Sample records for birth plan intervention

  1. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.


    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  2. Birth Plans (United States)

    ... These range from how you hope to handle pain relief to fetal monitoring. Think about the environment in which you ... include in your birth plan are preferences about fetal monitoring, extra ... during labor. Pain management. This is important for most women and ...

  3. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    of recent research on this topic. Individual papers/studies Stewart, M et al: The Birthplace in England Study – maternal outcomes and issues of choice and equity Overgaard, C et al: Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units – outcomes, care perceptions, equity and access in maternity care...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...

  4. Birth control and family planning (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  5. Planned Home Births in Iceland: Premise, Outcome, and Influential Factors


    Berglind Hálfdánsdóttir 1973


    Background: Hospitalization of childbirth in Iceland in the 20th century reduced home birth rates to less than 0.1% in 1990. Icelandic home birth rates have risen rapidly in the new millennium and were 2.2% in 2014. Recent studies in other Western countries have consistently shown lower rates of interventions and maternal morbidity in planned home births than in planned hospital births, while neonatal outcomes are dissimilar in different countries. These study results have been met with scept...

  6. High ANC coverage and low skilled attendance in a rural Tanzanian district: a case for implementing a birth plan intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousens Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Specifically, the study examined beliefs and behaviors related to antenatal, labor, delivery and postnatal care among the Maasai and Watemi ethnic groups. The perspectives of health care providers and traditional birth attendants on childbirth and the factors determining where women deliver were also investigated. Methods Twelve key informant interviews and fifteen focus group discussions were held with Maasai and Watemi women, traditional birth attendants, health care providers, and community members. Principles of the grounded theory approach were used to elicit and assess the various perspectives of each group of participants interviewed. Results The Maasai and Watemi women's preferences for a home birth and lack of planning for delivery are reinforced by the failure of health care providers to consistently communicate the importance of skilled delivery and immediate post-partum care for all women during routine antenatal visits. Husbands typically serve as gatekeepers of women's reproductive health in the two groups - including decisions about where they will deliver- yet they are rarely encouraged to attend antenatal sessions. While husbands are encouraged to participate in programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission of HIV, messages about the importance of skilled delivery care for all women are not given emphasis. Conclusions Increasing coverage of skilled delivery care and achieving the full implementation of Tanzania's Focused Antenatal Care

  7. The Birth of a Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The formulation of the12th Five-Year Plan shows the operation of China’s public policy-making mechanism In March 2008,the National Development and Reform Committee (NDRC)began to evaluate the progress of the 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development

  8. Age, relationship status, and the planning status of births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hayford


    Full Text Available In the United States historically, births to older mothers have been more likely to be planned than births to younger mothers, and births to unmarried women have been less likely to be planned than births to married women. As the average age of mothers has increased and more births have occurred outside of marriage in the United States, the intersection of these trends may have weakened the traditional linkage between age and birth planning status. In this article, we examine differences by maternal age in planning status of births using The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We find that age is strongly associated with planning status, but the association is reduced in magnitude when controlling for relationship status and is stronger for first and second births than for higher-parity births. Further, the association between union status and the planning status of births varies by race-ethnicity.

  9. Confronting Rhetorical Disability: A Critical Analysis of Women's Birth Plans (United States)

    Owens, Kim Hensley


    Through its analysis of birth plans, documents some women create to guide their birth attendants' actions during hospital births, this article reveals the rhetorical complexity of childbirth and analyzes women's attempts to harness birth plans as tools of resistance and self-education. Asserting that technologies can both silence and give voice,…

  10. The interventional radiology business plan. (United States)

    Beheshti, Michael V; Meek, Mary E; Kaufman, John A


    Strategic planning and business planning are processes commonly employed by organizations that exist in competitive environments. Although it is difficult to prove a causal relationship between formal strategic/business planning and positive organizational performance, there is broad agreement that formal strategic and business plans are components of successful organizations. The various elements of strategic plans and business plans are not common in the vernacular of practicing physicians. As health care becomes more competitive, familiarity with these tools may grow in importance. Herein we provide an overview of formal strategic and business planning, and offer a roadmap for an interventional radiology-specific plan that may be useful for organizations confronting competitive and financial threats.

