WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth risk factors

  1. "Risk factors of birth asphyxia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Afzal, Rafia; Iqbal, Umair; Saleem, Sehrish Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Waqas Abid; Shahid, Nazish

    2014-12-20

    Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each year due to birth asphyxia. Our goal was to evaluate antepartum, intrapartum, and fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia. It was a Retrospective Case control study, conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of pediatric ward (I, II, III) and in Gynecology wards (I, II, III) of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. Study was conducted from January 2011-November 2012. Neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia were considered as "cases" while neonates born either with normal vaginal delivery or by cesarean section having no abnormality were considered as "control". Demographics of both the mother and neonate were noted and Questions regarding possible risk factors were asked from mother. Ethical issues were confirmed from Institutional review board of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 240 neonates, 123 were "cases" and 117 were "control". Mean maternal age in "case" group was 24.22 ± 3.38 while maternal age of control group was 24.30 ± 4.04. Significant antepartum risk factors were maternal age of 20-25 (OR 0.30 CI 95% 0.07-1.21), booking status (OR 0.20 CI 95% 0.11-0.37), pre-eclampsia (OR 0.94 CI 95% 0.90-0.98) and primigravidity (OR 2.64 CI 95% 1.56-4.46). Significant Intrapartum risk factors were breech presentation (OR 2.96 CI 95% 1.25-7.02), home delivery (OR 16.16 CI 95% 3.74-69.75) and maternal fever (OR 10.01 CI95% 3.78-26.52). Significant Fetal risk factors were resuscitation of child (OR 23 CI 95% 31.27-1720.74), pre-term babies(OR 0.34 CI 95% 0.19-0.58), fetal distress (OR 0.01 CI 95% 0.00-0.11) and baby weight (OR 0.13 CI 95% 0.05-0.32). Measures should be taken to prevent neonatal mortality with great emphasis on skilled attendance at birth

  2. [Risk factors of birth obstetric trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).

  3. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  4. Occupational risk factors for HIV infection among traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in order to determine occupational risk ... KEYWORDS: HIV, Traditional birth attendants, occupational risk factors, Zambia. [Afr J Health Sci. 2010; 17:5-9] ... + 5% and a confidence level of 95%, the required minimum sample would have been ...

  5. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  6. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  7. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  8. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.

  9. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  10. Birth order--a risk factor for dental trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käch, Matthias; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Many character traits are influenced by birth order with greatest differences between first and lastborns. To investigate the influence of birth order on the risk of dental trauma. Five hundred mothers in Switzerland were interviewed personally regarding dental trauma in their children. Inclusion criteria were a family size of at least two children. Data of 1282 children were collected. Thirty-two percent of the children had sustained one or more dental trauma before the age of 16 (57% male, 43% female). In children who had sustained dental trauma twice, the gender ratio moved to 68% male and 32% female (P = 0.003). Regarding birth order, lastborns sustained more second dental traumas. Relative risk of second dental trauma was 2.1 times higher in lastborns than in firstborns (P = 0.02). Moreover, certain character traits in children are influenced by birth order. According to their mothers, lastborns were more curious, less calm and less deliberate than firstborns (P Birth order is a risk factor for sustaining dental trauma twice. Character traits of lastborns (curious, not calm/deliberate and aggressive) could be reasons for higher risk of dental trauma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  12. Atopy risk factors at birth and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Erica; Garcia, Clécia Aparecida; Bettiol, Heloísa; Caldeira, Roseane Durães; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Arruda, Luiza Karla; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between atopy and variables such as weight, length, and socioeconomic level at birth and in young adulthood. A total of 2,063 subjects were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study of individuals born in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, in 1978/1979, and examined at the age of 23-25 years. Skin prick tests (SPT) for eight common allergens in Brazil were performed. Subjects with a wheal reaction ≥ 3 mm to one or more of the eight allergens tested were considered to be atopic. We used the log-binomial model (generalized linear model) in order to assess the association between atopy and birth or adult variables. The prevalence of positive SPT was 47.6%. Male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy (relative risk [RR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.07-1.30). Low level of schooling was a protective factor against atopy, with a RR = 0.74; 95%CI 0.62-0.89. Living with a smoker in childhood was also associated with lower risk of atopy (RR = 0.87; 95%CI 0.79-0.96). Birth weight, length and order, maternal age, and intrauterine growth restriction were not associated with positive SPT. This study showed that male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy. Low socioeconomic status, assessed by low level of schooling, was a protective factor against atopy. These data agree with the hygiene hypothesis.

  13. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Y.S.A.; Bataineh, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  14. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  15. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  16. What Are the Risks Factors for Preterm Labor and Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/PretermBirth.htm [top] « What causes it? Is it possible ... research links air pollution and extreme temperature to stillbirth risk All related ...

  17. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  18. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW

  19. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  20. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine factors associated with LBW and their contribution to the problem. Out of 648 pregnant women who were tested for HIV infection 59 (9.1%) were positive for the infection. Twelve (20.3%) of HIV positive women gave birth to LBW neonates. HIV positive women were twice more likely to give ...

  1. Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART, and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059 enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g, term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA, and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan.

  2. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  3. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality due to Birth Asphyxia in Southern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne CC; Mullany, Luke C.; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Shrestha, Shardaram R.; Darmstadt, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to identify antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in a rural, low resource, population-based cohort in Southern Nepal. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were collected prospectively during a cluster randomized, community-based trial evaluating the impact of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity in Sarlahi, Nepal. 23,662 infants were born in study regions between September 2002 - January 2006. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to determine adjusted relative risk estimates of birth asphyxia mortality for antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors. RESULTS Birth asphyxia deaths (9.7/1,000 live births) accounted for 30% of neonatal mortality. Antepartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality included low paternal education (relative risk [RR]: 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 2.33), Madeshi ethnicity (RR: 1.94; CI: 1.27 to 2.97) and primiparity (RR: 1.71; CI: 1.16 to 2.53). Facility delivery (RR: 1.89; CI: 1.19 to 3.00), maternal fever (RR: 2.02; CI: 1.26 to 3.23), maternal swelling of the face, hands or feet (RR: 1.40; CI: 1.01 to 1.96), and multiple births (RR: 4.77; CI: 2.78 to 8.20) were significant intrapartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality. Premature infants (asphyxia mortality (RR: 7.12; CI: 4.25 to 11.90). CONCLUSIONS Maternal infections, prematurity, and multiple births are important risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in the low-resource, community-based setting. Low socioeconomic status is highly associated with birth asphyxia and the mechanisms leading to mortality need to be further elucidated. The interaction between maternal infections and prematurity may be an important target for future community-based interventions to reduce the global impact of birth asphyxia on neonatal mortality. PMID:18450881

  4. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in the Netherlands: birth prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.C. de; Korver, A.M.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Rusman, L.; Claas, E.C.J.; Gerard, L.J.; Kroes, A.C.M.; Vossen, A.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital viral infection worldwide. The sequela encountered most frequently is hearing impairment, affecting approximately one out of five infants congenitally infected. Data on the birth prevalence and risk factors of congenital CMV

  5. Risk Factors for Early Preterm Birth at King Salman Armed Force Hospital in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriah Ali Alansi

    2017-11-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Current study indicated that early preterm births differed from preterm as a whole; primigravida, multiple gestations and a history of placental abruption are independent risk factors for them.

  6. Maternal risk factors for singleton preterm births and survival at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-24

    Feb 24, 2015 ... ratio [aOR] = 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.92, 6.07), Previous preterm birth (aOR = 5.06; 95% CI: 2.66, 9.12), ... on gestational age at birth and mode of delivery, but not on maternal sociodemographic risk factors for singleton preterm births. ... of preterms in this area have become important in order to.

  7. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Risk factors for premature birth in French Guiana: the importance of reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneuve-Dorilas, Malika; Favre, Anne; Carles, Gabriel; Louis, Alphonse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-11-27

    French Guiana has the highest birth rate in South America. This French territory also has the highest premature birth rate and perinatal mortality rate of all French territories. The objective was to determine the premature birth rate and to identify the prevalence of risk factors of premature birth in French Guiana. A retrospective study of all births in French Guiana was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014 using the computerized registry compiling all live births over 22 weeks of gestation on the territory. During this period 12 983 live births were reported on the territory. 13.5% of newborns were born before 37 (1755/12 983). The study of the registry revealed that common sociodemographic risk factors of prematurity were present. In addition, past obstetrical history was also important: a scarred uterus increased the risk of prematurity adjusted odds ratio =1.4, 95%CI (1.2-1.6). Similarly, obstetrical surveillance, the absence of preparation for birth or of prenatal interview increased the risk of prematurity by 2.4 and 2.3, the excess fraction in the population was 69% and 72.2%, respectively. Known classical risk factors are important. In the present study excess fractions were calculated in order to prioritize interventions to reduce the prematurity rate.

  9. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, KS; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O’Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. Methods We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Da...

  10. Risk factors leading to preterm births in Morocco: a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on Statistical analysis, many risk factors were, significantly, associated with the occurrence of prematurity, namely: low level of maternal education (p ? 0.004), absence of pregnancy' monitoring (p < 0.001), multiparity (p < 0.001), maternal chronic diseases (p < 0.001), and drug taking during pregnancy (p < 0.001).

  11. Occupational risk factors for HIV infection among traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in order to determine occupational risk factors associated for HIV infection. All together 370 female TBAs were recruited into the study of whom 67 (18.1%) were trained. The median age was 50 (Q1=42, Q3=55) years. The use of mouth to ...

  12. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Birth Trauma in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiehe Borna

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of birth trauma was 41.16 per 1,000 vaginal deliveries. Induction of labor, premature rupture of membranes, academic degree of attendant physician at delivery, higher birth weight, and gestational age were associated with fetal injuries.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    The World Health. Organization (WHO) then conducted a study on eighteen different countries at different stages of development. This revealed that babies could be classified into three main groups based on their birth weight and gestational age: small for gestational age, appropriate for age, large for age. Low birth weight ...

  14. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second phase LBW women (cases) were compared with a double number of women who gave birth to normal birth weight infants. Results: Among 939 women eligible for the study, the incidence of LBW was 7.8%. Reproductive age lower than 25 years, gestational age lower than 40 weeks, history of previous ...

  15. Birth weight--a risk factor for progression in diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth retardation, as seen in individuals with low weight at birth, may give rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been linked to hypertension and renal disease in adult life. We tested the concept that low weight at birth acts as a risk factor......): 8 (3-20)] with at least three measurements [9 (3-31)] of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (51Cr-EDTA). Information about birth size was obtained from midwife registrations. SETTINGS: Steno Diabetes Center, a tertiary referral centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Loss of kidney function according to birth...... weight and weight/length ratio at birth. RESULTS: There was no correlation in univariate analysis between birth weight or weight/length ratio and rate of decline in GFR, neither in men nor in women. Furthermore, the 27 patients with birth weights below the 20th centile had a rate of decline in GFR...

  16. [Comparative analysis of risk factors for preterm and small-for-gestational-age births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin-Qi; Cui, Qi-Liang

    2014-12-01

    To compare the risk factors between preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. A total of 1 270 newborns who had no obstetric risk factors or maternal diseases were enrolled in this study. Their mothers' stature, body weight, passive smoking, and history of abnormal pregnancy were investigated using the self-designed questionnaire. The infants were divided into four groups: preterm, appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), SGA, and term infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the risk factors between preterm and SGA births. A weight gain less than 9 kg during pregnancy increased the risks of preterm (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07) and SGA (OR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.56-2.58). The histories of abortion (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.93) and preterm birth (OR=2.63, 95% CI: 1.81-3.92) were independent risk factors for preterm births, while low pre-pregnancy body mass index (births. Due to different risk factors between preterm and SGA births, specific preventive measures should be taken pertinently to reduce the incidence of the two bad pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Homelessness during pregnancy: a unique, time-dependent risk factor of birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M; Chilton, Mariana M; Cook, John T; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Heeren, Timothy C; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child's birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes.

  18. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...

  19. Risk Factors at Birth for Permanent Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury and Associated Osseous Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Rahul K.; Kumar, Nirupama; Avila, Meera B.; Nath, Devin K.; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the most prevalent risk factors found in patients with permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to identify better predictors of injury. Methods. A population-based study was performed on 241 OBPI patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Results. Shoulder dystocia (97%) was the most prevalent risk factor. We found that 80% of the patients in this study were not macrosomic, and 43% weighed less than 4000 g at birth. The rate of instrument use was 41% , which is 4-fold higher than the 10% predicted for all vaginal deliveries in the United States. Posterior subluxation and glenoid version measurements in children with no finger movement at birth indicated a less severe shoulder deformity in comparison with those with finger movement. Conclusions. The average birth weight in this study was indistinguishable from the average birth weight reported for all brachial plexus injuries. Higher birth weight does not, therefore, affect the prognosis of brachial plexus injury. We found forceps/vacuum delivery to be an independent risk factor for OBPI, regardless of birth weight. Permanently injured patients with finger movement at birth develop more severe bony deformities of the shoulder than patients without finger movement. PMID:22518326

  20. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Julihn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142 who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36. The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89 for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4 at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.

  1. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  2. Risk factors for preterm birth in five Maternal and Child Health hospitals in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, the birth of an infant prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Preterm infants are at greater risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. Despite significant research in developed countries, little is known about the causes of preterm birth in many developing countries, especially China. This study investigates the association between sciodemographic data, obstetric risk factor, and preterm birth in five Maternal and Child Health hospitals in Beijing, China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A case-control study was conducted on 1391 women with preterm birth (case group and 1391 women with term delivery (control group, who were interviewed within 48 hours of delivery. Sixteen potential factors were investigated and statistical analysis was performed by univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that 14 of the 16 factors were associated with preterm birth. Inter-pregnancy interval and inherited diseases were not risk factors. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity (odds ratio (OR = 3.030, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.166-7.869, stressful life events (OR = 5.535, 95%CI 2.315-13.231, sexual activity (OR = 1.674, 95%CI 1.279-2.191, placenta previa (OR 13.577, 95%CI 2.563-71.912, gestational diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.441, 95%CI1.694-6.991, hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (OR = 6.034, 95%CI = 3.401-10.704, history of preterm birth (OR = 20.888, 95%CI 2.519-173.218 and reproductive abnormalities (OR = 3.049, 95%CI 1.010-9.206 were independent risk factors. Women who lived in towns and cities (OR = 0.603, 95%CI 0.430-0.846, had a balanced diet (OR = 0.533, 95%CI 0.421-0.675 and had a record of prenatal care (OR = 0.261, 95%CI 0.134-0.510 were less likely to have preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, stressful life events, sexual activity, placenta previa

  3. Risk Factors for Early Preterm Birth at King Salman Armed Force Hospital in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansi, Badriah Ali; Mukhtar, Hytham Bahaeldin; Alazizi, Maher Ahmad; Zuiran, Amjad Ahmad; Al-Atawi, Areej Mohammed; Al-Sabah, Badriah Abdulrahman; Al-Yami, Shrooq Salem

    2017-12-15

    To investigate risk factors for early preterm birth. A retrospective comparative study was conducted at Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period from January to December 2010. Five hundred and ninety-five patient's files and delivery registry logbooks were reviewed, the following information was collected; demographic data, current and past obstetric histories. Then the early and late preterm births were compared for various risk factors. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22) was used. The Chi-square and t-test were used to test the statistical significance and a P-valuepreterm birth was found to be 2.5% in our study group. Women at risk for early preterm birth were: primigravidas (33.7% vs. 26.2% for control), P-value 0.039, OR 1.429 and 95% CI 0.982 - 2.079); multiple gestations (87.7% vs. 95.1% for control, P-value 0.002, OR 0.368 and 95% CI 0.196 - 0.688); and patients with a prior history of placental abruption (3.7% vs. 1.0% for control, P-value 0.027, OR3.928 and 95% CI 1.1360 - 13.586). Current study indicated that early preterm births differed from preterm as a whole; primigravida, multiple gestations and a history of placental abruption are independent risk factors for them.

  4. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adj OR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  5. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, ... There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0/5 in reporting BW in the studied MCHs. In conclusion, a rate ...

  6. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  7. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population residing in highland areas experience lower rates of malaria transmission than in ... Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cog- nitive development, and chronic ..... College students exchange programme and Danish. International Development Agency.

  8. Low birth weight. A risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Tarnow, L; Nielsen, F S

    1995-01-01

    for expression of renal disease after exposure to potentially injurious renal stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine if low birth weight is a risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy. In a case-control study, we investigated 184 (110 men) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients...

  9. Tehran Survey of Potential Risk Factors for Multiple Births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The multiple pregnancy incidence is increasing worldwide. This increased incidence is concerning to the health care system. This study aims to determine the frequency of multiple pregnancy and identify factors that affect this frequency in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 5170 mothers in labor between July 6-21, 2015 from 103 hospitals with Obstetrics and Gynecology Wards. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of five parts: demographic characteristics; information related to pregnancy; information related to the infant; information regarding the multiple pregnancy; and information associated with infertility. We recruited 103 trained midwives to collect data related to the questionnaire from eligible participants through an interview and medical records review. Frequencies and odds ratios (OR for the association between multiple pregnancy and the selected characteristics (maternal age, economic status, history of multiple pregnancy in first-degree relatives, and reproductive history were computed by multiple logistic regression. Stata software, version 13 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA was used for all statistical analyses. Results Multiple pregnancy had a prevalence of 1.48% [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.19-1.85]. After controlling for confounding variables, we observed a significant association between frequency of multiple pregnancy and mother’s age (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.001-1.09, P=0.044, assisted reproductive technique (ART, OR=6.11, 95% CI: 1.7- 21.97, P=0.006, and history of multiple pregnancy in the mother’s family (OR=5.49, 95% CI: 3.55-9.93, P=0.001. Conclusion The frequency of multiple pregnancy approximated results reported in previous studies in Iran. Based on the results, we observed significantly greater frequency of multiple pregnancy in older women, those with a history of ART, and a history of multiple pregnancy in the mother’s family compared to the other

  10. Tehran Survey of Potential Risk Factors for Multiple Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omani Samani, Reza; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Vesali, Samira; Shokri, Fatemeh; Cheraghi, Rezvaneh; Torkestani, Farahnaz; Sepidarkish, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    The multiple pregnancy incidence is increasing worldwide. This increased incidence is concerning to the health care system. This study aims to determine the frequency of multiple pregnancy and identify factors that affect this frequency in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study included 5170 mothers in labor between July 6-21, 2015 from 103 hospitals with Obstetrics and Gynecology Wards. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of five parts: demographic characteristics; information related to pregnancy; information related to the infant; information regarding the multiple pregnancy; and information associated with infertility. We recruited 103 trained midwives to collect data related to the questionnaire from eligible participants through an interview and medical records review. Frequencies and odds ratios (OR) for the association between multiple pregnancy and the selected characteristics (maternal age, economic status, history of multiple pregnancy in first-degree relatives, and reproductive history) were computed by multiple logistic regression. Stata software, version 13 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) was used for all statistical analyses. Multiple pregnancy had a prevalence of 1.48% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.85]. After controlling for confounding variables, we observed a significant association between frequency of multiple pregnancy and mother's age (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.001-1.09, P=0.044), assisted reproductive technique (ART, OR=6.11, 95% CI: 1.7- 21.97, P=0.006), and history of multiple pregnancy in the mother's family (OR=5.49, 95% CI: 3.55-9.93, P=0.001). The frequency of multiple pregnancy approximated results reported in previous studies in Iran. Based on the results, we observed significantly greater frequency of multiple pregnancy in older women, those with a history of ART, and a history of multiple pregnancy in the mother's family compared to the other variables. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia in southern Nepal: a prospective, community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne C C; Mullany, Luke C; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Shrestha, Shardaram R; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2008-05-01

    Our goal was to identify antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial evaluating the impact of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity in Sarlahi, Nepal. A total of 23662 newborn infants were enrolled between September 2002 and January 2006. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to determine adjusted relative risk estimates of birth asphyxia mortality for antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors. Birth asphyxia deaths (9.7/1000.0 live births) accounted for 30% of neonatal mortality. Antepartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality included low paternal education, Madeshi ethnicity, and primiparity. Facility delivery; maternal fever; maternal swelling of the face, hands, or feet; and multiple births were significant intrapartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality. Premature infants (asphyxia mortality compared to term infants of afebrile mothers. Maternal infections, prematurity, and multiple births are important risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in the low-resource, community-based setting. Low socioeconomic status is highly associated with birth asphyxia, and the mechanisms leading to mortality need to be elucidated. The interaction between maternal infections and prematurity may be an important target for future community-based interventions to reduce the global impact of birth asphyxia on neonatal mortality.

  12. Risk Factors for Invasive Candidiasis in Infants >1500 g Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Herring, Amy H.; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background We describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of invasive candidiasis in infants >1500 g birth weight. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants >1500 g birth weight discharged from 305 NICUs in the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2001–2010. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified risk factors for invasive candidiasis. Results Invasive candidiasis occurred in 330/530,162 (0.06%) infants. These were documented from positive cultures from ≥1 of these sources: blood (n=323), cerebrospinal fluid (n=6), or urine from catheterization (n=19). Risk factors included day of life >7 (OR 25.2; 95% CI 14.6–43.3), vaginal birth (OR 1.6 [1.2–2.3]), exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (OR 1.6 [1.1–2.4]), central venous line (OR 1.8 [1.3–2.6]), and platelet count candidiasis had increased mortality (OR 2.2 [1.3–3.6]). Conclusions Invasive candidiasis is uncommon in infants >1500 g birth weight. Infants at greatest risk are those exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and with platelet counts of <50,000/mm3. PMID:23042050

  13. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  14. Prenatal risk factors influencing childhood BMI and overweight independent of birth weight and infancy BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, C S; Ängquist, L; Baker, J L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal risk factors for childhood overweight may operate indirectly through development in body size in early life and/or directly independent hereof. We quantified the effects of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI), maternal age, socioeconomic position (SEP......), parity, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section, birth weight, and BMI at 5 and 12 months on BMI and overweight at 7 and 11 years. METHODS: Family triads with information on maternal, paternal and child BMI at ages 7 (n=29 374) and 11 years (n=18 044) were selected...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information originated from maternal interviews and medical health examinations. Path analysis was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of prenatal risk factors on childhood BMI z-scores (BMIz per unit score of the risk factor). Logistic regression...

  15. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, JS; Watts, DH; Mofenson, L; Stiehm, ER; Harris, DR; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, MJ; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, WT; Hammill, H; van Dyke, R; Maupin, R; Silio, M; Fowler, MG

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate independent contributions of maternal factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and intrauterine growth retardation

  16. Maternal Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in Murmansk County, Russia: A Registry-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usynina, Anna A; Postoev, Vitaly A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Anda, Erik Eik

    2016-09-01

    Globally, about 11% of all liveborn infants are preterm. To date, data on prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) in Russia are limited. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County, Northwestern Russia and to investigate associations between PTB and selected maternal factors using the Murmansk County Birth Registry. We conducted a registry-based study of 52 806 births (2006-2011). In total, 51 156 births were included in the prevalence analysis, of which 3546 were PTBs. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of moderate-to-late PTB, very PTB and extremely PTB for a range of maternal characteristics were estimated using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The overall prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County was 6.9%. Unmarried status, prior PTBs, spontaneous and induced abortions were strongly associated with PTB at any gestational age. Maternal low educational level increased the risk of extremely and moderate-to-late PTB. Young (Murmansk County, Russia was comparable with data on live PTB from European countries. Adverse prior pregnancy outcomes, maternal low educational level, unmarried status, alcohol abuse, and diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes were the most common risk factors for PTB. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  18. [Birth asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, incidence and obstetric risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsdottir, Kolbrun; Dagbjartsson, Atli; Thorkelsson, Thordur; Hardardottir, Hildur

    2007-09-01

    Modern medical practice has changed dramatically during the past decades because of improved technology. Still, fetal surveillance during labor is relatively unchanged since 1960 s when fetal heart rate monitoring (FHR) became standard practice. Newborn infants are still suffering from birth asphyxia and in severe cases leading to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) which sometimes results in permanent neurological damage. The incidence of birth asphyxia and HIE in Iceland is unknown and so are the risk factors for severe asphyxia. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, obstetric risk factors and the sequela of severe asphyxia at Landspitali university hospital (LSH). All term infants born at LSH from 1.1.1997- 31.12.2001 with birth asphyxia, defined as five minute Apgar score %lt;6, were included in the study (n=127). Clinical information were collected retrospectively from maternal records on maternal diseases during pregnancy, cardiotocogram (CTG), type of birth, the presence of meconium and operative delivery rates. Information was also collected regarding birth asphyxia and HIE in the neonatal period. The incidence of birth asphyxia was 9.4/1000 live term births during the study period, with increasing incidence during the three last years. The incidence of HIE was 1.4/ 1,000 live term births. Severe maternal diseases during pregnancy were not a significant risk factor for asphyxia. The amniotic fluid was meconium stained in fifty percent of cases and the umbilical cord was wrapped around the fetal neck in 41% of cases. Abnormal CTG tracing was observed in 66% of cases in the study group and in 79% of the HIE cases. Operative deliveries were significantly more common in the study cohort compared with other deliveries at LSH at the same time: ventouse delivery 22% vs 6.8% (pdiseases does not correlate with increased incidence of asphyxia, presumably due to increased surveillance of these pregnancies and a lower treshold for intervention

  19. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  20. Birth Injuries and Related Risk Factors in Neonates Born in Emam Sajjad Hospital in Yasuj in 2005 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaie

    2009-04-01

    Risk factors were included NVD (difficult vaginal delivery, high gestation age, and low Apgar score at first minute of life, shoulder dystocia, vacuum and birth at night. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the incidence of birth injuries in this area is high. Considering the serious complications of birth injuries and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with no treatment for some cases, it seems that using the preventing methods to reduce the prevalence of birth injuries is nessesary

  1. Risk factors for low birth weight in Sana'a City, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Abdulwahab M

    2002-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) represents the third leading cause of death in children in Yemen, and is the most significant predictor of death, health, growth and development. The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights in Sana'a City of Yemen, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in the four main hospitals in Sana'a City during the study period. Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 14-45 years, with a mean age of 29.55 years. The mean age at the time of marriage was 22.38 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive to mothers interviewed in the four hospitals during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The data collected were entered into a computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is a need for national prospective research project to study the low birth weight problem at the national level. There is also a need to discourage teenage pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy.

  2. Risk factors associated with pre-term birth in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... p-value 0.004), cervical incompetence (AOR = 11.6; 95%CI 1.1-121.5; p-value 0.04), polyhydramnios (AOR = 8.3; 95%CI 1.7-40.2; p-value 0.008), and lack of antenatal visits (AOR = 5.1; 95%CI 1.4-17.8; p-value 0.042).Conclusion: This study has identified several risk factors for preterm birth in the city of Dar es Salaam.

  3. Risk factors and outcomes of macrosomia in China: a multicentric survey based on birth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hong, Yan; Zhu, Li; Wang, Xiaoli; Lv, Qin; Zhou, Qin; Ruan, Miaohua; Chen, Chao

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors and outcomes of macrosomia in China. This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in China. 178 709 singletons weighing ≥ 2500 g with gestational ages of 37-44 weeks were included. We compared the macrosomia group (with birth weight (BW) ≥ 4000 g) with the nornosomic control group (weighting 2500-3999 g). The total prevalence of macrosomia was 8.70%. The strongest risk factors correlated with macrosomia were maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The risks of obstetric and neonatal complications increased when infants had a BW of ≥4000 g. Obesity and GDM are the most prominent risk factors for macrosomia, and macrosomia is associated with adverse maternal and neonate outcomes. Therefore, monitoring and controlling maternal weight and blood glucose could decrease the prevalence of macrosomia or improve its poor outcomes.

  4. Contribution of risk factors to extremely, very and moderately preterm births - register-based analysis of 1,390,742 singleton births.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Räisänen

    Full Text Available Preterm birth, defined as birth occurring before 37 weeks gestation, is one of the most significant contributors to neonatal mortality and morbidity, with long-term adverse consequences for health, and cognitive outcome.The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors of preterm birth (≤36+6 weeks gestation among singleton births and to quantify the contribution of risk factors to socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth.A retrospective population-based case-control study using data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. A total population of singleton births in Finland from 1987-2010 (n = 1,390,742 was reviewed.Among all singleton births (n = 1,390,742, 4.6% (n = 63,340 were preterm (<37 weeks, of which 0.3% (n = 4,452 were classed as extremely preterm, 0.4% (n = 6,213 very preterm and 3.8% (n = 54,177 moderately preterm. Smoking alone explained up to 33% of the variation in extremely, very and moderately preterm birth incidence between high and the low socioeconomic status (SES groups. Reproductive risk factors (placental abruption, placenta previa, major congenital anomaly, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, anemia, stillbirth, small for gestational age (SGA and fetal sex altogether explained 7.7-25.0% of the variation in preterm birth between SES groups.Smoking explained about one third of the variation in preterm birth groups between SES groups whereas the contribution of reproductive risk factors including placental abruption, placenta previa, major congenital anomaly, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, anemia, stillbirth, SGA and fetal sex was up to one fourth.

  5. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  6. Intraventricular hemorrhage in a very low birth weight infants: Associated risk factors in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Prematurely born infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) suffer significant morbidity and mortality, particularly with those infants with high-grade hemorrhage. Previous studies have proposed a number of risk factors for IVH; however, lack of adequate matching for gestational age and birth weight may have confounded the results. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that affect the risk of IVH. We identified 31 preterm infants with gestational age < 32 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g, with IVH, from November 2003 to January 2005 at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A control group of 90 infants, matched for gestational age and birth weight was selected. Maternal factors, labor and delivery characteristics and neonatal parameters were collected in both groups. Results of cranial ultrasound examinations were also collected. The significant risk factors for IVH were found to be: patent ductus artreiosus arteriosus (PDA) [4 (13.3%) versus 3(3.3%) (p=0.01)], longer duration of assisted ventilation [4 (2.8+-5.8 days versus 0.5+-2.1 days (p=0.002)], a higher number of endotracheal suctioning [9.7+-18.4 versus 3.06+-13.7 (p=0.004)], surfactant use, [7(22.6%) versus 3(3.4%) (p=0.003)], positive pressure ventilation at birth [12 (38.7%) versus 12(13.3%), (p=0.004)] and low Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes. Whereas antenatal steroid treatments and cesarean sections have protective effect on the occurrence of IVH. Our data emphasize the importance of obstetric and prenatal care to improve outcomes of premature infants. (author)

  7. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  8. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood: a risk factor for preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Rodriguez, Daniel; Polly Gobin, Asi; Waldemore, Marissa; Magee, Susanna; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood on the risk for preterm birth (PTB), controlling for other known risk factors for PTB. Participants were 302 pregnant women from a low-income, diverse sample drawn from 2 intensive prospective studies of maternal mood and behavior and fetal and infant development. Gestational age was determined by best obstetric estimate. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement prior to age 18 years was determined by maternal report. Other maternal characteristics, including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and health behaviors, were measured during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The odds of delivering preterm (gestational age foster care placement compared with women who were never placed out of the home during childhood. This association remained significant after adjusting for other known risk factors for PTB including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and negative health behaviors in pregnancy. Findings suggest that a history of adoption/foster care placement is an important risk factor for PTB and may be comparable with other established risk factors for PTB including prior history of PTB, body mass index, African-American race, and advanced maternal age. More studies are needed to understand why women with placement histories may be at increased risk to deliver preterm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, S.G.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Olney, R.S.; Carmichael, S.L.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. METHODS: A wide variety of data

  10. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...

  11. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at 7 weeks of age: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth and at 7 weeks of age. Data

  12. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at seven weeks of age - A prospective cohort study-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth

  13. Risk Factors at Birth Predictive of Subsequent Injury Among Japanese Preschool Children: A Nationwide 5-Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Jike, Maki; Nakagome, Sachi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Ohida, Takashi

    2018-03-19

    To identify risk factors at birth that are predictive of subsequent injury among preschool children. Retrospective analysis of population-based birth cohort data from the "Longitudinal Survey of Babies Born in the 21st Century" was performed from 2001 through 2007 in Japan (n = 47,015). The cumulative incidence and the total number of hospitalizations or examinations conducted at medical facilities for injury among children from birth up to the age of 5 years were calculated. To identify risk factors at birth that are predictive of injury, multivariate analysis of data for hospitalization or admission because of injury during a 5-year period (age, 0-5 years) was performed using the total number of hospital examinations as the dependent variable. The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) of hospital examinations for injury over the 5-year period was 34.8% (34.2%-35.4%) for boys and 27.6% (27.0%-28.2%) for girls. The predictive risk factors at birth we identified for injury among preschool children were sex (boys), heavy birth weight, late birth order, no cohabitation with the grandfather or grandmother, father's long working hours, mother's high education level, and strong intensity of parenting anxiety. Based on the results of this study, we identified a number of predictive factors for injury in children. To reduce the risk of injury in the juvenile population as a whole, it is important to pursue a high-risk or population approach by focusing on the predictive factors we have identified.

  14. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  15. Generalized anxiety disorder and depression: childhood risk factors in a birth cohort followed to age 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J; Melchior, Maria; Goldberg, David; Poulton, Richie

    2007-03-01

    The close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize them in future diagnostic systems. We tested whether risk factors for MDD and GAD are similar or different. The representative 1972-73 Dunedin birth cohort of 1037 males and females was followed to age 32 with 96% retention. Adult GAD and MDD were diagnosed at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32 years, and juvenile anxiety/depression were also taken into account. Thirteen prospective risk measures indexed domains of family history, adverse family environment, childhood behavior, and adolescent self-esteem and personality traits. Co-morbid MDD+GAD was antedated by highly elevated risk factors broadly across all domains. MDD+GAD was further characterized by the earliest onset, most recurrence, and greatest use of mental health services and medication. Pure GAD had levels of risk factors similar to the elevated levels for co-morbid MDD+GAD; generally, pure MDD did not. Pure GAD had risks during childhood not shared by pure MDD, in domains of adverse family environment (low SES, somewhat more maltreatment) and childhood behavior (internalizing problems, conduct problems, somewhat more inhibited temperament). Pure MDD had risks not shared by pure GAD, in domains of family history (of depression) and personality (low positive emotionality). Specific antecedent risk factors for pure adult MDD versus GAD may suggest partly different etiological pathways. That GAD and co-morbid MDD+GAD share many risk markers suggests that the presence of GAD may signal a pathway toward relatively more severe internalizing disorder.

  16. Bullying of extremely low birth weight children: associated risk factors during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Grace; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Forrest, Christopher B; Andreias, Laura; Drotar, Dennis; Youngstrom, Eric; Hack, Maureen

    2013-05-01

    Preterm children have many risk factors which may increase their susceptibility to being bullied. To examine the prevalence of bullying among extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1 kg) and normal birth weight (NBW) adolescents and the associated sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial risk factors and correlates among the ELBW children. Cohort study of self-reports of bullying among 172 ELBW adolescents born 1992-1995 compared to 115 NBW adolescents of similar age, sex and sociodemographic status. Reports of being bullied were documented using the KIDSCREEN-52 Questionnaire which includes three Likert type questions concerning social acceptance and bullying. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic factors were used to examine the correlates of bullying among the ELBW children. Group differences revealed a non-significant trend of higher mean bullying scores among ELBW vs. NBW children (1.56 vs. 1.16, p=0.057). ELBW boys had significantly higher bullying scores than NBW boys (1.94 vs. 0.91, p<0.01), whereas ELBW and NBW girls did not differ (1.34 vs. 1.30, p=0.58). Bullying of ELBW children was significantly associated with subnormal IQ, functional limitations, anxiety and ADHD, poor school connectedness, less peer connectedness, less satisfaction with health and comfort, and less risk avoidance. ELBW boys, but not girls, are more likely to be victims of bullying than NBW boys. School and health professionals need to be aware of the risk of bullying among ELBW male adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Geographic analysis of individual and environmental risk factors for hypospadias births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Meyer, Robert E; Emch, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. We explored the etiology of hypospadias by examining its spatial distribution in North Carolina and the spatial clustering of residuals from individual and environmental risk factors. We used data collected by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program from 2003 to 2005 to estimate local Moran's I statistics to identify geographic clustering of overall and severe hypospadias, using 995 overall cases and 16,013 controls. We conducted logistic regression and local Moran's I statistics on standardized residuals to consider the contribution of individual variables (maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education, smoking, parity, and diabetes) and environmental variables (block group land cover) to this clustering. Local Moran's I statistics indicated significant clustering of overall and severe hypospadias in eastern central North Carolina. Spatial clustering of hypospadias persisted when controlling for individual factors, but diminished somewhat when controlling for environmental factors. In adjusted models, maternal residence in a block group with more than 5% crop cover was associated with overall hypospadias (odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.43); that is living in a block group with greater than 5% crop cover was associated with a 22% increase in the odds of having a baby with hypospadias. Land cover was not associated with severe hypospadias. This study illustrates the potential contribution of mapping in generating hypotheses about disease etiology. Results suggest that environmental factors including proximity to agriculture may play some role in the spatial distribution of hypospadias. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:887-894, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Is low birth weight a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshoj, O; Vaag, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if low birth weight as a consequence of intrauterine malnutrition is a risk factor for the later development of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In a case-control set-up a group of type 1 diabetic subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n = 51) and a matched control......: The patients were identified from a population-based study of chronic diabetic complications in the Funen County, Denmark. MAIN OUTCOMES: Birth weights according to the presence of diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS: The median (10-90 percentile) birth weights were 3,600 g (2,960-4,274) in the group with diabetic...... in the number of patients with nephropathy in the lower versus upper quartiles of birth weights. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of low birth weight as a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy....

