants.
Hillestrøm, P R; Weimann, A; Jensen, C B
OBJECTIVE: Low birthweight (LBW) has been associated with an increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes in adult life. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized by increased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether young healthy adults born...... with LBW showed differences in oxidative stress under normal conditions and during the added challenge of a physiological Intralipid infusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urinary excretion of DNA markers of oxidative stress were analyzed by LC-MS/MS in 19 men (aged 19 years) with LBW and in 19 age matched...... with LBW and NBW (66.9 versus 73.9 nmol/15 h, 17.8 versus 18.5 nmol/15 h, 11.9 versus 14.4 nmol/15 h and 44.0 versus 43.2 pmol/15 h, respectively). Furthermore, Intralipid infusion did not affect excretion of DNA adducts in LBW or NBW subjects. Statistically significant correlations were found between body...
Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie; Fievet, Nadine; Landis, Sarah H.; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Dewey, Kathryn G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Desai, Meghna; Ouma, Peter; Gutman, Julie; Oneko, Martina; Slutsker, Laurence; Kariuki, Simon; Ayisi, John; Madanitsa, Mwayiwawo; Mwapasa, Victor; Ashorn, Per; Mueller, Ivo; Stanisic, Danielle; Lusingu, John P. A.; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Adair, Linda; Cole, Stephen R.; Westreich, Daniel; Meshnick, Steven
Background Four studies previously indicated that the effect of malaria infection during pregnancy on the risk of low birthweight (LBW; Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability of treatment-weighted linear and log-binomial regression models and pooled using a random-effects model. The adjusted risk of delivering a baby with LBW was 8.8% among women with malaria infection at antenatal enrollment compared to 7.7% among uninfected women (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.42]; N = 13,613), 10.5% among women with malaria infection at delivery compared to 7.9% among uninfected women (aRR 1.32 [95% CI: 1.08, 1.62]; N = 11,826), and 15.3% among women with low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC malnutrition. The major limitations of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies. Conclusions Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk of LBW compared to women with only 1 risk factor or none, but malaria and malnutrition do not act synergistically. PMID:28792500
Benson, J W; Drayton, M R; Hayward, C; Murphy, J F; Osborne, J P; Rennie, J M; Schulte, J F; Speidel, B D; Cooke, R W
The effectiveness of ethamsylate in the prevention of periventricular haemorrhage (PVH) in very low birthweight infants was evaluated by means of a multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. In 330 infants without evidence of PVH on initial cranial ultrasound examination there was little difference between ethamsylate and placebo groups with respect to subependymal haemorrhage, but intraventricular and parenchymal haemorrhages developed in 30/162 infants (18.5%) in the treated group, compared with 50/168 (29.8%) in the control group (p less than 0.02). The incidence of intraventricular and parenchymal haemorrhage in survivors was 20/137 (14.6%) in the ethamsylate group and 37/146 (25.3%) in the controls (p less than 0.05). In 30 infants with evidence of PVH on the initial scan, ethamsylate treatment seemed to limit parenchymal extension. Analysis of the total cohort of 360 infants showed that the proportion of infants in whom an increase of two or more grades of severity of PVH was recorded during the trial was lower in the treated than in the placebo group (p less than 0.01). No adverse effects were attributed to ethamsylate therapy. The reported incidence of patent ductus arterious was lower in the treated than in the placebo group (p less than 0.02). Mortality was similar in the two groups.
Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan
This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Li, Hui; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Wang, Youjie
Habitual midday napping is a common habit in China, especially for pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to examine whether duration and frequency of maternal habitual midday napping were associated with high birthweight (HBW). A total of 10,482 participants from Healthy Baby Cohort were include in our analysis. The information of the mothers and their infants were abstracted from medical records, or obtained from questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of habitual midday napping duration and frequency with HBW. Of the participants, 8,705 (83.0%) reported having habitual midday napping. Duration and frequency of napping had a positive association with HBW without adjustment. After controlling for potential confounders, increasing risk of HBW was observed in participants who napped 1.5-2 hours (OR, 1.50, 95% CI, 1.14, 1.98), and ≥2 hours (OR, 1.35, 95% CI, 1.03, 1.78) compared with no habitual midday napping. Participants who took naps ≥5 days/week had a higher risk of HBW (OR, 1.37, 95% CI, 1.07, 1.77) compared with the women without naps. This suggests that longer (≥1.5 hours) and more frequent (≥5 days/week) maternal habitual midday napping were associated with an increased risk of HBW.
Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Lähaugen, Gro C C
Working memory deficits are frequently found in children born preterm and have been linked to learning disabilities, and cognitive and behavioural problems. Our aim was to evaluate if a computerized working memory training program has long-term positive effects on memory, learning, and behaviour in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children at age 5 to 6 years. This prospective, intervention study included 20 VLBW preschool children in the intervention group and 17 age-matched, non-training VLBW children in the comparison group. The intervention group trained with the Cogmed JM working memory training program daily for 5 weeks (25 training sessions). Extensive neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaires were performed 4 weeks after intervention and at follow-up 7 months later. For most of the statistical analyses, general linear models were applied. At follow-up, higher scores and increased or equal performance gain were found in the intervention group than the comparison group on memory for faces (p=0.012), narrative memory (p=0.002), and spatial span (p=0.003). No group differences in performance gain were found for attention and behaviour. Computerized working memory training seems to have positive and persisting effects on working memory, and visual and verbal learning, at 7-month follow-up in VLBW preschool children. We speculate that such training is beneficial by improving the ability to learn from the teaching at school and for further cognitive development. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Zhang, Xun; Joseph, K S; Kramer, Michael S
We sought to assess recent trends in falling mean birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA) among US non-Hispanic white singleton live births >or=37 weeks of gestation and the contribution of increased rates of induction to these trends. This was an ecological study based on US vital statistics from 1992 through 2003. From 1992 through 2003, mean BW fell by 37 g, mean GA by 3 days, and macrosomia rates by 25%. Rates of induction nearly doubled from 14% to 27%. Our ecological state-level analysis showed that the increased rate of induction was significantly associated with reduced mean BW (r = -0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.71 to -0.29), mean GA (r = -0.44; 95% CI, -0.65 to -0.17), and rate of macrosomia (r = -0.55; 95% CI, -0.74 to -0.32). Increasing use of induction is a likely cause of the observed recent declines in BW and GA. The impact of these trends on infant and long-term health warrants attention and investigation. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.
Martha Ingrid Preddie
Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of
Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia
Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…
Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).
This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…
Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan
Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…
Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...
W John Watkins
Full Text Available Low birthweight (LBW is associated with increased mortality in infancy, but its association with mortality in later childhood and adolescence is less clear. We investigated the association between birthweight and all-cause mortality and identified major causes of mortality for different birthweight groups.We conducted a population study of all live births occurring in England and Wales between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2011. Following exclusions, the 12,355,251 live births were classified by birthweight: 500-1,499 g (very LBW [VLBW], n = 139,608, 1,500-2,499 g (LBW, n = 759,283, 2,500-3,499 g (n = 6,511,411, and ≥3,500 g (n = 4,944,949. The association of birthweight group with mortality in infancy (<1 y of age and childhood/adolescence (1-18 y of age was quantified, with and without covariates, through hazard ratios using Cox regression. International Classification of Diseases codes identified causes of death. In all, 74,890 (0.61% individuals died between birth and 18 y of age, with 23% of deaths occurring after infancy. Adjusted hazard ratios for infant deaths were 145 (95% CI 141, 149 and 9.8 (95% CI 9.5, 10.1 for the VLBW and LBW groups, respectively, compared to the ≥3,500 g group. The respective hazard ratios for death occurring at age 1-18 y were 6.6 (95% CI 6.1, 7.1 and 2.9 (95% CI 2.8, 3.1. Male gender, the youngest and oldest maternal age bands, multiple births, and deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation score also contributed to increased deaths in the VLBW and LBW groups in both age ranges. In infancy, perinatal factors, particularly respiratory issues and infections, explained 84% and 31% of deaths in the VLBW and LBW groups, respectively; congenital malformations explained 36% and 23% in the LBW group and ≥2,500 g groups (2,500-3,499 g and ≥3,500 g groups combined, respectively. Central nervous system conditions explained 20% of deaths in childhood/adolescence in the VLBW group, with deaths from neoplasms and
Lorna M. Campbell
Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.
Eskild, Anne; Monkerud, Lars; Tanbo, Tom
Have changes in culture media used for IVF resulted in changes in offspring birthweight or placental weight that differed from the trends in offspring from spontaneous conceptions during the corresponding time periods? Changes in culture media used for IVF were associated with significant differences in offspring birthweight and in placental weight to birthweight ratio when compared with the trend in offspring from spontaneous conceptions during the time periods. The effect of culture media used for IVF on offspring birthweight has varied between studies. There is a large variation in birthweight between newborns, and birthweight may vary across populations and over time. Such variations may therefore have influenced previous results. We included all singleton births from IVF at one treatment center in Norway during the years 1999-2011(n = 2435) and all singleton births from spontaneous conceptions in Norway during the same years (n = 698 359). Three different media were used for embryo culture; Medicult Universal IVF (1999 through 2007, n = 1584), Medicult ISM1 (2008 until 20 September 2009, n = 402) and Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (21 September 2009 through 2011, n = 449). We estimated mean birthweight and placental weight in IVF pregnancies by culture media. We also estimated mean weights in IVF and in spontaneous pregnancies by year of birth. Thereafter, we studied whether the changes in mean weights in IVF pregnancies differed from the changes in weight in spontaneous pregnancies in the periods corresponding to culture media changes by applying a grouped difference-in-difference analysis. Adjustments were made for parity, maternal age and gestational age at birth. In singleton offspring from IVF the mean birthweight was 3447.6 g with Medicult Universal, 3351.7 g with Medicult ISM1 and 3441.4 g with Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (P ISM1 (P = 0.16) and increased with 79.9 g by the change from Medicult ISM1 to Vitrolife G-1 PLUS (P = 0.01) when compared with changes in offspring
deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S
Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene
Gu, Fang; Deng, Mingfen; Gao, Jun; Wang, Zilian; Ding, Chenhui; Xu, Yanwen; Zhou, Canquan
Embryo culture media used for IVF treatment might affect fetal growth and thus birthweight of the newborns. A retrospective study was conducted in South China using data from 2370 singleton neonates born after IVF/ICSI between 2009 and 2012. Two culture media, i.e., either Vitrolife or SAGE were used as embryo culture media during the study period. Neonates' birthweights were compared between the two embryo culture media groups. Among the 2370 singletons, 1755 cases came from fresh cleavage embryo transfer while 615 were from frozen-thawed cleavage embryo transfer. Within the fresh embryo transfer newborns, no statistical difference was observed in either birthweight (mean ± SD: 3196.0 ± 468.9 versus 3168.4 ± 462.0g, p > 0.05) or adjusted birthweight controlled for gestational age and gender (z-score mean ± SD: 0.11 ± 1.02 versus 0.11 ± 0.99 g, P > 0.05) between the Vitrolife (n = 419) and the SAGE group (n = 1336). Likewise within frozen embryo transfer neotates, no statistical difference of the birthweight (3300.6 ± 441.3 vs.3256.0 ± 466.7 g, P > 0.05) and adjusted birthweight (0.30 ± 0.99 g versus 0.29 ± 0.97 g, P > 0.05) was found between the Vitrolife (n = 202) and the SAGE group (n = 413). The sex ratio [OR1.17, 95 % CI (0.94-1.46)/OR1.1, 95 % CI (0.78-1.54)], rate of small for gestational age [OR1.14, 95 % CI (0.82-1.59)/OR1.06, 95 % CI (0.56-2.02)] and large for gestational age [OR1.07, 95 % CI (0.64-1.76)/OR0.98, 95 % CI (0.47-2.02)] in fresh and frozen-thawed subgourps are all comparable respectively between the two culture media. No group differences were found in the rate of low birthweight and macosomia. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that maternal weight, gestational age, frozen-thawed embryo transfer and infant gender were significantly related to neonatal birthweight (P cultured in SAGE or Vitrolife media after fresh or frozen-thawed cleavage
Full Text Available This study examines the genetic influence of β-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms (β2-AR Arg16Gly and β3-AR Trp64Arg on the relationship of birthweight to longitudinal changes of blood pressure (BP from childhood to adulthood in 224 black and 515 white adults, aged 21–47 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Blacks showed significantly lower birthweight and frequencies of β2-AR Gly16 and β3-AR Trp64 alleles and higher BP levels and age-related trends than whites. In multivariable regression analyses using race-adjusted BP and birthweight, low birthweight was associated with greater increase in age-related trend of systolic BP (standardized regression coefficient β=−0.09, P=.002 and diastolic BP (β=−0.07, P=.037 in the combined sample of blacks and whites, adjusting for the first BP measurement in childhood, sex, age, and gestational age. Adjustment for the current body mass index strengthened the birthweight-BP association. Importantly, the strength of the association, measured as regression coefficients, was modulated by the combination of β2-AR and β3-AR genotypes for systolic (P=.042 for interaction and diastolic BP age-related trend (P=.039 for interaction, with blacks and whites showing a similar trend in the interaction. These findings indicate that the intrauterine programming of BP regulation later in life depends on β-AR genotypes.