  11. Ethics and professional responsibility: Essential dimensions of planned home birth. (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A


    Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth.

  12. Birth Control and Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THIS year, Women of China asked two 30-year-old women from the Yimeng mountain area in Shandong Province about their chosen methods of birth control. Both women reported using intrauterine devices (IUDs), which they had placed by local gynecologists at the hospital 40 days after giving birth. Are these women aware of other contraceptive methods? Some rural women tell us they know of other methods such as oral contraception, contraceptive implants and tubal ligation.

  13. Impact of Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Interventions on Birth with a Skilled Attendant : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Roggeveen, Yadira; Shields, Laura; van Elteren, Marianne; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Portela, Anayda


    Background Increased preparedness for birth and complications is an essential part of antenatal care and has the potential to increase birth with a skilled attendant. We conducted a systematic review of studies to assess the effect of birth preparedness and complication readiness interventions on in

  14. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity. (United States)

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L


    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent women in order to delay first births. This study substantiates the significance of family planning programming as a major health intervention for preventing high-risk births and associated maternal and child mortality, but it highlights the need for concerted efforts to strengthen service provision for adolescents.

  15. Construction of HMI Network System for Individualized Maternity Intervention Service against Birth Defects in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-huai HU


    The paper expounds the community maternity service system against birth defects,from the viewpoint of individualized service in family planning. We have utilized modern information technology to develop health management information (HMI) network with individualized maternity, and to establish the community service system for intervention of birth defects. The service system applied the concept of modern health management information to implementing informational management for screening,treatment, following up, outcome monitoring, so as to provide a base for promotion of health, diagnosis, treatment as well as scientific research, with the prenatal screening of Down's syndrome as a model. The introduction to informational network during the processes of service has been carried out with regards to its composition, function and application, while introducing the effects of computerized case record individualized in prevention, management and research of Down's syndrome.

  16. Maternal goals for childbirth associated with planned vaginal and planned cesarean birth. (United States)

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Blomquist, Joan L; Macmillan, Deborah; McCullough, Alexis; Handa, Victoria L


    We describe maternal childbirth goals among women planning either cesarean or vaginal birth. Women in the third trimester planning cesarean or vaginal birth were asked to report up to five childbirth goals. Goal achievement was assessed postpartum. Based on free-text responses, discrete goal categories were identified. Goals and goal achievement were compared between the two groups. Satisfaction was rated on a visual analogue scale and was compared with goal achievement. The sample included 163 women planning vaginal birth and 69 women planning cesarean. Twelve goal categories were identified. Only women planning vaginal birth reported a desire to achieve fulfillment related to childbirth. Women planning cesarean were less likely to express a desire to maintain control over their own responses during childbirth and more likely to report a desire to avoid complications. The 72 women who achieved all stated goals reported significantly higher mean satisfaction scores than the 94 women reporting that at least one goal was not achieved (P  =  0.001). Goal achievement was higher among women planning cesarean than among those planning vaginal birth (52.2% versus 23.1%, P  <  0.001). This research furthers our understanding of women's attitudes regarding cesarean childbirth and definitions of a successful birth experience.

  17. Postpartum family planning: current evidence on successful interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer C


    Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries

  18. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  19. Scenario Planning as Organizational Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard


    Purpose: This paper identifies four areas in need of future research to enhance our theoretical understanding of scenario planning, and sets the basis for future empirical examination of its effects on individual and organizational level outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper organizes...

  20. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.