  19. Risk factors and clinical analysis of candidemia in very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinjian; Wang, Xingmin; Wei, Ba; Jiang, Yongjiang; Chen, Jichang

    2016-11-01

    Candidemia is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm or very-low-birth-weight infants. The incidence and risk factors of candidemia in this population are poorly known in western China. A case-control retrospective study of candidemia was conducted from January 2012-November 2015 in the Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Forty-eight confirmed cases of candidemia were identified during the study period, indicating an incidence of 106.9 per 1,000 admissions of very-low-birth-weight infants. Candida albicans was the most common pathogen and was isolated in 39.6% of infants with candidemia. The mortality rate of the case group was 10.4% versus 2.1% in the control group (P = .128). The multivariable logistic regression model identified that carbapenem use (odds ratio [OR], 11.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28-39.54), total parenteral nutrition (OR, 10.16; 95% CI, 2.25-45.94), and prolonged hospitalization (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) were all associated with the risk of developing neonatal candidemia. Very-low-birth-weight infants are at a significantly high risk of developing candidemia. The local neonatal intensive care unit management teams should effectively focus on decreasing the overall use of carbapenems, improving catheter care, removing catheters early, and shortening hospitalizations to reduce the incidence of candidemia. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more......" maternal reported episodes of OM at age six months. In total 37 factors were assessed, covering prenatal, maternal, perinatal and postnatal factors. RESULTS: At age six months 5.3% (95% CI 5.1-5.5) of the children had experienced one or more episodes of OM. From the regression analysis, 11 variables were...... for boys versus girls was 1.30 (95% CI 1.18-1.44). The OR having one sibling versus no siblings was 3.0 (95% CI 2.64-3.41). If the woman had been taking penicillin during pregnancy, the OR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.15-1.58). Children born before 38th gestational week had an increased OR for early OM of 1.49 (95...

  1. Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age 16: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Jon; Barker, Edward D; Joinson, Carol; Lewis, Glyn; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus; Macleod, John

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of cannabis use and problem use in boys and girls at age 16 years, and to investigate the role of adversity in early life and of conduct disorder between the ages of 4 and 13 years as risk factors for these outcomes. Birth cohort study. England. A total of 4159 (2393 girls) participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort providing information on cannabis use at age 16. Cannabis use and problem cannabis use at age 16 were assessed by postal questionnaire. Material adversity, maternal substance use, maternal mental health and child conduct disorder were all assessed by maternal report. Cannabis use was more common among girls than boys (21.4% versus 18.3%, P = 0.005). Problem cannabis use was more common in boys than girls (3.6% versus 2.8%, P = 0.007). Early-onset persistent conduct problems were associated strongly with problem cannabis use [odds ratio (OR) = 6.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.06-10.28]. Residence in subsidized housing (OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.95, 4.92); maternal cannabis use (OR 8.84, 95% CI 5.64-13.9) and any maternal smoking in the postnatal period (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.90-3.81) all predicted problem cannabis use. Attributable risks for adolescent problem cannabis use associated with the above factors were 25, 13, 17 and 24%, respectively. Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. This may have implications for prevention. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørn Kørvel-Hanquist

    Full Text Available To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM in six-months-old children.The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more" maternal reported episodes of OM at age six months. In total 37 factors were assessed, covering prenatal, maternal, perinatal and postnatal factors.At age six months 5.3% (95% CI 5.1-5.5 of the children had experienced one or more episodes of OM. From the regression analysis, 11 variables were associated with a risk of OM. When a Bonferroni correction was introduced, gender, prematurity, parity, maternal age, maternal self-estimated health, taking penicillin during pregnancy, and terminating breastfeeding before age six months, was associated with a risk of early OM. The adjusted ORs of OM for boys versus girls was 1.30 (95% CI 1.18-1.44. The OR having one sibling versus no siblings was 3.0 (95% CI 2.64-3.41. If the woman had been taking penicillin during pregnancy, the OR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.15-1.58. Children born before 38th gestational week had an increased OR for early OM of 1.49 (95% CI 1.21-1.82. Children of young women had an increased OR of early OM compared to children of older women. Additionally, children of women who rated their own health low compared to those rating their health as high, had an increased OR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.74. Finally, children being breastfeed less than 6 months, had an increased OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.28-1.58 compared to children being breastfeed beyond 6 months.These findings indicate that prenatal factors are of less importance regarding early OM before the age of six months. Postnatal risk factors seem to pose the main risk of early OM.

  3. Endothelial and metabolic disorders in adolescence: low birth weight is not an isolated risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Alves, Priscila de Jesus; P T Henriques, Ana Ciléia; Pinto, Livia R M; S Mota, Rosa Maria; M Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Alves, Renata S; C Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) seems to be a determining factor for many cardiovascular diseases in adult life. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with LBW and compare them with subjects with normal birth weights (NBW). This retrospective cohort study evaluated 172 adolescents (86 in each group) aged 10-20 years, who were born in a reference maternity hospital. The following criteria were adopted: International Diabetes Federation parameters for the diagnosis of MetS and flow-mediated brachial artery dilatation for endothelial dysfunction. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney tests were used for continuous variables (depending on the normality of distribution evaluated by the Shapiro-Wilk test), and the Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables. The significance level was determined at 0.05. MetS was present in three cases of LBW and in four cases of NBW (p=0.70). The number of components of the syndrome was, on average, 0.6 and 0.5 in LBW and NBW, respectively (p=0.77). Endothelial dysfunction occurred in 25 (29.1%) cases of LBW and in 31 (36.1%) cases of NBW (p=0.33). LBW did not represent a risk factor in the occurrence of MetS or endothelial dysfunction in adolescence.

  4. A geographic analysis of individual and environmental risk factors for hypospadias births

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Meyer, Robert E; Emch, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. We explored the etiology of hypospadias by examining its spatial distribution in North Carolina and the spatial clustering of residuals from individual and environmental risk factors. Methods We used data collected by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program from 2003-2005 to estimate local Moran's I statistics to identify geographic clustering of overall and severe hypospadias, using 995 overall cases and 16,013 controls. We conducted logistic regression and local Moran's I statistics on standardized residuals to consider the contribution of individual variables (maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal education, smoking, parity, and diabetes) and environmental variables (block group land cover) to this clustering. Results Local Moran's I statistics indicated significant clustering of overall and severe hypospadias in eastern central North Carolina. Spatial clustering of hypospadias persisted when controlling for individual factors, but diminished somewhat when controlling for environmental factors. In adjusted models, maternal residence in a block group with more than 5% crop cover was associated with overall hypospadias (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.04 – 1.43); that is living in a block group with greater than 5% crop cover was associated with a 22% increase in the odds of having a baby with hypospadias. Land cover was not associated with severe hypospadias. Conclusions This study illustrates the potential contribution of mapping in generating hypotheses about disease etiology. Results suggest that environmental factors including proximity to agriculture may play some role in the spatial distribution of hypospadias. PMID:25196538

  5. Prevalence of low birth weight, macrosomia and stillbirth and their relationship to associated maternal risk factors in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbozo, Faith; Abubakari, Abdulai; Der, Joyce; Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-09-01

    birth weight is vital to the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal birth weight (such as low birth weight and macrosomia) is an important determinant of child survival, disabilities, stunting, and long-term adverse consequences for the onset of non-communicable diseases in the life course and therefore demands appropriate public health interventions. Stillbirths are also considered one of the most important, but most poorly understood and documented adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related maternal risk factors, as well as pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth. a retrospective study design was used to analyze 4262 delivery records for singleton pregnancies from January 2013 to December 2014 seen at the Hohoe municipal hospital, Volta region in Ghana. The data on birth weight and related factors were derived from the delivery book. Data was analyzed using STATA. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal factors such as parity, age and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria, sex of infant and abnormal birth weight. Association between stillbirth and related factors was assessed using logistic regression. prevalence of low birth weight (macrosomia (≥4.0kg) was 3.03%. There was an increased risk of a first born being of low birth weight than second or third born (RR; 2.04, CI; 1.59-2.64, pmacrosomia and low birth weight co-existed among infants in Hohoe municipality, both of which are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome such as stillbirth. Given the apparent association between maternal age <20 years and increased risk, health promotion strategies aimed at preventing pregnancies among teenagers could be implemented to aid the reduction of stillbirth rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is artificial reproductive technology a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity independent of the generation of multiple births?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lucy; Bunce, Catey; Husain, Shahid; Adams, Gill G W

    2017-03-10

    There is some debate regarding whether artificial reproductive technology (ART) constitutes an independent risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We wanted to assess the prevalence of ART in multiple birth infants seen for ROP screening and whether or not ROP was identified or treated, in order to evaluate whether ART contributes a risk factor for ROP independent of the generation of multiple births. A retrospective audit was performed of all multiple birth babies admitted to a tertiary neonatal unit who met the UK ROP screening criteria (technology multiple birth babies make up a considerable proportion of the ROP screening burden and their number is likely to increase as ART is increasingly available and utilized. We found no significant difference between the numbers of babies developing ROP in the ART vs non-ART groups, but the numbers are small. The estimated odds of developing ROP are slightly higher in the ART babies, so our data do not rule out a possible association.

  7. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J D; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR) and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011), which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15-49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey) and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000-2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third) after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62%) fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first births), with wide regional variation from 55% in

  8. Is low birth weight a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshoj, O; Vaag, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if low birth weight as a consequence of intrauterine malnutrition is a risk factor for the later development of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In a case-control set-up a group of type 1 diabetic subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n = 51) and a matched contr...... in the number of patients with nephropathy in the lower versus upper quartiles of birth weights. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of low birth weight as a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate if low birth weight as a consequence of intrauterine malnutrition is a risk factor for the later development of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In a case-control set-up a group of type 1 diabetic subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n = 51) and a matched control...... nephropathy and 3,600 g (2,880-4,220) in the group without nephropathy, P = 0.52. In the lower quartile of birth weights the median (10-90 percentile) birth weights were 3,000 g (2,780-3,200) in the group with nephropathy versus 2,850 g (2,250-3,175) in the group without nephropathy, P = 0.07. In the upper...

  9. Temporal evolution of the risk factors associated with low birth weight rates in Brazilian capitals (1996-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Buriol, Viviane Costa; Hirakata, Vânia; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; da Silva, Clécio Homrich

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the trend of low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants in Brazilian state capitals between 1996 and 2011. We intended to determine which variables are associated with LBW during the period studied. This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the National Information System of Live Births from 26 state capitals and Brasilia (the federal capital), divided into five geographical regions. The Average Annual Percentage of Change (AAPC) was used to assess the possible time trend in the low birth weight rates for considering all regions together and each region separately, according to each variable, and the Poisson regression was calculated in order to demonstrate time trends in low birth weight and the impact of variables (age and educational maternal level, antenatal visits, type of delivery, and gestational age) during the period. All variables were analyzed together using the Poisson regression as well. From the total of 11,200,255 live births used in this study, there was a significant reduction in the number of live births, especially in the more developed regions. The low birth weight rate was 8 %, and it was stable during the period. Considering regional trends, the rate was higher in the Southeast and South regions, and significantly higher in the North, Northeast, and Central West regions. Improvements in maternal education and antenatal care coverage reduced the risk for low birth weight in all regions. Also, there was an increase in caesarean sections in all regions, with a small impact on low birth weight rates. Improvements in education and health care reduced the risk for low birth weight in all Brazilian regions during the period of study. Trends in low birth weight rates and the associated factors differ from region to region, showing different stages of demographic, epidemiological and developmental transition in Brazil. The present study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre

  10. Is low birth weight a risk factor for asthma during adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Seidman, D S; Laor, A; Gale, R; Stevenson, D K; Danon, Y L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthw...

  11. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butali, Azeez; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Ekhaguere, Osayame; Weathers, Nancy; Ladd, Jenna; Fajolu, Iretiola; Esezobor, Christopher; Makwe, Christian; Odusanya, Bukola; Anorlu, Rose; Adeyemo, Wasiu; Iroha, Edna; Egri-Okwaji, Mathias; Adejumo, Prisca; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Abiodun, Moses; Badejoko, Bolaji; Ryckman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria from 2011 to 2013. We obtained Information from 5,561 maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric records from the labor ward. We excluded delivery at less than 22 weeks (0.25%), post-term birth at ≥42 weeks gestation (1.3%), and unknown gestation (1.4%). Additionally, we excluded records of multiple births (5.4%) and stillbirths (8.3%) leaving 4,691 records of singleton live-births for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed comparing preterm birth (22-36 weeks gestation) to term birth (37-41 weeks gestation). Multiple variable models adjusting for maternal age, parity, fetal position, delivery method and booking status were also evaluated. Multinomial regression was used to identify characteristics associated with preterm birth (PTB) defined as early PTB (22-31 weeks gestation), moderate PTB (32-34 weeks gestation), late PTB (35-36 weeks gestation), compared to term birth (37-41 completed weeks gestation). From our data, 16.8% of the singleton live-birth deliveries were preterm (<37 weeks gestation). Of these, 4.7% were early (22-31 weeks), 4.5% were moderate (32-34 weeks) and 7.7% were late (35-36) PTBs. Older maternal age (≥35 years) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41], hypertension (OR = 3.44) and rupture of membranes (OR = 4.03) were significantly associated with increased odds of PTB. Women being treated for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV were at a significantly decreased risk for PTB (OR = 0.70). Sixteen percent of women in this cohort were not registered for antenatal care in LUTH. These non-registered subjects had significantly greater odds of all categories of PTB, including early (odds ratio (OR) = 20

  12. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (pbirth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  13. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  14. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  15. Clinical and risk factor analysis of cloacal defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Conway, Kristin M; Shen, Dereck; Rhoads, Anthony J; Carey, John C; Romitti, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Cloacal exstrophy (CE) and persistent cloaca (PC) (alternatively termed urorectal septum malformation sequence [URSMS]), represent two major cloacal defects (CDs). Clinical characteristics and risk factors often are studied for both defects combined, rather than exploring if these defects have different etiologies. We enumerated clinical features for 47 CE and 54 PC (inclusive of URSMS) cases from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Thirty-three CE cases were classified as isolated and 14 as multiple (presence of unassociated major defects); respective totals for PC cases were 26 and 28. We compared selected child and maternal characteristics between 11,829 non-malformed controls and CE and PC cases using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Compared to controls, CE and PC cases were statistically more likely (p < 0.05) to be preterm; CE cases were more likely to be multiple births. We conducted logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for any CD, CE, and PC with selected self-reported maternal prepregnancy and periconceptional (one month prior to 3 months following conception) exposures. In crude and adjusted analyses, we observed significant positive associations for any CD, CE, and PC with use of any fertility medication or assisted reproductive technology procedure. Significant positive associations observed only in crude analyses were any CD with maternal obesity or use of progesterone, any CD and CE with any x-ray, and any CD and PC with use of folate antagonist medications. Our findings provide some of the first insights into potential differing etiologies for CE and PC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  17. Hyperemesis gravidarum and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M. H.; Grooten, I. J.; Sebert, S.; Koiranen, M.; Järvelin, M. R.; Kajantie, E.; Painter, R. C.; Roseboom, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal hyperemesis gravidarum upon offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. Design This study is part of the prospective follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Setting Between 1 July 1985 and 30 June 1986 all

  18. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  19. Risk factors vary early preterm birth and perinatal complications after assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, G; Gazieva, I; Remizova, I; Ustyantseva, L; Lyapunov, V; Bychkova, S

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3  +  CD95 + -cells and cytokine-producing CD4  +  IFN-γ + -, CD4  +  IL-4 +  -lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines. Adverse perinatal outcomes in ELBW infants from ART-induced pregnancy are associated with lower anthropometric measures, low Apgar scores high level of inflammatory infections (pneumonia), grade II intraventricular hemorrhage, movement disorders in the form of lower paraparesis. Immune status of those infants is characterized by the increase in the number of CD8 + - and CD3 - CD16  +  CD56 +  -lymphocytes, the expression level of Fas-receptor by T-cells, and the increased production of intracellular and serum IFNγ against the decrease in the number of CD4 + -cells, which indicates enhancing of cytotoxic effector potential and proinflammatory orientation of cell responses.

  20. Month of birth as a latitude-dependent risk factor for multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Nina; Torkildsen, Øivind; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Benjaminsen, Espen; Celius, Elisabeth Gulowsen; Dahl, Ole Petter; Holmøy, Trygve; Løken-Amsrud, Kristin; Midgard, Rune; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Risberg, Geir; Vatne, Anita; Kampman, Margitta T

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to determine if the risk of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is associated with month of birth in Norway and to explore a possible latitudinal gradient. All patients with MS born between 1930 and 1979 registered in the Norwegian MS Registry or ascertained in Norwegian prevalence studies were included (n = 6649). The latitude gradient was divided in Southern, Middle and Northern Norway, according to the estimated regional yearly mean vitamin D effective UV dose. Risk of MS was 11% higher for those born in April (p = 0.045), and 5% higher for those born in May (p = 0.229), 5% lower for those born in November (p = 0.302) and 12% lower for those born in February (p = 0.053) compared with the corresponding population, unaffected mothers and siblings. In Southern Norway the odds ratio of MS births in April and May was 1.05 (0.98-1.24), in Middle Norway 1.11 (0.97-1.27) and in Northern Norway 1.28 (1.0-1.63) compared with the other months. This study confirms previous reports of increased MS births in spring and decreased MS births in the winter months. This could support the role of decreased sunlight exposure during pregnancy and vitamin D deficiency in prenatal life in MS.

  1. [Birth cohort effect on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary artery disease. Experience in a Latin-american country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  3. Impact of maternal risk factors on the incidence of low birth weight neonates in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : U.N.Reddy, VamshiPriya, SwathiChacham, SanaSalimKhan, J Narsing Rao, Mohd Nasir mohiuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is recommended as one of the twelve global indicators for monitoring the health of the community and is an important determinant of adverse perinatal and neonatal events. LBW infant carries five times higher risk of dying in the neonatal period and three times more in infancy. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of LBW and impact of various maternal and biosocial factors on the incidence of LBW neonates in the study population. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Princess Esra hospital, a tertiary care hospital in south India, over a period of six months. All consecutive LBW (single ton neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled, while those born of multiple gestation and those with major congenital malformations were excluded. Results: A total of 300 neonates were included in the present study out of which 150 were LBW and 150 weighed ≥2500 gm. Higher maternal weight (>60kgs had low incidence of LBW neonates (p value-0.03. Illiterate women had a remarkably higher incidence of LBW babies (p value-0.001. In primigravida incidence of LBW was 61.2%. Higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with oligo hydramnio’s. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal age, weight, literacy level and parity have a significant influence on the incidence of LBW. Incidence of LBW neonate in the study was 50%. Risk of having LBW neonates was higher in primigravida. There was a significant association between LBW with oligo hydramnio’s and female gender.

  4. Association of Birth Order with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Young Adulthood: A Study of One Million Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. Methods BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1 065 710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Results Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001) lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (−5.9 N and −3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001). Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Conclusions Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood. PMID:23696817

  5. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Jelenkovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI, muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. METHODS: BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. RESULTS: Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (p<0.001 lower BMI than first-born, respectively. The association pattern differed among muscle strengths. After adjustment for BMI, first-born presented lower elbow flexion and hand grip strength than second-born (-5.9 N and -3.8 N, respectively, p<0.001. Knee extension strength was inversely related to birth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  6. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ...

  7. Nonbiological maternal risk factor for low birth weight on Latin America: a systematic review of literature with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Regina Sanches Ranzani da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify non-biological maternal risk factors to low birthweight in Latin America. Methods: Systematic review of literaturethrough meta-analysis. The tool for methodological evaluation was theStrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in EpidemiologyStatement. Studies in non-pathological maternal risk factors to lowbirthweight and those evaluated by a Strengthening the Reportingof Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement method under Cgrade were excluded. Results: From seven studies, five pointed outthe influence of maternal age under 20. In four studies maternal ageabove 35 years old was relevant to low birth weight. Other factorswere present in only one or two studies. Conclusion: Accordingto this study the maternal age under 20 and above 35 years old isa relevant factor to low birth weight. There are few studies withuniversal and solid methodology, which difficult a systematic reviewof literature though meta-analysis.

  8. Factors contributing to postpartum blood-loss in low-risk mothers through expectant management in Japanese birth centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Ayako; Kataoka, Yaeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2017-08-01

    To describe aspects of expectant midwifery care for low-risk women conducted in midwifery-managed birth centres during the first two critical hours after delivery and to compare differences between midwifery care, client factors and postpartum blood loss volume. As a secondary analysis from a larger study, this descriptive retrospective study examined data from birth records of 4051 women who birthed from 2001 to 2006 at nine (21%) of the 43 midwifery centres in Tokyo. Nonparametric and parametric analyses identified factors related to increased blood loss. Interviews to establish sequence of midwifery care were conducted. The midwifery centres provided care based on expectant management principles from birth to after expulsion of the placenta. Approximately 63.3% of women were within the normal limits of blood loss volume under 500g. A minority of women (12.9%) experienced blood loss between 500 and 800g and 4% had blood loss exceeding 1000g. Blood loss volume tended to increase with infant birth weight and duration of delivery. The total blood loss volume was significantly higher for primiparas than for multiparas during the critical two hours after delivery and for immediately after delivery, yet blood loss volume was significantly higher for multiparas than for primiparas during the first hour after delivery. Preventive uterine massage and umbilical cord clamping after placenta expulsion resulted in statistically significant less blood loss. Identified were two patterns of midwifery care based on expectant management principles from birth to after expulsion of the placenta. The practice of expectant management was not a significant factor for increased postpartum blood loss. These results detail specific midwifery practices and highlight the clinical significance of expectant management with low risk pregnant women experiencing a normal delivery. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR......) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  10. Late preterm birth, post-term birth, and abnormal fetal growth as risk factors for severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, M; Eriksson, J G; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Lahti, J; Wahlbeck, K; Tuovinen, S; Pesonen, A-K; Mikkonen, M; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Räikkönen, K

    2015-04-01

    Late preterm births constitute the majority of preterm births. However, most evidence suggesting that preterm birth predicts the risk of mental disorders comes from studies on earlier preterm births. We examined if late preterm birth predicts the risks of severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood. We also studied whether adulthood mental disorders are associated with post-term birth or with being born small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age, which have been previously associated with psychopathology risk in younger ages. Of 12 597 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants, born 1934-1944, 664 were born late preterm, 1221 post-term, 287 SGA, and 301 LGA. The diagnoses of mental disorders were identified from national hospital discharge and cause of death registers from 1969 to 2010. In total, 1660 (13.2%) participants had severe mental disorders. Individuals born late preterm did not differ from term-born individuals in their risk of any severe mental disorder. However, men born late preterm had a significantly increased risk of suicide. Post-term birth predicted significantly increased risks of any mental disorder in general and particularly of substance use and anxiety disorders. Individuals born SGA had significantly increased risks of any mental and substance use disorders. Women born LGA had an increased risk of psychotic disorders. Although men born late preterm had an increased suicide risk, late preterm birth did not exert widespread effects on adult psychopathology. In contrast, the risks of severe mental disorders across adulthood were increased among individuals born SGA and individuals born post-term.

  11. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value education and income, and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and male gender (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  12. Prevalence of externalizing behavior problems in Sri Lankan preschool children: birth, childhood, and sociodemographic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakkody, Diana; Fernando, Dulitha; McClure, Roderick; Perera, Hemamali; De Silva, Hiranthi

    2012-05-01

    There is dearth of epidemiological data on externalizing behavior problems among preschool children in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and associated birth, childhood, and sociodemographic factors of externalizing behavior problems among a community sample of preschool children in Sri Lanka. Maternal ratings of child behavior were obtained from a community-based sample of 1,117 in the age group of 4-6 years using the Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument, which was developed and validated to assess externalizing behavior problems of preschool children. In addition, mothers responded to a questionnaire on birth and childhood related factors of the index child and sociodemographic status of the family. The prevalence of externalizing behavior problems was estimated as 19.2% (95% CI 17.5-20.9%) with the proportion being significantly higher among boys (p children. The study suggests the need for implementation of strategies and policies focusing at population and family level to reduce the burden associated with externalizing behavior problems in preschool children in Sri Lanka and similar developing countries.

  13. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... at determining whether there was a difference in rates of LBW in areas of varying malaria transmission intensity in Korogwe, Tanzania. Retrospective data for one year (June 2004-May 2005) in three maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in the district were analysed. Villages were stratified into three strata...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  14. Risk Factors for Premature Births: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11.9%) and congenital malformations (10.3%). We recommend enhanced prenatal care and management of pathologies which arise during pregnancy. Keywords: prematurity, risk factors, neonates, hospital outcome, Cameroon (Afr J Reprod ...

  15. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish.......039) when correcting for gestational age (premature birth), but was lost in the group with both disorders. Premature birth per se was found to be associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing both affective disorder and schizophrenia (p = 0.00018), an effect that remained significant after...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  16. Association of the polymorphism 12109g>A from the REN gene as a risk factor for preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irám P Rodríguez-Sánchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is a multifactorial disease with different etiologies, including genetic factors. Genetic variability is represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes of proteins involved in the contractile activity. We determine the association between SNP 12109G> A in REN associated with preterm birth and premature rupture of membrane. Materials and methods: A study of cases (N=112, 22–36 weeks of gestation; mean: 31, 95% confidence interval 30.7–32.2 and controls (N=66; 38–40 weeks of gestation from the last menstrual period; mean: 39.8, 95% confidence interval 38.9–39.4 was performed. Genomic DNA was isolated in all patients from peripheral blood. The SNP 12109G> A (Mbo I in REN was typified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: A significant difference in the case group for the SNP 12109G>A was observed. The A allele was increased in women with preterm birth (81% cases vs. 15% control, p A has odds ratio 6.62 (95% confidence interval 3.14–14.15, which means a high risk of preterm birth/premature rupture of membrane in presence of allele A, both in homozygotes and in heterozygotes. Conclusion: Allelic frequency of A of SNP 12109G>A was higher in women with preterm birth than in women with normal vaginal delivery and could be considered a risk factor.

  17. Are risk factors for preterm and early-term live singleton birth the same? A population-based study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnord, Marie; Blondel, Béatrice; Prunet, Caroline; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-24

    To investigate whether risk factors for preterm (term birth (37 and 38 weeks gestation) are similar. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of births. France in 2010. Live singleton births (n=14 326). Preterm and early-term birth rates overall and by mode of delivery (spontaneous and indicated). Risk factors were maternal sociodemographic characteristics, previous preterm birth, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking, assessed using multinomial regression models with full-term births 39 weeks and over as the reference group. There were 5.5% preterm and 22.5% early-term births. Common risk factors were: a previous preterm delivery (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 8.2 (95% CI 6.2 to 10.7) and aRRR 2.4 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.0), respectively), short stature, underweight (overall and in spontaneous deliveries), obesity (in indicated deliveries only), a low educational level and Sub-Saharan African origin. In contrast, primiparity was a risk factor only for preterm birth, aRRR 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.2), while higher parity was associated with greater risk of early-term birth. Most population-level risk factors were common to both preterm and early-term birth with the exception of primiparity, and BMI which differed by mode of onset of delivery. Our results suggest that preterm and early-term birth share similar aetiologies and thus potentially common strategies for prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  19. Risk factors associated with preterm birth among singletons following assisted reproductive technology in Australia 2007–2009–a population-based retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xu K; Wang, Yueping A; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal death, is more common in multiple births and thus there has being an increasing call for reducing multiple births in ART. However, few studies have compared risk factors for preterm births amongst ART and non-ART singleton birth mothers. Methods A population-based study of 393,450 mothers, including 12,105 (3.1%) ART mothers, with singleton gestations born between 2007 and 2009 in 5 of the 8 jurisdictions in Australia. Univariable and mult...

  20. Birth by caesarean section and prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in young adults: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    Full Text Available Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood.In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200, fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004-2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297, and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood.In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25 higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m(2 (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71. After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67. Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section.Caesarean section was associated with a small increased in systolic blood pressure, body mass index and fat mass.

  1. Retinopathy of Prematurity among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea: Incidence, Treatment, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong Hee; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to describe the incidence, risk factors, and current treatment status of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants registered in the Korean Neonatal Network database. Medical records of 2,009 VLBW infants born between January 2013 and June 2014 who underwent examination by an ophthalmologist were reviewed. The total incidence of ROP was 34.1%. Of the patients, 11.6% showed ROP stage ≥ 3 and 11.5% received treatment of VLBW. Among all infants who received treatment of ROP, 63.6% underwent operation only; 16.9%, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment only; and 19.5%, both operation and anti-VEGF treatment. The mean gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) were significantly lower and the prevalence rates of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), invasive ventilator duration, and sepsis were significantly higher in the VLBW infants with ROP than in those without ROP. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, PDA (odd ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.79) and invasive ventilator duration (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02) were significant risk factors of ROP and ROP stage ≥ 3. In conclusion, the high incidence of ROP is associated with low GA and BW, and attempt to reduce the aforementioned risk factors could reduce the incidence of ROP stage ≥ 3 in VLBW infants.

  2. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Koen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods: Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES, and depression. Results: A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV. The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5 in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions: In this exploratory study

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Very Low Birth Weight in a Large Urban Area, Stratified by Adequacy of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverius, Pamela; Alman, Cameron; Holtz, Lori; Yarber, Laura

    2016-03-01

    This study examined risk and protective factors associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) for babies born to women receiving adequate or inadequate prenatal care. Birth records from St. Louis City and County from 2000 to 2009 were used (n = 152,590). Data was categorized across risk factors and stratified by adequacy of prenatal care (PNC). Multivariate logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) was used to explore risk factors for VLBW infants. Women receiving inadequate prenatal care had a higher prevalence of delivering a VLBW infant than those receiving adequate PNC (4.11 vs. 1.44 %, p < .0001). The distribution of risk factors differed between adequate and inadequate PNC regarding Black race (36.4 vs. 79.0 %, p < .0001), age under 20 (13.0 vs. 33.6 %, p < .0001), <13 years of education (35.9 vs. 77.9 %, p < .0001), Medicaid status (35.7 vs. 74.9, p < .0001), primiparity (41.6 vs. 31.4 %, p < .0001), smoking (9.7 vs. 24.5 %, p < .0001), and diabetes (4.0 vs. 2.4 %, p < .0001), respectively. Black race, advanced maternal age, primiparity and gestational hypertension were significant predictors of VLBW, regardless of adequate or inadequate PNC. Among women with inadequate PNC, Medicaid was protective against (aOR 0.671, 95 % CI 0.563-0.803; PAR -32.6 %) and smoking a risk factor for (aOR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.49; PAR 40.1 %) VLBW. When prematurity was added to the adjusted models, the largest PAR shifts to education (44.3 %) among women with inadequate PNC. Community actions around broader issues of racism and social determinants of health are needed to prevent VLBW in a large urban area.

  4. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  5. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Sander Groen In 't; van Rooij, Iris A L M; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Olney, Richard S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2014-09-01

    Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between second and third degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in the Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2017-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P 35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001, delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002, pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P 35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW.

  7. Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Secondary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Women with a History of Very Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mari; Iwanari, Sachio; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Hagihara, Koichiro; Fumihara, Daiki; Miki, Syo; Shimoda, Saeko; Ikeda, Masaki; Takeoka, Hiroya

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) has been known to increase the susceptibility to renal injury in adulthood. A 26-year-old woman developed proteinuria in early pregnancy; she had been born with very LBW. The clinical course was progressive, and an emergency Caesarean section was performed at 36 weeks due to acute kidney injury. A renal biopsy provided a diagnosis of post-adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Increased demand for glomerular filtration during early pregnancy appeared to have initiated the renal injury. This report highlights the fact that pregnancy might be a risk factor for renal injury in women born with LBW.

  8. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), ...

  9. The maternal periodontal disease as a risk factor of prematurity and low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Dulanto Vargas, Julissa; García Linares, Sixto; Docente del Dpto. Académico Médico Quirúrgico Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Carranza Samanez, Maynor

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the maternal periodontal disease (EP) and the premature delivery (PP) and the low birth weight (BP). The study was a case-control study with 69 mothers, 19 cases (mothers of newborns with premature deliveries and low birth weight (PPBP)), and 50 controls (mothers of babies with gestational age > 37 weeks and birth weight > 2500g) at the “Madre Niño San Bartolomé” Teaching Hospital. The mothers were interrogated and thei...

  10. Low Birth Weight as The Risk factor of Coronary Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Wahyu Wibowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight, a nutritional deficiency is related to the increased in the coronary heart disease insidence. Low birth weight is correlated with the hipotalamus-pituitary-adrenal responsible for the the concentration of cortisol in sirculation, increased in homosistein, insuline resistence and increased C reactive protein playing role on the aterosclerosis process predispose the corronary disease. This paper will discuss the relationship between the low birth weight and the ateroclesoris process leading to coronary heart disesase (Sains Medika, 3(2:185-200.

  11. Trajectories of Sensory Over-Responsivity from Early to Middle Childhood: Birth and Temperament Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2015-01-01

    Sensory over-responsivity, a subtype of sensory modulation disorder, is characterized by extreme negative reactions to normative sensory experiences. These over-reactions can interfere with daily activities and cause stress to children and their families. The etiology and developmental course of sensory over-responsivity is still largely unknown. We measured tactile and auditory over-responsivity in a population-based, typically developing sample of twins (N=978) at age two years via a caregiver report temperament questionnaire and again at age seven years via a sensory over-responsivity symptom inventory. Participating twins were treated as singletons although all analyses controlled for clustering within families. Children were divided into four trajectory groups based on risk status at both ages: low symptom (N=768), remitted (N=75), late-onset (N=112), and chronic (N=24). A subset of children who screened positive for SOR in toddlerhood (N = 102) took part in a pilot study focused on sensory over-responsivity at four years of age. Children in the chronic group had more severe symptoms of sensory sensitivity at age four years, including more motion sensitivity, than the other trajectory groups. Children in the chronic group had a younger gestational age and were more likely to be low birth-weight than the low symptom group. Differences between remitted and late-onset groups and the low-symptoms group were inconsistent across measures. Sensory over-responsivity was modestly correlated across ages (r = .22 for tactile over-responsivity and r = .11 for auditory over-responsivity), but symptoms were more stable among children born prematurely or who had more fearful and less soothable temperaments. A clear implication is that assessment over development may be necessary for a valid sensory processing disorder diagnosis, and a speculative implication is that sensory over-responsivity symptoms may be etiologically heterogeneous, with different causes of transient and

  12. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. RISK FACTORS FOR THE EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN NEWBORNS WITH VERY LOW AND EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the association of perinatal factors with the early neonatal mortality in newborns with very low (VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW.Methods: The statistical data was carried out, that is analysis of 17 perinatal factors of 28 newborns with an ELBW with gestation of 23–27 weeks and 18 newborns with a VLBW with gestation of 28–32 weeks, who died in the first 7 days of life. The comparison group consisted of 25 newborns with an ELBW and 56 children with a VLBW with gestation of 25–27 and 28–32 weeks, respectively, who survived the early neonatal period. The association of risk factors with the early neonatal mortality was assessed by means of a multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. A critical p error level was set equal to 0.05. Results: In newborns with a VLBW the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality depended on a gestation term (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.56–11.71; р = 0.002 and emergency Caesarean section (OR 7.48, 95% CI 1.28–43.74; р = 0.008. A vaginal birth increased the survival chance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01–0.86; р = 0.032. Newborns with an ELBW had the following factors of the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality: gestational age (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.06–7.73; р = 0.038, Apgar score at the 5th minute (OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99–3.69; р = 0.050 and presence of chorioamnionitis (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.0–29.53; p = 0.048. An elective Caesarean section increased the survival chance (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.001–0.44; p = 0.048. Conclusion: Summarizing the obtained data, we can conclude that besides a gestational age the risk of early neonatal mortality in newborns with a VLBW may be increased due to the emergency Caesarean section, with an ELBW — due to a low Apgar score at the 5th minute and the presence of mother's chorioamnionitis. A vaginal birth in newborns with a VLBW and an elective Caesarean section in children with an ELBW increase survival chances.