Pomer, Alysa; Buffa, Giavana; Taleo, Fasihah; Sizemore, J Hunter; Tokon, Apisai; Taleo, George; Tarivonda, Len; Chan, Chim W; Kaneko, Akira; Dancause, Kelsey N
Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with birth outcomes, including birthweight. Exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy provides a model to study these relationships. However, few studies assess both stress and diet, which might have interactive effects. Furthermore, most are conducted in high-income countries. Patterns might differ in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To study relationships between stress and diet during pregnancy, and infant birthweight, following a natural disaster in a lower-middle income country. In 2015, the island nation of Vanuatu suffered a Category 5 cyclone. Three months later, the authors assessed hardship due to the cyclone, distress, and dietary diversity among 900 women, including 187 pregnant women. Of these, 70 had birth records available. Multivariate linear regression was used to analyse relationships between cyclone exposure and infant birthweight among this sub-sample. Neither hardship nor dietary diversity predicted birthweight. Distress was a robust predictor, explaining 8.5% of variance (p = 0.012). There were no interactive relationships between distress and other exposure variables. Maternal distress following a natural disaster has important implications for maternal and child health. In LMICs, low birthweight remains a pressing public health concern. Distress during pregnancy might represent one underlying risk factor.
Wolke, Dieter; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Gutbrod, Tina
To investigate whether there are differences in attachment security and disorganisation between very preterm or very low birthweight (VP/VLBW) (infants (37-42 weeks gestation) and whether the pathways to disorganised attachment differ between VP/VLBW and full-term infants. The sample with complete longitudinal data consisted of 71 VP/VLBW and 105 full-term children and their mothers matched for twin status, maternal age, income and maternal education. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Assessment at 18 months of age. Maternal sensitivity in the VP/VLBW and full-term samples was rated by neonatal nurses and community midwives in the neonatal period, respectively, and mother-infant interaction was observed at 3 months. Infant difficultness was assessed by maternal report at 3 months and infant's developmental status was assessed with the Bayley Scales (BSID-II). Most VP/VLBW (61%) and full-term (72%) children were found to be securely attached. However, more VP/VLBW (32%) than full-term children (17%) had disorganised attachment. Longitudinal path analysis found that maternal sensitivity was predictive of attachment disorganisation in full-term children. In contrast, infant's distressing cry and infant's developmental delay, but not maternal sensitivity, were predictive of disorganised attachment in VP/VLBW children. A third of VP/VLBW children showed disorganised attachment. Underlying neurodevelopmental problems associated with VP/VLBW birth appear to be a common pathway to a range of social relationship problems in this group. Clinicians should be aware that disorganised attachment and relationship problems in VP/VLBW infants are frequent despite sensitive parenting.
Dempsey, E M
INTRODUCTION: Many practitioners routinely treat infants whose mean arterial blood pressure in mm Hg is less than their gestational age in weeks (GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of utilising a combined approach of clinical signs, metabolic acidosis and absolute blood pressure (BP) values when deciding to treat hypotension in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infant. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all live born ELBW infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit over a 4-year period. Patients were grouped as either normotensive (BP never less than GA), hypotensive and not treated (BP
Sclowitz Iândora Krolow Timm
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify prognostic factors associated with recurrence of low birthweight (LBW in successive gestations, a study was carried out with a subsample of mothers enrolled in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Methods Data were collected by hospital-based interviews. Newborns were weighed and measured. Gestational age was defined according to the date of last menstrual period, ultra-sound scan before the 20th week of pregnancy or the Dubowitz method. Mothers who reported at least one LBW newborn in the two previous gestations were included. Prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from Poisson Regression. All estimates were adjusted for parity. Results A total of 4558 births were identified in 2004, and 565 met inclusion criteria, out of which 86 (15.2% repeated LBW in 2004. Among mothers with two LBW babies before 2004, 47.9% presented LBW recurrence. Belonging to the highest socio-economic stratum (PR 0.89; 0.01-0.46 and gaining ≥ 10 kg during pregnancy (PR 0.09; 0.01-0.77 were protective against LBW recurrence. Higher risk of LBW recurrence was observed among mothers with higher parity (≥3 previous deliveries; PR=1.93; 95% CI 1.23-3.02; who had given birth to a previous preterm baby (PR=4.01; 2.27-7.10; who delivered a female newborn in current gestation (PR=2.61; 1.45-4.69; and that had not received adequate antenatal care (PR=2.57; 1-37-4.81. Conclusion Improved quality of antenatal care and adequate maternal weight gain during pregnancy may be feasible strategies to prevent LBW repetition in successive pregnancies.
Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B
This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.
Clay, Shondra Loggins; Andrade, Flavia Cristina Drumond
This paper describes racial disparities in low birthweight (LBW) risk between Black women and White women and examines the relationship between race and stressors such as socioeconomic factors, access to health care, and social and health characteristics. We analyzed data from the National Survey of Family Growth dataset collected in the USA between 2006 and 2010 (N = 1516). Multivariate logistic regression models were performed. Prevalence of LBW was 5.6 % for pregnancies among White women and 12.2 % among Black women. Black women who had a LBW baby had a lower socioeconomic status (e.g., received assistance to pay for delivery of the baby and public assistance in the prior year). Black women who had a LBW baby were more likely to have reported having good health compared with White women (67.8 vs. 45.1 %, p women were 2.6 times more likely (odds ratio (OR) = 2.33; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.12-6.04) to result in a LBW baby than pregnancies among White women. Pregnancies of women in the income group of 300 % or higher than the poverty level were less likely to be associated with a LBW baby than those among women in the 150-299 % income group (p women were less likely to have LBW children than those who were underweight or normal weight (p women who reported having poorer health were 3.7 times more likely to have LBW than those who reported having better health (p women were observed in LBW risk based on socioeconomic factors. We analyzed a large number of stressors, but racial differences remained even after taking these stressors into account. Future policies and research should continually address these differences to decrease LBW risk within and across racial groups.
Khashan, Ali S
BACKGROUND: Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group). The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (< 5th percentile), very SGA (VSGA< 3rd percentile). We compared these outcome measures in teenagers\\' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. RESULTS: The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45]) and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7]) and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.
Baker Philip N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA. Methods All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group. The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (th percentile, very SGA (VSGArd percentile. We compared these outcome measures in teenagers' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. Results The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45] and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69] time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7] and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46] time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]. Conclusions Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.
Stephens, Judith Koryo; Ofori, Michael F; Quakyi, Isabella Akyinbah; Wilson, Mark Lee; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky
Malaria and anaemia have adverse effects in pregnant women and on the birth weight of infants in malaria endemic areas. P. falciparum malaria, the most virulent species continues to be a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out to establish the prevalence of pregnancy-associated malaria and its associated consequences including maternal anaemia and low birthweight (LBW) deliveries and placental malaria among pregnant women in a sub-urban area in coastal Ghana. A facility-based investigation was carried out among 320 pregnant women seeking antenatal care in a hospital in suburban coastal Ghana. Information on the use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) were collected using a structured questionnaire at enrollment. Venous blood was collected for microscopy and screening for Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Haemoglobin concentration was obtained from an automatic blood analyzer. Placental smears and birth weight measurements were taken at delivery. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia was 5%. The mean haemoglobin (Hb) level at registration was 11.44 g/dL (95% CI 11.29 - 11.80). Placental blood parasitaemia and low birthweight were 2.5% and 3% respectively. ITN possession was 31.6% with 5.4% usage. The IPTp coverage was 55%. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia among the pregnant women were low at enrollment. Placental blood parasitaemia and LBW at delivery were also low. These are clear indications of the high coverage of the IPTp. Increase in ITN use will further improve birthweight outcomes and reduce placental malaria.
Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.
It is suggested, that a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy is one of the releasing factors of childbirth. Under this assumption 1027 deliveries in term pregnancy (266th-294th day of pregnancy) were inquired on the interrelationship between the ratio brith-weight: placental-weight and the duration of pregnancy. The average birth-weight increases slighly but significantly with the duration of pregnancy just as the average placental-weight. The average ratio birth-weight: placental-weight decreases significantly: The more unfavorable the ratio birth-weight: placental-weight is, the shorter remains the fetus in utero. This underlines the assumption of a relative placental insufficiency as one of the releasing factors of childbirth.
Cantonwine, David; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Sánchez, Brisa N; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Mercado-García, Adriana; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Wright, Robert O
Neonatal growth is a complex process involving genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis (HFE) iron regulatory genes have been shown to modify transport and toxicity of lead which is known to affect birth weight. We investigated the role of HFE C282Y, HFE H63 D, and transferrin (TF) P570 S gene variants in modifying the association of lead and infant birthweight in a cohort of Mexican mother-infant pairs. Subjects were initially recruited between 1994-1995 from three maternity hospitals in Mexico City and 411 infants/565 mothers had archived blood available for genotyping. Multiple linear regression models, stratified by either maternal/infant HFE or TF genotype and then combined with interaction terms, were constructed examining the association of lead and birthweight after controlling for covariates. 3.1%, 16.8% and 17.5% of infants (N=390) and 1.9%, 14.5% and 18.9% of mothers (N=533) carried the HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, and TF P570 S variants, respectively. The presence of infant HFE H63 D variants predicted 110.3 g (95% CI -216.1, -4.6) decreases in birthweight while maternal HFE H63 D variants predicted reductions of 52.0 g (95% CI -147.3 to 43.2). Interaction models suggest that both maternal and infant HFE H63 D genotype may modify tibia lead's effect on infant birthweight in opposing ways. In our interaction models, maternal HFE H63 D variant carriers had a negative association between tibia lead and birthweight. These results suggest that the HFE H63 D genotype modifies lead's effects on infant birthweight in a complex fashion that may reflect maternal-fetal interactions with respect to the metabolism and transport of metals.
Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K
Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.
Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.