    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  1. [Put the planned birth propaganda and education in number 1 place: a summary of a conference]. (United States)

    Zhuang, F


    The Planned Birth Office of the Chinese State Council convened a National Planned Birth Propaganda Symposium in Beijing from January 10 to 14, 1981. There were over 50 representatives from various provincial, municipal, autonomous regional planned birth offices, Shanghai, Beijing, and Chengdu's Planned Birth Propaganda and Education Centers, the Central Cultural, Education and Public Health Ministries, and various population research centers, and journalists. The Vice-premier of the Chinese State Council, Chen Muhua made the following points in an address to the delegates: planned birth is a longterm project; the 2-fold character of production, i.e., material production and human reproduction, must be properly understood; the goal of limiting China's population to 1,200,000,000 is difficult, so everyone must plan for their families by understanding the work of birth planning early, carefully, and securely, and further that late marriage, late births, few births, and superior births must be advocated the attitude that families without sons will have no heirs must be abolished because girls are heirs too; the fear that China will become an aged society must be ameliorated because China's age structure is a young one. Wang Renchong, Chairman of the Central Propaganda Ministry, also addressed the Symposium. He remarked that with a population approaching 1 billion, 80% of whom are peasants, population control is crucial to the nation's health and survival and is an important part of the Four Modernizations. Birth planning propaganda and education must be given top priority, especially in rural areas. The chairman of the Planned Birth Office of the Chinese State Council closed the meetings by saying that birth planning work must rely on the Party and governmental policies, and especially on propaganda.

  2. Validity of Health Plan and Birth Certificate Data for Pregnancy Research (United States)

    Andrade, Susan E.; Scott, Pamela E.; Davis, Robert L.; Li, De-Kun; Getahun, Darios; Cheetham, T. Craig; Raebel, Marsha A.; Toh, Sengwee; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Smith, David H.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Cooper, William O.


    Purpose To evaluate the validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using administrative and claims data from 11 U.S. health plans, and corresponding birth certificate data from state health departments. Diagnoses, drug dispensings, and procedure codes were used to identify infant outcomes (cardiac defects, anencephaly, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) and maternal diagnoses (asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) recorded in the health plan data for live born deliveries between January 2001 and December 2007. A random sample of medical charts (n = 802) was abstracted for infants and mothers identified with the specified outcomes. Information on newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics (gestational age at birth, birth weight, previous pregnancies and live births, race/ethnicity) was also abstracted and compared to birth certificate data. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated with documentation in the medical chart serving as the gold standard. Results PPVs were 71% for cardiac defects, 37% for anencephaly, 87% for preterm birth, and 92% for NICU admission. PPVs for algorithms to identify maternal diagnoses of asthma and SLE were ≥ 93%. Our findings indicated considerable agreement (PPVs > 90%) between birth certificate and medical record data for measures related to birth weight, gestational age, prior obstetrical history, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Health plan and birth certificate data can be useful to accurately identify some infant outcomes, maternal diagnoses, and newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics. Other outcomes and variables may require medical record review for validation. PMID:22753079

  3. Comparing the odds of postpartum haemorrhage in planned home birth against planned hospital birth: results of an observational study of over 500,000 maternities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nove Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to compare the odds of postpartum haemorrhage among women who opt for home birth against the odds of postpartum haemorrhage for those who plan a hospital birth. It is an observational study involving secondary analysis of maternity records, using binary logistic regression modelling. The data relate to pregnancies that received maternity care from one of fifteen hospitals in the former North West Thames Regional Health Authority Area in England, and which resulted in a live or stillbirth in the years 1988–2000 inclusive, excluding ‘high-risk’ pregnancies, unplanned home births, pre-term births, elective Caesareans and medical inductions. Results Even after adjustment for known confounders such as parity, the odds of postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml of blood lost are significantly higher if a hospital birth is intended than if a home birth is intended (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 3.8. The ‘home birth’ group included women who were transferred to hospital during labour or shortly after birth. Conclusions Women and their partners should be advised that the risk of PPH is higher among births planned to take place in hospital compared to births planned to take place at home, but that further research is needed to understand (a whether the same pattern applies to the more life-threatening categories of PPH, and (b why hospital birth is associated with increased odds of PPH. If it is due to the way in which labour is managed in hospital, changes should be made to practices which compromise the safety of labouring women.