  14. Obstetricians' knowledge of periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mariano da Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about the knowledge and attitudes of physicians regarding oral care. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of obstetricians about the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm/low birth weight. A questionnaire was emailed to members of the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FEBRASGO. The questionnaire elicited both personal information and knowledge and attitudes regarding the relationship between periodontal diseases and preterm labor. A total of 875 obstetricians responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were female (54.1%, resided in the Southeast (45.6%, worked in both the public and private sectors (61.4%, and had over 15 years of experience in obstetrics (48.9%. A large proportion of obstetricians (93.4% stated that bacteria were associated with periodontal disease, and 94% reported that periodontitis was a condition more severe than gingivitis. In total, over 80% of participating obstetricians reported smoking, preeclampsia, bacterial vaginosis and periodontal disease as risk factors or possible risk factors for preterm birth or low birth weight. A correlation between the experience of the obstetricians and referral of their patients for dental examinations (p < 0.001 was observed. Also, obstetricians who had had their own dental visits more recently were more likely to recommend the same for their patients (p < 0.001. It is concluded that, although obstetricians were aware of the association between gingival inflammation and adverse obstetric outcomes, the attitudes of these professionals were not in agreement with their apparent knowledge regarding periodontal diseases and their possible repercussions.

  15. Factors related to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumours: The ESTELLE and ESCALE studies (SFCE, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Rios, Paula; Lacour, Brigitte; Guerrini-Rousseau, Léa; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Leblond, Pierre; Faure-Conter, Cécile; Pellier, Isabelle; Freycon, Claire; Michon, Jean; Puget, Stéphanie; Ducassou, Stéphane; Orsi, Laurent; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2017-04-15

    Little is known of the causes of childhood brain tumors (CBT). The aims of this study were to investigate whether extremes of birth weight were associated with increased risk of CBT and whether maternal preconceptional folic acid supplementation or breastfeeding reduced the risk. In addition, other maternal characteristics and birth related factors were also investigated. We pooled data from two French national population-based case-control studies with similar designs conducted in 2003-2004 and 2010-2011. The mothers of 510 CBT cases (directly recruited from the national childhood cancer register) and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years, frequency matched by age and gender did a telephone interview, which focussed on demographic and perinatal characteristics, and maternal life style habits and reproductive history. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, study of origin and relevant confounders. No association was found between CBT and birth weight or fetal growth. The use of preconceptional folic acid supplementation was rare (5.3% in cases and 7.8% in controls) and the OR was 0.8 (95% CI 0.5, 1.4). There was no association with breastfeeding, even prolonged (six months or more; OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8, 1.4). Neither was there any association between CBT and other investigated factors (maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, congenital abnormality, maternal reproductive history or use of fertility treatments. Although large, this study was underpowered for subtype analyses. Pooling data with other population-based studies may provide further insight into findings by CBT subtypes. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Incidence and risk factors of sepsis mortality in labor, delivery and after birth: population-based study in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ostad, Ghassan; Kezouh, Abbas; Spence, Andrea R; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2015-08-01

    Maternal sepsis is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality around the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and mortality rate of sepsis, and the associated risk factors for their development during pregnancy, labor, delivery and the post-partum period. We conducted a population-based cohort study consisting of 5 million births that occurred in the USA. Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) database from 1998 to 2008. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for sepsis development and sepsis-related death during admission for delivery. The overall incidence of maternal sepsis was 29.4 per 100 000 births (95%CI: 28.0-30.9) with a sepsis case fatality rate of 4.4 per 100 births (95%CI: 3.5-5.6). Both the incidence of maternal sepsis and sepsis-related death rate have increased over the last decade. Women who are black, older than 35 years and who smoke were more likely to experience maternal sepsis. An association was also found between maternal sepsis and diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, eclampsia, preterm birth, hysterectomy, puerperal infection, post-partum hemorrhage, transfusion and chorioamnionitis. Mortality from maternal sepsis during labor and delivery is an increasing and important problem in westernized countries. Initiatives aimed at improving early recognition and effective management may help reduce the occurrence and outcomes of maternal sepsis at time of labor and delivery. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Obstetric and newborn outcomes and risk factors for low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There remains uncertainty about the impact of HIV on pregnancy outcomes and effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on fetal development. This study describes obstetric outcomes among HIV positive parturients at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. HIV positive parturients were identified in the birth register.

  18. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the .... with 95% confidence and 80% power, with a 6 to 1 ratio of infants in the NBW to LBW group, a sample of 162 NBW ..... community and in order to improve prevention strategies. Fetal anaemia and morbidity incidence.

  19. VitaminA, E, and D deficiencies in tunisian very low birth weight neonates: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Samira; Sethom, Mohamed Marouane; Khouaja-Mokrani, Chahnez; Jabnoun, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2014-06-01

    Preterm neonates are at high risk of vitamin deficiencies, which may expose them to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies in Tunisian very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. A total of 607 VLBW and 300 term neonates were included in the study. Plasma vitamins A and E were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography and vitamin D was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Prevalence of vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies were dramatically elevated in VLBW neonates and were significantly higher than term neonates (75.9% vs. 63.3%; 71.3% vs. 55.5%; and 65.2% vs. 40.4%, respectively). In VLBW neonates, the prevalence of vitamin deficiencies was significantly higher in lower classes of gestational age and birth weight. Vitamin E deficiency was associated with pre-eclampsia [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI), 1.56 (1.01-2.44); p E, and D deficiencies are very common in Tunisian VLBW neonates and are associated with pre-eclampsia. Improved nutritional and health support for pregnant women and high dose vitamins A, E, and D supplementation in VLBW neonates are strongly required in Tunisia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Risk factors associated with late preterm births in the underdeveloped region of China: A cohort study and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Lu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: A number of factors are associated with late preterm births, and the incidence in underdeveloped regions is high. The inconsistent results between our study and previous reports indicate more attention towards preventing late preterm births in undeveloped regions is needed.

  1. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Methods This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983). The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Results Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5)]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy, those who delivered preterm had a higher rate of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless of the location of their placenta in the subsequent delivery [OR 3.09 (95% CI 2.1-4.6)]. In comparison to all patients with who had a primary cesarean section, patients who had placenta previa and delivered preterm had an independent increased risk for recurrent preterm birth [OR of 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.5)]. Conclusions Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended. PMID:22876799

  2. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Risk factors leading to preterm births in Morocco: a prospective study at the maternity Souissi in Rabat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiri, Nargisse; Kabiri, Meryem; Razine, Rachid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Eminent morbidity and mortality of preterm infants is perceived, especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify the main factors involved in the occurrence of premature births in Morocco. This was a descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternity Souissi in Rabat, from January 2011 to December 2011. The data were collected using interview with women in the postpartum, and via, the exploitation of obstetric and perinatal records. The data sheet was filled out for each newborn, including socio-demographic, obstetrical, maternal, childbirth and neonatal data, as well as, monitoring and surveillance of pregnancy. A total of 1015 births were collected. 954 were full term babies and 61 were preterms. The gestational age was between 33-34 weeks in 57.4%. Relying on Statistical analysis, many risk factors were, significantly, associated with the occurrence of prematurity, namely: low level of maternal education (p educate the young woman in childbearing age about the appropriate ways of monitoring pregnancy, as well as, the qualitative and quantitative development of health care structures.

  4. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: a register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Knud; Bendsen, Birgitte Bjerg; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish Med...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia.......Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... Medical Birth Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to identify all individuals born between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1990 and diagnosed prior to 29 August 2003 with affective disorder alone (ICD-10 F3; 4297 females, 1861 males), schizophrenia alone (ICD-10 F2; 1364 females, 2292...

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potential associations between current or previous C. trachomatis infections (general IgG and serovars) and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) were examined and associations between C. trachomatis infections and previous fertility problems were explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: At week 17......, Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (...) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2...

  6. Risk factors for pre-term birth in a Canadian cohort of HIV-positive women: role of ritonavir boosting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Fatima; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Lamarre, Valerie; Ducruet, Thierry; Amre, Devendra; Soudeyns, Hugo; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of pre-term birth (PTB) associated with the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) during pregnancy remains a subject of debate. Recent data suggest that ritonavir boosting of PIs may play a specific role in the initiation of PTB, through an effect on the maternal–fetal adrenal axis. The primary objective of this study is to compare the risk of PTB among women treated with boosted PI versus non-boosted PIs during pregnancy. Methods Between 1988 and 2011, 705 HIV-positive women were enrolled into the Centre Maternel et Infantile sur le SIDA mother–infant cohort at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine in Montreal, Canada. Inclusion criteria for the study were: 1) attendance at a minimum of two antenatal obstetric visits and 2) singleton live birth, at 24 weeks gestational or older. The association between PTB (defined as delivery at <37 weeks gestational age), antiretroviral drug exposure and maternal risk factors was assessed retrospectively using logistic regression. Results A total of 525 mother–infant pairs were included in the analysis. Among them, PI-based combination anti-retroviral therapy was used in 37.4%, boosted PI based in 24.4%, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based in 28.1%, and no treatment was given in 10.0% of cases. Overall, 13.5% of women experienced PTB. Among women treated with antiretroviral therapy, the risk of PTB was significantly higher among women who received boosted versus non-boosted PI (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.02–3.97). This remained significant after adjusting for maternal age, delivery CD4 count, hepatitis C co-infection, history of previous PTB, and parity (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.05–4.51). There was no increased risk of PTB with the use of unboosted PIs as compared to NNRTI- or NRTI-based regimens. Conclusion While previous studies on the association between PTB and PI use have generally considered all PIs the same, our results would

  7. Fetal growth restriction but not preterm birth is a risk factor for severe hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yukiko; Kawai, Masahiko; Nagai, Sizuyo; Matsukura, Takashi; Niwa, Fusako; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Heike, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Hypospadias has multifactorial causes and occurs at a high frequency among very low-birthweight infants. Placental insufficiency is hypothesized to be one cause of hypospadias; that is, decreased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion caused by placental insufficiency is suspected to result in abnormal male external genitalia, but there is little direct evidence to support this. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the features of hypospadias and to clarify the male genital abnormalities caused by fetal growth restriction (FGR). We reviewed the clinical data of boys who underwent hypospadias repair between 2005 and 2011 at Kyoto University Hospital. Twenty boys were included in this study. Fifteen (75%) of the subjects were preterm or low-birthweight infants. Thirteen (65%) had FGR, 60% of whom had severe hypospadias regardless of gestational age. In addition, 92% of the FGR infants also had other genital anomalies, such as cryptorchidism, bifid scrotum, or micropenis. In contrast, only 14% and 43% of the non-FGR infants had severe hypospadias or genital anomalies other than hypospadias, respectively. Placental histopathology was available in eight FGR infants, in seven of whom it was suggestive of blood flow deficiency such as infarction and single umbilical artery. Infants with FGR have a high incidence of hypospadias. FGR caused by placental dysfunction, but not low birthweight, is a risk factor for severe hypospadias associated with multiple genital anomalies. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Modeling birth weight neonates and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.

  9. Risk factors associated with preterm birth among singletons following assisted reproductive technology in Australia 2007-2009--a population-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu K; Wang, Yueping A; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-07

    Preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal death, is more common in multiple births and thus there has being an increasing call for reducing multiple births in ART. However, few studies have compared risk factors for preterm births amongst ART and non-ART singleton birth mothers. A population-based study of 393,450 mothers, including 12,105 (3.1%) ART mothers, with singleton gestations born between 2007 and 2009 in 5 of the 8 jurisdictions in Australia. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate socio-demographic, medical and pregnancy factors associated with preterm births in contrasting ART and non-ART mothers. Ten percent of singleton births to ART mothers were preterm compared to 6.8% for non-ART mothers (P disadvantaged (12.4% in the lowest quintile vs 20.7%), less likely to be smokers (3.8% vs 19.4%), more likely to be first time mothers (primiparous 62.4% vs 40.5%), had more preexisting hypertension and complications during pregnancy. Irrespective of the mode of conception, preexisting medical and pregnancy complications of hypertension, diabetes and antepartum hemorrhages were consistently associated with preterm birth. In contrast, socio-demographic variables, namely young and old maternal age (34), socioeconomic disadvantage (most disadvantaged quintile Odds Ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.77-1.17), smoking (OR 1.12, 95%CI: 0.79-1.61) and priminarity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.35, AOR not significant) shown to be associated with elevated risk of preterm birth for non-ART mothers were not demonstrated for ART mothers, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Nonetheless, in multivariable analysis, the association between ART and the elevated risk for singleton preterm birth persisted after controlling for all included confounding medical, pregnancy and socio-economic factors (AOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.42-1.61). Preterm birth rate is approximately one-and-a-half-fold higher in ART mothers than non

  10. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-10

    The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province from January 2001 to December 2012. We used data from 16 monitoring sites to examine the trend and risk factors for premature birth as well as infant mortality associated with prematurity. A total of 818,481 live births were documented, including 76,923 preterm infants (94 preterm infants per 1,000 live births) and 2,248 deaths due to prematurity (2.75 preterm deaths per 1,000 live births). From 2001 to 2012, the incidence of preterm birth increased from 56.7 to 105.2 per 1,000 live births (P for trend infant mortality rate due to prematurity declined from 95.0 to 13.4 per 1,000 live births (P for trend infant male sex were independently associated with a higher incidence of preterm birth (all p values mortality rate, while use of newborn emergency transport services (NETS) was associated with a lower preterm mortality rate (all p values infant mortality due to prematurity were observed in Hubei Province from 2001 to 2012. Our results provide important information for areas of improvements in reducing incidence and mortality of premature birth.

  11. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koullali, B.; Oudijk, M. A.; Nijman, T. A. J.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pajkrt, E.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history

  12. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Offer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Methods This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983. The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Results Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p Conclusions Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended.

  13. Multiple pregnancy, short cervix, part-time worker, steroid use, low educational level and male fetus are risk factors for preterm birth in Japan: a multicenter, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoneda, Satoshi; Nakabayashi, Masao; Takeda, Yoshiharu; Takeda, Satoru; Sugimura, Motoi; Yoshida, Koyo; Tajima, Atsushi; Manabe, Mami; Akagi, Kozo; Nakagawa, Shoko; Tada, Katsuhiko; Imafuku, Noriaki; Ogawa, Masanobu; Mizunoe, Tomoya; Kanayama, Naohiro; Itoh, Hiroaki; Minoura, Shigeki; Ogino, Mitsuharu; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationship between preterm birth and socioeconomic factors, past history, cervical length, cervical interleukin-8, bacterial vaginosis, underlying diseases, use of medication, employment status, sex of the fetus and multiple pregnancy. In a multicenter, prospective, observational study, 1810 Japanese women registering their future delivery were enrolled at 8⁺⁰ to 12⁺⁶ weeks of gestation. Data on cervical length and delivery were obtained from 1365 pregnant women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Short cervical length, steroid use, multiple pregnancy and male fetus were risk factors for preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation. Multiple pregnancy, low educational level, short cervical length and part-timer were risk factors for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation. Multiple pregnancy and cervical shortening at 20-24 weeks of gestation was a stronger risk factor for preterm birth. Any pregnant woman being part-time employee or low educational level, having a male fetus and requiring steroid treatment should be watched for the development of preterm birth. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  15. Hyperemesis gravidarum and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koot, M H; Grooten, I J; Sebert, S; Koiranen, M; Järvelin, M R; Kajantie, E; Painter, R C; Roseboom, T J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal hyperemesis gravidarum upon offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. This study is part of the prospective follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Between 1 July 1985 and 30 June 1986 all pregnant women in two provinces of Finland were recruited at first antenatal visit (99% of eligible participated). A total of 8953 women with liveborn singleton offspring who consented to having their children followed-up were included. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) was defined as hospitalisation during pregnancy for HG based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD) code. Women who were not hospitalised for HG during pregnancy were used as a reference group. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes were obtained via medical records and questionnaires; 6462 adolescents, aged 16 years, underwent anthropometric measurements (HG n = 42, reference n = 6420) and 5648 adolescents had a fasting blood sample taken (HG n = 36, reference n = 5612). Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid levels in offspring. Multivariate regression analyses showed no differences in offspring BMI (kg/m 2 ; adjusted percentage difference HG versus reference, 2.2; 95% CI -0.1, 4.6), systolic blood pressure (adjusted difference 2.1 mmHg; 95% CI -1.5, 5.6), and fasting blood glucose (mmol/l; adjusted percentage difference, 2.3; 95% CI -0.6, 5.4), between adolescents born to mothers with and without HG. We found no evidence that prenatal exposure to HG has negative consequences for cardiometabolic health of offspring at the age of 16 years. Hyperemesis gravidarum does not affect cardiometabolic health in adolescent offspring. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. History of induced abortion as a risk factor for preterm birth in European countries: results of the EUROPOP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Lelong, Nathalie; Papiernik, Emile; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Kaminski, Monique

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between history of induced abortion and preterm delivery in various parts of Europe, and according to the main cause of preterm birth. We used data from a case-control survey, the EUROPOP study; 2938 preterm births and 4781 controls at term from ten European countries were included. Based on national statistics, we distinguished three groups of countries with high, intermediate and low rates of induced abortion. Previous induced abortions were significantly associated with preterm delivery and the risk of preterm birth increased with the number of abortions. Odds ratios did not differ significantly between the three groups of countries. The extent of association with previous induced abortion varied according to the cause of preterm delivery. Previous induced abortions significantly increased the risk of preterm delivery after idiopathic preterm labour, preterm premature rupture of membranes and ante-partum haemorrhage, but not preterm delivery after maternal hypertension. The strength of the association increased with decreasing gestational age at birth. Identifying subgroups of preterm births on the basis of the complications involved in delivery increases our understanding of the mechanisms by which previous induced abortion affects subsequent pregnancy outcomes.

  17. A long-term follow up study of a birth cohort of boxer dogs in The Netherlands : genetic and environmental risk factors for diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, Marjan Antonia Elisabeth van

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term follow up of a birth cohort of boxer dogs to study disease incidence, mortality, as well as genetic and environmental risk factors in a purebred dog population in The Netherlands. During the last decades, both the number of genetic disorders and the disease rate

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening for chronic hepatitis C infection in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    Full Text Available No consensus exists on screening to detect the estimated 2 million Americans unaware of their chronic hepatitis C infections. Advisory groups differ, recommending birth-cohort screening for baby boomers, screening only high-risk individuals, or no screening. We assessed one-time risk assessment and screening to identify previously undiagnosed 40-74 year-olds given newly available hepatitis C treatments.A Markov model evaluated alternative risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening and treatment strategies. Risk factors included drug use history, blood transfusion before 1992, and multiple sexual partners. Analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provided sex-, race-, age-, and risk-factor-specific hepatitis C prevalence and mortality rates. Nine strategies combined screening (no screening, risk-factor guided screening, or birth-cohort screening and treatment (standard therapy-peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, Interleukin-28B-guided (IL28B triple-therapy-standard therapy plus a protease inhibitor, or universal triple therapy. Response-guided treatment depended on HCV genotype. Outcomes include discounted lifetime costs (2010 dollars and quality adjusted life-years (QALYs. Compared to no screening, risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening for 50 year-olds gained 0.7 to 3.5 quality adjusted life-days and cost $168 to $568 per person. Birth-cohort screening provided more benefit per dollar than risk-factor guided screening and cost $65,749 per QALY if followed by universal triple therapy compared to screening followed by IL28B-guided triple therapy. If only 10% of screen-detected, eligible patients initiate treatment at each opportunity, birth-cohort screening with universal triple therapy costs $241,100 per QALY. Assuming treatment with triple therapy, screening all individuals aged 40-64 years costs less than $100,000 per QALY.The cost-effectiveness of one-time birth-cohort hepatitis C screening for 40-64 year olds

  19. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neebha Ojha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers.  Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors.  Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.

  20. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Mark D; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H D; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S K; Reddy, K Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] ). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  1. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009. Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI th > 30 kg/m [2] . Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm. A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function.

  2. Risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infections during the first 3 years of life in the tropics; findings from a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Stefanie K; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Guadalupe, Irene; Cooper, Philip J

    2014-02-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador. Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrollment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children) and T. trichiura (21.2%). Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk. Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children.

  3. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria Dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. Determinar a frequência e os fatores de risco de recém-nascidos pequenos para idade gestacional em uma maternidade de alto risco. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal e caso-controle, realizado em maternidade pública de nível terciário. Foram levantados dados de 998 recém-nascidos e de suas respectivas mães por meio de entrevista e análise de prontuários e de cartões do pré-natal. Algumas placentas foram submetidas à análise anatomopatológica. As variáveis dos recém-nascidos pequenos e não pequenos para idade gestacional e de suas respectivas mães foram comparadas estatisticamente pelo teste paramétrico t de Student, pelo teste exato de Fisher e por odds ratio. O nível de signific

  4. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. (Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19[1]: 14-24). Keywords: birth ..... 25-38 months (reference), 39-59 months, and > 60 months. Figures presented are Relative Risk Ratio of birth interval category relative to 25-38 months, associated 95% Confidence Intervals,.

  5. Risk factors occurring during pregnancy and birth in relation to brain functioning and child’s anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bögels, S.; Stoel, R.; Schutter, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the most objective risk factors during pregnancy (prenatal) and delivery (perinatal) precede child's anxiety, and whether these factors exerted their influence via child's non-specific cerebral functioning. Method: Median-anxious (n = 82) and high-anxious (n =

  6. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  7. Birth-related retinal hemorrhages in healthy full-term newborns and their relationship to maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Yu; Li, Zijing; Lin, Yu; Liu, Ran; Wei, Chunyi; Ding, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose was to explore underlying maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors of retinal hemorrhages (RH) in healthy full-term newborns. A total of 1199 full-term infants, with gestational age more than 37 weeks and Apgar score of 7 or above, were included in this study. Infants with severe systemic diseases or any other eye diseases were excluded. Eye examinations with RetCamIII within 1 week of birth were performed in all infants. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal parameters were analyzed and compared between newborns with RH and those without RH. RH was seen in 294 of the 1199 infants (24.5 %) in this study. Among factors examined in the study, spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (odds ratio [OR] =3.811 [95 % CI2.649-5.483], P history of cesarean delivery correlated negatively with RH occurrence (OR = 0.296 [95 % CI0.139-0.630], P = 0.002). There was no statistical correlation found between RH and the other risk factors examined in this study. These factors included gender, gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, volume, and turbidity of amniotic fluid, duration of the first or second stage of labor, anemia, hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP), fetal distress, intracranial hemorrhage, and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. RH is common in full-term newborns. A lower prevalence of newborn RH was found in infants delivered by mothers with a history of cesarean delivery. In contrast, SVD and cephalhematoma were found to be potential risk factors for the development of newborn RH in full-term infants. Infants with these risk factors may, therefore, require greater attention in regard to RH development.

  8. Algunos factores de riesgo asociados al recién nacido con bajo peso Some risk factors associated with the low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora María Pérez Guirado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y con un modelo de diseño del tipo de casos y controles de toda las mujeres pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico Docente "Bernardo Posse", en el municipio San Miguel del Padrón, que tuvieron un recién nacido con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g en el período comprendido entre los años 1995 y 2004, conformada así la muestra estudio. De forma aleatoria se conformó un grupo control de mujeres con recién nacidos con peso superior o igual a los 2 500 g. Se aplicaron test estadísticos para la determinación del riesgo relativo, el Chi cuadrado y el intervalo de confianza del riesgo relativo de cada factor. En esta investigación quedó demostrado que la edad mayor de 35 años, la anemia, la urosepsis, la hipertensión arterial y las modificaciones cervicales son, entre otros, los antecedentes y riesgos que con más frecuencia aportaron a este indicador en nuestra área de salud. Se observó también la incidencia de los problemas nutricionales relacionados con la ganancia total de peso menor de 8 kg, la valoración nutricional de bajo peso, y el antecedente de recién nacido bajo peso al nacer.An observational analytical case and control study was conducted among all women from the health area of "Bernardo Posse" Teaching Polyclinic, in the municipality of San Miguel del Padrón, that had children with a weight under 2 500 g between 1995 and 2004 (study group. A control group composed of women with newborns with a weight equal to or over 2 500 g was selected at random. Statistical tests, such as Chi square test and the confidence interval of the relative risk of every factor, were applied to determine the relative risk. It was proved in this research that age over 35, anemia, urosepsis, arterial hypertension and the cervical modifications are, among others, the antecedents and risks that influenced the most on this indicator in our health area. It was also observed the incidence of

  9. Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder: Evidence from a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the social, family background, and individual antecedents of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the extent to which CD and ODD symptoms were predicted by common environmental risk factors, and the extent to which the antecedents of CD and ODD accounted for the comorbidity between the two disorders.…

  10. Practice variation of vaginal birth after cesarean and the influence of risk factors at patient level: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, E.; Schoorel, E.N.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Mol, B.J.; Nijhuis, J.G.; Aardenburg, R.; Alink, M.; Boer, K. de; Delemarre, F.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Dooren, I.M. van; Franssen, M.T.; Kaplan, M.; Kleiverda, G.; Kuppens, S.M.; Kwee, A.; Langenveld, J.; Lim, F.T.; Melman, S.; Sikkema, M.J.; Smits, L.J; Visser, H.; Woiski, M.D.; Scheepers, H.C.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Large practice variation exists in mode of delivery after cesarean section, suggesting variation in implementation of contemporary guidelines. We aim to evaluate this practice variation and to what extent this can be explained by risk factors at patient level. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

  11. Practice variation of vaginal birth after cesarean and the influence of risk factors at patient level : A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, Emy; Schoorel, Ellen N. C.; van Kuijk, Sander M. J.; Mol, Ben-Willem J.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Aardenburg, Robert; Alink, Marleen; de Boer, Karin; Delemarre, Friso M. C.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Van Dooren, Ivo M. A.; Franssen, Maureen T. M.; Kaplan, Mesrure; Kleiverda, Gunilla; Kuppens, Simone M. I.; Kwee, Anneke; Langenveld, Josje; Lim, Frans T. H.; Melman, Sonja; Sikkema, Marko J.; Smits, Luc J.; Visser, Harry; Woiski, Mallory; Scheepers, Hubertina C.; Hermens, Rosella P. M. G.

    IntroductionLarge practice variation exists in mode of delivery after cesarean section, suggesting variation in implementation of contemporary guidelines. We aim to evaluate this practice variation and to what extent this can be explained by risk factors at patient level. Material and methodsThis

  12. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood: a birth cohort study using the Danish Registry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Christoffersen, Mogens; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-03-01

    A number of social, familial, and psychological factors have been identified to explain the onset of mood and anxiety disorders among adolescent and young adult populations. The purpose of this study is to identify the shared and unique predictors of anxiety and mood disorders by simultaneously testing a range of established psychosocial risk factors. A national birth cohort of the Danish population born in 1984 and tracked over the course of the first 21 years of their life was used in the current study (n = 54,458). Psychosocial risk factors including paternal and maternal history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors of anxiety disorders but not mood disorders. Between the ages of 10 and 21 years, anxiety and mood disorders share many common risk factors. However, urban dwelling and childhood adversity appear to be unique predictors of anxiety disorders. Results suggest there is no dominant factor in the prediction of either disorder, rather the accumulation of different risk factors is most deleterious.

  13. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  14. Effects of prolonged second stage, method of birth, timing of caesarean section and other obstetric risk factors on postnatal urinary incontinence: an Australian nulliparous cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; Gartland, D; Donath, S; MacArthur, C

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of prolonged labour, method of birth, timing of caesarean section and other obstetric risk factors to postpartum urinary incontinence. Prospective pregnancy cohort. Six metropolitan public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. A total of 1507 nulliparous women recruited to the maternal health study in early pregnancy (≤24 weeks). Data from hospital medical records and self-administered questionnaires/telephone interviews at ≤24 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and 3 months postpartum analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Urinary incontinence 3 months postpartum in women continent before the index pregnancy. Of the women continent before pregnancy, 26% reported new incontinence at 3 months postpartum. Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal birth, women who had a caesarean section before labour (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5) or in the first stage of labour (adjusted OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4) were less likely to be incontinent 3 months postpartum. Adjusted OR for incontinence after caesarean section in the second stage of labour compared with spontaneous vaginal birth was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.0). Prolonged second stage labour was associated with increased likelihood of postpartum incontinence in women who had a spontaneous vaginal birth (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4) or operative vaginal birth (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). In addition to pregnancy itself, physiological changes associated with the second stage of labour appear to play a role in postpartum urinary incontinence. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  15. Childhood risk factors for lifetime bulimic or compulsive eating by age 30 years in a British national birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, D; Statham, R; Costa, S; Micali, N; Viner, R M

    2016-10-01

    To examine whether previously identified childhood risk factors for bulimia or compulsive eating (BCE) predict self-reported lifetime BCE by age 30 years in a prospective birth cohort. Using data from the 1970 British Cohort Study at birth, 5, and 10 years, associations between 22 putative childhood risk factors and self-reported lifetime BCE at 30 years were examined, adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status. Only female sex (odds ratio (OR): 9.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-43.7; p = 0.005), low self-esteem (OR:2.9; 95%CI: 1.1-7.5; p = 0.03) and high maternal education (OR:5.4; 95%CI: 2.0-14.8; p = 0.001) were significantly associated with higher risk of BCE, whereas high SES at 10 years was significantly protective (OR:0.2; 95%CI: 0.1-0.8; p = 0.022) of BCE in fully adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis. Our findings do not support a strong role for childhood weight status and eating behaviours in the development of bulimia and compulsive eating pathology, rather suggesting a focus on self esteem may have greater relative importance. Findings in relation to maternal education and SES need further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Factor Models for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Marlow, Neil

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of long-term outcomes in surviving infants born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) is necessary to guide clinical management, provide information to parents, and help target and evaluate interventions. There is a large body of literature describing risk factor models for neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT/VLBW children, yet few, if any, have been developed for use in routine clinical practice or adopted for use in research studies or policy evaluation. We sought to systematically review the methods and reporting of studies that have developed a multivariable risk factor model for neurodevelopment in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases from January 1, 1990, to June 1, 2014, and identified 78 studies reporting 222 risk factor models. Most studies presented risk factor analyses that were not intended to be used for prediction, confirming that there is a dearth of specifically designed prognostic modeling studies for long-term outcomes in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology and reporting to date, and provide recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies seeking to analyze risk prediction or develop prognostic models for VPT/VLBW children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Risk factors for dementia in the ninth decade of life and beyond: a study of the Lothian birth cohort 1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbett, Ruth A; Russ, Tom C; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2017-06-02

    With increasing numbers of people surviving beyond eighty years, this section of the population demands attention to reduce the impact of dementia. In order to develop effective preventative strategies, it is essential to understand age-specific risk factor profiles for dementia: do risk factors for dementia in those in their sixties and seventies persist into oldest age? The aims of this study were to determine incident dementia and to investigate the risk profile for dementia from age 79 to 95 years in a well-characterised cohort. Participants underwent intelligence testing at age 11 and were followed-up from at 79 years of age. Variables included: age, sex, age 11 IQ, APOE ɛ4, education, diabetes, hypertension, statin use, physical activity at leisure and in occupation, symptoms of depression, height, number of teeth, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol and HbA1c. Dementia cases were ascertained from death certificates, electronic patient records and clinical reviews. Logistic regression analysis determined the degree of risk for dementia associated with each variable. Analyses were completed both with and without the physical activity variables due to the significant number of missing data for these variables. Of the eligible cohort, n = 410 participants remained dementia-free and n = 110 had developed probable dementia. When logistic regression analyses contained all variables, complete data was available for n = 234 (n = 48 with dementia). Results demonstrated that positive APOE ɛ4 carrier status (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 4.42) and greater lifetime physical activity (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28) increased the risk for dementia. A reduction in risk for dementia was seen for hypertension (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.98). When physical activity variables were excluded, the number with complete data increased to n = 377 (n = 80 with dementia). APOE ɛ4 remained significant (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.37, 4.07), as did hypertension (OR: 0.55; 95

  18. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy T. Efird

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive.

  19. Parental obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among their offspring in mid-life: findings from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R; Pinto Pereira, S M; Power, C; Hyppönen, E

    2013-12-01

    Few studies have investigated whether parental adiposity is associated with offspring cardiovascular health or the underlying pathways. Studying these associations may help to illuminate the paradox of increasing prevalence of obesity and declining trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, which may be partially explained by beneficial adaptations to an obesogenic environment among people exposed to such environments from younger ages. To investigate associations between parental body mass index (BMI) and risk factors for CVD among their offspring in mid-life and to test whether associations of offspring BMI with CVD risk factors were modified by parental BMI. Data from parents and offspring in the 1958 British birth cohort were used (N=9328). Parental BMI was assessed when offspring were aged 11 years; offspring BMI, waist circumference and CVD risk factors (lipid levels, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and inflammatory and haemostatic markers) were measured at 44-45 years. Higher parental BMI was associated with less favourable levels of offspring risk factors for CVD. Most associations were maintained after adjustment for offspring lifestyle and socioeconomic factors but were largely abolished or reversed after adjustment for offspring adiposity. For some CVD risk factors, there was evidence of effect modification; the association between higher BMI and an adverse lipid profile among offspring was weaker if maternal BMI had been higher. Conversely, offspring BMI was more strongly associated with HbA1c if parental BMI had been higher. Intergenerational influences may be important in conferring the effect of high BMI on CVD risk among offspring.

  20. Psychological, cultural and neuroendocrine profiles of risk for preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, R Jeanne; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachichi, Indika; Balcazar, Hector G; Stowe, Raymond P; Ayers, Kimberly S; Pickler, Rita

    2015-09-03

    Preterm birth remains a major obstetrical problem and identification of risk factors for preterm birth continues to be a priority in providing adequate care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate risk profiles for preterm birth using psychological, cultural and neuroendocrine measures. From a cross sectional study of 515 Mexican American pregnant women at 22-24 weeks gestation, a latent profile analysis of risk for preterm birth using structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted. We determined accurate gestational age at delivery from the prenatal record and early ultrasounds. We also obtained demographic and prenatal data off of the chart, particularly for infections, obstetrical history, and medications. We measured depression (Beck Depression Inventory), mastery (Mastery scale), coping (The Brief Cope), and acculturation (Multidimensional Acculturation Scale) with reliable and valid instruments. We obtained maternal whole blood and separated it into plasma for radioimmunoassay of Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone (CRH). Delivery data was obtained from hospital medical records. Using a latent profile analysis, three psychological risk profiles were identified. The "low risk" profile had a 7.7% preterm birth rate. The "moderate risk" profile had a 12% preterm birth rate. The "highest risk" profile had a 15.85% preterm birth rate. The highest risk profile had double the percentage of total infections compared to the low risk profile. High CRH levels were present in the moderate and highest risk profiles. These risk profiles may provide a basis for screening for Mexican American women to predict risk of preterm birth, particularly after they are further validated in a prospective cohort study. Future research might include use of such an identified risk profile with targeted interventions tailored to the Hispanic culture.

  1. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants at 1 year of corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Cláudia; Procianoy, Renato S; Silveira, Rita C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia and iron deficiency at 1 year of corrected age (CA) in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants, and to identify risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia. A cohort of infants with birth weight Anemia diagnosis was based on hemoglobin infant formula); hospitalizations during the first year and weight, head circumference, body mass index and length at 12 months' CA were analyzed. Prevalence of anemia in 310 participants was 26.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.8-31.6%] and of iron deficiency was 48% (95% CI 39.0-56.9%). Increased consumption of cow's milk at 6 months [relative risk (RR) 1.687; 95% CI 1.146-2.483], lower maternal age (RR 0.953; 95% CI 0.923-0.983), high number of pregnancies (RR 1.256; 95% CI 1.122-1.406) and being born small for gestational age (RR 1.578; 95% CI 1.068-2.331) were independently associated with anemia after adjustments. Prevalence of anemia is high at 1 year of CA. Dietary and environmental education strategies may help prevent anemia after discharge.

  3. Polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1-beta promoters with possible gene regulatory functions increase the risk of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    >C and IL1B -511 C>T rare alleles (C and T) have an increased risk of preterm birth with OR 3.1 (95\\% CI: 1.0-10.3) and OR 6.4 (95\\% CI: 1.3-60.5), respectively. Two estimated TNFA haplotypes were associated with preterm birth with OR 3.1 (p=0.037) and OR 2.7 (p=0.045). Conclusion. Polymorphisms...... in the cytokine genes TNFA and IL1B may increase the risk of preterm birth, possibly by a dysregulation of the immune system in pregnancy....