Full Text Available A 16-year-old boy whose diabetes mellitus was diagnosed 3 months previously in a private hospital but was not placed on medication. The presenting complaints were fast breathing for 24 hours, weakness for 2 hours, and unresponsiveness to calls for 0.5 hours. His father was obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus and died 8 months earlier from cardiac arrest. His birthweight was low, 2.2kg. At first presentation, his weight, BMI and blood pressure were 60kg (25th-50th percentile, 19.4kg/m2 (25thpercentile and 110/70mmHg (systolic BP 50th percentile, diastolic BP 50th-90th percentile, respectively. He was managed for diabetic ketoacidosis and was discharged on subcutaneous premixed insulin, 1 Unit/kg/day. At point of discharge, weight and BP were 60.5 kg and 120/70 mmHg, respectively. The patient defaulted but presented again 6 months later at the age of 17 years. At second presentation, his weight, BMI and BP were 89 kg (95th percentile, 27.5 kg/m2 (90th-95th percentile and 180/80 mmHg (systolic 99th percentile; diastolic 90th percentile, respectively. His waist circumference was 98.7cm (> 90th percentile. We had no record of previous waist circumference. His lipid profile showed low HDL-cholesterol 0.7252 mmol/L [(28mg/dl; <5thpercentile]. His fasting blood glucose and HbA1C were 6.5 mmol/L (117mg/dl and 34 mol/mol (5.3%, respectively. A diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in a patient with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes was made. He was referred to the pediatric cardiologist for management of his hypertension. He defaulted again and was lost to follow up. Conclusion: This report illustrates the association of low birth weight and rapid weight gain with metabolic syndrome in adolescence.
Gillberg, Linn; Perfilyev, Alexander; Brøns, Charlotte; Thomasen, Martin; Grunnet, Louise G; Volkov, Petr; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Dahlman, Ingrid; Risérus, Ulf; Rönn, Tina; Nilsson, Emma; Vaag, Allan; Ling, Charlotte
Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false discovery rate obesity-related traits in a replication cohort of 142 individuals. DNA methylation at 652 CpG sites (including in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding influences gene transcription and, to some extent, DNA methylation in adipose tissue; there was no major difference in this response between LBW and control participants.
Morgan Angharad R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA. Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important.
Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M
Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.
Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of rapid postnatal weight gain, later obesity and diseases in adulthood such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental risk factors for SGA are well established and include smoking, low pregnancy weight, maternal short stature, maternal diet, ethnic origin of mother and hypertension. However, in a large proportion of SGA, no underlying cause is evident, and these individuals may have a larger genetic contribution. Methods In this study we tested the association between SGA and polymorphisms in genes that have previously been associated with obesity and/or diabetes. We undertook analysis of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 546 samples from the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study. 227 children were born small for gestational age (SGA) and 319 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Results and Conclusion The results demonstrated that genetic variation in KCNJ11, BDNF, PFKP, PTER and SEC16B were associated with SGA and support the concept that genetic factors associated with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are more prevalent in those born SGA compared to those born AGA. We have previously determined that environmental factors are associated with differences in birthweight in the ABC study and now we have demonstrated a significant genetic contribution, suggesting that the interaction between genetics and the environment are important. PMID:20712903
Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M
Does age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium affect IVF outcome? Birthweight of singletons born after IVF showed an inverse association with age of the embryo culture medium, while no association was found between age of culture medium and fertilization rate, embryonic development or ongoing pregnancy. It has been reported that IVF culture media can deteriorate during storage, which suggests that the capacity of culture media to support optimal embryo development decreases over time. Some animal studies showed an effect of storage time on embryo development, in contrast to other studies, while the effect of aging culture medium on IVF outcome in humans is unknown. We used data on outcome of 1832 IVF/ICSI cycles with fresh embryo transfer, performed in the period 2008-2012 to evaluate the association of fertilization rate, embryonic development, ongoing pregnancy and birthweight of singletons with age of the culture medium (Vitrolife AB G-1 PLUS v5). Age of the culture medium was calculated by subtracting the production date from the date of ovum retrieval. Data analysis included linear regression and logistic regression on continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Age of the culture medium was not associated with fertilization rate (P = 0.543), early cleavage rate (P = 0.155), percentage of embryos containing four or more cells on Day 2 (P = 0.401), percentage of embryos containing eight or more cells on Day 3 (P = 0.175), percentage of embryos with multinucleated blastomeres (P = 0.527), or ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.729). However, birthweight of the newborn was inversely associated with age of the medium (β = -3.6 g, SE: 1.5 g, P = 0.021), after controlling for possible confounders (day of embryo transfer, number of transferred embryos, child's gender, gestational age at birth, parity, pregnancy complications, maternal smoking, height and weight, and paternal height and weight) and the association was not biased by year of treatment, time since first
Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur
Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information
Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN es el principal factor determinante conocido de la mortalidad infantil. Pese a la notable reducción de las tasas de mortalidad infantil y al aumento de las tasas de supervivencia de niños con BPN, en Neuquén, Argentina, no se han observado descensos notables de las tasas de BPN. El propósito de este estudio fue conocer los factores de riesgo de BPN, su frecuencia en la población y el papel de la atención prenatal en su prevención, y desarrollar una escala de riesgo que permita identificar a las mujeres en mayor riesgo de dar a luz un niño de bajo peso. Con tal propósito se realizó un estudio transversal en el cual se utilizó 50% de los datos del Sistema Informático Perinatal correspondientes al período 19881995 y procedentes de los 29 hospitales de la provincia de Neuquén (46 171 nacimientos. Se analizaron la distribución del peso y la frecuencia de los posibles factores de riesgo de BPN. La asociación entre estos factores y el BPN se analizó mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Con los resultados obtenidos se desarrolló una escala aditiva, que fue validada con el 50% restante de los registros de nacimientos. La razón de posibilidades (RP más elevada correspondió a la falta de atención prenatal (RP = 8,78; IC95%: 6,7 a 11,4. Las RP asociadas con una atención prenatal inadecuada, una primera consulta prenatal tardía, preeclampsia o eclampsia, hemorragia o anomalías de la placenta o sus membranas e historia de un hijo previo con BPN fueron mayores de 2,0. El riesgo de tener hijos con BPN también fue más alto en las mujeres mayores de 40 años, las menores de 20, las solteras, las fumadoras, aquellas cuyo intervalo intergenésico fue menor de 18 meses y las que tenían un índice de masa corporal menor de 20. Por último, se encontró una relación lineal directa entre el puntaje en la escala y el riesgo de tener un hijo con BPN.Low birthweight (LBW is the main known determinant of
Niels Rathlev, MD
Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers
Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ
We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)
Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang
Low birthweight (LBW) children tend to have higher risks of developmental problems. According to differential susceptibility hypothesis, these putatively vulnerable children may also disproportionately benefit from positive environmental exposure. This study aimed to examine whether LBW status moderates home environmental influences on…
Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes
Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies
Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.
Introduction: Infant growth has not been studied in developing countries in relation to maternal factors related to malaria in pregnancy and maternal illiteracy. Objective: To describe growth patterns in infants with low and normal birthweight and determine maternal risk factors for infant
Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin
Studies from low-income countries have suggested that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine provided after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a negative effect on female survival. The authors examined the effect of DTP in a cohort of low birthweight (LBW) infants....
There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001
Annie M. Hughes
Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is
Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S
The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zhu, Jinliang; Li, Ming; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie
Does protein source or human serum albumin (HSA) in embryo culture media influence the subsequent birthweight? A significant difference was observed in gestational age- and gender-adjusted birthweight (Z scores) and the proportion of large-for-gestational age (LGA) babies between embryos cultured in G1 v5 and those cultured in G1-PLUS v5 media. It has been reported that the birthweights of singletons born from embryos cultured in Vitrolife are significantly higher than those cultured in the Cook group of media, and that G1-PLUS (Vitrolife, Gothenburg, Sweden) is associated with increased birth and placenta weights compared with Medicult ISMI. This study was a retrospective analysis of neonatal birthweights, and included 1097 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital between January 2011 and August 2012. The number of singletons born from G1 v5 culture media was 489, and the number of singletons born from G1-PLUS v5 media was 608. Patients media groups. The absolute birthweights for singletons resulting from G1-PLUS v5 were not different from singletons resulting from G1 v5 (3375.9 ± 479.6 g versus 3333.2 ± 491.6 g, respectively; P = 0.14). However the Z scores for singletons from embryos cultured in G1-PLUS v5 were significantly higher than for singletons cultured in G1 v5 (0.28 ± 1.12 versus 0.09 ± 1.15, respectively; P = 0.04), and more LGA babies were born from G1-PLUS v5 culture compared with G1 v5 (16.8 versus 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03) culture. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis suggested that female weight (P = 0.00), male height (P = 0.04), gestational age at birth (P = 0.00), infant gender (P = 0.00) and culture media (P = 0.04) all had significant effects on the birthweights of singleton newborns. This study was limited by its retrospective design. Our study suggests that protein source/HSA has a significant effect on birthweights of singleton newborns
Sovio, Ulla; Smith, Gordon C S
It has been proposed that correction of offspring weight percentiles (customization) might improve the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome; however, the approach is not accepted universally. A complication in the interpretation of the data is that the main method for calculation of customized percentiles uses a fetal growth standard, and multiple analyses have compared the results with birthweight-based standards. First, we aimed to determine whether women who deliver small-for-gestational-age infants using a customized standard differed from other women. Second, we aimed to compare the association between birthweight percentile and adverse outcome using 3 different methods for percentile calculation: (1) a noncustomized actual birthweight standard, (2) a noncustomized fetal growth standard, and (3) a fully customized fetal growth standard. We analyzed data from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction study, a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women who delivered in Cambridge, UK, between 2008 and 2013. We used a composite adverse outcome, namely, perinatal morbidity or preeclampsia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to compare the 3 methods of calculating birthweight percentiles in relation to the composite adverse outcome. We confirmed previous observations that delivering an infant who was small for gestational age (customized fetal growth standard but who was appropriate for gestational age with the use of a noncustomized actual birthweight standard was associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes. However, we also observed that the mothers of these infants were 3-4 times more likely to be obese and to deliver preterm. When we compared the risk of adverse outcome from logistic regression models that were fitted to the birthweight percentiles that were derived by each of the 3 predefined methods, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were similar for all 3 methods: 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0
Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong
Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target
Hebbelstrup Jensen, B.; Röser, D.; Utoft Andreassen, Bente
and low birthweight. Methods A dynamic one-year follow-up cohort study comprising 179 children from 36 day care centres was conducted from September 2009 to July 2013 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questionnaires were sent to the children's parents or legal guardians every two months for a year, requesting......Aim Diarrhoea is very common in children attending day care centres. The aim of this study was to examine certain predisposing risk factors for an association with diarrhoea, including foreign travel, treatment with antibiotics, having household pets, infant colic, bottle feeding, using a pacifier...... the risk of diarrhoea in Danish children in day care centres. ©2015 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd....
Pallás Alonso, Carmen; García González, Pilar; Jimenez Moya, Ana; Loureiro González, Begoña; Martín Peinador, Yolanda; Soriano Faura, Javier; Torres Valdivieso, María José; Ginovart Galiana, Gemma
The mortality of children with a birthweight of less than 1500g or with a gestational age of less than 32 weeks (<1500<32) has decreased significantly in the last 20 years or so. Given the higher risk of disability in these children, follow-up after hospital discharge is considered essential. In this document, the Follow-Up Group of the Spanish Society of Neonatology, in collaboration with the Spanish Society of Paediatric Primary Care, propose a follow-up protocol specific for the<1500<32, which has as its aim to standardise the activities and evaluations according to good practice criteria. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte
Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT....... Objectives: To summarize the current equipoise and to outline the study protocol of the 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of extremely low birth-weight infants (ETTNO)' study. Methods: Review of the literature and design of a large pragmatic randomized controlled trial...... of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines enrolling 920 infants with birth weights of 400-999 g with long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up. Results and Conclusions: The results of ETTNO will provide definite data about the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines in very preterm...