  4. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world]. (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H


    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  5. The Colombia Plan: a model for intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Tokatlian


    Full Text Available In the context of the deep crisis the Andean region is going through, Colombia’s situation is the most catastrophic and potentially serves as a model for external intervention in internal affairs in the hemisphere. The author examines this new kind of war the countryis experiencing as well as the so called new external interventionism and possible solutions to the conflict. This armed conflict is a mix of political war, criminal violence and a systematic violation of human rights. The importance of the outcome is encouraging external interference and the United States with its multimillion dollar contribution to the Colombia Plan is playing an ever more important role.

  6. Perinatal and maternal outcomes by planned place of birth for healthy women with low risk pregnancies: the Birthplace in England national prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocklehurst, P.; Kwee, A.; Birthplace in England Collaborative Group


    Objective: To compare perinatal outcomes, maternal outcomes, and interventions in labour by planned place of birth at the start of care in labour for women with low risk pregnancies. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: England: all NHS trusts providing intrapartum care at home, all freestandi

  7. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...

  8. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina


    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  9. Using GIS Mapping to Target Public Health Interventions: Examining Birth Outcomes Across GIS Techniques. (United States)

    MacQuillan, E L; Curtis, A B; Baker, K M; Paul, R; Back, Y O


    With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Spatial analysis of individual-level vital records data for low birthweight and preterm births born to black women from 2007 to 2012 in one mid-sized Midwest city using different geographic information systems (GIS) visualization techniques [geocoded address records were aggregated at two levels of scale and additionally mapped using kernel density estimation (KDE)]. GIS analyses in this study support our hypothesis that choice of geographic scale (neighborhood or census tract) for aggregated birth data can alter programmatic decision-making. Results indicate that the relative merits of aggregated visualization or the use of KDE technique depend on the scale of intervention. The KDE map proved useful in targeting specific areas for interventions in cities with smaller populations and larger census tracts, where they allow for greater specificity in identifying intervention areas. When public health programmers seek to inform intervention placement in highly populated areas, however, aggregated data at the census tract level may be preferred, since it requires lower investments in terms of time and cartographic skill and, unlike neighborhood, census tracts are standardized in that they become smaller as the population density of an area increases.

  10. Interactive Visual Intervention Planning: Interactive Visualization for Intervention Planning in Particle Accelerator Environments with Ionizing Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabry, Thomas; Feral, Bruno


    Intervention planning is crucial for maintenance operations in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation, during which the radiation dose contracted by maintenance workers should be reduced to a minimum. In this context, we discuss the visualization aspects of a new software tool, which integrates interactive exploration of a scene depicting an accelerator facility augmented with residual radiation level simulations, with the visualization of intervention data such as the followed trajectory and maintenance tasks. The visualization of each of these aspects has its effect on the final predicted contracted radiation dose. In this context, we explore the possible benefits of a user study, with the goal of enhancing the visual conditions in which the intervention planner using the software tool is minimizing the radiation dose.

  11. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (4 of 7: delivery of interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Craig E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacious interventions identified in the previous article of this report will fail unless they are delivered at high and equitable coverage. This article discusses critical delivery constraints and strategies. Barriers to scaling up interventions Achieving universal coverage entails addressing major barriers at many levels. An overarching constraint is the lack of political will, resulting from the dearth of preterm birth and stillbirth data and the lack of visibility. Other barriers exist at the household and community levels, such as insufficient demand for interventions or sociocultural barriers; at the health services level, such as a lack of resources and trained healthcare providers; and at the health sector policy and management level, such as poorly functioning, centralized systems. Additional constraints involve weak governance and accountability, political instability, and challenges in the physical environment. Strategies and examples Scaling up maternal, newborn and child health interventions requires strengthening health systems, but there is also a role for focused, targeted interventions. Choosing a strategy involves identifying appropriate channels for reaching high coverage, which depends on many factors such as access to and attendance at healthcare facilities. Delivery channels vary, and may include facility- and community-based healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, and community-based approaches and marketing strategies. Issues related to scaling up are discussed in the context of four interventions that may be given to mothers at different stages throughout pregnancy or to newborns: (1 detection and treatment of syphilis; (2 emergency Cesarean section; (3 newborn resuscitation; and (4 kangaroo mother care. Systematic reviews of the literature and large-scale implementation studies are analyzed for each intervention. Conclusion Equitable and successful scale-up of preterm birth and stillbirth