  4. Polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1-beta promoters with possible gene regulatory functions increase the risk of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    >C and IL1B -511 C>T rare alleles (C and T) have an increased risk of preterm birth with OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.0-10.3) and OR 6.4 (95% CI: 1.3-60.5), respectively. Two estimated TNFA haplotypes were associated with preterm birth with OR 3.1 (p=0.037) and OR 2.7 (p=0.045). CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms...... in the cytokine genes TNFA and IL1B may increase the risk of preterm birth, possibly by a dysregulation of the immune system in pregnancy....

  5. Social class at birth and risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Brian; Fanning, Felicity; Lyne, John; Renwick, Laoise; Madigan, Kevin; Kinsella, Anthony; Lane, Abbie; Turner, Niall; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with psychotic disorders are represented more in the lower social classes, yet there is conflicting evidence to whether these individuals drift into the lower social classes or whether lower social class is a risk factor for developing psychosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether the social class at birth is a risk factor for developing psychosis. We included individuals with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) whose social class at birth was determined from birth records. We employed a case-control study design and also compared the distribution of the social classes at birth of the cases to that of the general population. A total of 380 individuals with an FEP and 760 controls were included in the case-control study. The odds ratio for developing an FEP associated with social class (low vs high) was .62 (95% confidence interval (CI): .46-.85, p social class at birth have a reduced risk of psychosis. Individuals born between 1961 and 1980 with an FEP were more likely to be from a higher social class at birth compared to the general population (60.8% vs 36.7%, χ(2) = 60.85, df = 1, p social class at birth is associated with a greater risk for developing a psychotic disorder; however, this effect may show temporal variation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Française Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia; Keyes, Katherine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In France, rates of perinatal smoking are among the highest worldwide; however, perinatal smoking trajectories and associated factors have still not been adequately researched. Among women participating in the French nationally representative etude longitudinale française depuis l'enfance birth cohort (n = 15,540), perinatal smoking trajectories were estimated using group-based modelling. Associated characteristics were studied using multinomial logistic regression. Four trajectories were identified: non-smokers (59%), quitters (20%), persistent moderate (12%) and persistent heavy (9%) smokers. Older age, being native French, low socioeconomic position, persistent psychological difficulties and alcohol use in pregnancy, lack of social support, partner's smoking, mistimed pregnancy, and child formula feeding at birth were associated with persistent heavy smoking. Most of these factors were also associated, but to a lesser extent, with persistent moderate smoking, except for age and migrant status, which had opposite effects. Women who successfully lost weight prior to pregnancy had higher levels of quitting smoking. Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  8. Prevalence of macrosomia and its risk factors in china: a multicentre survey based on birth data involving 101,723 singleton term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Kong, Lijun; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Li; Fan, Ling; Zou, Liying; Chen, Yi; Ruan, Yan; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2014-07-01

    Macrosomia, defined as a birthweight at least 4000 g, is a public health problem because of its adverse influences on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Studies show that there is an increasing prevalence of macrosomia births in developing countries. However, information on the epidemiology of macrosomia is limited in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and geographic variability of macrosomia in China and risk factors that can be targeted for intervention. A hospital-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 14 provinces in China, covering a wide range of geographic areas. The medical records of 101,723 singleton term infants born in 39 hospitals during 2011 were reviewed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between demographic characteristics and the risk of macrosomia. The total prevalence of macrosomia was 7.3%. The prevalence varied between provinces, ranging from 4.1% to 13.4%. The prevalence of macrosomia in northern China (8.5%) was significantly higher than that in southern China (5.6%). Logistic regression analyses showed that risk of macrosomia was positively associated with maternal age, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI), gravidity, parity, maternal height, gestational weight gain (GWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and male fetal sex. Maternal BMI, gestational week, and GWG were the three risk factors most strongly associated with macrosomia. The prevalence of macrosomia varied dramatically between different areas of China. High pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG represent main modifiable risk factors for macrosomia and need more attention from health care providers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A STUDY ON PREVAL E NCE OF BIRTH DEFECTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS IN FAKHRUDHIN ALI AH MED MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Congenital anomalies or Birth Defects are a global problem. It is the most common cause of disability in developed and developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the overall prevalence of clinically detectable congenital anomalies in newborns along with the different forms of congenital anomalies and associated risk factors if any over a period of one year. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: I t’s an observational analytical cross sectional type of study. Seven thousand seven hundred and ninety eight babies born during the period from 1 st Nov, 2013 to 31 st Oct, 2014 were analyzed. Details of cases were recorded after parent’s interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. RESULTS: In our study, we have found that out of the total no. of 7798 babies born during the said period, the total number of congenital anomalies found were 53 0.7%. Cleft lip and palate was the most common anomaly followed by clubfoot. System wise, congenital anomaly of the musculoskeletal system was the highest (45.3%. A male preponderance is seen with M:F = 4:3. Maximum number of anomalies was found in the 20 - 25 y rs of age group. Moreover, anomalies were found more in primi gravida. Various risk factors were associated in 9 numbers of cases out of 53. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of congenital anomaly was found to be 0.7% and therefore awareness about preventable risk f actors should be created and early prenatal diagnosis and management of anomalies is recommended.

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles of 263,356 older Australians according to region of birth and acculturation, with a focus on migrants born in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Guo

    Full Text Available Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and physical inactivity, are common in Australia, but the prevalence varies according to cultural background. We examined the relationship between region of birth, measures of acculturation, and CVD risk profiles in immigrant, compared to Australian-born, older Australians. Cross-sectional data from 263,356 participants aged 45 and over joining the population-based 45 and Up Study cohort from 2006-2008 were used. Prevalence ratios for CVD risk factors in Australian- versus overseas-born participants were calculated using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic factors and focusing on Asian migrants. The association between time resident in Australia and age at migration and CVD risk factors in Asian migrants was also examined. Migrants from Northeast (n = 3,213 and Southeast Asia (n = 3,942 had lower levels of overweight/obesity, physical activity and female smoking than Australian-born participants (n = 199,356, although differences in prevalence of overweight/obesity were sensitive to body-mass-index cut-offs used. Compared to Australian-born participants, migrants from Northeast Asia were 20-30% less likely, and from Southeast Asia 10-20% more likely, to report being treated for hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia; Southeast Asian migrants were 40-60% more likely to report diabetes. Northeast Asian-born individuals were less likely than Australian-born to have 3 or more CVD risk factors. Diabetes, treated hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia occurred at relatively low average body-mass-index in Southeast Asian migrants. The CVD risk factor profiles of migrants tended to approximate those of Australian-born with increasing acculturation, in both favourable (e.g., increased physical activity and unfavourable directions (e.g., increased female smoking. Minimizing CVD risk in migrant populations may be achieved through

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Profiles of 263,356 Older Australians According to Region of Birth and Acculturation, with a Focus on Migrants Born in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuyu; Lucas, Robyn M.; Joshy, Grace; Banks, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and physical inactivity, are common in Australia, but the prevalence varies according to cultural background. We examined the relationship between region of birth, measures of acculturation, and CVD risk profiles in immigrant, compared to Australian-born, older Australians. Cross-sectional data from 263,356 participants aged 45 and over joining the population-based 45 and Up Study cohort from 2006–2008 were used. Prevalence ratios for CVD risk factors in Australian- versus overseas-born participants were calculated using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic factors and focusing on Asian migrants. The association between time resident in Australia and age at migration and CVD risk factors in Asian migrants was also examined. Migrants from Northeast (n = 3,213) and Southeast Asia (n = 3,942) had lower levels of overweight/obesity, physical activity and female smoking than Australian-born participants (n = 199,356), although differences in prevalence of overweight/obesity were sensitive to body-mass-index cut-offs used. Compared to Australian-born participants, migrants from Northeast Asia were 20–30% less likely, and from Southeast Asia 10–20% more likely, to report being treated for hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia; Southeast Asian migrants were 40–60% more likely to report diabetes. Northeast Asian-born individuals were less likely than Australian-born to have 3 or more CVD risk factors. Diabetes, treated hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia occurred at relatively low average body-mass-index in Southeast Asian migrants. The CVD risk factor profiles of migrants tended to approximate those of Australian-born with increasing acculturation, in both favourable (e.g., increased physical activity) and unfavourable directions (e.g., increased female smoking). Minimizing CVD risk in migrant populations may be achieved through efforts to

  12. The onset, recurrence and associated obstetric risk factors for urinary incontinence in the first 18 months after a first birth: an Australian nulliparous cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, D; Donath, S; MacArthur, C; Brown, S J

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the contribution of obstetric risk factors to persistent urinary incontinence (UI) between 4 and 18 months postpartum. Prospective pregnancy cohort. Six metropolitan public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. A total of 1507 nulliparous women recruited to the Maternal Health Study in early pregnancy (≤24 weeks of gestation). Data from hospital records and self-administered questionnaires/telephone interviews at ≤24 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months postpartum analysed using logistic regression. Persistent UI 4-18 months postpartum in women continent before pregnancy. Of the women who were continent before pregnancy, 44% reported UI 4-18 months postpartum, and 25% reported persistent UI (symptoms at multiple follow ups). Compared with spontaneous vaginal birth, women who had a caesarean before labour (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.2-0.9), in first-stage labour (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) or in second-stage labour (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) were less likely to report persistent UI 4-18 months postpartum. Prolonged second-stage labour in women who had an operative vaginal birth was associated with increased likelihood of UI (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.6). Compared with women who were continent in pregnancy, women reporting UI in pregnancy had a seven-fold increase in odds of persistent UI (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 5.1-10.7). Persistent UI is common after childbirth and is more likely following prolonged labour in combination with operative vaginal birth. The majority of women reporting persistent UI at 4-18 months postpartum also experienced symptoms in pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  13. Risk factors for malaria and adverse birth outcomes in a prospective cohort of pregnant women resident in a high malaria transmission area of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; Moore, Kerryn A; Baiwog, Francesca; Ura, Alice; Clapham, Caroline; King, Christopher L; Siba, Peter M; Beeson, James G; Mueller, Ivo; Fowkes, Freya J; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight (LBW), anaemia and malaria are common in Papua New Guinean women. To identify risk factors for LBW, anaemia and preterm delivery (PTD), pregnant women recruited into a cohort study in Madang, Papua New Guinea, were followed to delivery. Of 470 women enrolled, delivery data were available for 328 (69.7%). By microscopy, 34.4% (113/328) of women had malaria parasitaemia at enrolment and 12.5% (41/328) at delivery; at each time point, PCR detected sub-microscopic parasitaemia in substantially more. Most infections were with Plasmodium falciparum; the remainder being predominantly P. vivax. Anaemia and smoking were associated with lower birth weight, and LBW (16.7%; 51/305) and PTD (21.8%; 63/290) were common. Histopathologically diagnosed chronic placental malaria was associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.3; p=0.048) and PTD (aOR 4.2; p=0.01). Lack of maternal education predisposed to PTD. Sub-microscopic parasitaemia at delivery appeared to increase the risk of LBW. Of the genetic polymorphisms, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis, α(+)-thalassaemia and complement receptor 1 (CR1) deficiency, a CR1 heterozygous genotype was associated with decreased risk of anaemia and substantial but non-significant effects were noted in other comparisons. In coastal Papua New Guinea, malaria and anaemia are important causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Birth dimensions and risk of depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Nordentoft, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two British cohort studies have reported birth weight to be associated with self-reported depression in adulthood, even after adjustment for socio-economic factors. AIMS: To examine the relationship between birth dimensions and discharge from a psychiatric ward with a depression...... diagnosis in adulthood. METHOD: A cohort of 10 753 male singletons born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953 and for whom birth certificates had been traced in 1965 were followed from 1969 until 2002, with record linkage for date of first admission to a psychiatric ward that led to a discharge diagnosis...... of depression. RESULTS: A total of 190 men, corresponding to 1.8% of the cohort, had a discharge diagnosis of depression. The Cox's regression analyses failed to show any association between birth dimensions (birth weight and ponderal index) and risk of psychiatric ward diagnosis of depression in adult life...

  15. Unintended pregnancies, induced abortions and risk factors in women admitted to hospitals due to birth or abortion in Hatay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Savaş

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions and associated risk factors in women who have been admitted to hospitals in Hatay. Method: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were women who had been admitted to hospitals for the purposes of delivery or abortion, during a month-long period. A structured questionnaire was taken by 635 women. Unintended pregnancy was dependent variable. The independent variables were: age, husband’s age, civil status, total number of pregnancies, employment, use of family planning methods and family planning consultation services. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used to analyze of data. Results:21.4% of women reported using a family planning method when they got pregnant and 15.1% of the women said they did not want to be this pregnant. Ages of the women and their husbands, as well as the total number of pregnancies, were higher among unintended pregnancies (p<0.05. The frequency of unintended pregnancies increased where the husbands were unemployed, education levels of the couple were low, women were single or not officially married, disabled, or did not receive consultancy from their family physicians about family planning (p<0.05. 45.8% of all unintended pregnancies happened without the use of any family planning methods (p<0.01. 10.4% ended with spontaneous abortions and 4.25% were ended with induced abortions. The primary reason given for induced abortion was economic difficulties (44%. Conclusion: Unintended pregnancy rate is high in Hatay. It is estimated that almost half of all induced abortions are reported as spontaneous or therapeutic abortions.

  16. Commonality of Risk Factors for Mothers' Poor Oral Health and General Health: Baseline Analysis of a Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John; Thomson, W Murray; Scott, Jane A; Do, Loc G

    2018-04-01

    Objective The association between and commonality of risk factors for poor self-rated oral health (SROH) and general health (SRGH) among new mothers has not been reported. The purpose of this paper is to assess the commonality of risk factors for poor SROH and SRGH, and self-reported obesity and dental pain, among a population-based sample of new mothers in Australia. It also investigated health conditions affecting new mothers' general health. Methods Data collected at baseline of a population-based birth cohort was used. Mothers of newborns in Adelaide were approached to participate. Mothers completed a questionnaire collecting data on socioeconomic status (SES), health behaviours, dental pain, SROH, self-reported height and weight and SRGH. Analysis was conducted sequentially from bivariate to multivariable regression to estimate prevalence rate (PR) of reporting poor/fair SROH and SRGH. Results of the 1895 new mothers, some 21 and 6% rated their SROH and SRGH as poor/fair respectively. Dental pain was associated with low income and smoking status, while being obese was associated with low SES, low education and infrequent tooth brushing. SROH and SRGH was associated with low SES, smoking, and dental pain. SROH was also associated with SRGH [PR: 3.06 (2.42-3.88)]. Conclusion for practice There was a commonality of factors associated with self-rated oral health and general health. Strong associations between OH and GH were also observed. Given the importance of maternal health for future generations, there would be long-term societal benefit from addressing common risk factors for OH and GH in integrated programs.

  17. Fatores de risco para nascimento de crianças pequenas para idade gestacional Risk factors for small-for-gestational age births among infants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Krusser Zambonato

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores de risco para o nascimento de crianças pequenas para a idade gestacional. MÉTODOS: Nos meses de outubro a dezembro de 1996, cinco maternidades de Pelotas, RS, foram visitadas diariamente para entrevistar puérperas. O peso ao nascer foi obtido do registro dos berçários. A idade gestacional foi calculada a partir da data da última menstruação. Considerou-se como pequena para a idade gestacional (PIG aquelas crianças cujo peso ao nascer, de acordo com o sexo e a idade gestacional, estava abaixo do percentil 10 da população de referência de Williams. O teste qui-quadrado foi usado nas análises bivariadas e a regressão logística, não-condicional, na análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 1.082 puérperas e a prevalência de nascimento PIG foi de 13,1%. Mesmo após controle para possíveis fatores de confusão, as crianças cuja renda familiar era ³10 salários-mínimos. Um pré-natal de baixa qualidade também aumentou a chance de PIG (OR: 3,28 IC95% 1,09-9,91. Baixa estatura materna e exposição ao tabaco também estiveram associados com nascimentos PIG. CONCLUSÕES: O baixo nível socioeconômico, tabagismo materno, estatura materna e pré-natal de baixa qualidade foram os principais fatores de risco para PIG.OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors for small-for-gestational-age (SGA births. METHODS: All live births occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, between October and December 1993 were identified and mothers interviewed soon after delivery. Birthweight was recorded by the maternity staff. Gestational age was obtained from the mothers' ´recall of their date of last menstrual period. SGA was defined as a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex, according to the reference developed by Williams. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used in the crude and multivariate analysis, respectively. RESULTS: In all, 1082 births were identified. The prevalence

  18. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. Methods: We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province fr...

  19. Delayed Prenatal Care and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Davis, Lucy; Sturgill, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Assessed whether the timing of prenatal care related to low birth weight delivery, adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. Data on births to white and African American women showed no benefits for early initiation of prenatal care in reducing the risk of low birth weight.(SM)

  20. Analysis of Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Very-low-birth-weight Infants in North Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yo Yang

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of ROP among VLBW infants was 45.8%; 19.0% had severe ROP. Infants of lower GAs and/or with LBW, whose mother had preeclampsia or who had a long duration of mechanical ventilation are at risk for the development of threshold ROP.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal in...

  2. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal in...

  3. Factors relating to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumors: results from an Australian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Blair, Eve M; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children, yet their causes are largely known. This study investigated the association between maternal and birth characteristics and risk of CBT. Cases families were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010. Control families were recruited via random-digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on the basis of child's age, sex, and State of residence. Maternal and birth characteristics of children were ascertained by questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. For this analysis, data on 319 case children and 1,079 control children were available. No association was found between risk of CBT and birth weight, fetal growth, birth order, gestational age, or maternal body mass index. The ORs for inadequate and excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) (Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines) were 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-2.1), respectively; similar findings for GWG were seen across categories of child's age, fetal growth, maternal body mass index and height, maternal smoking, and parental education. Risk of low grade glioma appeared increased with preterm birth (OR 1.6 (95% CI 0.8-3.1) and admission to neonatal intensive care (NICU) for >2 days (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.6). We found little evidence of associations between risk of CBT and most birth characteristics. The associations we observed with GWG, prematurity and NICU admission require corroboration in other studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Low birth weight and preterm delivery as risk factors for asthma and atopic dermatitis in young adult males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, F.H.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gillman, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Gestational factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis. We examined whether fetal growth was associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis separately in a population of 4,795 male conscripts born between 1973 and 1975 in Denmark. The prevale...

  5. Descriptive and risk factor analysis for choanal atresia: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Romitti, Paul A.; Sun, Lixian; Carey, John C.; Burns, Trudy L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Lin, Angela E.; Olney, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Choanal atresia causes serious posterior nasal obstruction. This defect is the leading cause of nasal surgery in newborns, although its etiology is largely unknown. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case–control study, were used to examine associations between maternal self-reports of exposures and occurrence of choanal atresia in their offspring. Overall, 117 case and 8350 control mothers with deliveries from 1997 through 2007 provided telephone interview reports of pre-pregnancy (one year before conception) and periconceptional (one month before through three months after conception) exposures. The exposures analyzed were pre-pregnancy dietary intake, pre-pregnancy and periconceptional caffeine consumption, and periconceptional cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and medication use. Independent associations between each exposure and all choanal atresia cases combined (n = 117) and isolated choanal atresia cases (those without additional unrelated major defects; n = 61) were examined. Odds ratios (ORs), both unadjusted (uORs) and adjusted (aORs) for potential confounders, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. For all choanal atresia cases combined, positive associations were observed with maternal pre-pregnancy intake in the highest quartile for vitamin B-12 (aOR = 1.9; CI = 1.1,3.1), zinc (aOR = 1.7; CI = 1.0,3.1), and niacin (aOR = 1.8; CI = 1.0,3.1), and intake in the lowest quartile for methionine (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.6) and vitamin D (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.4) compared to intake in the two intermediate quartiles combined. Further, a positive association was observed with periconceptional use of thyroid medications (uOR = 2.6; CI = 1.0,6.3) compared to no use of such medications. Among isolated choanal atresia cases, negative associations were observed for pantothenic acid (aOR = 0.4; CI = 0.2,0.9) and fat (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2,1.0) intake in the lowest

  6. Incidence, risk factors and heritability of hind limb lameness in dogs with canine hip dysplasia in a 8 year follow up study of a birth cohort of Dutch boxer dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, van M.A.E.; Ducro, B.J.; Broek, van de J.; Knol, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective-To determine incidence, risk factors, and heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of Boxers. Animals-1,733 Boxers from 325 litters. Procedure-Status of Boxers with respect to clinical signs of canine hip dysplasia (cCHD) was registered during

  7. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  9. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This......, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with preterm birth compared...

  10. Institutional racism, neighborhood factors, stress, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Dara D; Hogan, Vijaya K; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the risk of preterm birth may be explained by various factors, and previous studies are limited in examining the role of institutional racism. This study focused on the following questions: what is the association between preterm birth and institutional racism as measured by residential racial segregation (geographic separation by race) and redlining (black-white disparity in mortgage loan denial); and what is the association between preterm birth and reported stress, discrimination, and neighborhood quality. We used data from a clinic-based sample of pregnant women (n = 3462) participating in a stress and pregnancy study conducted from 1999 to 2004 in Philadelphia, PA (USA). We linked data from the 2000 US Census and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data from 1999 to 2004 and developed measures of residential redlining and segregation. Among the entire population, there was an increased risk for preterm birth among women who were older, unmarried, tobacco users, higher number of previous births, high levels of experiences of everyday discrimination, owned their homes, lived in nonredlined areas, and areas with high levels of segregation measured by the isolation index. Among black women, living in a redlined area (where blacks were more likely to be denied mortgage loans compared to whites) was moderately associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth (aRR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6, 0.99). Residential redlining as a form institutional racism and neighborhood characteristic may be important for understanding racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy and preterm birth.

  11. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Esmailnasab; Hossein Amirian; Batoul Eskandai; Mina Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy) is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenie...

  12. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective o...

  13. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors mediate the association. The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. Mothers with preterm birth compared with mothers with >12 years of education and the association interacted with parity, while income and occupation affected the risk to a lesser degree. The adjusted HR for less educated nulliparous and parous women were 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.42) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.31-1.87), respectively, compared with women with >12 years of education. For parous women with preterm birth to 1.43 (95% CI 1.19-1.72). Maternal educational level was the strongest predictor of preterm birth among five socioeconomic measures and the gradient did not differ significantly according to the degree of preterm birth. For parous women smoking explained some of the educational gradient but in general the selected risk factors only reduced the relative educational gradient in preterm birth marginally.

  14. A prospective study of effects of psychological factors and sleep on obstetric interventions, mode of birth, and neonatal outcomes among low-risk British Columbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Wendy A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women’s psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes. Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC, Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through providers’ offices, media, posters, and pregnancy fairs. We examined associations between pregnant women’s fatigue, sleep deprivation, and psychological states (anxiety and childbirth fear and women’s exposure to obstetrical interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes (preterm, admission to NICU, low APGARS, and low birth weight. Methods Data from our cross-sectional survey were linked, using women’s personal health numbers, to birth outcomes from the Perinatal Services BC database. After stratifying for parity, we used Pearson’s Chi-square to examine associations between psychological states, fatigue, sleep deprivation and maternal characteristics. We used hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test 9 hypotheses comparing women with high and low childbirth fear and anxiety on likelihood of having epidural anaesthetic, a caesarean section (stratified for parity, assisted vaginal delivery, and adverse neonatal outcomes and women with and without sleep deprivation and high levels of fatigue on likelihood of giving birth by caesarean section, while controlling for maternal, obstetrical (e.g., infant macrosomia, and psychological variables. Results Significantly higher proportions of multiparas, reporting difficult and upsetting labours and births, expectations of childbirth interventions, and health stressors, reported high levels of childbirth fear. Women who reported antenatal relationship, housing, financial, and health stressors and multiparas

  15. A prospective study of effects of psychological factors and sleep on obstetric interventions, mode of birth, and neonatal outcomes among low-risk British Columbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A; Stoll, Kathrin; Hutton, Eileen K; Brown, Helen

    2012-08-03

    Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women's psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes.Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC), Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through providers' offices, media, posters, and pregnancy fairs. We examined associations between pregnant women's fatigue, sleep deprivation, and psychological states (anxiety and childbirth fear) and women's exposure to obstetrical interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes (preterm, admission to NICU, low APGARS, and low birth weight). Data from our cross-sectional survey were linked, using women's personal health numbers, to birth outcomes from the Perinatal Services BC database. After stratifying for parity, we used Pearson's Chi-square to examine associations between psychological states, fatigue, sleep deprivation and maternal characteristics. We used hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test 9 hypotheses comparing women with high and low childbirth fear and anxiety on likelihood of having epidural anaesthetic, a caesarean section (stratified for parity), assisted vaginal delivery, and adverse neonatal outcomes and women with and without sleep deprivation and high levels of fatigue on likelihood of giving birth by caesarean section, while controlling for maternal, obstetrical (e.g., infant macrosomia), and psychological variables. Significantly higher proportions of multiparas, reporting difficult and upsetting labours and births, expectations of childbirth interventions, and health stressors, reported high levels of childbirth fear. Women who reported antenatal relationship, housing, financial, and health stressors and multiparas reporting low family incomes were significantly more likely to

  16. Enfermedad periodontal: ¿es factor de riesgo para parto pretérmino, bajo peso al nacer o preeclampsia? Periodontal disease: is it a risk factor for premature labor, low birth weight or preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castaldi

    2006-04-01

    en las mujeres cuya salud bucal era buena (RP = 3,81; IC95%: 1,46 a 10,05; P = 0,001. Se confirmó que la anemia es un factor de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer (RP = 1,74; IC95%: 1,03 a 2,94; P = 0,02. CONCLUSIONES: No se encontró ninguna asociación significativa entre la EP y el parto pretérmino, el bajo peso al nacer o la preeclampsia.OBJECTIVES: To determine if periodontal disease (PD is a risk factor for premature labor, low birth weight, or preeclampsia, and to look for a potential association between the different clinical forms of PD and the obstetric results indicated. METHODS: This is an analytical, cross-sectional and prospective study of all women who gave birth in Dr. José Penna Hospital, in the city of Bahía Blanca, Argentina, between 1 February and 18 July 2003 and between 1 March and 31 May 2004. Women who met the inclusion criteria (being over 18 years old, having at least 18 teeth, not being diabetic, and having had children who survived labor underwent a dental exam to look for hemorrhage when teeth were probed, loose teeth, or inflammation of the gums, and any loss of insertion was measured clinically. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated, and the results were adjusted according to smoking status and the presence or absence of anemia. RESULTS: A total of 2 003 births and 1 982 labor episodes were registered. In all, 420 women (21.2% were excluded from the study because they did not meet the inclusion criteria or because no diagnostic exam could be carried out. Of the 1 562 women who were examined, 809 (51.8% had at least one of the problems being sought; of these women, 274 (17.5% had severe periodontal disease, and 535 (34.3% had gingivitis. In all, there were 149 (9.5% cases of premature labor; 161 (10.3% cases of low birth weight, and 157 (10.0% cases of preeclampsia. No association was noted between PD and premature labor (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.50, low birth weight (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.47, or

  17. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women.National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA. Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors.In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome.Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26∼30 years.

  18. Impact of maternal thyroid autoantibodies positivity on the risk of early term birth: Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Mao, Lei-Jing; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Ren, Ling-Ling; Hong, Shu-Qing; Gao, Hui; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Pan, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Zhu, De-Fa; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-05-01

    We aim to investigate associations of maternal serum anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) with duration of gestation. We aim to investigate whether maternal TPOAb positivity is associated with the risk of premature or early term birth. This was a prospective birth cohort study performed in an iodine sufficient area of China. Serum samples were collected from 2931 women at both the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and TPOAb levels were measured. Data on gestational age at birth was obtained from delivery records. The prevalence of early term birth was 23.8%, while the prevalence of premature birth was 4.2%. The prevalence of TPOAb positivity was 12.1% in the first trimester and was 7.2% in the second trimester. Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with lgTPOAb both in the first trimester (β, -0.283, 95% CI -0.408, -0.158; P < 0.001) and in the second trimester (β, -0.174, 95% CI -0.319, -0.030; P = 0.018), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. There was a positive association of TPOAb positivity with the risk of early term birth both in the first (OR = 1.691, 95% CI 1.302, 2.197) and second trimesters (OR = 1.644, 95% CI 1.193, 2.264), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. TPOAb positivity in the second trimester was associated with a 1.863-fold higher risk of premature birth (OR = 1.863, 95% CI 1.009, 3.441), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Our results show that TPOAb is associated with shorter duration of gestation and with higher risk of premature and early term birth.

  19. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk. SERMS may cause side effects , such as hot flashes , so they are not often used for prevention of cancer. See the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information. Finasteride has been ...

  20. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...

  1. Factores de riesgo de bajo peso al nacer, estudio de tres años en el municipio Centro Habana: a 3-year study in Centro Habana municipality Risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Fajardo Luig

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico "América Arias", que abarcó el período 2004-2006, con el objetivo de identificar la asociación del bajo peso al nacer con algunos factores de riesgo conocidos de esta entidad. El grupo de estudio estuvo constituido por 108 mujeres residentes en Centro Habana, que parieron un recién nacido vivo bajo peso, y el grupo control por 216 mujeres, que tuvieron un neonato normopeso. De los recién nacidos bajo peso, un 65 % fueron pretérmino, un 39 % CIUR y un 4 % presentó la combinación de ambas entidades. Se demostró que existe relación entre el bajo peso al nacer y las edades maternas menor de 20 (14,8 % de los casos y mayor de 35 años (23,1 % de los casos, la baja talla materna (15,7 % de los casos, la baja escolaridad (17,5 % de los casos, el antecedente materno de hijo con bajo peso (13,8 % de los casos, el período intergenésico corto (69,4 % de los casos, el hábito de fumar (60,1 % de los casos, la desnutrición materna al inicio de la gestación (58,3 % de los casos y la ganancia materna insuficiente de peso durante el embarazo (54,6 % de los casos. El asma bronquial (13,8 %, la hipertensión arterial crónica (12,9 %, la preeclampsia (18,5 % y la anemia (18,5 % fueron las enfermedades más frecuentes encontradas en el grupo de estudio.A case-control study was conducted at "América Arias" Gynecoobstetric Hospital from 2004 to 2006 aimed at identifying the asociation of low birth weight with some risk factors known in this entity. The study group was composed of 108 females living in Centro Habana that gave birth a live low birth weight infant, and a control group that was made up of 216 females that had a normoweight infant. Of the low birth weight infants, 65 % were preterm, 39 % RIUG and 4 % presented a combination of both entities It was proved that there is a relationship between low birth weight and the maternal age under 20 (14.8 % of the cases and

  2. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have

  3. Chronic suppurative otitis media in a birth cohort of children in Greenland: population-based study of incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2011-01-01

    Inuits of the Arctic experience very high rates of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), yet world-wide, very little is known about the epidemiology of CSOM. The study aims were to determine incidence, median age at debut, risk factors, and associated population attributable risks for CSOM...

  4. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk factors ... do smoke, quit. Controlling your cholesterol through diet, exercise, and medicines . Controlling high blood pressure through diet, ...

  5. Premarital first births: The influence of the timing of sexual onset versus post-onset risks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L; Martin, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by long-standing debates between abstinence proponents and sceptics, we examine how socio-economic factors influence premarital first births via: (i) age at first sexual intercourse and (ii) the risk of a premarital first birth following the onset of sexual activity. Factors associated with an earlier age at first intercourse will imply more premarital first births owing to increased exposure to risk, but many of these same factors will also be associated with higher risks of a premarital first birth following onset. Our analyses confirm previous findings that women from disadvantaged backgrounds are younger at first intercourse and have higher premarital first-birth risks than women from more advantaged backgrounds. However, differences in onset timing have a strikingly smaller influence on premarital first-birth probabilities than do differences in post-onset risks. Our findings thus suggest that premarital first births result primarily from differences in post-onset risk behaviours as opposed to differences in onset timing.

  6. Maternal factors and the probability of a planned home birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Offerhaus, P.M.; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: In the Netherlands, approximately one-third of births are planned home births, mostly supervised by a midwife. The relationship between maternal demographic factors and home births supervised by midwives was examined. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Dutch national perinatal

  7. Associação entre peso de nascimento e fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes Association between birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Peso ao nascer (PN é um determinante de risco a médio e longo prazo de fatores de risco cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação entre peso ao nascer e fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes de Salvador. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com grupos de comparação por PN. Amostra composta de 250 adolescentes, classificados segundo IMC: normal alto (>p50 e p85 ep95. As variáveis de risco para comparação foram: circunferência abdominal, pressão arterial, perfil lipídico, glicemia, insulina sérica, HOMA-RI e síndrome metabólica. Peso de nascimento foi informado pelos pais e classificado como baixo peso (PN 4.000g. RESULTADOS: Cento e cinquenta e três (61,2% meninas, idade 13,74 ± 2,03 anos, PN normal 80,8%, baixo PN 8,0% e alto PN 11,2%. Observou-se maior frequência de obesidade (42,9%, p=0,005, PAS e PAD elevadas (42,9%, p=0,000 e 35,7%, p=0,007, respectivamente e síndrome metabólica (46,4%,p =0,002 no grupo com PN alto em relação ao PN normal. Indivíduos de alto PN apresentaram RP para PAS elevada 3,3(I.C. 95%, 1,7-6,4 e para obesidade 2,6 (I.C. 95%, 1,3-5,2 em relação aos com PN normal. A CA foi 83,3 ± 10,1 [p=0,038] nos adolescentes com alto PN. O perfil lipídico não mostrou diferenças estatisticamente significantes. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que obesidade, PAS e PAD elevadas e síndrome metabólica na adolescência têm chance significativa de associar-se a alto peso no nascimento.BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (> 50th percentile and 85th percentile and 95th percentile. The risk variables compared were as follows: waist

  8. Analysis of risk factors for infant mortality in the 1992-3 and 2002-3 birth cohorts in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    : The Bandim Health Project (BHP) continuously surveys children in rural Guinea-Bissau. We investigated the association between maternal and infant factors (especially DTP and measles coverage) and infant mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox regression. We tested for interactions with sex......INTRODUCTION: Though still high, the infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau has declined. We aimed to identify risk factors including vaccination coverage, for infant mortality in the rural population of Guinea-Bissau and assess whether these risk factors changed from 1992-3 to 2002-3. METHODS......, age groups (defined by current vaccination schedule) and cohort to assess whether the risk factors were the same for boys and girls, in different age groups in 1992-3 and in 2002-3. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate declined from 148/1000 person years (PYRS) in 1992-3 to 124/1000 PYRS in 2002-3 (HR...

  9. Infant mortality in Pelotas, Brazil: a comparison of risk factors in two birth cohorts La mortalidad de menores de un año en Pelotas, Brasil: comparación de factores de riesgo en dos cohortes de nacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare two population-based birth cohorts to assess trends in infant mortality rates and the distribution of relevant risk factors, and how these changed after an 11-year period. METHODS: Data from two population-based prospective birth cohorts (1982 and 1993 were analyzed. Both studies included all children born in a hospital (> 99% of all births in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Infant mortality was monitored through surveillance of all maternity hospitals, mortality registries and cemeteries. RESULTS: There were 5 914 live-born children in 1982 and 5 249 in 1993. The infant mortality rate decreased by 41%, from 36.0 per 1 000 live births in 1982 to 21.1 per 1 000 in 1993. Socioeconomic and maternal factors tended to become more favorable during the study period, but there were unfavorable changes in birthweight and gestational age. Poverty, high parity, low birthweight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction were the main risk factors for infant mortality in both cohorts. The 41% reduction in infant mortality between 1982 and 1993 would have been even greater had the prevalence of risk factors remained constant during the period studied here. CONCLUSIONS: There were impressive declines in infant mortality which were not due to changes in the risk factors we studied. Because no reduction was seen in the large social inequalities documented in the 1982 cohort, it is likely that the reduction in infant mortality resulted largely from improvements in health care.OBJETIVOS: Comparar dos cohortes de nacimiento tomadas de la población en general a fin de evaluar las tendencias observadas en las tasas de mortalidad de menores de un año y la distribución de los factores de riesgo asociados con ella, así como los cambios sufridos por ambas cosas al cabo de un período de 11 años. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos procedentes de dos cohortes de nacimiento prospectivas (1982 y 1993 tomadas de la población en

  10. Birth weight predicts the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and pregravid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, Jarosław; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Engel, Karina; Celewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that birth weight may determine metabolic abnormalities later in life. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between birth weight and future risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregravid obesity in a homogenous sample of Caucasian Polish women. In this retrospective study, we collected the medical reports of 787 women with GDM and 801 healthy pregnant women. We analyzed the following data: birth weight, age, pregravid weight, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, parity, and family history of diabetes. Birth weight was inversely associated with the risk of GDM; for each decrease in birth weight of 500 g, the risk increased by 11% (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.21). Birth weight was a strong predictor of GDM independent of other risk factors (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31), and it was positively correlated with pregravid weight (R = 0.21; P obesity (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34 and OR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.11-1.64, respectively). Each of the traditional risk factors for GDM were also strong predictors of pregravid obesity: age (P diabetes (P obesity is associated with high birth weight. Traditional risk factors for GDM, including maternal (but not paternal) history of diabetes, are also risk factors for pregravid obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, but this may be due, in part, to residual non-genetic confounding factors. This finding lends support to the "fetal origins hypothesis" suggesting undisclosed prenatal determinants for the risk of asthma....