Quispe Jose A
Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.
Crosby, David A; Ahmed, Sahar; Razley, Aminah; Morrison, John J
Infant birthweight ≥5.0 kg represents a significant risk factor for mother and neonate. The objective of this study was to examine the obstetric and neonatal outcome measures in a large cohort of such deliveries. The data used for this study were prospectively entered into an obstetric computerized database during the period 1989-2013. All pregnancies where the delivery resulted in an infant weighing ≥5.0 kg were identified. The results were retrospectively analyzed separately for parity, and a separate analysis was performed comparing the outcome measures observed in the earlier years of the study with those of the later years. There were 73,796 deliveries in the time period of which there were n = 201 (0.3%) infants with birth weight ≥5.0 kg. The mean maternal body mass index (BMI) was in the obese category range (30.9 kg/m 2 ) and the median gestation at delivery was 40.8 weeks. The cesarean delivery rate for nulliparous women was 56.3% and for parous women 30.8%. The overall rate of third degree perineal tears was 3.8%, the rate of shoulder dystocia was 4.6% and the rate of Erb's Palsy was 1.5%. There was a significant increase in cesarean delivery in the latter of the study (26.7% versus 43.0%, p = 0.02), due to an increase in the planned pre-labor cesarean deliveries (30.0 versus 12.9%, p = 0.005). There was no difference in adverse outcomes in both groups. These findings describe the features of pregnancy associated with infant birthweight ≥5.0 kg, and outline reliable maternal and neonatal morbidity data for these pregnancies. In this cohort, there was no apparent benefit from increased planned pre-labor cesarean delivery rates.
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birthweight infants are at risk for deficits in cognitive and language development, as well as attention and behaviour problems. Maternal sensitive behaviour (i.e. awareness of infant cues and appropriate responsiveness to those cues in interaction with her very low birthweight infant is associated with better outcomes in these domains; however, maternal anxiety interferes with the mother's ability to interact sensitively with her very low birthweight infant. There is a need for brief, cost-effective and timely interventions that address both maternal psychological distress and interactive behaviour. The Cues and Care trial is a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to reduce maternal anxiety and promote sensitive interaction in mothers of very low birthweight infants. Methods and design Mothers of singleton infants born at weights below 1500 g are recruited in the neonatal intensive care units of 2 tertiary care hospitals, and are randomly assigned to the experimental (Cues intervention or to an attention control (Care condition. The Cues intervention teaches mothers to attend to their own physiological, cognitive, and emotional cues that signal anxiety and worry, and to use cognitive-behavioural strategies to reduce distress. Mothers are also taught to understand infant cues and to respond sensitively to those cues. Mothers in the Care group receive general information about infant care. Both groups have 6 contacts with a trained intervener; 5 of the 6 sessions take place during the infant's hospitalization, and the sixth contact occurs after discharge, in the participant mother's home. The primary outcome is maternal symptoms of anxiety, assessed via self-report questionnaire immediately post-intervention. Secondary outcomes include maternal sensitive behaviour, maternal symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and infant development at 6 months corrected age. Discussion The Cues and Care trial will
Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Feeley, Nancy; Shrier, Ian; Stremler, Robyn; Westreich, Ruta; Dunkley, David; Steele, Russell; Rosberger, Zeev; Lefebvre, Francine; Papageorgiou, Apostolos
Background Very low birthweight infants are at risk for deficits in cognitive and language development, as well as attention and behaviour problems. Maternal sensitive behaviour (i.e. awareness of infant cues and appropriate responsiveness to those cues) in interaction with her very low birthweight infant is associated with better outcomes in these domains; however, maternal anxiety interferes with the mother's ability to interact sensitively with her very low birthweight infant. There is a need for brief, cost-effective and timely interventions that address both maternal psychological distress and interactive behaviour. The Cues and Care trial is a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to reduce maternal anxiety and promote sensitive interaction in mothers of very low birthweight infants. Methods and design Mothers of singleton infants born at weights below 1500 g are recruited in the neonatal intensive care units of 2 tertiary care hospitals, and are randomly assigned to the experimental (Cues) intervention or to an attention control (Care) condition. The Cues intervention teaches mothers to attend to their own physiological, cognitive, and emotional cues that signal anxiety and worry, and to use cognitive-behavioural strategies to reduce distress. Mothers are also taught to understand infant cues and to respond sensitively to those cues. Mothers in the Care group receive general information about infant care. Both groups have 6 contacts with a trained intervener; 5 of the 6 sessions take place during the infant's hospitalization, and the sixth contact occurs after discharge, in the participant mother's home. The primary outcome is maternal symptoms of anxiety, assessed via self-report questionnaire immediately post-intervention. Secondary outcomes include maternal sensitive behaviour, maternal symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and infant development at 6 months corrected age. Discussion The Cues and Care trial will provide important information
Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie
The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and
Buchanan, Nancy L.
Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.
Dahl, Marianne; Kamper, Jens
AIM: To describe physical outcome and school performance in a cohort of very-low-birthweight infants treated with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP)/minimal handling regimen with permissive hypercapnia, in comparison to siblings of normal birthweight. MATERIAL AND METHODS......% attended ordinary schools, with near-average performances in mathematics and reading/spelling, which were not statistically different to their siblings. The overall results indicate that these infants fare at least as well as survivors after conventional treatment....... of these differences reached statistical significance. However, the performance ratings correlated significantly with socio-economic conditions. CONCLUSION: In this study of infants treated with a regimen of early NCPAP/minimal handling, we found a relatively low incidence of handicaps and impairments. Nearly 90...
Cardwell, C R; Stene, L C; Joner, G
relevant data were contacted and asked to provide individual patient data or conduct pre-specified analyses. Risk estimates of type 1 diabetes by category of birthweight were calculated for each study, before and after adjustment for potential confounders.Meta-analysis techniques were then used to derive......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether children who are heavier at birth have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Relevant studies published before February 2009 were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of all studies containing...... combined ORs and investigate heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Data were available for 29 predominantly European studies (five cohort, 24 case-control studies), including 12,807 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, studies consistently demonstrated that children with birthweight from 3.5 to 4 kg had...
Rose, Jessica; Butler, Erin E; Lamont, Lauren E; Barnes, Patrick D; Atlas, Scott W; Stevenson, David K
The neurological basis of an increased incidence of cerebral palsy (CP) in preterm males is unknown. This study examined neonatal brain structure on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at term-equivalent age, sex, and neurodevelopment at 1 year 6 months on the basis of the Amiel-Tison neurological examination, Gross Motor Function Classification System, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 78 very-low-birthweight preterm children (41 males, 37 females; mean gestational age 27.6 wks, SD 2.5; mean birthweight 1021 g, SD 339). Brain abnormalities on MRI and DTI were not different between males and females except in the splenium of the corpus callosum, where males had lower DTI fractional anisotropy (p=0.025) and a higher apparent diffusion coefficient (p=0.013), indicating delayed splenium development. In the 26 infants who were at higher risk on the basis of DTI, males had more abnormalities on MRI (p=0.034) and had lower fractional anisotropy and a higher apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium (p=0.049; p=0.025) and right posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC; p=0.003; p=0.033). Abnormal neurodevelopment was more common in males (n=9) than in females (n=2; p=0.036). Children with abnormal neurodevelopment had more abnormalities on MRI (p=0.014) and reduced splenium and right PLIC fractional anisotropy (p=0.001; p=0.035). In children with abnormal neurodevelopment, right PLIC fractional anisotropy was lower than left (p=0.035), whereas in those with normal neurodevelopment right PLIC fractional anisotropy was higher than left (p=0.001). Right PLIC fractional anisotropy correlated to neurodevelopment (rho=0.371, p=0.002). Logistic regression predicted neurodevelopment with 94% accuracy; only right PLIC fractional anisotropy was a significant logistic coefficient. Results indicate that the higher incidence of abnormal neurodevelopment in preterm males relates to greater incidence and severity of brain abnormalities
Grøholt, Else-Karin; Eskild, Anne
Objectives To assess the association of Apgar score 5 minutes after birth with cerebral palsy in both normal weight and low birthweight children, and also the association with the cerebral palsy subdiagnoses of quadriplegia, diplegia, and hemiplegia. Design Population based cohort study. Setting The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was used to identify all babies born between 1986 and 1995. These data were linked to the Norwegian Registry of Cerebral Palsy in Children born 1986-95, which was established on the basis of discharge diagnoses at all paediatric departments in Norway. Population All singletons without malformations born in Norway during 1986-95 and who survived the first year of life (n=543 064). Main outcome measure Cerebral palsy diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Results 988 children (1.8 in 1000) were diagnosed with cerebral palsy before the age of 5 years. In total, 11% (39/369) of the children with Apgar score of less than 3 at birth were diagnosed with cerebral palsy, compared with only 0.1% (162/179 515) of the children with Apgar score of 10 (odds ratio (OR) 53, 95% CI 35 to 80 after adjustment for birth weight). In children with a birth weight of 2500 g or more, those with an Apgar score of less than 4 were much more likely to have cerebral palsy than those who had an Apgar score of more than 8 (OR 125, 95% confidence interval 91 to 170). The corresponding OR in children weighing less than 1500 g was 5 (95% CI 2 to 9). Among children with Apgar score of less than 4, 10-17% in all birthweight groups developed cerebral palsy. Low Apgar score was strongly associated with each of the three subgroups of spastic cerebral palsy, although the association was strongest for quadriplegia (adjusted OR 137 for Apgar score 8, 95% CI 77 to 244). Conclusions Low Apgar score was strongly associated with cerebral palsy. This association was high in children with normal birth weight and modest in children with low birth weight. The strength of the
Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...
Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir
Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...
Kaye, Dan K; Mirembe, Florence M; Bantebya, Grace; Johansson, Annika; Ekstrom, Anna Mia
To investigate whether domestic violence during pregnancy is a risk factor for antepartum hospitalization or low birthweight (LBW) delivery. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda, among 612 women recruited in the second pregnancy trimester and followed up to delivery, from May 2004 through July 2005. The exposure (physical, sexual or psychological violence during pregnancy) was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. The relative and attributable risks of LBW and antepartum hospitalization were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The 169 women [27.7% 95% CI (24.3-31.5%)] who reported domestic violence during pregnancy did not differ significantly from the unexposed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, but differed significantly (P violence was 3.78 (95% CI 2.86-5.00). Such women had a 37% higher risk of obstetric complications (such as hypertension, premature rupture of membranes and anaemia) that necessitated antepartum hospitalization [RR 1.37 (95% CI 1.01-1.84)]. In this pregnancy cohort, domestic violence during pregnancy was a risk factor for LBW delivery and antepartum hospitalization.