  12. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col-Araz, Nilgun

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p history of disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.

  13. [In the case of premature live birth, is very early rupture of the membranes an additional risk factor for morbidity and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, T; Vincent-Rohfritsch, A; Le Ray, C; Goffinet, F; Patkai, J; Sibiude, J

    2018-02-26

    To describe survival rate after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 25 weeks of gestation and compare neonatal morbidity and mortality among those born alive with a control group of infants born at a similar gestational age without premature rupture of membranes. We conducted a retrospective single-centre study at Port-Royal maternity, from 2007 to 2015, comparing neonatal outcomes between liveborninfants exposed to PPROM prior to 25 weeks of gestation (WG) and a control group not exposed to premature rupture of the membranes. For each live-born child, the next child born after spontaneous labor without PPROM was matched for gestational age at birth, sex, and whether or not they received antenatal corticosteroid therapy. The primary endpoint was severe neonatal complications assessed by a composite endpoint including neonatal deaths, grade 3-4 HIV, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, leukomalacia and stade 3-4 retinopathies. Among 77 cases of very premature rupture of the membranes, 55 children were born alive. Among these, the average gestational age at birth was 28 WG and 1 day. The rate of severe neonatal complications did not differ between the two groups (43.6% in the PPROM group vs. 36.4%, P=0.44) and the survival rate at discharge was also similar in the two groups (85.5% vs. 83.6%, P=0.98). In our cohort and among livebirths after 24 WG, PPROM before 25 WG was not associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to children born at the same gestational age after a spontaneous labor with intact membranes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic suppurative otitis media in a birth cohort of children in Greenland: population-based study of incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2011-01-01

    Inuits of the Arctic experience very high rates of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), yet world-wide, very little is known about the epidemiology of CSOM. The study aims were to determine incidence, median age at debut, risk factors, and associated population attributable risks for CSOM...... in young children in Sisimiut, the second biggest town of Greenland (population 5400), where living conditions are relatively western and approximately 90% are Inuits....

  15. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  16. Season of birth and risk of atopic disease among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Season of birth (SOB) has been regarded as a risk factor for atopy. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between season of birth (SOB) and later development of atopic disease in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1,007 randomly selected subjects, 7 to 17 ye...

  17. Low birth weights and risk of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Angka kematian neonatal di Indonesia mengalami stagnansi sejak sepuluh tahun terakhir. Dalam rangka mengakselerasi penurunan angka kematian neonatal di Indonesia, intervensi spesifik diperlukan pada faktor utama penyebab kematian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kontribusi berat badan lahir rendah terhadap kematian neonatal di Indonesia. Metode: Data Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2012 digunakan untuk analisis. Sejumlah 18021 kelahiran hidup dalam periode lima tahun terakhir telah dilaporkan oleh responden. Terdapat 14837 anak memiliki informasi lengkap untuk analisis. Adjusted relative risk dengan analisis survival digunakan untuk mengukur hubungan antara variable dengan kematian neonatal. Hasil: Anak yang lahir dengan berat badan rendah memiliki risiko 9.89 kali lebih tinggi untuk kematian neonatal bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang lahir dengan berat badan normal [adjusted relative risk (aRR = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.41 – 13.19; P = < 0.0001]. Anak yang lahir dari ibu berumur muda (15 - 19 tahun memiliki risiko 94% lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang lahir dari ibu dengan umur antara 20-35 years. Anak dari ibu yang bekerja 81% memiliki risiko kematian neonatal lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan anak yang lahir dari ibu tidak bekerja. Kesimpulan: Anak yang lahir dengan berat badan rendah dan lahir dari ibu muda memiliki risiko kematian neonatal lebih tinggi. Bayi yang lahir dengan berat badan rendah membutuhkan perawatan yang tepat untuk memperpanjang ketahanan hidup anak. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2:113-117 Kata kunci: Berat badan lahir rendah, kematian neonatal, Indonesia Abstract Background: Neonatal mortality rates in Indonesia remain steady in the past decades (20 in 2002 to 19 per 1000 live births in 2012. In order to accelerate the decline in neonatal mortality rate in Indonesia, specific interventions would have to target key factors causing

  18. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls.

  19. Psychosocial job strain and risk of adverse birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small/large for gesta......A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small...

  20. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84%

  1. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  2. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  3. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...

  4. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  5. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight? Embarazo en la adolescencia es factor de riesgo para el bajo peso al nacer? Gravidez na adolescência é fator de risco para o baixo peso ao nascer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (OBJETIVO: Evaluar el embarazo en la adolescencia como factor de riesgo para bajo peso al nacer. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal incluido en una cohorte de puérperas y sus respectivos recién nacidos, en las cuatro maternidades de Aracaju, SE (Brasil, de marzo a julio de 2005. Se estudiaron 4.646 pares de madres/recién nacidos. Los datos se colectaron consecutivamente durante cuatro meses. Variables sociales, biológicas y asistenciales se obtuvieron por medio de cuestionario estandarizado. Se realizó regresión logística múltiple, con control de factores de confusión y de modificación. RESULTADOS: Del total analizadas, 20,6% eran adolescentes (OBJETIVO: Avaliar a gravidez na adolescência como fator de risco para baixo peso ao nascer. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluído numa coorte de puérperas e seus respectivos recém-nascidos, nas quatro maternidades de Aracaju, SE, de março a julho de 2005. Os dados foram coletados consecutivamente durante quatro meses. Variáveis sociais, biológicas e assistenciais foram obtidas por meio de questionário padronizado. Foi realizada regressão logística múltipla, com controle de fatores de confusão e de modificação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 4.746 pares de mães/recém-nascidos. Dessas, 20,6% eram adolescentes (< 20 anos. As mães adolescentes apresentaram piores

  6. Season of birth and risk of atopic disease among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Season of birth (SOB) has been regarded as a risk factor for atopy. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between season of birth (SOB) and later development of atopic disease in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1,007 randomly selected subjects, 7 to 17...... not significantly related to SOB. CONCLUSIONS: Atopy itself is independent of season of birth, whereas asthma is more prevalent among subjects born during the autumn. Regarding asthma, these results suggest that the first months of life enclose a period of particular vulnerability towards environmental risk factors...

  7. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still ... Scientists are working diligently to understand what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does ...

  8. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary...... complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake...

  9. Prediction of incidence and bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of post-partum depression immediately after birth in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Zain, Azhar Md; Mohammad, Asghari Jafarabadi; Lye, Munn-Sann

    2016-10-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04). The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.

  10. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  11. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.

  12. Association between risk of birth defects occurring level and arsenic concentrations in soils of Lvliang, Shanxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jilei; Zhang, Chaosheng; Pei, Lijun; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    The risk of birth defects is generally accredited with genetic factors, environmental causes, but the contribution of environmental factors to birth defects is still inconclusive. With the hypothesis of associations of geochemical features distribution and birth defects risk, we collected birth records and measured the chemical components in soil samples from a high prevalence area of birth defects in Shanxi province, China. The relative risk levels among villages were estimated with conditional spatial autoregressive model and the relationships between the risk levels of the villages and the 15 types of chemical elements concentration in the cropland and woodland soils were explored. The results revealed that the arsenic levels in cropland soil showed a significant association with birth defects occurring risk in this area, which is consistent with existing evidences of arsenic as a teratogen and warrants further investigation on arsenic exposure routine to birth defect occurring risk. - Highlights: • Association between soil geochemical components and birth defects risk was proposed. • The relative risk difference among villages were estimated with CAR model. • Arsenic levels in cropland showed a significant association to birth defect risk. • The finding warrants further investigation on arsenic as a teratogen. - The difference of risk levels estimate by spatial statistics to birth defect significantly associated with arsenic levels in cropland soils warrants further investigation

  13. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  14. Factors affecting inter-birth in rural areas of Zarrindasht (Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Zare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper time intervals among pregnancies has a major role in family provision. Investigating the dynamism of the birth spacing, identify factors and their effects on the time interval among pregnancies and determination of optimal spacing is the utmost importance for health planners and families. The purpose was to study the abortion and stillbirth due to short inter-birth spacing, factors affecting inter-births and optimal birth spacing. Material and Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 1064 women of childbearing age in Fars province by multistage random sampling. Information on reproductive history was collected by resident health workers. Variables affecting inter-births were checked by the frailty recurrent events model using S-plus 2000 and SPSS 13 software. Results: The rate of abortion or stillbirth was 1.7%, which fell with increasing interval between births and reached their lowest (1.9% at 36-48 months. Mother's level of education, duration of breastfeeding of previous infant, maternal age at birth and father's job showed positive correlation with inter-birth. Mother's age at marriage, having a job other than household, socioeconomic status was negatively correlated with the the time interval to the next delivery. With increasing birth order, inter-birth of each delivery with regard to previous delivery increased on average by one to two months. Conclusion: The risk of abortion and stillbirth were observed more in subsequent delivery with very low or very long gap interval.

  15. Risk factors for low birth weight according to the multiple logistic regression model. A retrospective cohort study in José María Morelos municipality, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Monsreal, José; Tun Cobos, Miriam Del Ruby; Hernández Gómez, José Ricardo; Serralta Peraza, Lidia Esther Del Socorro

    2018-01-17

    Low birth weight has been an enigma for science over time. There have been many researches on its causes and its effects. Low birth weight is an indicator that predicts the probability of a child surviving. In fact, there is an exponential relationship between weight deficit, gestational age, and perinatal mortality. Multiple logistic regression is one of the most expressive and versatile statistical instruments available for the analysis of data in both clinical and epidemiology settings, as well as in public health. To assess in a multivariate fashion the importance of 17 independent variables in low birth weight (dependent variable) of children born in the Mayan municipality of José María Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Analytical observational epidemiological cohort study with retrospective temporality. Births that met the inclusion criteria occurred in the "Hospital Integral Jose Maria Morelos" of the Ministry of Health corresponding to the Maya municipality of Jose Maria Morelos during the period from August 1, 2014 to July 31, 2015. The total number of newborns recorded was 1,147; 84 of which (7.32%) had low birth weight. To estimate the independent association between the explanatory variables (potential risk factors) and the response variable, a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 22 software. In ascending numerical order values of odds ratio > 1 indicated the positive contribution of explanatory variables or possible risk factors: "unmarried" marital status (1.076, 95% confidence interval: 0.550 to 2.104); age at menarche ≤ 12 years (1.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 1.84); history of abortion(s) (1.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.44 to 2.93); maternal weight confidence interval: 0.83 to 2.76); number of prenatal consultations ≤ 5 (1.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.94 to 3.66); maternal age ≥ 36 years (3.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.40 to 30.47); maternal age ≤ 19 years (3.59, 95% confidence

  16. Timing of births and oral contraceptive use influences ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Lee, Alice W; Tseng, Chiuchen; Jotwani, Anjali; Patel, Prusha; Pike, Malcolm C

    2017-12-15

    Increasing parity and duration of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use provide substantial protection against ovarian carcinoma (cancer). There are limited data on the impact of the age of the births or age of COC use on reducing ovarian cancer risk. Here, we examined the effects of age at first and last births and age at use of COCs using data from studies conducted in Los Angeles County, California, USA (1,632 cases, 2,340 controls). After adjusting for the number of births, every 5 years that a first birth was delayed reduced the risk of ovarian cancer by 13% (95% CI 5-21%; p = 0.003); a first birth after age 35 was associated with a 47% lower risk than a first birth before age 25. COC use before age 35 was associated with greater protection per year of use than COC use at older ages. Considering previously published results as well as the results presented here, increasing parity and a later age at births are both important protective factors against ovarian cancer and the protection extends over 30 or more years from last birth. Current models of the etiology of ovarian cancer do not encompass an effect of late age at births. Our result of an attenuation of the protective effect with COC use after around age 35 needs further investigation as it has not been seen in all studies. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Fatores de risco para nascimentos pré-termo em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Risk factors for pre-term birth in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rigo Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar fatores de risco para nascimentos pré-termo por meio de estudo caso-controle populacional que envolve nascidos vivos hospitalares de mães residentes em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Os casos foram os 328 nascimentos pré-termo e os controles, uma amostra proporcional de 369 nascimentos com 37 semanas ou mais. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística múltipla hierarquizada. Verificou-se associação (p 30kg/m², com filho anterior pré-termo, com tratamento para engravidar; características maternas durante a gestação: com companheiro há no máximo dois anos, preocupações, bebida alcoólica semanal, pré-natal inadequado, prática de caminhada como proteção; agravos na gestação - sangramento, infecção do trato genital, volume alterado do líquido amniótico, hipertensão arterial e internação; gestação múltipla. A identificação de fatores de risco e a melhoria da qualidade da atenção pré-concepcional e pré-natal podem reduzir a prematuridade.The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with pre-term birth among live births in a hospital in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Cases consisted of 328 pre-term births, and controls were 369 births with gestational age greater than 37 weeks. A multiple hierarchical logistic regression analysis was carried out. There was a significant correlation (p 30 kg/m2; history of prematurity; history of assisted reproduction; mothers in a relationship for less than two years; maternal stress; weekly maternal alcohol consumption; insufficient prenatal care; gestational complications such as bleeding, genital tract infection, altered amniotic fluid volume, high blood pressure, and hospital admission; and twin pregnancy. Regular walks during pregnancy were a protective factor. Improved quality of prenatal care and the identification of the above factors during pregnancy may help reduce premature birth.

  18. Relationships among psychosocial factors, biomarkers, preeclampsia, and preterm birth in African American women: a pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; Engeland, Christopher G; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Park, Chang; Mathews, Herbert L; Janusek, Linda Witek

    2015-02-01

    To explore the relationships among psychosocial factors (optimism, uncertainty, social support, coping, psychological distress), biomarkers (cortisol, cytokines), preeclampsia, and preterm birth in African American women. Forty-nine pregnant African American women completed psychosocial questionnaires and had blood collected for biomarkers between 26 and 36 weeks of gestation. Birth outcomes were obtained from birth records. Women reporting higher levels of social support had lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, and IL-6). Surprisingly, compared with low-risk pregnant women, women diagnosed with preeclampsia reported more optimism and less avoidance, and had lower levels of cortisol and IFN-γ. Similarly, compared to women with full-term birth, women with preterm birth reported higher levels of optimism and lower levels of avoidance, and had lower levels of IL-10. Psychosocial factors influence inflammation and pregnancy outcomes. Close assessment and monitoring of psychosocial factors may contribute to improved pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Effect of Prior Term Birth on Risk of Recurrent Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Turitz, Amy L; Elovitz, Michal A; Levine, Lisa D

    2018-03-01

     The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior term birth on recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) risk.  Retrospective cohort study of 211 women with prior sPTB, comparing women with and without prior term births. The primary outcome was recurrent sPTB term births (28.9 vs. 37.7%, p  = 0.2). Among women with prior second-trimester loss (16-23 6/7 weeks), those with a term birth had a decreased sPTB rate (15.4 vs. 43.2%, p  = 0.02), which persisted after adjusting for age and 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate use. For women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks, there was no difference in sPTB with and without prior term births (29.5 vs. 26.6%, p  = 0.7). A term birth as the most recent delivery lowered, but did not eliminate, the sPTB risk (19.1 vs. 36.4%, p  = 0.1).  Prior term birth lowers the risk of recurrent sPTB for women with prior second-trimester loss, but not for women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks. Women with prior preterm and term births should be counseled accordingly and all sPTB prevention strategies should be recommended. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Factors given by birth and oxygenotherapy in relation to development of retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Olujić Maja; Oros Ana; Bregun-Doronjski Alekandra; Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of the eye which affects the blood vessels of the retina and represents the most important cause of blindness and low vision in children worldwide. There are many risk factors given by birth and parameters of general health status that may influence this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the factors given by birth and use of oxygen in relation to the development of premature retinopathy. Material a...

  1. Mechanical Birth Trauma – An Evaluation of Predisposing Factors at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty neonates were identified in a study carried out to determine the factors predisposing to mechanical birth trauma in neonates at the Ogun State University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu. Data were collected retrospectively from 1989 to 1990 and prospectively from 1991 to 1994. The incidence of mechanical birth trauma ...

  2. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  3. Factors influencing birth weights in Cameroon | Ngassa | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After gestational age has been shown to be significantly correlated with mean birth weights in Cameroon, the aim of this study was to determine other factors which can also influence birth weights. This was a cross sectional study carried out in the obstetrics and gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in Yaoundé during the ...

  4. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  5. Birth outcome racial disparities: A result of intersecting social and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Heather H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-10-01

    Adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low-birth weight, and infant mortality continue to disproportionately affect black and poor infants in the United States. Improvements in healthcare quality and access have not eliminated these disparities. The objective of this review was to consider societal factors, including suboptimal education, income inequality, and residential segregation, that together lead to toxic environmental exposures and psychosocial stress. Many toxic chemicals, as well as psychosocial stress, contribute to the risk of adverse birth outcomes and black women often are more highly exposed than white women. The extent to which environmental exposures combine with stress and culminate in racial disparities in birth outcomes has not been quantified but is likely substantial. Primary prevention of adverse birth outcomes and elimination of disparities will require a societal approach to improve education quality, income equity, and neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Birth cohort differences in cardiovascular risk factors in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether cohort differences exist in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among older elderly from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. Participants were those aged 71-81 years at two points in time a decade apart: 457 in 1997 (earlier cohort and 553 in 2008 (recent cohort. The prevalence of hypertension (PR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.19-1.36 and of diabetes mellitus (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.06-1.83 was higher in the recent cohort compared to the earlier one, regardless of sex. The recent cohort had a lower prevalence of smoking (PR = 0.58; 95%CI: 0.42-0.80, and lower total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio level (PR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.80-0.89. There was a 136% increase in the pharmacologic treatment of diabetes and a 56% increase in pharmacologic management of hypertension in 2008 in comparison with 1997. Overall, the number of cardiovascular risk factors in the recent cohort remained similar to that of the early cohort.

  7. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Esmailnasab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenience sampling was performed and a total number of 110 cases of preterm births and 132 full-term births as control group were screened and enrolled in the study.  Data were collected through interview and patient medical record. The results were compared using logistic regression analysis and odds ratio (OR in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between preterm birth and the following risk factors were identified. Results : Significant risk factors for preterm births included: preeclampsia (OR = 2.42 cesarean delivery (OR = 2.61, previous history of stillbirth or abortion (OR = 2.75, multiple pregnancies (OR = 1.03, recurrent low birth weight delivery (OR = 4.10, prenatal care in private sector (OR = 2.47, working women (OR = 5.70, hospitalization during pregnancy for more than 2 days, multiple gestation deliveries (OR = 5.79, diabetes in first-degree relatives and birth order higher than 3 (OR = 1.03 showed a significant relationship with premature births. The logistic regression analysis indicated that odds of preterm birth increases with the number of pregnancies ≥3 (OR=0.03 95% CI: 1.07- 3.75. Conclusion : The main determinants of preterm birth in the study consisted of previous history of stillbirth or abortion, cesarean delivery, multiple pregnancies, working women, preeclampsia and health care in the private sector. By applying special attention to the caring of high-risk pregnancies and health services for mothers and improvement of

  8. A protocol to identify non-classical risk factors for preterm births: the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís prenatal cohort (BRISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Alves, Claudia Maria Coelho; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Bettiol, Heloísa

    2014-11-19

    Preterm birth is the main cause of morbidity and mortality during the perinatal period. Classical risk factors are held responsible for only 1/3 of preterm births and no current intervention has produced an appreciable reduction of this event. It is necessary to explore new hypotheses and mechanisms of causality by using an integrated approach, collaboration among research groups and less fragmented theoretical-methodological approaches in order to detect new risk factors and to formulate more effective intervention strategies. The study will be conducted on a convenience cohort of Brazilian pregnant women recruited at public and private prenatal health services. A total of 1500 pregnant women in São Luís, and 1500 in Ribeirão Preto, will be invited for an interview and for the collection of biological specimens from the 22nd to the 25th week of gestational age (GA). At the time of delivery they will be reinterviewed. GA will be determined using an algorithm based on two criteria: date of last menstruation (DLM) and obstetric ultrasound (OUS) performed at less than 20 weeks of GA. Illicit drug consumption during pregnancy will be determined using a self-applied questionnaire and the following instruments will be used: perceived stress scale, Beck anxiety scale, screening for depression of the Center of Epidemiological Studies (CES-D), experiences of racial discrimination, social network and social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study and violence (Abuse Assessment Screening and violence questionnaire of the WHO). Bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection and periodontal disease will also be identified. Neuroendocrine, immunoinflammatory and medical intervention hypotheses will be tested. The occurrence of elective cesarean section in the absence of labor will be used as a marker of medical intervention. Psychosocial, genetic and infectious mechanisms will be selected, since there are indications that they influence preterm birth (PTB). The studies will

  9. Owning the birth experience: what factors influence women's vaginal birth after caesarean decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konheim-Kalkstein, Yasmine L; Kirk, Colleen P; Berish, Kristen; Galotti, Kathleen M

    2017-09-01

    Our quantitative analysis examined what factors influence pregnant women to choose a vaginal birth after a caesarean (VBAC). There is growing concern over the high rates of caesarean section; much of the high rate is driven by repeat caesareans. A trial of labour after a previous caesarean is an option for many women increasingly supported by medical literature. Survey data from 173 pregnant women who had had only one birth by caesarean were analysed using a hierarchical binary logistic regression model. Desire for the experience of a vaginal birth strongly predicted choice of VBAC; however, this relationship was dampened among women with a high (versus low) powerful others (e.g. doctors and nurses) locus of control. Prior reason for a caesarean section and practical factors also play a role. Women may be more likely to choose VBAC if they are encouraged to believe that they can help control the outcome, especially if their desire for a vaginal birth experience is high.

  10. Sleep Disorder Diagnosis During Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Baer, Rebecca J; Rand, Larry; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L; Prather, Aric A

    2017-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that sleep disorder diagnosis would be associated with increased risk of preterm birth and to examine risk by gestational age, preterm birth type, and specific sleep disorder (insomnia, sleep apnea, movement disorder, and other). In this observational study, participants were from a cohort of nearly 3 million women in California between 2007 and 2012. Inclusion criteria were women with singleton neonates liveborn between 20 and 44 weeks of gestation without chromosomal abnormalities or major structural birth defects linked to a hospital discharge database maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development and without mental illness during pregnancy. Sleep disorder was defined based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code (n=2,265). Propensity score matching was used to select a referent population at a one-to-one ratio. Odds of preterm birth were examined by gestational age (less than 34 weeks, 34-36 weeks, and less than 37 weeks of gestation) and type (spontaneous, indicated). Prevalence of preterm birth (before 37 weeks of gestation) was 10.9% in the referent group compared with 14.6% among women with a recorded sleep disorder diagnosis. Compared with the referent group, odds (95% CI, P value, percentage) of preterm birth were 1.3 (1.0-1.7, P=.023, 14.1%) for insomnia and 1.5 (1.2-1.8, P<.001, 15.5%) for sleep apnea. Risk varied by gestational age and preterm birth type. Odds of preterm birth were not significantly increased for sleep-related movement disorders or other sleep disorders. Insomnia and sleep apnea were associated with significantly increased risk of preterm birth. Considering the high prevalence of sleep disorders during pregnancy and availability of evidence-based nonpharmacologic interventions, current findings suggest that screening for severe presentations would be prudent.

  11. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: a population-based multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-09-15

    Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989-1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. PTB poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adj OR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks), adj OR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52). Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  12. Smoking and other pre-gestational risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth Tabagismo e outros fatores de risco pré-gestacional para nascimento espontâneo prematuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Grillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to investigate pre-gestational risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth and, the role of smoking and its cumulative effects on prematurity. METHODS: a case-control study analyzed a data set of all births occurring in a tertiary maternity hospital between April 2002 and July 2004. Spontaneous preterm births of single and live newborns without malformations were selected as cases. Controls were all the term births of live and single newborns without malformations during the same period. Three outcomes were studied: all preterm births (OBJETIVOS: investigar fatores de risco pré-gestacional para nascimento espontâneo prematuro e o papel do tabagismo e seus efeitos cumulativos na prematuridade. MÉTODOS: um estudo transversal baseado em um banco de dados maternos e perinatais, analisou todos os nascimentos ocorridos, em um hospital terciário, no período de abril de 2002 a julho de 2004. Nascimentos prematuros, únicos e espontâneos, de nascidos vivos, sem malformações, foram selecionados como casos. Controles foram selecionados como nascidos vivos e a termo, únicos e sem malformações durante o mesmo período. Três desfechos foram estudados: todos nascimentos prematuros com menos de 37 semanas, aqueles com menos de 35 e 32 semanas de gestação. Regressão Logística foi utilizada na determinação do efeito independente de cada um dos fatores de risco. RESULTADOS: idade materna de menos de 20 anos, baixa escolaridade, baixo índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e tabagismo se mostraram independente e significativamente associados com nascimento espontâneo e prematuro para os três desfechos. Para todos os fatores de risco, exceto tabagismo materno, as razões de chance aumentaram linearmente com o decréscimo da idade gestacional. O teste para tendência linear se mostrou significante para idade materna de menos de 20 anos e para baixo índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional. CONCLUSÕES: os efeitos cumulativos do

  13. Factors associated with preterm, early preterm and late preterm birth in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    Full Text Available Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection.Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116 with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth.No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30 or syphilis (p = 0.12 between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85-0.97; p = 0.005 and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82-0.97; p = 0.006 had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198-3.80; p = 0.01. Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05-3.79; p = 0.04. Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03-2.90; p = 0.04 and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08-3.52; p = 0.03 were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks.Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment. Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour.

  14. Month of birth, vitamin D and risk of immune-mediated disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disanto Giulio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A season of birth effect in immune-mediated diseases (ID such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes has been consistently reported. We aimed to investigate whether season of birth influences the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus in addition to multiple sclerosis, and to explore the correlation between the risk of ID and predicted ultraviolet B (UVB light exposure and vitamin D status during gestation. Methods The monthly distribution of births of patients with ID from the UK (n = 115,172 was compared to that of the general population using the Cosinor test. Predicted UVB radiation and vitamin D status in different time windows during pregnancy were calculated for each month of birth and correlated with risk of ID using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results The distributions of ID births significantly differed from that of the general population (P = 5e-12 with a peak in April (odds ratio = 1.045, 95% confidence interval = 1.024, 1.067, P P P = 0.00005 and third trimester vitamin D status (Spearman's rho = -0.44, P = 0.0003. Conclusions The risk of different ID in the UK is significantly influenced by the season of birth, suggesting the presence of a shared seasonal risk factor or factors predisposing to ID. Gestational UVB and vitamin D exposure may be implicated in the aetiology of ID.

  15. Maternal and fetal factors observed with late preterm births

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudan Dey; Raju Agarwal; Devkalyan Maji; Uttara A. Kohli

    2015-01-01

    Backround: Although neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are fallen in recent decades, the prevalence of preterm deliveries has increased especially late preterm births. Late preterm deliveries are at increased risk of various neonatal complications compared to term deliveries. This study was carried out to identify the maternal characteristics and co-morbidites found with late preterm births and feto-maternal outcome in terms of indication of delivery, route of delivery, Apgar score and...

  16. Does Neighborhood Risk Explain Racial Disparities in Low Birth Weight among Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R; Rulison, Kelly L; Aronson, Robert E; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L; Morrison, Sharon D

    2016-04-01

    To test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and white adolescent mothers. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Birth cases were geocoded and linked to census tract information from the 2010 US Census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. A "neighborhood risk" index was created using principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into 3 neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). Multilevel models with cross-level interactions were used to identify variation in racial differences in low birth weight outcomes across neighborhood risk levels when controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and pregnancy behaviors (smoking, prenatal care use). North Carolina, United States. Singleton infants (n = 7923 cases) born to non-Hispanic African American and white adolescent mothers from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2011. Low birth weight. African American mothers were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than white mothers in this sample (odds ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.34). Mothers that resided in areas of high neighborhood risk were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than mothers residing in areas of low neighborhood risk (odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.93). Even when controlling for confounding factors, racial disparities in low birth weight odds did not significantly vary according to neighborhood risk level. Racial disparities can remain in low birth weight odds among infants born to adolescent mothers when controlling for maternal characteristics, pregnancy behaviors, and neighborhood risk. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of getting ... disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do to ...

  18. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  19. Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India. Data for this study was derived from the children's record of the 2007 India National Family Health Survey, which is a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Data is segregated according to birth order 1 to 5 to assess mother's occupation, Mother's education, child's gender, Mother's age, place of residence, wealth index, mother's anaemia level, prenatal care, assistance at delivery , antenatal care, place of delivery and other maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality. Out of total 51555 births, analysis is restricted to 16567 children of first birth order, 14409 of second birth order, 8318 of third birth order, 5021 of fourth birth order and 3034 of fifth birth order covering 92% of the total births taken place 0-59 months prior to survey. Mother's average age in years for birth orders 1 to 5 are 23.7, 25.8, 27.4, 29 and 31 years, respectively. Most mothers whose children died are Hindu, with no formal education, severely anaemic and working in the agricultural sector. In multivariate logistic models, maternal education, wealth index and breastfeeding are protective factors across all birth orders. In birth order model 1 and 2, mother's occupation is a significant risk factor. In birth order models 2 to 5, previous birth interval of lesser than 24 months is a risk factor. Child's gender is a risk factor in birth order 1 and 5. Information regarding complications in pregnancy and prenatal care act as protective factors in birth order 1, place of delivery and immunization in birth order 2, and child size at birth in birth order 4. Prediction models demonstrate high discrimination that indicates that our models fit the data. The study has policy implications such as enhancing the Information, Education and Communication network for mothers, especially at higher birth orders, in order to reduce under

  20. Physically strenuous work during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Iben Risager; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bondo, Sesilje

    2017-01-01

    computed by logistic regression using a population sample of gainfully employed women as reference (n = 345,915). The risk of preterm birth was increased in women lifting heavy loads during pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI [0.88, 2.23]) but not in women with physically strenuous work (OR 0.98, 95% CI [0.66, 1......The aim of the study was to examine the risk of preterm birth following physically strenuous work during pregnancy. We included 343 pregnant women referred to an occupational medical clinic. Data on preterm birth and covariates were retrieved from the Danish Birth Registry. Risk estimates were.......46]). The mean gestational age in the heavy-lifting group compared to the reference group was 2.4 days shorter (95% CI [0.36, 4.41]). The study challenges earlier reassuring findings as heavy-lifting pregnant women had a reduced gestational age, indicating a possibility of increased risk of preterm birth....

  1. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history...... of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index...... birth size (adjusted HR 9.0, 95 % CI 6.17-13.12) and a preterm delivery at 32-37 weeks (adjusted HR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.46-3.40). Offspring preterm birth and large size for gestational age at birth are associated with increased risk of maternal diabetes....

  2. Early term birth: understanding the health risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Debra Vela

    2012-01-01

    Early term birth, which occurs at 37 to 38 weeks gestation, is often elective and can carry significant health risks to infants, including short-term and long-term health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers involved in the care of pregnant women and infants need to be aware of these infants' physiologic vulnerability and potential short- term and long-term care requirements. Nurses can educate patients and raise awareness of the risks associated with early term birth. © 2012 AWHONN.

  3. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  4. Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy does not increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Aleksandra A; Morawska, Alina; Bogossian, Fiona; Wittkowski, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy is a potential risk factor for various birth complications. This study aimed to explore psychological factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. Symptoms of psychological distress, individual characteristics, and medical complications were assessed at two time points antenatally in 285 women from Australia and New Zealand; birth outcomes were assessed postpartum, between January 2014 and September 2015. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of psychological distress to adverse birth outcomes. Medical complications during pregnancy, such as serious infections, placental problems and preeclampsia, and antenatal cannabis use, were the factors most strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, accounting for 22 percent of the total variance (p pregnancy and an orientation toward a Regulator mothering style were associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, after controlling for medical complications, these were no longer associated. Our study results indicate that antenatal depressive and/or anxiety symptoms were not independently associated with adverse birth outcomes, a reassuring finding for women who are already psychologically vulnerable during pregnancy.

  5. Trial of Labor After One Cesarean: Role of the Order and Number of Prior Vaginal Births on the Risk of Emergency Cesarean Delivery and Neonatal Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: In women who have had prior vaginal birth attempting a trial of labor after cesarean, a vaginal delivery before cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor for repeat cesarean. Women with two or more prior vaginal births have a similar risk for repeat cesarean and neonatal admission to women with only one prior vaginal birth.

  6. Prenatal Maternal Anxiety as a Risk Factor for Preterm Birth and the Effects of Heterogeneity on This Relationship: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarah Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systematic reviews (SR and meta-analyses (MA that previously explored the relationship between prenatal maternal anxiety (PMA and preterm birth (PTB have not been comprehensive in study inclusion, failing to account for effects of heterogeneity and disagree in their conclusions. Objectives. This SRMA provides a summary of the published evidence of the relationship between PMA and PTB while examining methodological and statistical sources of heterogeneity. Methods. Published studies from MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, until June 2015, were extracted and reviewed. Results. Of the 37 eligible studies, 31 were used in this MA; six more were subsequently excluded due to statistical issues, substantially reducing the heterogeneity. The odds ratio for PMA was 1.70 (95% CI 1.33, 2.18 for PTB and 1.67 (95% CI 1.35, 2.07 for spontaneous PTB comparing higher levels of anxiety to lower levels. Conclusions. Consistent findings indicate a significant association between PMA and PTB. Due to the statistical problem of including collinear variables in a single regression model, it is hard to distinguish the effect of the various types of psychosocial distress on PTB. However, a prenatal program aimed at addressing mental health issues could be designed and evaluated using a randomised controlled trial to assess the causal nature of different aspects of mental health on PTB.

  7. Effect of probiotics on perinatal outcome in patients at high risk of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Nami; Kamitomo, Masato; Tabira, Tatsunori; Hashimoto, Takashi; Taniguchi, Hiroko; Maeda, Takatsugu

    2018-02-01

    Recent reports have shown lower levels of Clostridium and higher levels of Lactobacillales in the intestinal microbiota in preterm birth patients compared to term birth patients. However, the influence of probiotics on perinatal status has not been elucidated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of probiotics on perinatal outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of oral probiotics on perinatal outcome in patients at high risk of preterm birth. Probiotics containing Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium butyricum and Bacillus mesentericus were administered for prophylaxis of bacterial vaginosis or treatment of constipation starting at 12.5 ± 4.1 weeks until delivery. Patients not administered probiotics were defined as the non-probiotics group. Between these two groups, perinatal outcomes including gestational age at birth, birth weight, chorioamnionitis or funisitis and preterm birth before 32 weeks were compared. In addition, multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors influencing preterm birth before 32 weeks, chorioamnionitis/funisitis and normal vaginal flora. The probiotics group showed longer gestation, higher birth weight, lower rates of chorioamnionitis and higher rates of normal vaginal flora compared to the non-probiotics group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that probiotics significantly suppressed preterm birth before 32 weeks and tended to suppress chorioamnionitis/funisitis. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for preterm birth before 32 weeks and chorioamnionitis/funisitis were 0.05 (0.01-0.71) and 0.07 (0.01-1.03), respectively. Oral probiotics containing Clostridium had a significant effect on the prevention of preterm birth before 32 weeks of gestation. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Urban trees and the risk of poor birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; David T. Butry; Amy D. Sullivan; John M. Chase

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated whether greater tree-canopy cover is associated with reduced risk of poor birth outcomes in Portland, Oregon. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to classified-aerial imagery to calculate tree-canopy cover in 50, 100, and 200 m buffers around each home in our sample (n=5696). Detailed data on maternal characteristics and additional...

  9. A prospective study of effects of psychological factors and sleep on obstetric interventions, mode of birth, and neonatal outcomes among low-risk British Columbian women

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Wendy A; Stoll, Kathrin; Hutton, Eileen K; Brown, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women’s psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes. Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC), Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through provider...

  10. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  11. Antepartum Fetal Monitoring and Spectral Analysis of Preterm Birth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păsăricără, Alexandru; Nemescu, Dragoş; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Rotariu, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring and analysis of antepartum fetal and maternal recordings is a research area of notable interest due to the relatively high value of preterm birth. The interest stems from the improvement of devices used for monitoring. The current paper presents the spectral analysis of antepartum heart rate recordings conducted during a study in Romania at the Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital from Iasi between 2010 and 2014. The study focuses on normal and preterm birth risk subjects in order to determine differences between these two types or recordings in terms of spectral analysis.

  12. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  13. Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests

  14. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  15. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: a cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital.LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g.We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 ...

  16. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  17. Identification of Factors Influencing Third Birth Transition in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Singh N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The third birth transition has a negative impact on the national goal of fertility replacement level (2.1 which is to be achieved by 2010. To identify the factors influencing the demographic phenomenon, a cross sectional as well as community based study consisting of 1397 eligible women was conducted in the four valley districts of Manipur under cluster sampling scheme. Analysing the empirical information through SPSS, 42% of the study subjects transit their 3rd birth and its major determinants could be detected to be sex preference, age at marriage, and educational level each at 0.01 probability level of significance.

  18. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  19. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Shan Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263±6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days. Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P=0.000 with 277.9±8.91 days and 269.9±9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P=0.010. On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P=0.001. Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  20. Maternal Obesity and Risk of Preterm Birth and Low Birthweight in Hawaii PRAMS, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Alana C; Heyman, Melvin B; Garber, Andrea K; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2018-03-01

    Objective Maternal obesity is a risk factor for preterm birth, a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have high rates of poor birth outcomes. Despite the high rates of obesity in NHOPI in Hawaii, the association with preterm birth has not been examined in this population. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 20,061 women using data collected by Hawaii's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2000 to 2011. We investigated the contribution of maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational diabetes, hypertension, race, socioeconomic status, and smoking to our primary outcomes of preterm birth and low birthweight using multivariable logistic regression, stratified by NHOPI versus non-NHOPI race. Results Pre-pregnancy obesity was more common in NHOPI than non-NHOPI women (23.9 and 10.5%, respectively; p < 0.01). Overall, the risk for preterm birth increased with maternal obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0; aOR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45, p < 0.01), compared with normal weight women. Among NHOPI women, the prevalence of preterm birth was elevated compared with non-NHOPI women although the prevalence of low birth weight was lower. After adjusting for confounders, risk for preterm birth and low birth weight were elevated in NHOPI women compared with White women. Maternal obesity did not significantly affect the risk of prematurity within the NHOPI group. Conclusions for Practice Our study demonstrates an association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and preterm deliveries in Hawaii. NHOPI have high rates of pre-pregnancy obesity as well as increased risk of both preterm delivery and low birthweight when compared to White women. Further data are needed to assess interactions between race, maternal health, and neonatal morbidity, and to identify ways to improve birth outcomes for minority populations in the state of Hawaii.

  1. Pesticides exposure through environment and risk of pre-term birth: a study from Agra city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M; Singh, L; Agarwal, P; Saroj, R; Taneja, A

    2017-12-18

    Pre-term birth is an increasingly prevalent complex condition with multiple risk factors including environmental pollutants. Evidences linking organochlorine pesticides with adverse pregnancy outcomes are inconsistent for link between organochlorine pesticides and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a case-control study of 50 cases of full-term births and 40 cases of pre-term births in this study. Placental organochlorine pesticides like metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane that is, (p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT and o,p-DDD) and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (α, β, γ and δ HCH) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Although the mean levels of pesticide were found higher in the placenta of the women with pre-term delivery cases placentas, but only α-HCH, total-HCH, p,p-DDE and total-DDT were found statistically significant. It was observed that pesticide exposed women were approximately 1.7 times more likely to deliver pre-term baby as compare to pregnant women that were not exposed to any pesticides. We also observed that increasing maternal age reduced the risk of having pre-term birth (OR = 0.99). Among all pesticides, α-HCH was found to be strongest isomer to induce premature baby birth (p term births.

  2. Association Between Cesarean Birth and Risk of Obesity in Offspring in Childhood, Adolescence, and Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changzheng; Gaskins, Audrey J; Blaine, Arianna I; Zhang, Cuilin; Gillman, Matthew W; Missmer, Stacey A; Field, Alison E; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-11-07

    Cesarean birth has been associated with higher risk of obesity in offspring, but previous studies have focused primarily on childhood obesity and have been hampered by limited control for confounders. To investigate the association between cesarean birth and risk of obesity in offspring. A prospective cohort study was conducted from September 1, 1996, to December 31, 2012, among participants of the Growing Up Today Study, including 22 068 offspring born to 15 271 women, followed up via questionnaire from ages 9 to 14 through ages 20 to 28 years. Data analysis was conducted from October 10, 2015, to June 14, 2016. Birth by cesarean delivery. Risk of obesity based on International Obesity Task Force or World Health Organization body mass index cutoffs, depending on age. Secondary outcomes included risks of obesity associated with changes in mode of delivery and differences in risk between siblings whose modes of birth were discordant. Of the 22 068 offspring (20 950 white; 9359 male and 12 709 female), 4921 individuals (22.3%) were born by cesarean delivery. The cumulative risk of obesity through the end of follow-up was 13% among all participants. The adjusted risk ratio for obesity among offspring delivered via cesarean birth vs those delivered via vaginal birth was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.26; P = .002). This association was stronger among women without known indications for cesarean delivery (adjusted risk ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54; P = .004). Offspring delivered via vaginal birth among women who had undergone a previous cesarean delivery had a 31% (95% CI, 17%-47%) lower risk of obesity compared with those born to women with repeated cesarean deliveries. In within-family analysis, individuals born by cesarean delivery had 64% (8%-148%) higher odds of obesity than did their siblings born via vaginal delivery. Cesarean birth was associated with offspring obesity after accounting for major confounding factors. Although additional research is

  3. Birth weight and the risk of histological subtypes of ovarian and endometrial cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabert, Britton; Aarestrup, Julie; Ulrich, Lian G

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of birth weight associations with ovarian and endometrial cancer risks are limited with inconsistent results, and none has evaluated associations by histologic subtype. We utilized prospectively collected birth weight information to investigate the association with risk of ova...

  4. Extreme Temperatures May Increase Risk for Low Birth Weight at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may increase risk for low birth weight at term, NIH study suggests Monday, February 27, 2017 Extreme ... may increase the risk that infants born at term will be of low birth weight, according to ...

  5. Epidemiologic factors and urogenital infections associated with preterm birth in a midwestern U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, William A; Siddiqui, Danish; Lovrich, Steven D; Callister, Steven M; Borgert, Andrew J; Merkitch, Kenneth W; Mason, Tina C; Baumgardner, Dennis J; Burmester, James K; Shukla, Sanjay K; Welter, Joseph D; Stewart, Katharina S; Washburn, M J; Bailey, Howard H

    2014-11-01

    To correlate epidemiologic factors with urogenital infections associated with preterm birth. Pregnant women were sequentially included from four Wisconsin cohorts: large urban, midsize urban, small city, and rural city. Demographic, clinical, and current pregnancy data were collected. Cervical and urine specimens were analyzed by microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for potential pathogens. Six hundred seventy-six women were evaluated. Fifty-four (8.0%) had preterm birth: 12.1% (19/157) large urban, 8.8% (15/170) midsize urban, 9.4% (16/171) small city, and 2.3% (4/178) rural city. Associated host factors and infections varied significantly among sites. Urogenital infection rates, especially Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum, were highest at the large urban site. Large urban site, minority ethnicity, multiple infections, and certain historical factors were associated with preterm birth by univariable analysis. By multivariable analysis, preterm birth was associated with prior preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-6.02) and urinary tract infection (aOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.32-519), and negatively associated with provider-assessed good health (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.76) and group B streptococcal infection treatment (surrogate for health care use) (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-.99). Risk and protective factors were similar for women with birth at less than 35 weeks, and additionally associated with M hominis (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4-9.7). These measured differences among sites are consistent with observations that link epidemiologic factors, both environmental and genetic, with minimally pathogenic vaginal bacteria, inducing preterm birth, especially at less than 35 weeks of gestation.

  6. Appendicectomy during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: A population data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Schnitzler, Margaret; Nippita, Tanya; Ford, Jane B

    2018-03-30

    Suspected appendicitis is a common non-obstetric indication for emergency abdominal surgery during pregnancy. Assess the risk of preterm birth and other maternal and neonatal adverse birth outcomes following appendicectomy during pregnancy. Population-based data linkage study of women with singleton births in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2014. Pregnancies with appendicitis and appendicectomy were compared to pregnancies without appendicitis. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm birth were estimated. Modified Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate crude and adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 99% CI for other outcomes. Of 1 124 551 eligible pregnancies, 1024 (0.9/1000 pregnancies) had appendicitis and appendicectomy. Of these, 566 (55.3%) had laparoscopic and 458 (44.7%) had open appendicectomy. Appendicectomy at later gestational ages was associated with increasing rates of preterm birth. After adjustment for maternal and pregnancy factors, appendicectomy was associated with increased risk of preterm birth (overall aHR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09; planned aHR 2.08, 95% CI 1.60-2.72), maternal morbidity (aRR 2.68, 99% CI 1.88-3.83) and neonatal morbidity (aRR 1.42, 99% CI 1.03-1.94). However, there was no difference in perinatal mortality rates. Appendicectomy during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of spontaneous and planned preterm birth, maternal and neonatal morbidity. Availability of resources to prevent or manage preterm labour should be considered when appendicectomy is performed at gestational ages of 20 weeks or more. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Risks of adverse outcomes in the next birth after a first cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennare, Robyn; Tucker, Graeme; Heard, Adrian; Chan, Annabelle

    2007-02-01

    To estimate the risks of cesarean first birth, compared with vaginal first birth, for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes in the second birth. Population-based retrospective cohort study of all singleton, second births in the South Australian perinatal data collection 1998 to 2003 comparing outcomes for 8,725 women who underwent a cesarean delivery for their first birth with 27,313 women who underwent a vaginal first birth. Predictor variables include age, indigenous status, smoking, pregnancy interval, medical and obstetric complications, gestation, patient type, hospital category, and history of ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth or termination of pregnancy. The cesarean delivery cohort had increased risks for malpresentation (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65-2.06), placenta previa (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.30-2.11), antepartum hemorrhage (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41), placenta accreta (OR 18.79, 95% CI 2.28-864.6), prolonged labor (OR 5.89, 95% CI 3.91-8.89), emergency cesarean (relative risk 9.37, 95% CI 8.98-9.76) and uterine rupture (OR 84.42, 95% CI 14.64-infinity), preterm birth (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), low birth weight (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.48), small for gestational age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.23), stillbirth (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.32), and unexplained stillbirth (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.26-4.37). The range of the number of primary cesarean deliveries needed to harm included 134 for one additional preterm birth, up to 1,536 for one additional placenta accreta. Cesarean delivery is associated with increased risks for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes in the subsequent birth. However, some risks may be due to confounding factors related to the indication for the first cesarean. II.

  8. Perceptions of risk and risk management among 735 women who opted for a home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena E; Rådestad, Ingela J; Christensson, Kyllike; Wally-Bystrom, Kristina; Hildingsson, Ingegerd M

    2010-04-01

    home birth is not included in the Swedish health-care system and the rate for planned home births is less than one in a thousand. The aim of this study was to describe women's perceptions of risk related to childbirth and the strategies for managing these perceived risks. a nationwide study including all women who had given birth at home in Sweden was conducted between 1 January 1992 and 31 July 2005. a total of 735 women had given birth to 1038 children. Of the 1038 questionnaires sent to the women, 1025 (99%) were returned. two open questions regarding risk related to childbirth and two questions answered using a scale were investigated by content analysis. regarding perceived risks about hospital birth, three categories, all related to loss of autonomy, were identified: (1) being in the hands of strangers; (2) being in the hands of routines and unnecessary interventions; and (3) being in the hands of structural conditions. Perceived risks related to a home birth were associated with a sense of being beyond help: (1) worst-case scenario; and (2) distance to the hospital. The perceived risks were managed by using extrovert activities and introvert behaviour, and by avoiding discussions concerning risks with health-care professionals. women who plan for a home birth in Sweden do consider risks related to childbirth but they avoid talking about the risks with health-care professionals. to understand why women choose to give birth at home, health-care professionals must learn about the perceived beneficial effect of doing so. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Trespass event risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    The Volpe Center has used three sources of datathe Federal Railroad Administrations required accident reports, locomotive video, and U.S. Census datato investigate common risk factors for railroad trespassing incidents, the leading cause of ...

  11. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Maïga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. Objective: This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. Design: The last three Demographic and Health Surveys – conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 – enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR, and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR. Results: Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010, despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Conclusions: Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving

  12. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Abdoulaye; Hounton, Sennen; Amouzou, Agbessi; Akinyemi, Akanni; Shiferaw, Solomon; Baya, Banza; Bahan, Dalomi; Barros, Aluisio J D; Walker, Neff; Friedman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. The last three Demographic and Health Surveys - conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 - enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR), and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR). Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010), despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving the demand satisfied for modern contraception may result in a reduction

  13. Prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade: estudo com 450 pré-termos de muito baixo peso Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity: study with 450 very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Analisar prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP entre pré-termos com peso de nascimento (PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou idade gestacional (IG d"32 semanas admitidos em uma instituição hospitalar universitária de nível terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte institucional, prospectivo e descritivo, realizado entre outubro de 2002 e julho de 2008, incluindo todos os pré-termos com PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou com IG d"32 semanas, que sobreviveram até a 42ª semana de IG corrigida. Foram determinadas a prevalência da ROP em seus vários estadiamentos evolutivos. Os principais fatores de risco para o surgimento da ROP no período pós-natal foram comparados por análises uni e multivariadas entre os pacientes que desenvolveram e os que não desenvolveram a doença. Para a análise das variáveis contínuas entre os dois grupos, foi usado o Teste t (Student para amostras independentes e para a comparação das variáveis categóricas, o Qui-Quadrado. A regressão logística incluiu as variáveis com significância após a análise univariada. RESULTADOS:Foram estudadas 450 crianças cuja média de PN e IG foram 1.213,50 gramas (± 277,4 e 30,3 semanas (± 2,2, respectivamente. A ROP, em qualquer estadiamento, afetou 24,2% das crianças. Doença limiar, necessitando de tratamento pela fotocoagulação, ocorreu em 24 pacientes (5,3%. Após análise univariada, a IG, o PN, o ganho ponderal do nascimento até a 6ª semana de vida, o uso de oxigenioterapia em ventilação mecânica e de indometacina, as ocorrências de sepse e hemorragia intraventricular e a necessidade de transfusões sanguíneas, estiveram associados com a ROP. A regressão logística confirmou a importância da IG (OR: 0,856; IC95%: 1,141-1,447; P=0,014, do baixo ganho ponderal (OR: 0,997; IC95%: 0,996-0,999; PPURPOSE: This study aims to analyze prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among preterms with birth weight (BW d"1

  14. Induced abortion and risk of small-for-gestational-age birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F; Cipriani, S; Chiaffarino, F; Sandretti, F; Bortolus, R; Chiantera, V

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the possibility of an association between previous induced abortion and subsequent birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant. Case-control study. General and university hospitals. Cases were 555 women who delivered SGA babies. Controls were 1966 women who gave birth at term (>37 weeks of gestation) to healthy infants of normal weight on randomly selected days at the hospital where cases had been identified. All women in the case and control categories were interviewed on the obstetric wards by one of a team of six interviewers. During the interviews, information was obtained regarding general socio-demographic factors, personal characteristics and habits, gynaecological and obstetric history, general anamnesis, family history of obstetric and gynaecological diseases, and the age of the father of the child. Further information on current pregnancy and delivery was also collected. We used conditional multiple logistic regression (with age as the matching variable), with maximum likelihood fitting, to obtain odds ratios and their corresponding 95% CIs. Included in the regression equations were terms for education, plus terms significantly associated in this data set with the risk of SGA birth (smoking in pregnancy, history of SGA, gestational hypertension and parity). Women admitted to a general and a university hospital. No significant increase in the risk of SGA birth was observed in women with a previous induced abortion [odds ratio (OR) 1.0; 95% CI 0.6-1.7]. The OR for SGA birth was 1.2 (95% CI 0.7-2.1) for preterm and 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) for term SGA births. This study found no association between risk of SGA birth and induced abortion.

  15. Do Successive Preterm Births Increase the Risk of Postpartum Depressive Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy O. Ihongbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postpartum depression and preterm birth (PTB are major problems affecting women’s health. PTB has been associated with increased risk of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS. However, it is unclear if PTB in women with a prior history of PTB is associated with an incremental risk of PDS. This study aims to determine if PTB in women with a prior history of PTB is associated with an incremental risk of PDS. Methods. Data come from the 2009–2011 national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Study sample included 55,681 multiparous women with singleton live births in the index delivery. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between PTB and PDS. Results. The risk of PDS was 55% higher in women with PTB in both deliveries (aRR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.28–1.88 and 74% higher in women with PTB in the index delivery only (aRR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.49–2.05, compared to women with term deliveries. Conclusions. Preterm birth is a risk factor for PDS. PTB in women with a prior history of PTB is not associated with an incremental risk of PDS. Routine screening for PDS should be conducted for all women and closer monitoring should be done for high risk women with PTB.

  16. [Prenatal risk factors for neonatal asphyxia: how risk for each?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Li; He, Rui-Zhi; Peng, Qian; Guo, Ke-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qiong; Yuan, Hui-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal asphyxia is the third leading cause of neonatal death and main cause of long-term neurodevelopmental handicap throughout the world. Prevention is more important than treatment. Most previous reports are limited to retrospective investigations of the relationships between some prenatal risk factors and low Apgar scores. This study was designed to prospectively investigate the relationship between prenatal risk factors and neonatal asphyxia and the influence of single or multiple risk factors on the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, and examine significant risk factors for neonatal asphyxia. From April 2002 through October 2004, a total of 10 376 live-born newborns were enrolled. Forty-six prenatal risk factors were investigated. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed based on the following four items: 1. 1-min Apgar score asphyxia was analyzed. The significant risk factors were screened by single logistic regression analysis and forward stepwise conditional multiple logistic regression analysis, with enrolled threshold alphaor=0.10 and pasphyxia occurred in 117 cases (1.13%) out of the 8 530 cases. In the 1 846 cases without risk factors, none had asphyxia (x2=25.6, pasphyxia increased with increasing numbers of risk factors, from 0.23% in newborns with one risk factor to 14.29% in newborns who had nine risk factors (r=0.96, pasphyxia by systematically examining prenatal risk factors and giving interventions for the newborns with risk factors, especially those with the above significant risk factors or with multiple risk factors. Proper cesareon section according to indications might be helpful to decrease the incidence of birth asphyxia.

  17. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  18. Use of birth weight threshold for macrosomia to identify fetuses at risk of shoulder dystocia among Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yvonne K-Y; Lao, Terence T; Sahota, Daljit S; Leung, Viola K-T; Leung, Tak Y

    2013-03-01

    To assess the incidence of macrosomia and the influence of birth weight on shoulder dystocia risk among a cohort of Chinese women. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 80953 singleton deliveries recorded at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, between 1995 and 2009. The incidences of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) and shoulder dystocia were assessed by birth weight; risk factors for shoulder dystocia were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of macrosomia was 3.4%. The overall incidence of shoulder dystocia was 0.3%; however, the incidence rose with increasing birth weight. The odds ratio (OR) for a birth weight of 4000-4199 g was 22.40, while the OR for a birth weight of 4200 g or above was 76.10. Other independent risk factors for shoulder dystocia included instrumental delivery (OR 12.11), short stature (OR 2.16), maternal diabetes mellitus (OR 1.78), and obesity (OR 1.58). Although the overall incidences of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia were low, the risk of shoulder dystocia was strongly linked to increasing birth weight. International guidelines for elective cesarean delivery in suspected cases of macrosomia may not, therefore, apply to Chinese women. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Risk factors for childbearing during adolescence in a population-based birth cohort in southern Brazil Factores de riesgo asociados con ser madre adolescente en una cohorte de nacimiento tomada de la población en el sur del Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise P. Gigante

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To use a case-control study to analyze risk factors associated with teenage childbearing among adolescents who were in a birth cohort study that began in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Adolescent mothers in Pelotas who gave birth between January 1995 and March 2001 and who had been born in 1982 were identified through the local birth information system. These subjects from the 1982 birth cohort were compared to adolescents from the same cohort who had not given birth before March 2001. Standardized interviews were used in 2001 to obtain information about socioeconomic, maternal reproductive, demographic, and lifestyle characteristics. This information was combined with data obtained in earlier phases of this 1982 birth cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors associated with childbearing during adolescence. RESULTS: A total of 420 parous adolescents from the 1982 birth cohort were identified and then compared with 408 cohort adolescents who had not given birth by March 2001. Higher family income in 1982 and more parental schooling in 1982 were inversely related to childbearing among the birth cohort adolescents. Cohort girls whose mothers were under age 20 when they gave birth in 1982 had a higher risk of becoming pregnant while still an adolescent. Cohort girls who, during childhood, lived with siblings from different fathers were twice as likely to become an adolescent mother. Compared to cohort adolescents who had not failed during the first four years of school, those girls who had done so had twice the risk of giving birth during adolescence. Among the cohort girls a positive association was found between younger age at first intercourse and childbearing in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the educational level of the adolescent mothers must be considered in planning policies that attempt to disrupt successive cycles of socioeconomic

  1. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  2. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10 th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  3. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  4. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW) infants had cranial ...

  5. Factors associated with low birth weight in Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Minamisava

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Low birth weight (LBW is public health problem, because they are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. No previous studies on factors associated with LBW carried out in central Brazil were found in the literature. The main aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with LBW in children born alive in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Live Births Information System from the Brazilian Health Ministry. All 92.745 singleton births in the State of Goiás during the year of 2000 were examined. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with LBW (< 2500 g. In Goiás, the prevalence of LBW was 5.96% and the most important factors associated with LBW were: prematurity, young and older mothers, unmarried women, mother illiteracy, mothers who had less than seven prenatal care visits, non-hospital delivery, and female infants. Local public health actions are necessary to reduce inequalities in infant and maternal care. KEYWORDS: newborn, birth weight, prenatal care.

  6. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  7. First-trimester uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of birth weight in a low-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Andres; Casasbuenas, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Nadiezhda; Angarita, Ana M; Sarmiento, Piedad; Sepulveda, Waldo

    2013-01-01

    To study the relationship between first-trimester uterine artery (UtA) Doppler velocimetry and birth weight in an unselected, low-risk obstetric population. This is a prospective study of 415 low-risk pregnant women who underwent a first-trimester ultrasound evaluation between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation. Blood flow velocimetry waveforms from both UtAs were obtained and the pulsatility index (PI) measured and recorded. Clinical records were reviewed for pregnancy outcomes. Birth weight was expressed as z-scores, and the Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to calculate the relationship between the mean, delta, and lowest UtA PI values and birth weight. There was no correlation between the mean and delta UtA PI values and birth weight. However, a significant correlation between the lowest UtA PI value and birth weight (ρ = -0.121; p = 0.013) was noted. Our study found a clinically significant correlation between the lowest UtA PI value and birth weight in an unselected, low-risk pregnant population. Because fetal growth is a multifactorial process in which placentation is only one of the factors involved, the use of a single parameter such as Doppler velocimetry remote from the delivery to predict birth weight in a low-risk population seems to be less useful than in the high-risk population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect the intr......Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect...... the intrauterine central nervous system development, while low BW and premature birth have both been related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We investigated the association between intrauterine nicotine exposure, BW, gestational age (GA) and infantile colic in a large cohort study. Materials and methods......: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The study on nicotine exposure included 63,128 infants and the study on BW and GA included 62, 785 infants with complete data. Infantile colic was defined according to the modified Wessel’s criteria based on maternal interview 6 months postpartum...

  9. Cervical HSV-2 infection causes cervical remodeling and increases risk for ascending infection and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Devin; Poncil, Sharra; Patterson, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), or birth before 37 weeks gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Cervical viral infections have been established as risk factors for PTB in women, although the mechanism leading to increased risk is unknown. Using a mouse model of pregnancy, we determined that intra-vaginal HSV2 infection caused increased rates of preterm birth following an intra-vaginal bacterial infection. HSV2 infection resulted in histological changes in the cervix mimicking cervical ripening, including significant collagen remodeling and increased hyaluronic acid synthesis. Viral infection also caused aberrant expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor in the cervical epithelium. Further analysis using human ectocervical cells demonstrated a role for Src kinase in virus-mediated changes in estrogen receptor and hyaluronic acid expression. In conclusion, HSV2 affects proteins involved in tissue hormone responsiveness, causes significant changes reminiscent of premature cervical ripening, and increases risk of preterm birth. Studies such as this improve our chances of identifying clinical interventions in the future. PMID:29190738

  10. [Relations between hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and subsequent risk of early-term birth: a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F Y; Yan, S Q; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Pan, W J; Ge, X; Han, Y; Hao, J H; Tao, F B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To evaluate the relations between hypertensive disorders (HDP) in pregnancy and early-term birth. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women were consecutively recruited. Demographic information was collected in early pregnancy. HDP was diagnosed in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. On the basis of precise evaluation on gestation age, early-term birth was defined as gestational age of 37-38 weeks+6 days. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between HDP and early-term birth. Results: The current study included 3 260 pregnant women, with the rates of HDP, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and pre-eclampsia as 6.0% ( n =194), 4.2% ( n =137) and 1.8% ( n =57), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences between pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome and earlyterm birth ( OR =1.49, 95% CI : 0.94-2.36) were found. Pre-eclampsia appeared to have increased the risk of early-term birth ( OR =4.46, 95% CI : 2.09-9.54). Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia could significantly increase the risk of early-term birth. This finding suggested that early detection and intervention programs were helpful in reducing the risk of early-term birth.

  11. Very Low Birth Weight and Perinatal Periods of Risk: Disparities in St. Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Xaverius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Very low birth weight (VLBW is a significant issue in St. Louis, Missouri. Our study evaluated risk factors associated with VLBW in this predominantly urban community. Methods. From 2000 to 2009, birth and fetal death certificates were evaluated (n=160, 189, and mortality rates were calculated for perinatal periods of risk. The Kitagawa method was used to explore fetoinfant mortality rates (FIMR in terms of birth weight distribution and birthweight specific mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of association of selected risk factors with VLBW. Results. VLBW contributes to 50% of the excess FIMR in St. Louis City and County. The highest proportion of VLBW can be attributed to black maternal race (40.6% in St. Louis City, inadequate prenatal care (19.8%, and gestational hypertension (12.0% among black women. Medicaid was found to have a protective effect for VLBW among black women (population attributable risk (PAR = −14.5. Discussion. Interventions targeting the health of women before and during conception may be most successful at reducing the disparities in VLBW in this population. Interventions geared towards smoking cessation and improvements in Medicaid and prenatal care access for black mothers and St. Louis City residents can greatly reduce VLBW rates.

  12. Risk factors for hypospadias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roelofs, L.A.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Roeleveld, N.

    2007-01-01

    Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were

  13. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  14. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females.

  15. Ethnic and racial disparities in the risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Liem, Sophie M. S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic review of available literature on the effect of maternal ethnicity (Africans/blacks, Asians, Hispanics, others) on the risk of preterm birth (PTB). Studies investigating ethnicity (or race) as a risk factor for PTB were included if performing

  16. Intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants: associated risk factors and outcome in the neonatal period Hemorragia intracranianana: evolução dos recém-nascidos de baixo peso no período neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Catache Mancini

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is a severe complication in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns (NB. With the purpose of studying the incidence of IVH, the associated risk factors, and the outcomes for these neonates, we studied all the VLBW infants born in our neonatal unit. Birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization, apnea crisis, hydrocephalus, and periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed. The diagnosis of IVH was based on ultrasound scan studies (Papile's classification performed until the tenth day of life and repeated weekly in the presence of abnormalities. Sixty-seven/101 neonates were studied. The mortality rate was 30.6% (31/101 and the incidence of IVH was 29.8% (20/67 : 70% grade I, 20% grade III and 10% grade IV. The incidence of IVH in NB A hemorragia intracraniana constituí uma grave complicação na evolução dos recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso (RN-MBP no período neonatal. Realizou-se este estudo, incluindo os recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso admitidos no Berçário Anexo à Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, com o objetivo de determinar a incidência de hemorragia intracraniana (HIC, os fatores de risco associados e sua evolução no período neonatal. Foram analisados o peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, presença de asfixia neonatal, uso de ventilação mecânica, tempo de internação, presença de episódios de apnéia, hidrocefalia e leucoencefalomalácia. O diagnóstico de HIC baseou-se no exame ultra-sonográfico realizado até o décimo dia de vida, de acordo com a classificação de Papille. Foram admitidos no período 101 RN-MBP, dos quais 67 preencheram aos critérios de inclusão. A taxa de mortalidade do período foi de 30,6% (31/101 e a incidência de HIC foi de 29,8% (20/67, sendo 70% grau I, 20 grau II e 10% grau IV. A incidência de HIC em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento menos do que 1000g foi de 53,8% (p

  17. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  18. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... rupture (ASR). Design  Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting  Data were taken from the National Medical Birth Registry, Denmark. Population  Patients with a first and a second vaginal delivery in the time period 1997-2010. Methods  Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...

  19. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  20. Physically demanding work, fetal growth and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Claudia A; Brand, Teus; Jaddoe, Vincent; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steegers, Eric A P; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-08-01

    Work-related risk factors, such as long work hours, and physically demanding work have been suggested to adversely influence pregnancy outcome. The authors aimed to examine associations between various aspects of physically demanding work with fetal growth in different trimesters during pregnancy and the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Associations between physically demanding work and fetal growth were studied in 4680 pregnant women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in The Netherlands (2002-2006). Mothers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response 77% of enrolment) were included if they conducted paid employment and had a spontaneously conceived singleton live born pregnancy. Questions on physical workload were obtained from the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and concerned questions on lifting, long periods of standing or walking, night shifts and working hours. Fetal growth characteristics were repeatedly measured by ultrasound and were used in combination with measurements at birth. There were no consistent significant associations between physically demanding work nor working hours in relation to small for gestational age, low birth weight or preterm delivery. Women exposed to long periods of standing had lower growth rates for fetal head circumference (HC), resulting in a reduction of approximately 1 cm (3%) of the average HC at birth. Compared with women working working 25-39 h/week and >40 h/week had lower growth rates for both fetal weight and HC, resulting in a difference of approximately 1 cm in HC at birth and a difference of 148-198 g in birth weight. Long periods of standing and long working hours per week during pregnancy seem to negatively influence intrauterine growth.

  1. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  2. Risk Factors for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hau Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.

  3. Tests of linear and nonlinear relations between cumulative contextual risk at birth and psychosocial problems during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R; Smith, Gail L; Mason, W Alex; Savolainen, Jukka; Chmelka, Mary B; Miettunen, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2017-10-01

    This study tested whether there are linear or nonlinear relations between prenatal/birth cumulative risk and psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Participants (n = 6963) were taken from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986. The majority of participants did not experience any contextual risk factors around the time of the target child's birth (58.1%). Even in this low-risk sample, cumulative contextual risk assessed around the time of birth was related to seven different psychosocial outcomes 16 years later. There was some evidence for nonlinear effects, but only for substance-related outcomes; however, the form of the association depended on how the cumulative risk index was calculated. Gender did not moderate the relation between cumulative risk and any of the adolescent psychosocial outcomes. Results highlight the potential value of using the cumulative risk framework for identifying children at birth who are at risk for a range of poor psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-parametric analysis of seasonality in birth and multiple sclerosis risk in second generation of migrants in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Alroughani, Raed; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Abkal, Jarrah; Ayad, Yasser

    2014-08-26

    There are inconsistent reports about multiple sclerosis (MS) risk among migrants from low to high MS risk geographical regions. This study assessed the overall MS incidence and evaluated seasonality in birth and subsequent MS risk later in the life in second generation of migrants born and lived in Kuwait. We assessed the overall and gender-specific MS risk in second generation of migrants born and lived in Kuwait between January 1, 1950 and April 30, 2013. Data on migrants' MS patients diagnosed and registered in Kuwait National MS Registry were used. Hewitt's non-parametric test was carried out to evaluate the seasonality in migrants' MS births in comparison with the second generation migrants' births in general population. During the study period, an overall risk of migrants' MS births (per 100,000 non-Kuwaiti births in general population) was 23.8 (95% CI: 20.8 - 27.0). Gender-specific MS risk showed that non-Kuwaiti female had statistically significant (p = 0.003) higher risk (28.6; 95% CI: 24.2 - 33.7) than non-Kuwaiti males (18.7; 95% CI: 15.1-23.0). The month-specific distribution of migrants' MS births compared with migrants' births in general population did not differ significantly (χ2 goodness-of-fit test statistic = 9.51, p = 0.575). Hewitt's non-parametric test revealed an evidence of slight but statistically non-significant (p = 0.090) increased tendency of migrants' MS births during September through February. The proportion of migrants' MS births (per 100,000 migrants' births in general population) over the study period was 23.8 (95% CI: 20.8 - 27.0), which was statistically significantly higher than the previously reported Kuwaiti national MS births (16.2; 95% CI: 15.1-17.4) in Kuwait. Non-parametric analysis showed slight but statistically non-significant increased tendency of migrants' MS births from September through February. Knowledge of MS risk factors and how and when they act among genetically vulnerable individuals from

  5. Factors affecting inter-birth in rural areas of Zarrindasht (Fars province)

    OpenAIRE

    Najaf Zare; Mojtaba Soltani; Mehrab Sayadi; Abdolreza Rajaeefard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proper time intervals among pregnancies has a major role in family provision. Investigating the dynamism of the birth spacing, identify factors and their effects on the time interval among pregnancies and determination of optimal spacing is the utmost importance for health planners and families. The purpose was to study the abortion and stillbirth due to short inter-birth spacing, factors affecting inter-births and optimal birth spacing. Material and Methods: In 2005, a cross-...

  6. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  7. Fatores de risco para diabetes mellitus gestacional na coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2004 Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in the birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Souza de Oliveira Dode

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Consensos de diversos países referem idade, obesidade e história familiar de diabetes mellitus como fatores de risco para diabetes mellitus gestacional. Outros fatores permanecem controversos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar fatores associados ao diabetes mellitus gestacional entre mães dos recém-nascidos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 2004. Foram entrevistadas 4.243 puérperas no hospital, havendo 0,5% de recusas. O diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus gestacional foi auto-referido. A prevalência de diabetes mellitus gestacional foi 2,95% (IC95%: 2,53-3,64. Análise bruta realizada por meio de testes qui-quadrado mostrou associação direta com aumento da idade, escolaridade, nível econômico e índice de massa corporal (IMC e inversa com altura materna. Cor não branca, história familiar de diabetes mellitus, tabagismo no primeiro e segundo trimestres e atividade física antes da gestação e no primeiro trimestre mostraram-se associados. A análise ajustada hierarquizada realizada através de regressão logística mostrou associação com maior idade, cor não branca, maior escolaridade, história familiar de diabetes mellitus e maior IMC. A altura ficou no limiar da significância. Tabagismo no primeiro e segundo trimestres foi protetor.Consensus statements by various countries have reported age, obesity, and family history of diabetes mellitus as risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Other factors remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with gestational diabetes among mothers of newborns from the birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2004. We interviewed 4,243 postpartum women in hospital, with a 0.5% refusal rate. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes was self-reported. Prevalence of gestational diabetes was 2.95% (95%CI: 2.53-3.64. Crude analysis using the chi-square test showed a direct association with age, schooling

  8. Do perinatal and early life exposures influence the risk of malignant melanoma? A Northern Ireland birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rorke, M A; Black, C; Murray, L J; Cardwell, C R; Gavin, A T; Cantwell, M M

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine, early life and maternal exposures may have important consequences for cancer development in later life. The aim of this study was to examine perinatal and birth characteristics with respect to Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) risk. The Northern Ireland Child Health System database was used to examine gestational age adjusted birth weight, infant feeding practices, parental age and socioeconomic factors at birth in relation to CMM risk amongst 447,663 infants delivered between January 1971 and December 1986. Follow-up of histologically verified CMM cases was undertaken from the beginning of 1993 to 31st December 2007. Multivariable adjusted unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CMM risk. A total of 276 CMM cases and 440,336 controls contributed to the final analysis. In reference to normal (gestational age-adjusted) weight babies, those heaviest at birth were twice as likely to develop CMM OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1). Inverse associations with CMM risk were observed with younger (birth and both a higher birth order and greater household density OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-0.99) and OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.30-1.0) respectively. This large study of early onset melanoma supports a positive association with higher birth weight (imperatively gestational age adjusted) and CMM risk which may be related to factors which drive intrauterine foetal growth. Strong inverse associations observed with higher birth order and household density suggest that early-life immune modulation may confer protection; findings which warrant further investigation in prospective analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar Order bereavement materials News Moms Need Blog Stories & Media ...

  10. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... determine the effect of the year and season, age of the lamb, weight of the lamb, birth type and sex on the birth weight ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the ..... extensive lamb production systems in New Zealand. Livest. Prod.