Shinwell, E; Blickstein, I; Lusky, A; Reichman, B
Objective: To study the effect of birth order on the risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), chronic lung disease (CLD), adverse neurological findings, and death in very low birthweight (VLBW; < 1500 g) twins. Methods: A population based study of VLBW infants from the Israel National VLBW Infant Database. The sample included all complete sets of VLBW twin pairs admitted to all 28 neonatal intensive care units between 1995 and 1999. Outcome variables were compared by birth order and stratified by mode of delivery and gestational age, using General Estimating Equation models, with results expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Second twins were at increased risk for RDS (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.76), CLD (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.66), and death (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.51) but not for adverse neurological findings (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.60). Mode of delivery did not significantly influence outcome. The odds ratio for RDS in the second twin was inversely related to gestational age, and the increased risk for RDS and CLD was found in both vaginal and caesarean deliveries. Conclusions: VLBW second twins are at increased risk for acute and chronic lung disease and neonatal mortality, irrespective of mode of delivery. PMID:14977899
Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Reichman, Brian; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Boyko, Valentina; Bar-Oz, Benjamin
To assess whether the postnatal growth of preterm very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants, as determined by measures of postnatal growth failure (PNGF), improved during the period 1995-2010 and to evaluate postnatal growth by gestational age (GA) and intrauterine growth groups. The study was based on the Israel national VLBW infant database and comprised 13 531 VLBW infants of 24-32 weeks' GA, discharged at a postmenstrual age of ≤40 weeks. Z-scores were determined for weight at birth and discharge. Severe and mild PNGF was defined as a decrease >2 and 1-2 z-scores, respectively. Three time periods were considered: 1995-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent effect of time period on PNGF. Severe PNGF decreased from 11.7% in 1995-2000 to 7.2% in 2001-2005 and 5.2% in 2006-2010. Infants born in 2006-2010 had sixfold lower odds for severe PNGF than babies born in 1995-2000 (adjusted odds ratio 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.21) and
Lardón-Fernández, Marita; Uberos, José; Molina-Oya, Manuel; Narbona-López, Eduardo
In spite of the advances made in perinatal medicine, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not decreased and the aetiopathogenesis of the "new" BPD is still a matter for debate. The objectives of the present study were to analyse the epidemiological factors and morbidity associated with the development of BPD in a cohort of very low birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants. This retrospective observational study included all the preterm infants with birth weight ≤1500 g who were admitted to a tertiary-level hospital NICU from 2008 to 2011. A neurological follow-up was also carried out during the first two years of life. A total of 140 VLBW infants were analyzed: 28.4% presented oxygen dependence at 28 days, and 17.2% at 36 weeks adjusted gestational age. Predictive factors for the development of BPD were gestational age, birth weight, number of days of parenteral nutrition, number of days to achieve full enteral feeding, number of transfusions, duration of respiratory support and insulin administration, vasoactive drugs, diuretics, sedoanalgesia and postnatal corticosteroids. The neonatal morbidity associated with the development of BPD was late neonatal sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and intraventricular hemorrhage. Non-significant associations with neurodevelopmental impairment were observed. Predictive factors for the development of BPD were respiratory support, feeding and different types of medication. Moreover, patients with BPD had a higher associated morbidity than those who did not develop BPD.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.
Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F
We investigated whether maternal foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birthweight (LBW) across US Hispanic/Latino subgroups (i.e., Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Central/South Americans) in the USA, and whether the association between maternal education and LBW varies by Hispanic/Latino subgroup and by foreign-born status. We conducted logistic regression analyses of the 2002 US Natality Detail Data (n=634,797). Overall, foreign-born Latino women are less likely to have LBW infants than US-born Latino women. The protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among Latino women with less than high school education. The maternal education gradient is significantly flatter among foreign-born Latino women than among their US-born counterparts (peducation (i.e., 0-11 and 12 years) than among women with more education (i.e., 13-15 and 16+ years). The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born Mexicans and Central/South Americans than among their US-born counterparts. As such, maternal foreign-born status and education are associated with LBW, though the direction and strength of these associations vary across Latino subgroups. A "health paradox" is apparent for foreign-born Mexican and Central/South American women among whom there is a weak maternal educational gradient in LBW. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW among Latino subgroups, i.e., different gradients in sending countries, health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, and social support.
This study examined the physiologic and behavioral effects of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking (NNS) for preterm, low birthweight (LBW) infants experiencing heelstick. Subjects were 60 infants, age 32 to 37 weeks post conceptional age in a neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: pacifier-activated lullaby (PAL), pacifier-only, and no-contact. Experimental infants were provided the Sondrex PAL System, which plays music contingent on infant sucking. Pacifier-only infants did not receive music reinforcement for sucking, and no-contact infants were not provided a pacifier or music at any point during the procedure. Stress level and behavior state were assessed continuously and heart, respiratory, and oxygen saturation rates were recorded at 15-second intervals for all infants. Most physiologic data results were inconclusive. However, analysis of behavior state and stress level revealed the following significant differences for the PAL and pacifier-only groups compared to the no-contact group, all of which were greatest between the PAL and no-contact groups: lower during-heelstick behavior state means, less time in undesirable behavior states, lower during- and post-heelstick stress level means, and smaller behavior state and stress level differences between intervals. In addition, the PAL group had a significantly lower pre-heelstick stress level mean than the no-contact group. Behavior state and stress level were also more stable across time for the PAL group than the other groups, and patterns of changes in oxygen saturation, behavior state, and stress level indicate that music-reinforced NNS may facilitate return to homeostasis.
Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).
This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…
Cheng, Erika R.; Park, Hyojun; Wisk, Lauren E.; Mandell, Kara C.; Wakeel, Fathima; Litzelman, Kristin; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Witt, Whitney P.
Background The lifecourse perspective suggests a pathway may exist among maternal exposure to stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs), infant birthweight, and subsequent offspring health, whereby PLSEs are part of a “chains-of-risk” that set children on a certain health pathway. No prior study has examined the link between PSLEs and offspring health in a nationally-representative sample of US mothers and their children. We used longitudinal, nationally-representative data to evaluate the relation between maternal exposure to PSLEs and subsequent measures of infant and toddler health, taking both maternal and obstetric characteristics into account. Methods We examined 6,900 mother-child dyads participating in two waves of the nationally-representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n=6,900). Infant and toddler health outcomes assessed at 9 and 24 months included overall health status, special health care needs, and severe health conditions. Adjusted path analyses examined associations between PSLEs, birthweight, and child health outcomes. Results In adjusted analyses, PSLEs increased the risk for very low birthweight (VLBW, <1,500 grams), which, in turn, predicted poor health at both 9 and 24 months of age. Path analyses demonstrated that PSLEs had small indirect effects on children’s subsequent health that operated through VLBW. Conclusion Our analysis suggests a chains-of-risk model in which women’s exposure to PSLEs increases the risk for giving birth to a VLBW infant, which, in turn, adversely affects infant and toddler health. Addressing women’s preconception health may have important downstream benefits for their children, although more research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26500337
An observational study was conducted in the four southernmost provinces of Thailand aiming at determining the effect of international or Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) in predicting maternal anaemia, low birthweight (LBW), and preterm births among pregnant Thai women and the change in haemoglobin (Hb) level during pregnancy. Maternal anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level of Anaemia was detected in 27.4% and 26.9% of 1,192 pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and the third trimester respectively. The proportions of overweight and obese women according to the Asian criteria-based pre-pregnancy BMI were higher than the international criteria-based BMI (22.4% and 10.1% vs 15.5% and 3.4% respectively). No significant difference between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy BMI at the first prenatal visit was demonstrated (mean±standard deviation=21.8±4.0 vs 22.8±4.1). Underweight women had a significantly higher prevalence of maternal anaemia, LBW, and preterm birth compared to women with normal weight. Overweight and obese women at pre-pregnancy by the Asian criteria-based BMI had a lower prevalence of anaemia. The Hb levels did not change significantly over time. In addition to BMI, maternal age, parity, and late prenatal visit were independently associated with maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth. Underweight pregnant women classified by international or Asian criteria-based BMI increased the risk of maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth. PMID:21766557
Full Text Available 電子資源的出現，使得知識載體有了新的突破，提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言，如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高，必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向，尊重讀者的資訊需求，並利用各種宣傳技巧，行銷電子資源，使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略，以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院（商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院）學生為樣本，佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構，藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求，並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis
Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes
Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 and covered 495 infants. Suppositories were ineffective in shortening the time to reach full enteral feeding, and the evidence on enemas was contradictory. Enemas and rectal stimulation did not shorten the time until complete meconium evacuation was reached. Further research into safe, effective interventions to accelerate meconium excretion is needed. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Е. В. Катунцов
Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.
McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph
MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...
Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.
Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected
Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede
is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....
Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K; Fall, Caroline H D; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South India, cognitive function was assessed using three core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, and visuospatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7 y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socioeconomic status, parent's education, maternal age, parity, body mass index, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference, respectively (p short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities, and attention and concentration. In conclusion, higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuospatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research.
Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. METHODS: The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. RESULTS: Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.
Gajewska, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz
This work focuses on the usefulness of assessment based on seven body positions according to Vojta for early detection of developmental abnormalities of the central nervous system. As additional factors, Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute of life, as well as asymmetry of head or of whole body at the time of investigation (usually third month of life) were analyzed in correlation with subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy usually established after the first year of life. The study group consisted of 57 children with birthweight lower than 1500 grams. Seven children were diagnosed with cerebral palsy at the age of one year. The following conclusions were drawn: Vojta's diagnostic method is very sensitive in detecting injury of the central nervous system early in life; high correlation was found between cerebral palsy and asymmetry of the body, but not of the head; low Apgar score at 5th but not at 1st minute is highly predictive for progression to cerebral palsy in infants with very low birthweight.
van den Boogaard, W; Zuniga, I; Manzi, M; Van den Bergh, R; Lefevre, A; Nanan-N'zeth, K; Duchenne, B; Etienne, W; Juma, N; Ndelema, B; Zachariah, R; Reid, A
As neonatal care is being scaled up in economically poor settings, there is a need to know more on post-hospital discharge and longer-term outcomes. Of particular interest are mortality, prevalence of developmental impairments and malnutrition, all known to be worse in low-birthweight neonates (LBW, Rural Burundi between January and December 2012. Of 146 LBW neonates, 23% could not be traced and 4% had died. Of the remaining 107 children (median age = 27 months), at least one developmental impairment was found in 27%, with 8% having at least five impairments. Main impairments included delays in motor development (17%) and in learning and speech (12%). Compared to LBW children (n = 100), very-low-birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g, n = 7) children had a significantly higher risk of impairments (intellectual - P = 0.001), needing constant supervision and creating a household burden (P = 0.009). Of all children (n-107), 18% were acutely malnourished, with a 3½ times higher risk in VLBWs (P = 0.02). Reassuringly, most children were thriving 2 years after discharge. However, malnutrition was prevalent and one in three manifested developmental impairments (particularly VLBWs) echoing the need for support programmes. A considerable proportion of children could not be traced, and this emphasises the need for follow-up systems post-discharge. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nicolás Padilla Raygoza
Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this work was to measure the existing association between pregnancy-induced hypertension and birthweight at the Celaya General Hospital. Study design. Cross-sectional, observational, analytic study. Subjects: Registries of women admitted to the Celaya General Hospital for delivery during 2008. Variables: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher after 20 weeks of gestation, sub-classified as gestational hypertension (blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher without proteinuria and toxemia (blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher with proteinuria; birthweight ( 3 500 g. Statistical analysis: it was calculated the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test was performed between the status of arterial hypertension and birthweight, and was adjusted using gestational age. Results. From the sample of 5 478 registries, 14.73% (n = 807 of women had pregnancy-induced hypertension; from them, 10.92% (n = 598 had gestational hypertension and 3.82% (n = 209 preclampsia/eclampsia. Newborns from hypertensive mothers had an average birthweight of 3 049.27 ± 600.22 g, while the birthweight of newborns from normotensive mothers was 3 104.94 ± 502.57 g, considering: ANOVA F = 1.49, p = 0.00001: adjusted by gestational age, F = 1.51, p = 0.0168. Conclusion. Newborns of normotensive and gestational hypertensive mothers showed differences in birthweight; gestational age acted as a confounder.Objetivo. Medir la asociación que existe entre la hipertensión inducida por el embarazo y el peso al nacer de los neonatos, en el Hospital General de Celaya. Tipo de estudio. Observacional, transversal y analítico. Sujetos: 1 Registros de mujeres embarazadas (n = 5 478, admitidas para su resolución obstétrica, en el Hospital General de Celaya durante el año 2008, y 2 registros del peso al nacer de los neonatos de estas mujeres. Variables: 1 Hipertensión inducida por el embarazo (presión arterial de 140/90 mmHg o
Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna
In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....
Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede
Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...
Cates, Jordan E.; Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie
were identified by the Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability...... be multiplicative interaction between malaria infection at enrollment and low MUAC within studies conducted in Africa; however, this finding was not consistent on the additive scale, when accounting for multiple comparisons, or when using other definitions of malaria and malnutrition. The major limitations...... of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies. Conclusions : Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk...
including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...
Bakketeig, Leiv S.; Jacobsen, Geir; Skjærven, Rolv
. The analysis considered 7 803 of these births, as 8 were excluded due to insufficient information. 30% of these second order LBW children had an older sibling who was also LBW. Early neonatal mortality of a “repeat” LBW birth was about 13% lower than among “non-repeat” LBW births (p..., the infant mortality was significantly higher among non-repeat LBW births (78.4 vs 60.8 per 1000, RR 1.30, CI 1.06, 1.56). Both after 1 and 5 minutes a significantly greater proportion of LBW repeat births had Apgar scores of 7 or above. Repeat second order LBW births weighed on average 68 grams more than...... non-repeat LBW births (pvs 2...
Andrei A. Fedoseev
Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon.
Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.
Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin
Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource
Housing conditions as a social determinant of low birthweight and preterm low birthweight Condiciones de vivienda como determinante social de bajo peso al nacer y de prematuro de bajo peso al nacer Condições de moradia como determinante social de baixo peso ao nascer e prematuro de baixo peso
Mario Vianna Vettore
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between housing conditions and low birthweight and preterm low birthweight among low-income women. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with post-partum women living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in 2003-2005. Two groups of cases, low birthweight (n=96 and preterm low birthweight infants (n=68, were compared against normal weight term controls (n=393. Housing conditions were categorized into three levels: adequate, inadequate, and highly inadequate. Covariates included sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, risk behaviors, violence, anxiety, satisfaction during pregnancy, obstetric history and prenatal care. RESULTS: Poor housing conditions was independently associated with low birthweight (inadequate - OR 2.3 [1.1;4.6]; highly inadequate - OR 7.6 [2.1;27.6] and preterm low birthweight (inadequate - OR 2.2 [1.1;4.3]; highly inadequate - OR 7.6 [2.4;23.9] and factors associated with outcomes were inadequate prenatal care and previous preterm birth. Low income and low maternal body mass index remained associated with low birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Poor housing conditions were associated with low birthweight and preterm low birthweight.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre condiciones de vivienda y bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad asociada al bajo peso al nacer en los hijos de mujeres de baja renta. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio caso-control con mujeres en el postparto residentes en el municipio de Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil, en 2003-2005. Dos grupos de casos fueron comparados con controles a término y con peso normal (n=393: bajo peso al nacer (n=96 y prematuridad asociada al bajo peso al nacer (n=68. Las condiciones de vivienda fueron consideradas en los niveles: adecuadas, inadecuadas y muy inadecuadas. Las covariables investigadas fueron características sociodemográficas, antropométricas, hábitos de riesgo, violencia, ansiedad, satisfacción con el embarazo
Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems
Galderisi, Alfonso; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Lorenzon, Eleonora; Trevisanuto, Daniele
Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) has been indicated as an effective device for airway management when face-mask ventilation and intubation have both failed in infants weighing >2000 g or delivered ≥34 weeks of gestation. All previous studies used a classic LMA. The current report describes the first case of a very low birthweight infant (1470 g, <3rd centile; 36+3gestational weeks) with micrognathia and palate cleft with Cornelia De Lange syndrome, resuscitated at birth with a new supraglottic airway device, i-gel size-1, positioned by a trainee paediatrician at first attempt. The procedure allowed reaching prompt effective ventilation and oxygenation of the patient, who was stabilised and intubated through i-gel. PMID:25809435
Lindroth, M; Mortensson, W
Chest X-ray, pulmonary mechanics, clinical lung disease and growth were studied in 48 low birthweight infants surviving after ventilator treatment in the neonatal period. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was present in 14 infants shortly after weaning off ventilator. At 4 to 6 years of age most patients had normal chest radiographs but 13 still showed signs of pulmonary fibrosis and hyperinflation. Most patients had low dynamic compliance and high pulmonary resistance shortly after ventilator treatment. All but 8, however, had normal findings at 1 to 1 1/2 years of age. Pneumonias and bronchitis were common during the first two years but thereafter declined in frequency. Weight and length development were retarded for BPD patients during the first two years and for non-BPD patients for the first year. Both groups had a complete catch-up.
Cardwell, C R; Stene, L C; Joner, G
an increased risk of diabetes of 6% (OR 1.06 [95% CI 1.01-1.11]; p=0.02) and children with birthweight over 4 kg had an increased risk of 10% (OR 1.10 [95% CI 1.04-1.19]; p=0.003), compared with children weighing 3.0 to 3.5 kg at birth. This corresponded to a linear increase in diabetes risk of 3% per 500 g......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether children who are heavier at birth have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Relevant studies published before February 2009 were identified from literature searches using MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of all studies containing...
Monica Yuri Takito
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre postura/atividade física materna e o peso inadequado ao nascer. MÉTODOS: Coorte prospectiva com 152 gestantes de serviço de assistência pré-natal de baixo risco de um hospital especializado, localizado no Município de São Paulo. Para cada gestante foram realizadas três entrevistas ao longo da gestação, quando foi avaliada a freqüência de atividades físicas diárias. O peso ao nascer (inadequado 3.000 g foi a variável dependente e as variáveis de freqüência de atividades físicas foram as variáveis independentes. Foi realizada análise estatística de regressão logística univariada e múltipla, tendo como variáveis de controle a escolaridade, tabagismo, morar com o companheiro e estado nutricional inicial. RESULTADOS: Foi identificado como fator de proteção para o peso inadequado ao nascer a realização de caminhada no primeiro período da gestação por menos de 50 min (OR ajustado =0,44; IC 95%: 0,20-0,98. A permanência em pé parada por mais de 2,5 horas mostrou acentuado risco no segundo trimestre (OR ajustado =3,23; IC 95%: 1,30-7,99. Dentre as atividades que requerem a postura ereta, identificou-se relação do tipo dose-resposta para lavar roupa e cozinhar (p de tendência linear OBJETIVE: To analyze the relationship between maternal posture/physical activity and inadequate birthweight. METHODS: Prospective cohort study involving 152 pregnant women from a public low-risk antenatal care facility. Three interviews evaluating the frequency of physical activity were administered to each pregnant woman during gestation. Birthweight (inadequate when 3,000 g was the dependent variable and the frequency of physical activity the independent variable. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic univariate analysis and multiple regression controlling for schooling, smoking, living with spouse, and baseline nutritional status. RESULTS: The practice of walking for at least 50 minutes
Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B; Wantman, Ethan; Stern, Judy E; Toner, James P; Coddington, Charles C
Children born from fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are at greater risk of being born smaller and earlier, even when limited to singletons; those born from frozen cycles have an increased risk of large-for-gestational age (LGA) birthweight (z-score ≥1.28). This analysis sought to overcome limitations in other studies by using pairs of siblings, and accounting for prior cycle outcomes, maternal characteristics, and embryo state and stage. Pairs of singleton births conceived with IVF and born between 2004 and 2013 were identified from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database, matched for embryo stage (blastocyst versus non-blastocyst) and infant gender, categorized by embryo state (fresh versus frozen) in 1st and 2nd births (four groups). The data included 7795 singleton pairs. Birthweight z-scores were 0.00-0.04 and 0.24-0.26 in 1st and 2nd births in fresh cycles, and 0.25-0.34 and 0.50-0.55 in frozen cycles, respectively. LGA was 9.2-9.8 and 14.2-15.4% in 1st and 2nd births in fresh cycles, and 13.1-15.8 and 20.8-21.0% in 1st and 2nd births in frozen cycles. The risk of LGA was increased in frozen cycles (1st births, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08; and in 2nd births when the 1st birth was not LGA, AOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.46, 1.98 for fresh/frozen and 1.40, 1.11, 1.78 for frozen/frozen). Our results with siblings indicate that frozen embryo state is associated with an increased risk for LGA. The implications of these findings for childhood health and risk of obesity are unclear, and warrant further investigation.
Olsen, George H
Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p
It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr
Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.
The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...
Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...
(placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...
Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...
Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...
Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...
Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.
Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Newman, Beth; Millikan, Robert C
Introduction Much recent work has focused on hypotheses that very early life exposures influence adult cancer risk. For breast cancer it has been hypothesized that high in utero estrogen exposure may increase risk. Methods We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study of incident breast cancer in North Carolina, to examine associations for three possible surrogates of high prenatal estrogen exposure: weight at birth, maternal age, and birth order. We also examined paternal age. Birthweight analyses were conducted for white and African-American women born in North Carolina on or after 1949 (196 cases, 167 controls). Maternal age was analyzed for US born participants younger than 49 years of age (280 cases, 236 controls). Results There was a weak inverse association between birthweight in the highest tertile and breast cancer overall (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–1.2), although associations differed by race (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–1.0, and OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5–2.1 for African-American and white women, respectively). For maternal age there was an approximately threefold increase in risk in women whose mothers were older than 22 years of age, relative to 19–22 years of age, when the women were born. After adjustment for maternal age, older paternal age increased risk in the oldest and youngest age categories (relative to 23–27 years of age at the woman's birth: OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.1 for age 15–22 years; OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7–2.2 for age 28–34 years; and OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7–3.2 for age 35–56 years). There was no association with older paternal age for white women alone. After adjustment for maternal age (265 cases, 224 controls), a birth order of fifth or higher relative to first had an inverse association with breast cancer for women younger than 49 years old (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.3). Conclusion Although the CIs are wide, these results lend support to the possibility that the prenatal
The aim of this study of extremely low birth-weight (ELBW, birth weight 500-999 g) infants born in Victoria was to determine the changes between 3 distinct eras; 1979-80, 1985-87, and 1991-2, in the proportions who were born outside level 3 perinatal centres (outborn), the proportions of outborn infants who were transferred after birth to a level 3 neonatal unit, the survival rate for outborn infants, and sensorineural impairment and disability rates in outborn survivors. The proportion of ELBW livebirths who were outborn fell significantly over successive eras, from 30.2% (106 of 351) in 1979-80, to 23.0% (129 of 560) in 1985-87, and to 15.6% (67 of 429) in 1991-92. Between 1979-80 and 1985-87, the proportions who were outborn fell predominantly in those of birth-weight from 800-999 g, whereas between 1985-87 and 1991-92 the proportions who were outborn fell predominantly in those of birth weight 500-799 g. The proportions of outborn infants who were transferred after birth to a level 3 neonatal unit were similar in the 3 eras, at 49.1%, 38.0% and 41.2%, respectively. The survival rates for outborn infants were lower in each era than for infants born in a level 3 perinatal centre. Only 1 outborn infant not transferred after birth to a level-3 unit survived in any era. The survival rates for infants transferred after birth were similar in the first 2 eras, but rose significantly in 1991-92 (34.6%, 36.7% and 60.7%, respectively). The rates of sensorineural impairments and disabilities in survivors fell significantly between the first 2 eras, and remained low in the last era. It is pleasing that the proportion of tiny babies who were outborn fell significantly over time, reflecting increased referral of high-risk mothers to level 3 perinatal centres before birth. For ELBW outborn infants, survival prospects free of substantial disability are reasonable, but not as good as for those born in level 3 perinatal centres.
Rosa María Fernández Ragi
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer el comportamiento de la retinopatía en los nacidos de menos de 1750 gramos o menos de 35 semanas en la provincia La Habana. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal de todos los niños bajo peso nacidos en la provincia La Habana desde enero de 2004 a diciembre de 2008, se obtuvieron un total de 1847 niños bajo peso. El protocolo de investigación lo integraron los menores de 1750 gramos de peso al nacer o con edad gestacional inferior a 35 semanas, a quienes se les valoraron algunos factores de riesgo. Se excluyeron del estudio los fallecidos en ese período. RESULTADOS: La incidencia fue de 15,3 % mediante examen oftalmoscópico. Fue mayor en el grado III, en el peso comprendido de 1000-1499 gramos y edad gestacional de 28-32 semanas. En los niños investigados para ROP, el mayor porcentaje recibió oxígeno, solo dos casos no tuvieron dicho tratamiento. CONCLUSIÓN: La incidencia de retinopatía de la prematuridad, a pesar de resultar baja, generalmente ocurre de manera grave en el grado III, en el peso comprendido de 1000-1499 gramos y edad gestacional de 28-32 semanas, la oxigenoterapia es un factor de riesgo muy importante.OBJECTIVE: To find out the situation of the retinopathy in children with birthweight under 1750 grams or born with less than 35 weeks in Havana province. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study of all the low birthweight children in Havana province, who were born from January from 2004 to December of 2008, was made. A total number of 1847 low weighted children was obtained. The study protocol included those children who were born weighing less than 1750 grams or whose gestational age was lower than 35 weeks; their risk factors were taken into consideration. The deceased children in this period were excluded. RESULTS: The incidence was 15.3 % based on the ophthalmologic exam. It was higher in the grade III, in the 1000-1499 gram range of weight and in the age 28-32 wk gestational age
Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join
constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.
Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...
Kahn Susan R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking paradoxically increases the risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA birth but protects against preeclampsia. Some studies have reported a "U-shaped" distribution of fetal growth in preeclamptic pregnancies, but reasons for this are unknown. We investigated whether cigarette smoking interacts with preeclampsia to affect fetal growth, and compared levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1, a circulating anti-angiogenic protein, in preeclamptic smokers and non-smokers. Methods From a multicenter cohort of 5337 pregnant women, we prospectively identified 113 women who developed preeclampsia (cases and 443 controls. Smoking exposure was assessed by self-report and maternal hair nicotine levels. Fetal growth was assessed as z-score of birthweight for gestational age (BWGA. sFlt-1 was measured in plasma samples collected at the 24-26-week visit. Results In linear regression, smoking and preeclampsia were each associated with lower BWGA z-scores (β = -0.29; p = 0.008, and β = -0.67; p Conclusions Maternal smoking seems to protect against preeclampsia-associated fetal growth restriction and may account, at least partly, for the U-shaped pattern of fetal growth described in preeclamptic pregnancies. Smoking may exert this effect by reducing levels of the anti-angiogenic protein sFlt-1.
Sobaih, Badr H
To assess infants' cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months, and to identify factors associated with adverse outcome and examine the correlation between Bayley Infants Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) score and Gesell Schedule of Child Development (GSCD). Methods: This retrospective study was performed on Saudi very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants born in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1997 and 2014 by the use of BINS as screening test and GSCD as definitive test. Results: Of 561 enrolled infants, 367 (65.4%) continued to follow-up. Three-hundred and fifteen infants (85.6%) had a normal cognitive function. In addition to lower birth weight (beta = -0.003) (p less than 0.001), male gender (OR =3.9) (p=0.001)and cerebral palsy (OR =33.9) (p less than 0.001) were the strongest factors associated with poor cognitive outcome. Approximately 75.4% of infants with normal BINS score had normal cognitive function and 7.6% of total infants had sever cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The majority of VLBW infants in our center have normal cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months. Male gender, lower birth weight, and cerebral palsy are major predictors of poor outcome. The BINS scores were correlated with GSCD as a valid predictor for future developmental outcome.
McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie A; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari
We examine racial differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 2- and 3-year-olds born very low birthweight (VLBW, <1500 g). The sample included 611 children (290 males and 321 females) from the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of VLBW infants hospitalized in Wisconsin's newborn intensive care units during 2003 to 2004. Of the 611 children, 14% (86/611) were black, non-Hispanic and 86% (525/611) were white, non-Hispanic and 4% (23/611) had cerebral palsy. HRQoL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Black children scored nearly four points lower (mean difference -3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.9 to -0.3) on HRQoL than their white peers. Cerebral palsy is associated with lower HRQoL (mean difference -24.4, 95% CI: -29.3 to -19.5), especially among black children, but does not explain racial differences in HRQoL. Living in a neighborhood with lowest levels of female education is associated with lower HRQoL (mean difference -5.6, 95% CI: -9.2 to -2.1), but does not explain the racial difference in HRQoL. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.
Sriram, Bhavani; Agarwal, Pratibha K; Tee, Nancy W S; Rajadurai, Victor S
This study aims to determine the incidence, trends of systemic candidiasis and meningitis in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) neonates (candidiasis and meningitis over an 11-year period (1997 to 2007). Matched case control analyses were performed to determine the risk factors and comorbidities which were severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring treatment, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease (CLD) and cholestatic jaundice. Mortality and end organ involvement secondary to systemic candidiasis were identified as adverse outcomes. Of the 757 ELBW neonates, 51 (6.7%) had evidence of systemic candidiasis with a significant 3-fold increase in trend noted in 2007 as compared against 1997 (12.1% vs 3.8%) (RR 1.2, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.36, P candidiasis (0% in 1997 vs 7.1% in 2007, RR 1.40, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.25, P = 0.005). On logistic regression analysis, decreasing gestational age was an independent risk factor for systemic candidiasis (OR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.63, P candidiasis despite routine use of topical miconazole prophylaxis is of concern and future studies comparing the use of systemic fl uconazole versus oral nystatin may need to be considered.
Laffan, Eoghan E. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); McNamara, Patrick J.; Whyte, Hilary; L' Herault, Johanne [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; John, Philip; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Image-Guided Therapy Unit, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Interventional radiology (IR) procedures in very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1.5 kg) are challenging due to size, immaturity, comorbidities and lack of devices of suitable size. Infants are moved from the neonatal intensive care unit to the IR suite, further exposing them to risk. Our purpose was to review our experience of interventional procedures in VLBW infants, specifically complications and potential risks. VLBW infants referred for image-guided therapy between 1998 and 2005 were identified and medical records reviewed. ''Complications'' were divided into: major or minor, periprocedural or postprocedural, and intervention-/device-related, patient-related or equipment-related. Transport risk index of physiological stability (TRIPS) scores were calculated. A total of 116 infants (68 male, 48 female) underwent 176 procedures (159 vascular access-related and 17 nonvascular). Of 158 complications identified, 116 were major and 42 were minor. Major complications included hypothermia (n=33), line manipulations/removals (n=25), bleeding (n=12), thrombosis (n=4), cardiac arrest (n=3), tamponade (n=2), and multiorgan failure (n=1). Of the complications, 119 were categorized as intervention-/device-related, 32 patient-related and 7 equipment-related. There were no significant differences between pre- and postprocedural TRIPS scores. Successful completion of IR procedures in the VLBW infant is possible, but complications still occur in these fragile infants. (orig.)
Lesley M E McCowan
Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA infants comprise up to 50% of all stillbirths and a minority are detected before birth. We aimed to develop and validate early pregnancy predictive models for SGA infants.5628 participants from SCOPE, a prospective study of nulliparous pregnant women, were interviewed at 15 ± 1 weeks' gestation. Fetal anthropometry, uterine and umbilical Doppler studies were performed at 20 ± 1 weeks'. The cohort was divided into training (n = 3735 and validation datasets (n = 1871. All-SGA (birthweight 12 months to conceive, university student, cigarette smoking, proteinuria, daily vigorous exercise and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80. Recreational walking ≥ 4 times weekly, rhesus negative blood group and increasing random glucose were protective. AUC for clinical risk factors was 0.63. Fetal abdominal or head circumference z scores <10(th centile and increasing uterine artery Doppler resistance at 20 ± 1 weeks' were associated with increased risk. Addition of these parameters increased the AUC to 0.69. Clinical predictors of Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were sub-groups of All-SGA predictors and were quite different. The combined clinical and ultrasound AUC for Normotensive and Hypertensive-SGA were 0.69 and 0.82 respectively.Predictors for SGA of relevance to clinical practice were identified. The identity and predictive potential differed in normotensive women and those who developed hypertension.
Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...
Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.
This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)
The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig
Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.
This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence
centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town
This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs. A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.
Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.
This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects
Simon, Andrew L
Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ
Day, Kimberly L; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A
Exposure to early adversity is known to have deleterious effects on brain-behaviour relations across the lifespan and across a range of domains. Here, we tested a cumulative risk hypothesis of adult social functioning and health outcomes in the fourth decade of life, using the oldest known longitudinally followed cohort of survivors of extremely low birthweight (ELBW; 2,500 g) participants. In the combined sample, peer victimization was associated with lower likelihood of having children and household income, poorer family functioning and self-esteem, more loneliness and chronic health conditions, less social support, and increased likelihood for contact with police. Moderation analyses indicated that among ELBW survivors, compared to their NBW counterparts, victimization was more strongly associated with being convicted of a crime and with having chronic health conditions. These findings highlight the negative long-term impact of peer victimization on all children and that some outcomes may be differentially affected by prenatal and early post-natal environments. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Exposure to early adversity has deleterious effects on brain-behaviour relations across the lifespan. Extremely premature children have higher rates of exposure to adversities, including peer victimization. Peer victimization is associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood in those born at term. What does this study add? Victimization negatively impacts the social outcomes of those born extremely premature and at term into adulthood. Associations appear to be affected by individual differences in prenatal and early post-natal environments. Intervention is crucial when peer victimization occurs in children at risk, as well as those typically developing. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Kim, Jin Su
This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.
This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review
Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.
Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.
Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Swanevelder, Sonja; Lombard, Carl; Engebretsen, Ingunn M S; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Goga, Ameena; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Sanders, David
To report on risk factors for severe events (hospitalisation or infant death) within the first half of infancy amongst HIV-unexposed infants in South Africa. South African data from the multisite community-based cluster-randomised trial PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three sub-Saharan countries from 2006 to 2008 were used. The South African sites were Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal. This analysis included 964 HIV-negative mother-infant pairs. Data on severe events and infant feeding practices were collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-partum. We used a stratified extended Cox model to examine the association between the time to the severe event and covariates including birthweight, with breastfeeding status as a time-dependent covariate. Seventy infants (7%) experienced a severe event. The median age at first hospitalisation was 8 weeks, and the two main reasons for hospitalisation were cough and difficult breathing followed by diarrhoea. Stopping breastfeeding before 6 months (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-5.1) and low birthweight (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.3) were found to increase the risk of a severe event, whilst maternal completion of high school education was protective (HR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.7). A strengthened primary healthcare system incorporating promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate caring practices for low birthweight infants (such as kangaroo mother care) are critical. Given the leading reasons for hospitalisation, early administration of oral rehydration therapy and treatment of suspected pneumonia are key interventions needed to prevent hospitalisation in young infants. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Swierzko, Anna St; Atkinson, Anne P M; Cedzynski, Maciej; Macdonald, Shirley L; Szala, Agnieszka; Domzalska-Popadiuk, Iwona; Borkowska-Klos, Monika; Jopek, Aleksandra; Szczapa, Jerzy; Matsushita, Misao; Szemraj, Janusz; Turner, Marc L; Kilpatrick, David C
Ficolins and one collectin, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), are the only factors known to activate the lectin pathway (LP) of complement. There is considerable circumstantial evidence that MBL insufficiency can increase susceptibility to various infections and influence the course of several non-infectious diseases complicated by infections. Much less information is available concerning l-ficolin. We report the results of a prospective study to investigate any association between either MBL deficiency or l-ficolin deficiency with prematurity, low birthweight or perinatal infections in a large cohort of Polish neonates, representing an ethnically homogenous population (n=1832). Cord blood samples were analysed to determine mbl-2 gene variants, MBL concentrations and MBL-MASP-2 complex activities (MBL-dependent lectin pathway activity) as well as l-ficolin levels. Median concentrations of l-ficolin and MBL were 2500 and 1124 ng/ml, respectively, while median LP activity was 272 mU/ml. After genotyping, 60.6% of babies were mbl-2 A/A, 35.4% were A/O and 4% were O/O genotypes. We found relative l-ficolin deficiency to be associated with prematurity, low birthweight and infections. l-Ficolin concentration correlated with gestational age and with birthweight, independently of gestational age. Preterm deliveries (prematurity. Our findings suggest that l-ficolin participates in host defence during the perinatal period and constitute the first evidence that relative l-ficolin deficiency may contribute to the adverse consequences of prematurity. Some similar trends were found with facets of MBL deficiency, but the observed relationships were weaker and less consistent.