  11. Risk of peripartum hysterectomy in births after assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromi, Antonella; Candeloro, Ilario; Marconi, Nicola; Casarin, Jvan; Serati, Maurizio; Agosti, Massimo; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    To investigate whether women who conceive after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are at higher risk for emergency peripartum hysterectomy. A case-control study using a prospectively maintained institutional database. A tertiary referral university teaching maternity hospital. Thirty-one women who underwent peripartum hysterectomy for management of hemorrhage, and 19,902 control women. None. Association between potential predictors and peripartum hysterectomy. The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy was 1.7 cases per 1,000 births (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4). After adjustment for maternal age and twin pregnancy, placenta previa (odds ratio [OR] 50.78, 95% CI 23.30-110.68), prior cesarean delivery (OR 6.72, 95% CI 2.99-15.09 for one cesarean; OR 6.80, 95% CI 1.45-31.90 for two or more cesareans), previous myomectomy (OR 24.59, 95% CI 6.70-90.19), and ART conception (OR 5.98, 95% CI 2.18-16.40) were all antenatal predictors for peripartum hysterectomy. In women having a peripartum hysterectomy, 13.4% of the risk is attributable to mode of conception. A history of ART increases the likelihood of needing a peripartum hysterectomy to control hemorrhage. Further investigation is needed to determine whether ART conception should be included in algorithms of risk stratification for emergency cesarean hysterectomy and plan of care be modified accordingly. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Audit of a new model of birth care for women with low risk pregnancies in South Africa: the primary care onsite midwife-led birth unit (OMBU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, George Justus; Mancotywa, Thozeka; Silwana-Kwadjo, Nomvula; Mgudlwa, Batembu; Lawrie, Theresa A; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2014-12-20

    South Africa's health system is based on the primary care model in which low-risk maternity care is provided at community health centres and clinics, and 'high-risk' care is provided at secondary/tertiary hospitals. This model has the disadvantage of delays in the management of unexpected intrapartum complications in otherwise low-risk pregnancies, therefore, there is a need to re-evaluate the models of birth care in South Africa. To date, two primary care onsite midwife-led birth units (OMBUs) have been established in the Eastern Cape. OMBUs are similar to alongside midwifery units but have been adapted to the South African health system in that they are staffed, administered and funded by the primary care service. They allow women considered to be at 'low risk' to choose between birth in a community health centre and birth in the OMBU. The purpose of this audit was to evaluate the impact of establishing an OMBU at Frere Maternity Hospital in East London, South Africa, on maternity services. We conducted an audit of routinely collected data from Frere Maternity Hospital over two 12 month periods, before and after the OMBU opened. Retrospectively retrieved data included the number of births, maternal and perinatal deaths, and mode of delivery. After the OMBU opened at Frere Maternity Hospital, the total number of births on the hospital premises increased by 16%. The total number of births in the hospital obstetric unit (OU) dropped by 9.3%, with 1611 births out of 7375 (22%) occurring in the new OMBU. The number of maternal and perinatal deaths was lower in the post-OMBU period compared with the pre-OMBU period. These improvements cannot be assumed to be the result of the intervention as observational studies are prone to bias. The mortality data should be interpreted with caution as other factors such as change in risk profile may have contributed to the death reductions. There are many additional advantages for women, hospital staff and primary care staff with

  13. Fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer Factores de riesgo para mortalidad neonatal en niños con bajo peso al nacer Risk factors for neonatal mortality among children with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Monteiro Ribeiro

    2009-04-01

    Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, fueron integrados por la técnica de linkage. En modelo jerarquizado, las variables de los niveles distal (factores socioeconómicos, intermedio (factores de atención a la salud y proximal (factores biológicos fueron sometidas al análisis univariado y regresión logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: Con el ajuste de las variables en la regresión logística multivariada, las variables del nivel distal que permanecieron significativamente asociadas con el óbito neonatal fueron: la cohabitación de los padres, número de hijos vivos y tipo de hospital de nacimiento; en el nivel intermedio: número de consultas en el pre-natal, complejidad del hospital de nacimiento y tipo de parto; y en el nivel proximal: sexo, edad gestacional, peso al nacer, índice de Apgar y presencia de malformación congénita. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados a la mortalidad neonatal en los nacidos vivos con bajo peso están relacionados con la atención a la gestante y al recién nacido, reductibles por la actuación del sector salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors associated with neonatal deaths among children with low birth weight. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out on live births weighing between 500 g and 2,499 g from single pregnancies without anencephaly in Recife (Northeastern Brazil between 2001 and 2003. Data on 5,687 live births and 499 neonatal deaths obtained from the Live Birth Information System and the Mortality Information System were integrated through the linkage technique. Using a hierarchical model, variables from the distal level (socioeconomic factors, intermediate level (healthcare factors and proximal level (biological factors were subjected to univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjusting the variables through multivariate logistic regression, the factors from the distal level that remained significantly associated with neonatal death were: cohabitation by the parents, number of

  14. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  15. Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Infant’s Low Birth Weight in Teenage Mothers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Samira Mokhlesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy in low age has been proposed as one of the important factors causing risks and adverse outcomes. One of these complications is low birth weight (LBW, which is an important health indicator in any countries. In this study, texts related to Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Infant’s Low Birth Weight in teenage mothers was reviewed. Methods: In the present study, articles indexed in the databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, were used. Results: In the present study, a total of 22 articles related to teenage pregnancy and low birth weight were studied. Also, all factors influencing infants’ low birth weight in teenegers were evaluated in the areas of biological and environmental factors. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that environmental and biological parameters are factors influencing low birth weight in teenage pregnancy. Thus, to reduce social problem of low birth weight and to improve this indicator in both environmental and biological issues, health intervention is necessary.

  16. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  17. Positive Outcomes among School-Age Mothers: Factors Associated with Postponing a Second Teenage Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela

    Recent research has identified several long-term negative life outcomes associated with teenage childbearing for parents and their children. To better understand teen births, data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 were used to examine factors associated with a second teen birth or a closely spaced second teen birth within 24…

  18. Determination of risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A M; Nargis, S; Mollah, A H; Kabir, L M; Sarkar, R N

    2010-07-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of neonatal infection and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. The best way to reduce the high prevalence of pneumonia at this age group is through identification and elimination of its risk factors. This case-control study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital during Nov 2007 to Nov 2008 with an aim to identify the risk factors of pneumonia. Data were collected from 100 neonates, 50 cases and 50 controls who met the predefined inclusion criteria. Results shows mean birth weight (pneonatal resuscitation (ppneumonia. Multivariate analysis showed inadequate antenatal care (OR 168.9), home delivery (OR 13.8), intrapartum fever (OR 225.9), obstetric problem of mother (OR 33.4), requirement of resuscitation (OR 12.5), prolonged labour (OR 15.2) as significant risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.

  19. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  20. What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...

  1. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  2. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  3. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, J. M.; Hof, M. H. P.; Mol, B. W. J.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Ravelli, A. C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Schaaf J, Hof M, Mol B, Abu-Hanna A, Ravelli A. Recurrence risk of preterm birth in subsequent twin pregnancy after preterm singleton delivery.BJOG 2012;119:16241629. Objective To determine the risk of preterm birth in a subsequent twin pregnancy after previous singleton

  4. Are there inequalities in choice of birthing position? Sociodemographic and labour factors associated with the supine position during the second stage of labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, Marlies E. B.; van Diem, Mariet Th.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L. M.

    Objective: to establish which factors are associated with birthing positions throughout the second stage of tabour and at the time of birth. Design: retrospective cohort study. Setting: primary care midwifery practices in the Netherlands. Participants: 665 low-risk women who received midwife-led

  5. Risk factor based investing:case: MSCI risk factor indices

    OpenAIRE

    Pieskä, J. (Jukka)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this thesis is to study risk factor based investing and test how well MSCI constructs their risk factor based indices. Risk factor based investing has gained a lot of media exposure in the recent years and “Smart Beta” products are becoming more popular. Blackrock estimated that there are more than 700 exchange traded products available and they have over $ 529 billion in assets under management. Risk fa...

  6. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pchildhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pchildhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  7. cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban south african

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK. FACTORS IN 5-YEAR-OLD URBAN. SOUTH AFRICAN CHILDREN. THE BIRTH TO TEN STUDY. Krisela Steyn, Thea de Wet, Linda Richter, Noel Cameron, aomi S Levitt, Christopher MorrelI. Background. A birth cohort study, the Birth to Ten (BIT) study, commenced in the greater ...

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  9. Perceived factors influencing the utilization of traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies have shown that one of the major causes of maternal death especially in developing countries is unskilled birth attendants at pregnancy and childbirth. The aim of this study is to determine the reasons for the utilization of traditional birth attendants' services among mothers in Akinyele Local Government ...

  10. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  11. Birth size and coronary heart disease risk score in young adulthood. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, LE; Oren, A; Bots, ML; Gorissen, WHM; Grobbee, DE; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    Data of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study were used to investigate the association between birth size and the absolute risk for coronary heart disease in healthy young adults. The cohort study comprises 750 (46.9% men) subjects born between 1970 and 1973. Birth characteristics

  12. Cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor and the risk of subsequent premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen L; Tang, Selphee; Crawford, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Cesarean delivery is being increasingly used by obstetricians for indicated deliveries in the second stage of labor. Unplanned extension of the uterine incision involving the cervix often occurs with these surgeries. Therefore, we hypothesized that cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor may increase the rate of subsequent spontaneous premature birth. We sought to determine if cesarean delivery in the late first stage of labor or in the second stage of labor increases the risk of a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of matched first and second births from a large Canadian perinatal database. The primary outcomes were spontaneous premature birth cesarean delivery. The protocol and analysis plan was registered prior to obtaining data at Open Science Foundation. In total, 189,021 paired first and second births were identified. The risk of spontaneous preterm delivery cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor (relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.73 and relative risk, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-2.68, respectively). The risk of perinatal death in the second birth, excluding congenital anomalies, was also correspondingly increased (relative risk, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.96). Cesarean delivery in second stage of labor was associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation in a subsequent birth. This information may inform management of operative delivery in the second stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  14. Hormone contraception before the first birth and endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Linda S; Dong, Yan; Round, Pamela; Huang, Xun; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2014-02-01

    There is a well-documented reduction in endometrial cancer risk with combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. COC use before the first full-term pregnancy may affect breast cancer risk for decades, but this relationship has not been investigated in endometrial cancer. We investigated the risk for endometrial cancer with COC use before the first full-term pregnancy. Cases (n = 524) from a population-based cancer registry and age-matched controls (n = 1,032) were recruited between 2002 and 2006 in Alberta, Canada. Participants completed an in-person interview and provided detailed information on exogenous hormone use and other risk factors. Risk reductions in endometrial cancer with COC use over the premenopausal years were consistent with the published literature. We also found evidence of a long-term, significant risk reduction in parous women with COC use before the first full-term pregnancy. Among parous women, ≥5 years of COC use before a first full-term pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in risk [adjusted OR, 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.72], even if this exposure was a woman's only use of COCs (adjusted OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.68). Further understanding of the long-term effects of COC use may help guide the timing of chemoprevention efforts via COCs.

  15. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  16. [Effects of birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery on childhood acute leukemia risk: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guobin; Sha, Xia

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the associations between birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery and childhood acute leukemia risk. Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies up to March 2013 using the search terms "childhood leukemia", "acute lymphoblastic leukemia", "acute myeloid leukemia","birth order", "abortion", "miscarriage", "cesarean", "birth characteristics" and "prenatal risk factor". Data from cohort and case-control studies were analyzed using the Stata software. Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria. No significant associations were identified for birth order and mode of delivery (birth order = 2: OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.89-1.05; birth order = 3: OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.91-1.11; birth order ≥ 4: OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.87-1.20; mode of delivery: OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.96-1.15). However, there was a significant association between maternal abortion and childhood acute leukemia risk (spontaneous abortion: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.05-1.41; induced abortion: OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.07-1.43). Furthermore, the stratified analysis by disease subtypes showed that spontaneous and induced abortions were significantly associated with the risks of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (OR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.09-2.70) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42), respectively. This meta-analysis revealed that maternal abortion might contribute to the childhood acute leukemia risk.

  17. Pooling Bio-Specimens in the Presence of Measurement Error and Non-Linearity in Dose-Response: Simulation Study in the Context of a Birth Cohort Investigating Risk Factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Heavner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the potential effects of pooling on power, false positive rate (FPR, and bias of the estimated associations between hypothetical environmental exposures and dichotomous autism spectrum disorders (ASD status. Simulated birth cohorts in which ASD outcome was assumed to have been ascertained with uncertainty were created. We investigated the impact on the power of the analysis (using logistic regression to detect true associations with exposure (X1 and the FPR for a non-causal correlate of exposure (X2, r = 0.7 for a dichotomized ASD measure when the pool size, sample size, degree of measurement error variance in exposure, strength of the true association, and shape of the exposure-response curve varied. We found that there was minimal change (bias in the measures of association for the main effect (X1. There is some loss of power but there is less chance of detecting a false positive result for pooled compared to individual level models. The number of pools had more effect on the power and FPR than the overall sample size. This study supports the use of pooling to reduce laboratory costs while maintaining statistical efficiency in scenarios similar to the simulated prospective risk-enriched ASD cohort.

  18. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  19. Gestational age at birth and risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelman, Hein; Abel, Kathryn; Wicks, Susanne; Gardner, Renee; Johnstone, Edward; Lee, Brian; Magnusson, Cecilia; Dalman, Christina; Rai, Dheeraj

    2017-12-06

    Preterm birth is linked to intellectual disability and there is evidence to suggest post-term birth may also incur risk. However, these associations have not yet been investigated in the absence of common genetic causes of intellectual disability, where risk associated with late delivery may be preventable. We therefore aimed to examine risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause across the entire range of gestation, using a matched-sibling design to account for unmeasured confounding by shared familial factors. We conducted a population-based retrospective study using data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort (n = 499,621) and examined associations in a nested cohort of matched outcome-discordant siblings (n = 8034). Risk of intellectual disability was greatest among those born extremely early (adjusted OR 24 weeks  = 14.54 [95% CI 11.46-18.44]), lessening with advancing gestational age toward term (aOR 32 weeks  = 3.59 [3.22-4.01]; aOR 37 weeks  = 1.50 [1.38-1.63]); aOR 38 weeks  = 1.26 [1.16-1.37]; aOR 39 weeks = 1.10 [1.04-1.17]) and increasing with advancing gestational age post-term (aOR 42 weeks  = 1.16 [1.08-1.25]; aOR 43 weeks  = 1.41 [1.21-1.64]; aOR 44 weeks  = 1.71 [1.34-2.18]; aOR 45 weeks  = 2.07 [1.47-2.92]). Associations persisted in a cohort of matched siblings suggesting they were robust against confounding by shared familial traits. Risk of intellectual disability was greatest among children showing evidence of fetal growth restriction, especially when birth occurred before or after term. Birth at non-optimal gestational duration may be linked causally with greater risk of intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying these associations need to be elucidated as they are relevant to clinical practice concerning elective delivery around term and mitigation of risk in post-term children.

  20. Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after cesarean section and outcomes in rural area of Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Mehmet Baki; Cakmak, Yusuf; Atac, Halit; Budak, Mehmet Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Successful vaginal birth after cesarean section is more comfortable than repeat emergency or elective cesarean section. Antenatal examinations are important in selection for trial of labor, while birth management can be difficult when the patients present at emergency condition. But there is an increased chance of vaginal birth with advanced cervical dilation. This study attempts to evaluate factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section and to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes between vaginal birth after cesarean section and intrapartum cesarean section in patients who were admitted to hospital during the active or second stage of labor. A retrospective evaluation was made from the results of 127 patients. Cesarean section was performed in 57 patients; 70 attempted trial of labor. The factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section were investigated. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Vaginal birth after cesarean section was successful in 55% of cases. Advanced cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were factors associated with successful vaginal birth. The vaginal birth group had more complications (P0.05). In this study, cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were important factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean section. The patients' requests influenced outcome. Trial of labor should take into consideration the patient's preference, together with the proper setting.

  1. Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after cesarean section and outcomes in rural area of Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Mehmet Baki; Cakmak, Yusuf; Atac, Halit; Budak, Mehmet Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Successful vaginal birth after cesarean section is more comfortable than repeat emergency or elective cesarean section. Antenatal examinations are important in selection for trial of labor, while birth management can be difficult when the patients present at emergency condition. But there is an increased chance of vaginal birth with advanced cervical dilation. This study attempts to evaluate factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section and to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes between vaginal birth after cesarean section and intrapartum cesarean section in patients who were admitted to hospital during the active or second stage of labor. A retrospective evaluation was made from the results of 127 patients. Cesarean section was performed in 57 patients; 70 attempted trial of labor. The factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section were investigated. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Vaginal birth after cesarean section was successful in 55% of cases. Advanced cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were factors associated with successful vaginal birth. The vaginal birth group had more complications (P0.05). In this study, cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were important factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean section. The patients’ requests influenced outcome. Trial of labor should take into consideration the patient’s preference, together with the proper setting. PMID:26203286

  2. Risk Assessments, Pregnancy and Birth Processes of Pregnant Women at Primary Health Care Center: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Atadağ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although many pregnancies and birth processes have passed without any problems, all pregnancies have various risks. The main purpose should be to control risky situations in pregnancy without threatening the health of mother and baby. Our study was carried out in order to investigate the complications related to the risks determined by the risk assessments of women who were followed during pregnancy and puerperants in a family health center.Methods: Women who were registered in the family medicine unit and whose pregnancy and puerperium were followed were scanned through the automation system during the study period. During the pregnancy periods, risk factors and time of birth were examined. Patients with any risk factor were considered as risky pregnant and examined whether a pathological condition developed during pregnancy or during the postpartum period.Results: It was determined that during pregnancy period 10 pregnant women had at least one risk factor of 81 pregnant women whose risk assessments were examined. The distribution of risk factors was as follow; 3 with grand-multiparity story, 3 with preterm delivery, 2 with pregnancy over 35, 2 with Rh incompatibility, 1 with cardiovascular disease, 1 with multiple pregnancy, 1 with preterm labor, and under 18 years of age in 1 pregnant women was determined. It was found statistically significant that the risk of having a risk factor was higher than that of non-risk patients at 38 weeks (p<0.01. Among the risk factors, when the patients with preterm delivery and preterm delivery were excluded, it was also found that the preterm delivery risk increased significantly (p=0.012.Conclusions: In pregnancies with risk factors, complications may occur much more than normal pregnancies. Therefore, it is very important for women to communicate with family physicians while planning pregnancy, if their risks are identified and appropriate approach protocols are used to ensure that both the mother and

  3. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevier, Melanie; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer

  4. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD......-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma...

  5. Maternal haemoglobin concentration and risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Li, Zhiwen; Li, Hongtian; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Le; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between maternal haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and risk of preterm birth by secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial. This analysis included 10,430 women who were at least 20 years old and no more than 20 weeks of gestation. Results revealed neither first- nor second-trimester Hb concentrations were associated with the risk of preterm births. However, the risk of preterm birth increased when the Hb level was low (preterm birth. A low-Hb level in the first trimester but coupled with a high Hb level in the second was associated with an elevated risk of preterm birth. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: The relationship between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth remains inconclusive. Some studies have shown an association between a low- or a high-Hb level and an increased risk of preterm birth. Others have not found such an association. Yet others have shown a U-shaped relationship. What do the results of this study add: Overall, maternal Hb concentrations in first or second trimester were not statistically associated with the risk of preterm birth. However, women with a low Hb concentration in the first trimester together with a high Hb concentration in the second trimester had an increased risk of preterm birth, compared to women who had a higher Hb concentration in the first trimester that remained similar during the second trimester. What are the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Our finding helps identify mothers who are at risk of having a preterm delivery. Investigating the underlying clinical causes of the unfavourable change in Hb levels and close follow-up to these women may help improve birth outcomes.

  6. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake and risk of preterm birth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Lv, Ling; Zhang, Hanru; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Jie; He, Xiaochun; Zhou, Min; Xu, Xiaoying; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Lerro, Catherine; Lin, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Bai, Haiya; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Ma, Bin; Huang, Huang; Liang, Jiaxin; Qiu, Weitao; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-06-01

    Folic acid supplementation has been suggested to reduce the risk of preterm birth. However, results from previous epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake during pre- and post-conception reduces the risk of preterm birth. We analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Lanzhou, China, including 10,179 pregnant women with live singleton births. Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users with >12-week duration had a reduced risk of preterm birth (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.55-0.83) with a significant dose-response relationship (P for trend = 0.01). A similar pattern was observed for spontaneous preterm birth. Stronger associations were seen for ever use of folic acid supplement and very preterm birth (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.36-0.69) and spontaneous very preterm birth (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.29-0.63). Dietary folate intake during preconception and pregnancy were also associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.56-0.83, OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.47-0.70 for the highest quartiles, respectively), particularly for spontaneous very preterm (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24-0.72, OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.15-0.47 for the highest quartiles, respectively). There were also decreased risks of preterm birth observed per 10-µg increase in dietary folate intake, and similar associations were found after stratification by folic acid supplementation status. Our results suggest that folic acid supplementation and higher dietary folate intake during preconception and pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth, and the protective effect varies by preterm subtypes.

  7. Factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women who had pre-term birth in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, over a 2 ½ year period were studied. The aim was to establish the factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar. Factors which significantly increase the incidence of pre-term delivery included: previous induced abortion ...

  8. Advanced Maternal Age and the Risk of Low Birth Weight and Preterm Delivery: a Within-Family Analysis Using Finnish Population Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisis, Alice; Remes, Hanna; Barclay, Kieron; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Advanced maternal age at birth is considered a major risk factor for birth outcomes. It is unclear to what extent this association is confounded by maternal characteristics. To test whether advanced maternal age at birth independently increases the risk of low birth weight (family models (children born to different mothers at different ages) with within-family models (children born to the same mother at different ages). The latter procedure reduces confounding by unobserved parental characteristics that are shared by siblings. We used Finnish population registers, including 124,098 children born during 1987–2000. When compared with maternal ages 25–29 years in between-family models, maternal ages of 35–39 years and ≥40 years were associated with percentage increases of 1.1 points (95% confidence intervals: 0.8, 1.4) and 2.2 points (95% confidence intervals: 1.4, 2.9), respectively, in the probability of low birth weight. The associations are similar for the risk of preterm delivery. In within-family models, the relationship between advanced maternal age and low birth weight or preterm birth is statistically and substantively negligible. In Finland, advanced maternal age is not independently associated with the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery among mothers who have had at least 2 live births. PMID:29206985

  9. [Recurrent diverticulitis - risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, Z; Slováček, R; Sankot, J

    2013-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a common illness, especially in the elderly population. It may be asymptomatic and cause chronic intestinal problems, colonic diverticular bleeding or inflammatory complications with considerable morbidity and mortality. We have attempted at finding factors that would help us identify patients with a higher risk of diverticulitis recurrence as well as patients with a higher likelihood of perforated diverticulitis. This retrospective study included all patients admitted to our surgical ward for inflammatory complications of diverticular disease between 2000 and 2012: 278 patients, 88 men and 190 women. We looked up the first attack of diverticulitis in our documentation as well as the relapses, if any, their number and course, and the time from the first attack to the relapse. We analyzed the influence of age, gender, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, overweight, ischemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, gastroduodenal disease), nicotine abuse and medication (glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive drugs, acetylsalicylic acid) on diverticulitis recurrence and its complicated course. We compared the results of conservative and surgical therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Fishers exact test and Man-Whitney U tests. We did not demonstrate any statistically significant dependence of diverticulitis recurrence on age or gender. Colectomy (both acute and elective surgery) clearly decreases the likelihood of recurrence (p=0.00007). Comorbidities, nicotine abuse and medication were not associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Steroid and immunosuppressive drugs use was significantly associated with higher perforation rates, without impacting on the likelihood of recurrence. Regular smoking of cigarettes had no impact on recurrence or on its severity. We did not find any reliable indicator of recurrent diverticulitis. Age, gender, comorbidities, smoking and medication are not significant. Immunocompromised

  10. Risks of small-for-gestational-age births in immigrants: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2012-11-01

    To examine if there is an association between country of birth in parents and small-for-gestational-age (defined as a birthweight of more than two standard deviations (SDs) below the mean) in first singletons births. In this follow-up study, national population and healthcare registers were used to identify small-for-gestational-age births in all first singleton births in Sweden between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 2006. Odds ratios, standardised with regard to maternal age at birth, period of birth, marital status, family income, geographical region, employment, maternal height, and smoking history, were estimated by maternal and paternal country of birth. Singletons with both parents born in Sweden were used as reference group. There were 1,060,467 records for first singletons births over the study period, of whom 3.5% were small-for-gestational-age. The rate was higher in newborns with non-Swedish born than in those with Swedish born mothers (4.1 and 3.3%, respectively). Immigrants from Southern European countries, Africa, and Asia had higher risks of small-for-gestational-age in than those in the reference group, and the risks were even higher in compatriot parents. Country of birth affected the risk of small-for-gestational-age. Maternity care should pay a special attention to pregnancies in certain population groups.

  11. Risk for maternal harsh parenting in high-risk families from birth to age three: does ethnicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Fisher, Philip A; Kim, Hyoun K

    2012-02-01

    Child maltreatment prevention programs typically identify at-risk families by screening for risk with limited consideration of how risk might vary by ethnicity. In this study, longitudinal data from mothers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a home-visitation, child maltreatment prevention program (N = 262) were examined to determine whether risk for harsh parenting differed among mothers who identified themselves as Spanish-speaking Latinas (n = 64), English-speaking Latinas (n = 102), or non-Latina Caucasians (n = 96). The majority of the participants were first-time mothers (58.4%), and the average age of all participants was 23.55 years (SD = 6.04). At the time of their infants' births, the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers demonstrated higher SES risk, whereas the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers demonstrated higher psychosocial risk. Three years later, the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers reported harsher parenting behaviors than the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers. The need for prevention programs to consider how risk and protective factors differ by ethnic group membership when identifying at-risk mothers is discussed.

  12. What factors are related to recurrent preterm birth among underweight women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsen, Anna I; Mayo, Jonathan A; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Gould, Jeffrey B; Carmichael, Suzan L; Stevenson, David K; Lyell, Deirdre J; Shaw, Gary M

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with recurrent preterm birth among underweight women. Maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of deliveries in California between 2007 and 2010 were used. Consecutive singleton pregnancies of women with underweight body mass index (BMI preterm; preterm-term and preterm-preterm. We analyzed 4971 women with underweight BMI in the first pregnancy. Of these, 670 had at least one preterm birth. Among these 670, 86 (21.8%) women experienced a recurrent preterm birth. Odds for first term - second preterm birth were decreased for increases in maternal age (aOR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.95-0.99) whereas inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth (aOR:1.66, 95%CI: 1.21-2.28) and first preterm birth - second term birth (aOR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.04-1.96). Factors associated with recurrent preterm birth were: negative or no change in pre-pregnancy weight between pregnancies (aOR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.07-2.60), inter-pregnancy interval preterm birth among underweight women was associated with younger age, short inter-pregnancy interval, and negative or no weight change between pregnancies.

  13. Incidência e principais fatores associados à falha de extubação em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento < 1.250 gramas Incidence and main risk factors associated with extubation failure in newborns with birth weight < 1,250 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Hermeto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de falha de extubação em recém-nascidos prematuros com peso de nascimento OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of extubation failure in preterm newborns with birth weight < 1,250 g extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure and to identify the main risk factors associated with the need for reintubation in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of eligible infants admitted and mechanically ventilated between July 2002 and June 2004 was performed. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation within 7 days after the first extubation attempt. RESULTS: Of the 52 patients included in the study, 13 died before the first extubation attempt. Of the remaining 39 patients, only nine failed extubation (23.1% Comparing the two groups (failure vs. successful, there was a statistically significant difference regarding birth weight, gestational age and 5-minute Apgar score. After logistic regression, only gestational age was significant. Other secondary outcomes showed significant difference between the groups: intracranial hemorrhage grade III and/or IV, patent ductus arteriosus and death. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of extubation failure in our population was similar to the rate reported in the literature. The main risk factor for extubation failure was prematurity (≤ 28 weeks. In this population of extreme preterm infants, implementation of strategies for early extubation, use of methylxanthines, prevention of patent ductus arteriosus, and use of different modes of assisted ventilation after extubation may improve the outcomes.

  14. [Outcomes of Planned Out-of-Hospital and Low-Risk Hospital Births in Lower Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Antje; Köhler, Lea-Marie; Schwarz, Christiane; Vaske, Bernhard; Gross, Mechthild M

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Internationally, there is debate on the safety of different birth settings inside and outside of hospitals. Low-risk women in Germany can choose where they give birth, and out-of-hospital births are especially necessary in regions lacking infrastructure. To date, national studies are required. Materials and Methods We investigated planned out-of-hospital (OH) and hospital births in Lower Saxony, Germany, in 2005. Women with a singleton fetus in the vertex position were included once they reached 34+0 gestational weeks. 1 273 out of 4 424 births were included via risk assessment. Outcomes were compared using Pearson's chi-squared test, the Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression. Results 152 (36.6%) nulliparae (NP) and 263 (63.4%) multiparae (MP) gave birth out of hospital, 439 (51.2%) nulliparae and 419 (48.8%) multiparae in a hospital. 10.1% of women whose care started outside of the hospital needed a transfer to the hospital. Women who planned OH were older and had a higher level of education. Women without a migration background displayed an increased rate of out-of-hospital birth. A higher proportion received their antenatal care from midwives rather than medical doctors. Induction of labor was less likely for women with planned out-of-hospital births, as were other intrapartum interventions. In hospital births, fetal monitoring was more likely performed via cardiotocograph instead of intermittent auscultation. Duration of labor was significantly longer in OH births (median: NP: 9.01 h vs. 7.38 h; MP: 4.53 h vs. 4.25 h). Nulliparae had more spontaneous births out-of-hospital (94.7%) than in hospital (73.6%). There was no difference in adverse fetal outcomes, blood loss, and severe perineal lacerations. The perineum was less frequently intact in hospital births. Retained placenta was more often documented in out-of-hospital births. Conclusions In an out-of-hospital setting, fewer interventions were performed, spontaneous births

  15. Paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood. Data from the medical birth register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service and the national statistics agency, Statistics Norway. This study used the data on 346,609 registered males who were born at term in single birth without physical anomalies during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years). The relationship between paternal age at birth and the occurrence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) ) at conscription was examined using a multinomial logistic regression analysis with BMI birth but did not increase (P = 0.52) with maternal age at birth. Men born when their fathers were 50 years or older had a 55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 110%) higher relative risk of obesity than men born when their fathers were younger than 20 years of age, after adjustment for age at conscription, birth order, birth year, maternal age at birth, the mother's total number of children, and maternal and paternal education levels. The risk of obesity in young Norwegian men increases with advancing paternal age at birth but does not increase with advancing maternal age at birth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Risk factors for macrosomia in infants born to Latina women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, JM.; Hessol, NA.; Heyman, MB.; Fuentes-Afflick, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess risk factors for macrosomic infant birth among Latina women. Study Design Prospective study of Latina women recruited during pregnancy from prenatal clinic at San Francisco General Hospital. Information was obtained through a structured interview and review of medical records. Result A total of 11% of women delivered macrosomic infants (birth weight >4000 g). In unadjusted analyses, significant risk factors for macrosomia included older maternal age, increasing gravidity, previous history of macrosomic birth and pre-pregnancy overweight. After adjusting for confounders using multivariate analyses, older mothers (10-year increments) had an elevated risk of macrosomia (odds ratio (OR) 2.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 5.24). Conclusion Efforts to reduce macrosomia in Latina women should focus on older mothers. PMID:18596709

  17. Birth weight and risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: Findings from a population-based record linkage study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Corey; Wang, Rong; DeWan, Andrew T; Metayer, Catherine; Morimoto, Libby; Wiemels, Joseph L; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Ma, Xiaomei

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between birth weight (along with a variety of pre and perinatal characteristics) and the risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosed at age birth records from 1978-2009 and cancer diagnosis data from 1988-2011 to conduct a population-based case-control study with 1216 cases and 4485 controls (matched on birth month and year, sex, and race/ethnicity). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of paediatric HL overall and by age of diagnosis, controlling for other perinatal factors. Compared to children with a normal birth weight (2500-3999 g), those who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g) had an increased risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.48) after adjusting for birth order, maternal age at the time of delivery, and paternal age at the time of delivery. The magnitude of association appeared larger for subgroups of children whose age of diagnosis was 0-10 years (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.04-2.24) or 15-19 years (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.11-1.83), while no association was observed in 11-14 year olds. Compared with firstborn children, those who were third or higher in birth order had a reduced risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.95), and this association also varied by age of diagnosis. In this study with the largest number of paediatric HL cases, high birth weight was associated with an increased disease risk for most but not all ages of diagnosis. The different findings by age of diagnosis regarding both birth weight and birth order underscore the importance to stratify paediatric HL by age at diagnosis in future etiological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Inflammation Predict Preterm Birth: Heightened Risk among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Lisa M; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Christian, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    Poor sleep promotes inflammation. In turn, inflammation is a causal mechanism in term as well as preterm parturition. In the United States, a persistent racial disparity in preterm birth exists, with African Americans showing ∼1.5 times greater risk. This study examined associations among sleep quality, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and length of gestation in a racially diverse sample of 138 pregnant women. Observational. Women completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other psychosocial and behavioral measures during midpregnancy. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by high-sensitivity assays. Birth outcomes were determined via medical record review. Among African American women (n = 79), shorter gestation was predicted by poorer overall sleep (rs = -0.35, P = 0.002) as well the following PSQI subscales: subjective sleep quality (rs = -0.34, P = 0.002), sleep latency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02), and sleep efficiency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02). African American women with poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) had 10.2 times the odds of preterm birth compared to those with good sleep quality. In contrast, among European American women (n = 53), gestational length was not significantly predicted by sleep quality (Ps > 0.12). Bootstrapping analyses showed that, among African Americans, IL-8 significantly mediated the association between sleep quality and length of gestation (indirect effect estimate -0.029; 95% confidence interval -0.06, -0.002). The data provide novel evidence that African American women exhibit greater inflammation in response to sleep disturbance than European American women and these effects correspond with length of gestation. Racial differences in susceptibility to sleep induced immune dysregulation may contribute to marked racial disparities in preterm birth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Risk of placenta previa in second birth after first birth cesarean section: a population-based study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective: To compare the risk of placenta previa at second birth among women who had a cesarean section (CS) at first birth with women who delivered vaginally. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 399,674 women who gave birth to a singleton first and second baby between April 2000 and February 2009 in England. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust the estimates for maternal age, ethnicity, deprivation, placenta previa at first birth, inter-birth interval and pregnancy complications. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the reported results in peer-reviewed articles since 1980. Results The rate of placenta previa at second birth for women with vaginal first births was 4.4 per 1000 births, compared to 8.7 per 1000 births for women with CS at first birth. After adjustment, CS at first birth remained associated with an increased risk of placenta previa (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.76). In the meta-analysis of 37 previously published studies from 21 countries, the overall pooled random effects odds ratio was 2.20 (95% CI 1.96-2.46). Our results from the current study is consistent with those of the meta-analysis as the pooled odds ratio for the six population-based cohort studies that analyzed second births only was 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.65). Conclusions There is an increased risk of placenta previa in the subsequent pregnancy after CS delivery at first birth, but the risk is lower than previously estimated. Given the placenta previa rate in England and the adjusted effect of previous CS, 359 deliveries by CS at first birth would result in one additional case of placenta previa in the next pregnancy. PMID:22103697

  20. Risk of placenta previa in second birth after first birth cesarean section: a population-based study and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurol-Urganci Ipek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective: To compare the risk of placenta previa at second birth among women who had a cesarean section (CS at first birth with women who delivered vaginally. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 399,674 women who gave birth to a singleton first and second baby between April 2000 and February 2009 in England. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust the estimates for maternal age, ethnicity, deprivation, placenta previa at first birth, inter-birth interval and pregnancy complications. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the reported results in peer-reviewed articles since 1980. Results The rate of placenta previa at second birth for women with vaginal first births was 4.4 per 1000 births, compared to 8.7 per 1000 births for women with CS at first birth. After adjustment, CS at first birth remained associated with an increased risk of placenta previa (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.76. In the meta-analysis of 37 previously published studies from 21 countries, the overall pooled random effects odds ratio was 2.20 (95% CI 1.96-2.46. Our results from the current study is consistent with those of the meta-analysis as the pooled odds ratio for the six population-based cohort studies that analyzed second births only was 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.65. Conclusions There is an increased risk of placenta previa in the subsequent pregnancy after CS delivery at first birth, but the risk is lower than previously estimated. Given the placenta previa rate in England and the adjusted effect of previous CS, 359 deliveries by CS at first birth would result in one additional case of placenta previa in the next pregnancy.