Wilson, Jeri, Ed.
Maintains that three types of social studies activities are found on the information highway: (1) electronic mail; (2) information; and (3) conferencing. Describes examples of each. Discusses commercial services and resource materials and provides references to online services. (CFR)
Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter
The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher
A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.
Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.
During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.
use of internet Search engines such as google, yahoo and other free internet resources was found ... empirical studies are undertaken to examine the influence of gender ... H3: Perceived ease of use is positively related to the use of electronic.
Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik
separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...
Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David
This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…
Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.
Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…
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近年來，由於資訊科技的進步，圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加，所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用，以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性，圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準，增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法，收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準，包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。
Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.
... volunteer leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out ... to remove damaged parts of intestine. Retinopathy of prematurity (also called ROP) . ROP affects blood vessels in ...
Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.
A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise
The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.
César C. Xavier
had started it was of 4 months. An association was found between the level of literacy of the mothers and the duration of breast feeding. Birthweight was found to be associated with the incidence and duration of breast feeding in general, as well as with the incidence of exclusive breast feeding. These data are considerably lower than recent figures obtained from the populations of well-developed countries, especially than those of Finnish infants born with a weight of less than 1.500 g. Action programmes involving the community and/or the Institution must be implemented in order to improve these figures.
The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma
Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Działanie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.
This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)
Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven
Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces
"[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.
Inverse correlation between maternal plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and birthweight percentile in women with impaired placental perfusion: circulating ADMA as an NO-independent indicator of fetal growth restriction?
Tsikas, Dimitrios; Bollenbach, Alexander; Savvidou, Makrina D
L-Arginine (Arg) is the enzymatic precursor of nitric oxide (NO) which has multiple biological functions. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are endogenous inhibitors of NO. We hypothesized that the ADMA and SDMA have additional biological functions in pregnancy, beyond NO synthesis, and may play a role in the regulation of birthweight (BW). To investigate this issue, we measured the plasma concentration of ADMA, SDMA, Arg and the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate, at 23-25 weeks of gestation in women with normal placental function (Group 1) and in women with impaired placental perfusion; 19 of these women had normal outcome (Group 2), 14 had a fetus that was growth restricted (Group 3), and 10 women eventually developed preeclampsia (Group 4). BW percentile was found to inversely correlate with maternal plasma ADMA concentration in Group 3 (r = - 0.872, P restriction in women with impaired placental perfusion independent of NO.
Referencias poblacionales argentinas de peso al nacer según multiplicidad del parto, sexo y edad gestacional Reference birthweights for the Argentine population by multiplicity of birth, sex, and gestational age
Marcelo Luis Urquia
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desarrollar referencias nuevas y mejoradas de peso al nacer según la edad gestacional (EG, el sexo y la multiplicidad del parto, para la población argentina en su conjunto. MÉTODOS: La población de estudio incluyó a todos los nacidos vivos de partos simples (n = 3 478 286 y dobles (n = 57 654 en Argentina durante el período 2003-2007. Los probables errores en la clasificación de la EG basada en la fecha de la última menstruación fueron corregidos con el uso de modelos de distribuciones normales mixtas. Los percentiles se obtuvieron mediante la regresión de cuantiles, que además posibilitó el suavizamiento de las curvas. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron curvas de peso al nacer para partos simples entre las semanas 22 y 43 de gestación y para partos dobles entre las semanas 24 y 41, según el sexo del neonato. Comparadas con estudios previos, estas referencias no sobreestiman la proporción de nacidos vivos grandes para su EG. Se observó también un aumento del peso al nacer a lo largo del período de estudio. CONCLUSIONES: Las curvas propuestas tienen las ventajas de basarse en grandes números, de ser representativas de los nacimientos argentinos más recientes, de distinguir el tipo de parto y el sexo de los neonatos, y de minimizar los errores de clasificación de la EG. Constituyen por lo tanto una herramienta útil para medir desigualdades y así identificar grupos poblacionales con mayor riesgo de eventos perinatales adversos.OBJECTIVE: To develop new and improved reference birthweights for the Argentine population as a whole with a breakdown by gestational age (GA, sex and multiplicity of birth. METHODS: The population studied included all live births resulting from single (n = 3,478,286 and double (n = 57,654 births in Argentina during the period 2003- 2007. The probable errors in classifying GA on the basis of last menstruation were corrected using normal mixture models. The percentiles were obtained by quantile
Colwell, Morris A
Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful
Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.
Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...
Lancaster, F. W.
Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…
Effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy on placental malaria, maternal anaemia and birthweight in areas with high and low malaria transmission intensity in Tanzania.
Mosha, Dominic; Chilongola, Jaffu; Ndeserua, Rabi; Mwingira, Felista; Genton, Blaise
To assess the effectiveness of IPTp in two areas with different malaria transmission intensities. Prospective observational study recruiting pregnant women in two health facilities in areas with high and low malaria transmission intensities. A structured questionnaire was used for interview. Maternal clinic cards and medical logs were assessed to determine drug intake. Placental parasitaemia was screened using both light microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR. Of 350 pregnant women were recruited and screened for placental parasitaemia, 175 from each area. Prevalence of placental parasitaemia was 16.6% (CI 11.4-22.9) in the high transmission area and 2.3% (CI 0.6-5.7) in the low transmission area. Being primigravida and residing in a high transmission area were significant risk factors for placental malaria (OR 2.4; CI 1.1-5.0; P = 0.025) and (OR 9.4; CI 3.2-27.7; P anaemia or low birthweight, regardless of transmission intensity. The number needed to treat (NNT) was four (CI 2-6) women in the high transmission area and 33 (20-50) in the low transmission area to prevent one case of placental malaria. IPTp may have an effect on lowering the risk of placental malaria in areas of high transmission, but this effect did not translate into a benefit on risks of maternal anaemia or low birthweight. The NNT needs to be considered, and weighted against that of other protective measures, eventually targeting areas which are above a certain threshold of malaria transmission to maximise the benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Boulton, William R.
JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.
The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...
Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.
Holbrook, Harold D
Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t
The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,
Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.
Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together
Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo
Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.
Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø
Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information
Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.
Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information
Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S
The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....
Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim
Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.
Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.
Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia
Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *
This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...
Pearce, Michael; Evans, Darrell
The development of new technologies has provided medical education with the ability to enhance the student learning experience and meet the needs of changing curricula. Students quickly adapt to using multimedia learning resources, but these need to be well designed, learner-centred and interactive for students to become significantly engaged. One way to ensure that students become committed users and that resources become distinct elements of the learning cycle is to involve students in resource design and production. Such an approach enables resources to accommodate student needs and preferences, but also provides opportunities for them to develop their own teaching and training skills. The aim of the medical student research project was to design and produce an electronic resource that was focused on a particular anatomical region. The views of other medical students were used to decide what features were suitable for inclusion and the resulting package contained basic principles and clinical relevance, and used a variety of approaches such as images of cadaveric material, living anatomy movies and quizzes. The completed package was assessed using a survey matrix and found to compare well with commercially available products. Given the ever-diversifying arena of multimedia instruction and the ability of students to be fully conversant with technology, this project demonstrates that students are ideal participants and creators of multimedia resources. It is hoped that such an approach will help to further develop the skill base of students, but will also provide an avenue of developing packages that are student user friendly, and that are focused towards particular curricula requirements. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.
Estimativa dos coeficientes específicos de mortalidade infantil segundo peso ao nascer no município de São Paulo (Brasil An estimate of the specific infant mortality rates by birth-weight in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil
Carlos Augusto Monteiro
Full Text Available Foi estimada a distribuição do peso ao nascer da coorte dos recém-nascidos que deu origem aos óbitos infantis estudados pela Investigação Interamericana de Mortalidade na Infância no projeto de São Paulo (1968-70 e determinados os riscos de óbito associados a cada intervalo de peso de nascimento. Assim, foram apurados coeficientes de mortalidade infantil de 305,5, 50,2 e 34,4 para recém-nascidos de baixo peso, peso deficiente e peso superior a 3.000 g. A comparação destes coeficientes com os registrados na área americana incluída na investigação citada (Califórnia, revelou excesso de mortalidade, particularmente notável não para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso, mas para os recém-nascidos de peso superior a 3.000 g. O ajuste da mortalidade de São Paulo (Brasil à distribuição do peso ao nascer observada na Califórnia foi capaz de explicar 15% do excesso da mortalidade infantil e 21% do excesso da mortalidade neonatal de São Paulo.By means of the birth-rate distribution found to exist during the Inter-American Investigation of Mortality in Childhood in S. Paulo (1968-70 the infant death rate association with each birth-weight interval was estimated. The infant mortality rates were 305.5, 50.2 and 34.4 respectively for low birth-weight, deficient weight and weight above 3,000 grams. Compared with the rates found in California, USA, by the same Investigation, the infant mortality rates in S. Paulo are higher, particularly for mortality associated with birth-weight of above 3,000 grams. The adjustment of infant mortality rates in S. Paulo according to the birth-weight distribution found in California led to the conclusion that, at that period, only 15% of the excess of the infant mortality of S. Paulo could be attributed exclusively to birth-weight. In the case of neonatal mortality, 21% of the mortality excess in S. Paulo could be attributed to birth-weight.
AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics
An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)
Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc
Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph
.... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...
Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang
Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.
Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text
Describes the Journalism Resources Institute (JRI) of Rutgers University in terms of its administrative organization, computer resources, computer facilities use, involvement in electronic publishing, use of the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Database, curricular options, and professional continuing education. (AYC)
Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte
resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....
Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio
The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs
Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K
Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.
Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.
This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...
Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...
Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)
Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.
Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview
CR cultural resource CRM cultural resource management CRPM Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling DoD Department of Defense ESTCP Environmental...resource management ( CRM ) legal obligations under NEPA and the NHPA, military installations need to demonstrate that CRM decisions are based on objective...maxim “one size does not fit all,” and demonstrate that DoD installations have many different CRM needs that can and should be met through a variety
Clement, B.; Barrett, A.
r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.
Bromley, Albert W.
The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…
Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.
The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where
Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources
Electronic Information – Threat or Challenge to Librarians and Library Buildings. ... electronic resources because as new things and methods emerge, they exist ... that world trends in the paper industry and Internet use do not justify the fears ...
Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori
Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…