  1. Sobrevida e fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em uma coorte de nascidos vivos de muito baixo peso ao nascer, na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Survival and risk factors for neonatal mortality in a cohort of very low birth weight infants in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos populacionais sobre mortalidade neonatal de nascimentos de muito baixo peso ao nascer contribuem para identificar sua complexa rede de fatores de risco. Foi estudada uma coorte de 213 recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g (112 óbitos neonatais e 101 sobreviventes na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2000/2001. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares e obtidos dados de prontuários hospitalares. Foi realizada análise de sobrevida e empregada regressão múltipla de Cox. A elevada mortalidade na sala de parto, no primeiro dia de vida e ausência de sobreviventes Population studies can help identify the complex set of risk factors for neonatal mortality among very low birth weight infants. A cohort (2000-2001 of 213 live newborns with birth weight < 1,500g in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil, was studied (112 neonatal deaths and 101 survivors. Data were obtained from home interviews and hospital records. Survival analysis and multiple Cox regression were performed. The high mortality in the delivery room and in the first day of life among neonates < 1,000g and < 28 weeks gestational age and the absence of survival in neonates < 700g suggest that care was actively oriented towards newborns with better prognosis. Increased risk of neonatal mortality was associated with maternal residence in slum areas, history of previous cesarean(s, history of induced abortion(s, adolescent motherhood, vaginal bleeding, and lack of prenatal care. Cesarean section and referral of the newborn to the hospital nursery showed protective effects. Birth weight less than 1,000g and Apgar index < 7 were associated with increased risk. The high mortality was due to poor living conditions and to maternal and neonatal characteristics. Improvement in prenatal and neonatal care could reduce neonatal mortality in these infants.

  2. Indicadores de risco para o parto prematuro Risk predictors for preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Eduardo Bittar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre os vários fatores clínicos para o parto prematuro, alguns apresentam riscos substanciais, tais como história de parto prematuro, gemelidade e sangramento vaginal do segundo trimestre. No entanto, tais fatores estão presentes na minoria das mulheres que evoluem para o parto prematuro e, portanto, possuem baixa sensibilidade. A dilatação, o esvaecimento e a posição do colo uterino diagnosticados pelo toque vaginal têm sido relacionados ao aumento do risco para o parto prematuro, mas possuem baixas sensibilidades e baixos valores preditivos positivos. A diminuição do comprimento do colo uterino detectada pela ultrassonografia transvaginal também constitui risco para parto prematuro. Sua sensibilidade é melhor quando são considerados outros testes, mas o valor preditivo positivo é baixo. A principal utilidade do teste da fibronectina fetal reside em seu valor preditivo negativo em mulheres sintomáticas. Observa-se aumento da sensibilidade para a detecção do parto prematuro quando a medida do colo do útero é utilizada juntamente com o teste da fibronectina fetal.Among the clinical factors for preterm birth, some confer substantial increased risk, including a history of preterm birth, multiple gestation and vaginal bleeding in the second trimester. However, these factors are present only in a minority of women who ultimately deliver preterm and thus have low sensitivity. Cervical dilatation, effacement and position as determined by manual examination have been related to an increased risk of preterm birth but also suffer from low sensitivity and positive predictive values. Cervical length measured with transvaginal ultrasound has also been related to an increased risk of preterm birth as cervical length decreases. The reported sensitivity is better than other tests, but positive predictive value is low. The principal utility of the fetal fibronectin assay lies in its negative predictive value in symptomatic women. Increased

  3. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  4. Assisted reproductive technology and the risk of preterm birth among primiparas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Holzman, Claudia; McKane, Patricia; Li, Chenxi; Boulet, Sheree L; Todem, David; Kissin, Dmitry M; Copeland, Glenn; Bernson, Dana; Sappenfield, William M; Diamond, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the risk of preterm birth among liveborn singletons to primiparas who conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) using four mutually exclusive categories of infertility (female infertility only, male infertility only, female and male infertility, and unexplained infertility) and to examine preterm birth risk along the gestational age continuum. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. Singletons born to primiparas who conceived with or without ART. None. Preterm (risk for preterm birth, even when only the male partner had been diagnosed with infertility. The risk of preterm birth for ART-conceived infants whose mothers were diagnosed with infertility included the earliest deliveries. Copyright © 2015 American Society for ReproductiveMedicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of Pregnancy and Live Birth in Couples with Unexplained or Male-factor Infertility after Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Factor-Litvak, Pamela; Carson, Sandra A.; Guzick, David S.; Santoro, Nanette; Diamond, Michael P.; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for pregnancy outcomes in couples treated with intracervical or intrauterine insemination, with or without superovulation for unexplained or male-factor infertility. The treatment continued for four cycles unless pregnancy was achieved. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized superovulation and intrauterine insemination trial. Setting Academic medical centers. Intervention(s) None. Patients Out of 932 couples randomized to four treatment groups, 664 couples who had completed the lifestyle questionnaires were assessed for occurrence of pregnancy and live birth. Main outcome measure(s) pregnancy and live birth. Results The pregnancy and live birth rates were significantly higher in couples in which the female partners reported that they had consumed coffee or tea in the past or drank alcoholic beverages in the past (past users) when compared to those who had never consumed coffee or tea (4.0, 1.6–10.2 for pregnancy; 3.1, 1.2–8.1 for live birth) or alcoholic beverages (1.9, 1.1–3.3 for pregnancy; 2.1, 1.2–3.7 for live birth) (data are adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval). Past users also had significantly higher pregnancy and live birth rates than those who were currently consuming coffee or tea or alcoholic beverages. Demographic, occupational exposures and other lifestyle factors were not significant. Conclusion(s) Couples in which the female partners drank coffee, tea, or alcoholic beverages in the past had higher pregnancy and live birth rates when compared to never or current users. When discontinuing these habits, they might have made other lifestyle changes to improve the pregnancy outcome. PMID:22270557

  6. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Key words: Skilled birth attendants, utilization, maternal mortality ratio .... maternal deaths . The historical evidence shows that countries that have been able to reduce maternal and child mortality have improved women's access to skilled health professional .... investigator in the language the respondents understood better.

  7. Perceived Factors Influencing the Utilization of Traditional Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    2012-04-08

    Apr 8, 2012 ... utilization of traditional birth attendants' services among mothers in Akinyele Local Government, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methodology: The study design was .... many countries in order to reduce maternal mortality. Despite the level of ... freedom at the desired confidence level (3.841). N = the population size (138).

  8. Prevalence and obstetric risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that obstetric factors increase the risk of damage to the anal sphincter and subsequent development of AI.[4-6] These ... variations may impact on obstetric risk factors and AI prevalence. We therefore performed a study in our population, which .... Regulatory approvals. Institutional and hospital ethical approval were ...

  9. Genetic parameters and factors influencing survival to 24 hrs after birth in Danish meat sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R; Pedersen, J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, influential factors and (co)variance components for survival to 24 h after birth were determined and estimated for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, the most common sheep breeds in Denmark. Data from 1992 to 2006 containing 138,813 survival records were extracted from the sheep......, as well as common litter effects, were included in the models. The mean survival to 24 h after birth was 92.5, 91.7, and 88.5% for Texel, Shropshire, and Oxford Down, respectively. There was a curvilinear relationship between survival to 24 h after birth and birth weight, with survival less for light...... and heavy lambs. Male lambs, as well as lambs from ewes in the first parity or with difficult lambing, had the least survival to 24 h after birth. Survival to 24 h after birth was greater in twin-born Texel and Shropshire lambs compared with singletons and vice versa in Oxford Down. Estimates of direct...

  10. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no, controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05. The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  11. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes. PMID:26274966

  12. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-12

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  13. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  14. The development of parents-infant relationship in high-risk pregnancies and preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Pisoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of human attachment, developed in 1951 by John Bowlby, has been widely applied across psychological, medical and social disciplines, especially in the context of developmental psychology; more recently it has been studied in the obstetric and neonatal fields. Numerous studies suggest that attachment patterns have an impact on the social, cognitive and emotional development of the off-spring, and are also believed to influence the individual’s psychosocial trajectories across the lifespan. Starting from empirical study of attachment, the psychological analysis of the experience of pregnancy allowed to introduce the concept of prenatal attachment, considered as the earlier internalized representation of the fetus that both parents acquire and elaborate during pregnancy. Recent studies have attempted to investigate how prenatal attachment develops in conditions of hazard, as for example in women hospitalized for a high-risk pregnancy or preterm birth. Literature showed that these clinical conditions may represent risk factors that, along with psychological distress and lack of familiar and social support, may adversely affect the mother-child relationship, with consequences on the psycosocial development of the off-spring. During pregnancy, medical team should assess mothers’ distress and attachment, perform procedures to positively develop attachment, and direct parents with low attachment scores to receive a professional, specific counseling. In the premature birth context, it is important to closely support mother-infant contact and to decrease maternal stress in every possible way during hospitalization and after discharge. Promotion of psychological wellbeing and attachment during pregnancy and after birth may serve as a crucial opportunity of improving maternal health practices, perinatal health and neonatal outcomes. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014

  15. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep H. Ha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars. Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months. Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1 and 1.8 (1.2–2.6 against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3. The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8. Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  16. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars-A Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Spencer, Andrew John; Thomson, William Murray; Golley, Rebecca K; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Scott, Jane A

    2017-10-23

    Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No) at age 6-9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars). Household income quartiles, mother's sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6-9 months). Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI) for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2-3.1) and 1.8 (1.2-2.6) against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2-2.3). The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5-0.8). Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  17. [Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-12-01

    To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson's regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions.

  18. The effect of mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight on risk of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas J; Litman, Heather J; Tennstedt, Sharon L; Link, Carol L; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship between symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) and mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight, data were obtained from a population-based random sample of 3,205 black, Hispanic, and white women age 30-79 in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Measures include UI symptoms [>or=3 (moderate/severe) Sandvik's severity index]; reproductive history [live birth(s), no live births, never pregnant]; mode of delivery for live births (>or=1 vaginal birth, cesarean delivery only); parity (1, 2, >or=3); and maximum birth weight of live births (or=4,000 g). Using logistic regression, women having >or=1 vaginal delivery had twice the odds of UI compared to women with no pregnancies (P = 0.002) or only cesarean deliveries (P = 0.032). There was no difference in odds of UI between cesarean delivery only and never pregnant, by parity or birth weight. Vaginal delivery contributes to risk of UI for black, Hispanic, and white women.

  19. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  20. Neonatal risk factors of atopic dermatitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Andersen, Yuki M F; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Studies have suggested that several perinatal factors may influence the risk of AD in early childhood. We investigated possible neonatal risk factors such as jaundice, blue light....... Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) by multivariate Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: We identified a total of 85,743 children with AD in the first 5 years of life. The risk of AD was slightly increased in children with neonatal jaundice (IRR 1.13 [95% CI...... light therapy and the risk of AD was found. CONCLUSIONS: Low birthweight and preterm birth were inversely associated with AD, while neonatal jaundice and cold seasons of birth were associated with an increased risk of AD....

  1. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic.We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children.In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use.This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  2. Risk for developmental coordination disorder correlates with gestational age at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that children born very preterm have a high risk of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We examined the relation between the larger spectrum of gestational age at birth and the risk of DCD. METHODS:   We used the 7-year follow-up data from 22898 singletons...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort. We calculated a total score from the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ), incorporated in the 7-year follow-up, and defined children with a score of 46 or below as having probable DCD. Information on gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth...... of DCD was seen for children born post-term. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that short gestational age at birth in a range up to gestational week 37 is related to an increased risk of DCD....

  3. Intracervical procedures and the risk of subsequent very preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lyndsey F; Rayner, Jo-Anne; King, James; Jolley, Damien; Forster, Della

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the relation of prior intracervical procedures with very preterm birth. A population-based case-control study. The study was conducted in Australia between 2002 and 2004. Three hundred and forty-five women having a medically indicated and 236 having a spontaneous singleton birth between 20 and 31 weeks of gestation and 796 women selected randomly from all those giving birth at ≥37 weeks of gestation. Interview data were analysed using logistic regression. Very preterm birth. Very preterm birth was significantly associated with having any intracervical procedure [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.7], in particular curettage associated with abortion (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Assisted reproductive technology procedures were significantly associated with medically indicated very preterm birth (AOR 3.07; 95% CI 1.8-5.3) and treatments for precancerous cervical changes were significantly associated with spontaneous very preterm birth, as follows: conization/cone biopsy (AOR 3.33; 95% CI 1.8-6.2) and cauterization/ablation (AOR 2.27; 95% CI 1.4-3.8). Suction aspiration for abortion, abnormal Pap smear without treatment and abortion without instrumentation were not associated with very preterm birth. Intracervical procedures are associated with very preterm birth. Notably, curettage rather than any other procedure associated with abortion appears to be implicated in the risk. The introduction of infection during cervical procedures may be the common link with risks found. Changing clinical practice in the management of abortion and human papillomavirus vaccination may lead to lowering the risks of very preterm birth. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) 4-6 weeks and 6 months after birth: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen-Yildiz, Pelin; Ayers, Susan; Phillips, Louise

    2017-10-15

    Identifying factors that precipitate and maintain post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after birth is important to inform clinical and research practice; yet, prospective longitudinal studies on the predictors of PTSS are limited. This study aimed to determine the pregnancy and postpartum factors associated with PTSS at 4-6 weeks and 6-months postpartum. A systematic sample of 950 pregnant women were recruited from three maternity hospitals in Turkey. Participants completed assessments of depression, anxiety, PTSS and social support in pregnancy, 4-6 weeks and 6-months postpartum. Fear of childbirth was assessed in pregnancy and 4-6 weeks after birth. Regression models showed that PTSS six months after birth were associated with anxiety and PTSS in pregnancy, complications during birth, satisfaction with health professionals, fear of childbirth 4-6 weeks after birth, PTSS and depression 4-6 weeks after birth, social support 4-6 weeks after birth, traumatic events after birth, need for psychological help, and social support 6-months after birth. PTSS was highly comorbid with depression and anxiety at all-time points. The most robust predictor of PTSS at 6-months postpartum was PTSS at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Intra-partum complications were not associated with PTSS 4-6 weeks after birth. No socio-demographic variables were correlated with PTSS postpartum. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure outcomes. This study is based on sampling from public hospitals so may not represent women treated in private hospitals. Associated risk factors may help to identify women at risk of PTSS after birth and to inform targeted early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Qi, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted…

  6. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food ... the disease in many areas of the country including Ambo in order to support the control and prevention ... of the animals was determined based on birth records and dentition (Payne,. 1990) and grouped as young ...

  7. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  8. Birth order, sibship size, and risk for germ-cell testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Akre, Olof; Lambe, Mats; Granath, Fredrik; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders

    2004-05-01

    Several studies have reported an inverse association between birth order and testicular cancer risk, but estimates vary greatly and the biologic mechanism underlying the association is not established. We have evaluated the effect of birth order, sibship size, and the combined effect of these 2 variables in relation to risk for testicular cancer in a large, nested case-control study. Specifically, we compared 3051 patients with germ-cell testicular cancer (diagnosed between 1958 and 1998 and identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry) with 9007 population control subjects. Using record linkage with the Multi-Generation Register and the Census, we obtained information on number, order, and sex of the subjects' siblings, parental age, and paternal socioeconomic status. Both birth order and sibship size had an inverse and monotonically decreasing association with testicular cancer risk after adjusting for parental age, paternal socioeconomic status, and twin status. The associations were modified by subjects' cohort of birth and were not present among those born after 1959. The odds ratio for having at least 3 siblings, compared with none, was 0.63 (95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.75) among subjects born before 1960. Stratified analyses showed that birth order and number of younger siblings had a similar inverse association with the risk for testicular cancer. Sibship size, and not only birth order, is associated with testicular cancer risk. This suggests a higher prevalence of parental subfertility among patients with testicular cancer.

  9. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  10. Partner Aggression in High-Risk Families From Birth to Age 3: Associations With Harsh Parenting and Child Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed. PMID:22201248

  11. Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and adverse birth outcomes. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study including 2389 pregnant women, the medical records of 352 women diagnosed with PCOS were evaluated. Outcomes included GDM, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, and being small and large for gestational age. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of the risk for GDM and adverse birth outcomes with PCOS after adjusting for confounders. Results. Women previously diagnosed with PCOS had a higher risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–2.09. A strong association was seen between PCOS and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08–2.67. On stratified analysis, the adjusted OR for GDM among women with PCOS undergoing assisted reproductive technology was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.03–1.92 and among women with PCOS who conceived spontaneously was 1.60 (1.18–2.15. No increased risk for other adverse birth outcomes was observed. Conclusions. Women with PCOS were more likely to experience GDM and preterm birth.

  12. A case-control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Waller, D Kim; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-10-16

    Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ≥15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ≥15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15-19, 20-29, and ≥ 30 minutes) were similar. Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ≥15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile.

  13. Differential genetic susceptibility to child risk at birth in predicting observed maternal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Fortuna

    Full Text Available This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4. Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE. Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others.

  14. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  15. Tubal factor infertility and perinatal risk after assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawwass, Jennifer F; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M; Session, Donna R; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J

    2013-06-01

    To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02-14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of preterm birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20-1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20-1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART.

  16. Maternal exposure to benzodiazepine and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: A case-control study using a claims database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yusuke; Takeshima, Nozomi; Furukawa, Toshi A

    2018-01-03

    To examine (1) if the use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth and/or low birth weight (LBW), and, if yes, (2) which types of benzodiazepines or antidepressants have stronger influences. A case-control study was performed using a large claims database in Japan. Cases were mothers who had given birth to preterm and/or LBW infants between 2005 and 2014 (737 with preterm births and 1615 with LBW). Controls were mothers who had neither experienced preterm birth nor given birth to an LBW infant. Overall, 42 058 births were included. The maternal use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.69, P preterm deliveries (adjusted OR, 0.57; 0.08-4.16) and LBW (adjusted OR, 0.56; 0.14-2.29). Benzodiazepine use was associated with increased risk of preterm birth but not with LBW. Antidepressant use was not associated with both preterm deliveries and LBW. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  18. Low birth weight and air pollution in California: Which sources and components drive the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Hu, Jianlin; Li, Lianfa; Kleeman, Michael J; Bartell, Scott M; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with exposure to air pollution, but there is a need to clarify which sources and components are most likely responsible. This study investigated the associations between low birth weight (LBW, pollution by source and composition in California, over the period 2001-2008. Complementary exposure models were used: an empirical Bayesian kriging model for the interpolation of ambient pollutant measurements, a source-oriented chemical transport model (using California emission inventories) that estimated fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM0.1, respectively) mass concentrations (4km×4km) by source and composition, a line-source roadway dispersion model at fine resolution, and traffic index estimates. Birth weight was obtained from California birth certificate records. A case-cohort design was used. Five controls per term LBW case were randomly selected (without covariate matching or stratification) from among term births. The resulting datasets were analyzed by logistic regression with a random effect by hospital, using generalized additive mixed models adjusted for race/ethnicity, education, maternal age and household income. In total 72,632 singleton term LBW cases were included. Term LBW was positively and significantly associated with interpolated measurements of ozone but not total fine PM or nitrogen dioxide. No significant association was observed between term LBW and primary PM from all sources grouped together. A positive significant association was observed for secondary organic aerosols. Exposure to elemental carbon (EC), nitrates and ammonium were also positively and significantly associated with term LBW, but only for exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy. Significant positive associations were observed between term LBW risk and primary PM emitted by on-road gasoline and diesel or by commercial meat cooking sources. Primary PM from wood burning was inversely associated with term

  19. The Impact of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on the Risk of Strabismus among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shilpa; Andrews, Chris A.; Apkarian, Alexandra O.; Musch, David C.; Lee, Paul P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Strabismus causes irreversible vision loss if not detected and treated early. It is unclear whether birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) are risk factors for strabismus. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of BW and GA on the likelihood of developing strabismus among premature infants. DESIGN In this longitudinal cohort analysis, we followed a group of premature children from birth to determine the proportion which developed strabismus and the timing of first strabismus diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression analyses assessed the relationships of BW and GA and the development of strabismus. Regression models were adjusted for other known risk factors for strabismus, sociodemographic factors, and ocular comorbidities. SETTING Communities throughout the United States PARTICIPANTS 38055 otherwise healthy children born prematurely who were enrolled for >6 months in a nationwide US managed care network between 2001–2011. EXPOSURE BW strabismus with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) RESULTS Of 38055 otherwise healthy children who were born prematurely, 587 were diagnosed with strabismus later in life. Cumulative incidence of strabismus was 3.0% at 5 years. Controlling for GA and other factors, infants born with BW strabismus. Controlling for BW and other covariates, there was no significant association between strabismus and GA (HR=0.98, [CI, 0.69–1.38]). Among premature infants with BW strabismus relative to those born after 32 weeks (HR=1.27, [CI, 0.86–1.88]). In contrast, among those with GA ≤32 weeks, BW strabismus relative to BW >2000g (HR=14.4, [CI 1.99–104]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Independent of GA, very low BW conferred a large increase in strabismus risk among premature infants. In contrast, independent of BW, GA did not significantly impact the risk of strabismus. Updates to existing guidelines in the pediatric and ophthalmic literature should be considered, highlighting the importance of BW rather than GA and alerting clinicians about

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  1. Perinatal, neonatal, and family social factors predicting poor school outcome of low-birth-weight survivors: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Holditch-Davis, Diane L; Darcy-Mahoney, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship of perinatal factors, neonatal factors, and family characteristics with school outcomes of low-birth-weight (LBW) children. An integrative review of the literature was performed using electronic databases focusing on key words, including school outcome, school performance, educational outcome, academic outcome/academic achievement, and LBW. The in utero or neonatal risk factors for poor school outcome included in this review were perinatal brain injury, brain structural abnormality, motor deficits, and neonatal conditions. Social risk factors found to contribute to poorer school outcomes were family structure, family stability, parental education, poverty, male sex, nonwhite race, and acculturation level. Long-term school outcomes of LBW children are influenced by a number of factors related to the characteristics of both children and their families. These factors need to be considered when designing preventive interventions.

  2. Size at birth, morning cortisol and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Dhube, A; Karat, S C; Phillips, D I W; Fall, C H D

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link reduced foetal growth with higher adult chronic disease risk. South Asians have a high prevalence of low birth weight and a thin-fat phenotype, which is associated with subsequent type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Altered HPA activity could be one of the pathological processes underlying this link. Plasma morning cortisol and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were determined in 528 children aged 9·5 years from a prospective birth cohort in India. They had detailed anthropometry at birth, and current measurements of anthropometry, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and blood pressure. Insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment) and insulin secretion (the 30-min insulin increment) were also assessed. None of the birth measurements were associated with cortisol concentrations, but both birth weight (P = 0·03) and length (P = 0·004) were inversely associated with CBG concentrations. Cortisol concentrations were inversely associated with current body mass index (P = 0·02), and positively associated with glucose (fasting: P risk markers in Indian children. Although cortisol concentrations did not appear to be related to birth size, small size at birth was associated with higher CBG levels, and may be one of the processes by which foetal undernutrition affects adult health. The findings suggest a need for dynamic testing of HPA axis activity (such as measuring stress responses). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Diet, Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Childhood Overweight in the General Population and in High Risk Subgroups: Prospective Analyses in the PIAMA Birth Cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, A.H.; Scholtens, S.; Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Kerkhof, M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To prospectively identify behavioral risk factors for childhood overweight and to assess their relevance in high risk sub groups (children of mothers with overweight or low education). Methods. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n = 3963), questionnaire data were obtained at ages 5 and 7 on

  4. Relation of body mass index to risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease amongst women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendall, Michael; Harpsøe, Maria Christina; Kumar, Devinder

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has traditionally been associated with weight loss and low BMI, yet paradoxically obesity has recently been suggested as a risk factor for CD, but not for ulcerative colitis (UC). We therefore hypothesized that the relation between BMI and CD is U shaped. AIM...... that both high BMI and low BMI are risk factors for CD. Underweight may be a pre-clinical manifestation of disease being present many years before onset with obesity being a true risk factor. This raises the question as to whether there may be two distinct forms of CD.......: To conduct a large population-based prospective cohort study of BMI and later risk of IBD, taking age at IBD diagnosis into account. METHODS: A cohort of 74,512 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort, with BMI measured pre-pregnancy and 18 months after delivery, was followed for 1,022,250 person...

  5. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  6. Critical analysis of risk factors for shoulder dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Avishai; Sergienko, Ruslan; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Zlotnik, Alexander; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-05-01

    The study was aimed to define trends, risk factors and perinatal outcome associated with shoulder dystocia (SD). A population-based study comparing all singleton deliveries with and without SD was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Shoulder dystocia complicated 0.2% (n = 451) of all deliveries included in the study (n = 240,189). The rate of SD declined from 0.4% in 1988 to 0.13% in 2009. Independent risk factors for SD in a multivariable analysis were fetal macrosomia (birth-weight ≥ 4 kg; OR = 16.1; 95% CI 13.2-19.6, P Shoulder dystocia, associated with macrosomia, labor dystocia, diabetes mellitus, and advanced maternal age, is an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality. In an era of increased rate of cesarean deliveries, and perhaps increased accuracy of birth weight estimation, the rate of shoulder dystocia gradually declines.

  7. High birth weight is associated with obesity and increased carotid wall thickness in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Siitonen, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-05-01

    There is some evidence that people born with high birth weight may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Details of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We sought to determine whether people born large for gestational age have poor arterial health, increased adiposity, and a poor cardiovascular risk factor profile. Carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, and cardiovascular risk factors were compared between young adults (24-45 years) born at term who were large for gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile; n=171), and a control group with normal birth weight (50-75th percentile; n=525), in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Those born large for gestational age had higher body mass index throughout childhood, adolescence, and as young adults (26.4 kg/m(2) [SD 4.9], versus normal birth weight 25.1 kg/m(2) [SD 4.6]; P=0.002), and 2-fold greater risk of obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors and arterial function did not differ; however, carotid intima-media thickness was increased in people born large for gestational age (0.60 mm [SD 0.09], versus normal birth weight 0.57 mm [SD 0.09]; P=0.003), independent of cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.001 after adjustment). Both obesity and high birth weight were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness in a graded and additive fashion. Young adults born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese, yet have an otherwise healthy cardiovascular risk profile. Nonetheless, they have increased carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, consistent with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  9. Detection and risk stratification of women at high risk of preterm birth in rural communities near Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana; Prakash, Amber Abhijeet; Pusdekar, Yamini V; Kulkarni, Hemant; Hibberd, Patricia

    2017-09-19

    Presently, preterm birth is globally the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Prompt community based identification of women at high risk for preterm births (HRPB) can either help to avert preterm births or avail effective interventions to reduce neonatal mortality due to preterm births. We evaluated the performance of a package to train community workers to detect the presence of signs or symptoms of HRPB. Pregnant women enrolled in the intervention arm of a cluster randomized trial of Antenatal Corticosteroids (ACT Trial) conducted at Nagpur, India were informed about 4 directly observable signs and symptoms of preterm labor. Community health workers actively monitored these women from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation for these signs or symptoms. If they were present (HRPB positive) the identified women were brought to government health facilities for assessment and management. HRPB positive could also be determined by the provider if the woman presented directly to the facility. Risk stratification was based on the number of signs or symptoms present. The outcome of preterm birth was based on the clinical assessment of gestational age birth weight of birth in the HRPB positives was 8.14 (95% confidence interval 7.16-9.26). The LR of a preterm birth increased in women who had more signs or symptoms of HRBP (p birth weight and higher rates of stillbirths, neonatal deaths and postnatal complications. Addition of risk stratification improved the prediction of preterm delivery (Integrated Discrimination Improvement 17% (95% CI 15-19%)). The package for detection of signs and symptoms of HRPB is feasible, promising and likely to improve management of preterm labor. NCT01073475 on February 21, 2010 and NCT01084096 on March 9, 2010.

  10. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at 'higher risk' of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J

    2015-04-01

    To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at 'higher risk' of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Prospective cohort study. OUs and planned home births in England. 8180 'higher risk' women in the Birthplace cohort. We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. The risk of 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97-3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. The babies of 'higher risk' women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between the groups. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John

  11. Divergent Patterns of Mitochondrial and Nuclear Ancestry Are Associated with the Risk for Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Prendergast, D'Arcy; Oehlert, John W; Shaw, Gary M; Stevenson, David K; Rappaport, Nadav; Sirota, Marina; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Sondheimer, Neal

    2018-03-01

    To examine linkages between mitochondrial genetics and preterm birth by assessing the risk for preterm birth associated with the inheritance of nuclear haplotypes that are ancestrally distinct from mitochondrial haplogroup. Genome-wide genotyping studies of cohorts of preterm and term individuals were evaluated. We determined the mitochondrial haplogroup and nuclear ancestry for individuals and developed a scoring for the degree to which mitochondrial ancestry is divergent from nuclear ancestry. Infants with higher degrees of divergent mitochondrial ancestry were at increased risk for preterm birth (0.124 for preterm vs 0.105 for term infants; Pancestry correlated with earlier delivery within the primary study population, but this finding was not replicated in secondary cohorts born preterm. Individuals with divergent patterns of mitochondrial and nuclear ancestry are at increased risk for preterm birth. These findings may in part explain the higher rates of preterm birth in African Americans and in individuals with a matrilineal family history of preterm birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D; Porter, Flint T; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2009-05-05

    Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between shorter duration

  13. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth.In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004 and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010. Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively. Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between

  14. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  15. Month of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis: confounding and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkildsen, Oivind; Aarseth, Jan; Benjaminsen, Espen; Celius, Elisabeth; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Løken-Amsrud, Kristin; Midgard, Rune; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Riise, Trond; Grytten, Nina

    2014-02-01

    A month of birth effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk has been reported from different countries. Recent critics have suggested that this finding is caused by confounding and that adequately adjusting for year and place of birth would markedly reduce this effect. All inhabitants in Norway are registered in the Norwegian Population Registry (Statistics Norway), making this an ideal area for performing adjusted analyses. Using the entire Norwegian population born between 1930 and 1979 (n = 2,899,260), we calculated the excess between observed and expected number of births for each month for 6649 Norwegian MS patients, 5711 mothers, 5247 fathers, and 8956 unaffected siblings. The analyses were adjusted for year of birth and place of birth according to the 19 counties in Norway. An unadjusted analysis revealed 13% fewer MS births than expected in February (P = 0.0015; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.018), 10% more in April (P = 0.0083; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.0996) and 15% more in December (P = 0.00058; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.007). Adjustments for both year and place of birth significantly altered our results for February and December, but even after these adjustments there were still 10% more MS births than expected in April (P = 0.00796; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.096). MS patients had a higher incidence of April births than their siblings (Fisher-exact test; P = 0.011), mothers (Fisher-exact test; P = 0.004), and fathers (Fisher-exact test; P = 0.011) without MS. Adjustments for confounding significantly affected our results. However, even after adjustments, there appears to be a persistent higher than expected frequency of April births in the MS population.

  16. Month of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis: confounding and adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkildsen, Øivind; Aarseth, Jan; Benjaminsen, Espen; Celius, Elisabeth; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Løken-Amsrud, Kristin; Midgard, Rune; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Riise, Trond; Grytten, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A month of birth effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk has been reported from different countries. Recent critics have suggested that this finding is caused by confounding and that adequately adjusting for year and place of birth would markedly reduce this effect. All inhabitants in Norway are registered in the Norwegian Population Registry (Statistics Norway), making this an ideal area for performing adjusted analyses. Using the entire Norwegian population born between 1930 and 1979 (n = 2,899,260), we calculated the excess between observed and expected number of births for each month for 6649 Norwegian MS patients, 5711 mothers, 5247 fathers, and 8956 unaffected siblings. The analyses were adjusted for year of birth and place of birth according to the 19 counties in Norway. An unadjusted analysis revealed 13% fewer MS births than expected in February (P = 0.0015; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.018), 10% more in April (P = 0.0083; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.0996) and 15% more in December (P = 0.00058; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.007). Adjustments for both year and place of birth significantly altered our results for February and December, but even after these adjustments there were still 10% more MS births than expected in April (P = 0.00796; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.096). MS patients had a higher incidence of April births than their siblings (Fisher-exact test; P = 0.011), mothers (Fisher-exact test; P = 0.004), and fathers (Fisher-exact test; P = 0.011) without MS. Adjustments for confounding significantly affected our results. However, even after adjustments, there appears to be a persistent higher than expected frequency of April births in the MS population. PMID:25356394

  17. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  18. Birth defects and congenital health risks in children conceived through assisted reproduction technology (ART): a meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Assisted Reproduction Treatment (ART) is here to stay. This review addresses the parental background of birth defects, before, during and after conception and focuses both on the underlying subfertility and on the question whether ART as a treatment is an additional contributing factor. Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. Summaries were discussed in a Delphi panel set-up by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Several birth defects and adult diseases arise during the earliest stages of ovarian development and oocyte differentiation: this is the case of cleft palate disorders in offspring from female rat exposed to Dioxin during fetal life or the polycystic ovary diseases in female offspring (primates) exposed to elevated androgen concentration during fetal life. Human oocytes and embryos often fail to stop the propagation of aneuploid cells but maintain their ability to repair DNA damages including those introduced by the fertilizing sperm. There is a 29 % increased risk of birth defects in the newborns spontaneously conceived by subfertile couples and the risk is further increased (34 %) when conception is achieved by treating infertlity with ART (Danish IVF Registry). Periconceptional conditions are critical for ART babies: their birth weight is in general smaller (Norvegian Registry) but a more prolonged culture time doubled the number of large babies (Finnish Registry). The long-term developmental effects of ART on child and subsequent health as an adult remains a subject worthy of futher monitoring and investigation.

  19. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  20. Birth asphyxia measured by the pH value of the umbilical cord blood may predict an increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2017-01-01

    of ADHD with varying pH values using Cox regression, taking time trends into consideration. RESULTS: When compared to the reference group, a pH value below 7.10 was significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD. The strongest risks were observed among children with a pH value ....15 and a gestational age of value did not contribute much to the risk among children with an Apgar score of 0-3. CONCLUSION: Birth asphyxia, defined by low pH value, may predict an increased risk of ADHD in childhood. The association between the pH value and ADHD was homogenous when stratified......AIM: Although birth asphyxia is a major risk factor for neonatal and childhood morbidity and mortality, it has not been investigated much in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined whether birth asphyxia measured by the pH of the blood in the umbilical artery cord...

  1. Association of paternal age at birth and the risk of breast cancer in offspring: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Keun-Young

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older paternal age may increase the germ cell mutation rate in the offspring. Maternal age may also mediate in utero exposure to pregnancy hormones in the offspring. To evaluate the association between paternal and maternal age at birth with the risk of breast cancer in female offspring, a case-control study was conducted in Korea. Methods Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases (n = 1,011 and controls (n = 1,011 with no present or previous history of cancer, matched on year of birth and menopausal status, were selected from several teaching hospitals and community in Seoul during 1995–2003. Information on paternal and maternal ages and other factors was collected by interviewed questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were estimated by unconditional logistic regression model adjusting for family history of breast cancer in 1st or 2nd degree relatives, and lifetime estrogen exposure duration. Results The risk of breast cancer significantly increased as the paternal age increased (p for trend = 0.025. The association was stronger after controlling for maternal age; women whose fathers were aged ≥40 years at their birth had 1.6-fold increased risk of breast cancer compared with fathers aged Conclusion These findings suggest that older paternal age increases the risk of breast cancer in their female offspring.

  2. Risk factors for development of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dunglová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe disease. There is a complicity of genetic and environmental factors in schizophrenia onset. Factors with probable influence on development of schizophrenia are rate of urbanization, geographic location, migration, month of birth, maternal nutrition during pregnancy and birth complications, stress during pregnancy, length of lactation period, prenatal and postnatal infection exposure, exposure to a cat during childhood or cannabis abuse. Until now the information on t...

  3. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  4. Factors Affecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Niknajad, Akram; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarzadeh, Niloufar; Bashar Hashemi, Fazileh; Dezham Khoy Shahgholi, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization duration to lessen unwanted outcomes of premature birth and to eliminate or relieve the problems. Methods: In a descri...

  5. Occupational risk factors for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, J; Heinonen, O P

    1992-01-01

    To investigate possible associations between cardiovascular malformations and maternal occupational exposure to various factors during the first trimester of pregnancy, 406 cases and 756 controls were studied retrospectively. The cases were taken from all infants diagnosed with cardiovascular malformations born in Finland during 1982 and 1983. The controls were randomly selected from all normal births in the country during the same period. All mothers were interviewed approximately 3 months after delivery by a midwife, using a structured questionnaire. Maternal overall exposure to chemicals at work was more prevalent among the case group (35.8%) than the control group (26.2%, P less than 0.01). Among the specific chemical groups, maternal exposure to dyes, lacquers, or paints was significant