  12. Efficacy of additional psychosocial intervention in reducing low birth weight and preterm birth in teenage pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Wongrathanandha, Chathaya; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Dellow, Alan; Horsuwansak, Pornpot; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat


    This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in reducing risk of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in teenage pregnancy. Relevant studies were identified from Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. Randomized controlled trials investigating effect of psychosocial interventions on risk of LBW and PTB, compared to routine antenatal care (ANC) were eligible. Relative risks (RR) of LBW and PTB were pooled using inverse variance method. Mean differences of birth weight (BW) between intervention and control groups were pooled using unstandardized mean difference (USMD). Five studies were included in the review. Compared with routine ANC, psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW by 40% (95%CI: 8%,62%) but not for PTB (pooled RR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.42,1.05). Mean BW of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group with USMD of 200.63 g (95% CI: 21.02, 380.25). Results of our study suggest that psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW in teenage pregnancy.

  13. Consumer involvement in the South Australian state policy for planned home birth. (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Hood, Jo


    Two consumer representatives were participants in the development of their state government's Policy for Planned Birth At Home in South Australia. It was released in November 2007 to guide staff in public hospital and community midwifery programs, and the first hospital-based home birth service is commencing in February 2009. Consumer experiences of policy development and perceived benefits of consumer involvement for policy and transparency processes are described. Inclusion of consumers widely and actively during development and reform of maternity care is essential if real consumer participation is to occur and contribute to care that is truly woman-centered.

  14. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study (United States)

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J


    Objective To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting OUs and planned home births in England. Population 8180 ‘higher risk’ women in the Birthplace cohort. Methods We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Main outcome measures Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. Results The risk of ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97–3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. Conclusions The babies of ‘higher risk’ women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between

  15. Clinician-centred interventions to increase vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC): a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lundgren, Ingela


    BackgroundThe number of caesarean sections (CS) is increasing globally, and repeat CS after a previous CS is a significant contributor to the overall CS rate. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) can be seen as a real and viable option for most women with previous CS. To achieve success, however, women need the support of their clinicians (obstetricians and midwives). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinician-centred interventions designed to increase the rate of VBAC.MethodsThe bibliographic databases of The Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL were searched for randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised trials that evaluated the effectiveness of any intervention targeted directly at clinicians aimed at increasing VBAC rates. Included studies were appraised independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted independently by three reviewers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the quality assessment tool, `Effective Public Health Practice Project¿. The primary outcome measure was VBAC rates.Results238 citations were screened, 255 were excluded by title and abstract. 11 full-text papers were reviewed; eight were excluded, resulting in three included papers. One study evaluated the effectiveness of antepartum x-ray pelvimetry (XRP) in 306 women with one previous CS. One study evaluated the effects of external peer review on CS birth in 45 hospitals, and the third evaluated opinion leader education and audit and feedback in 16 hospitals. The use of external peer review, audit and feedback had no significant effect on VBAC rates. An educational strategy delivered by an opinion leader significantly increased VBAC rates. The use of XRP significantly increased CS rates.ConclusionsThis systematic review indicates that few studies have evaluated the effects of clinician-centred interventions on VBAC rates, and interventions are of varying types which limited the ability to meta-analyse data. A further limitation is that

  16. Birth Plans (United States)

    ... These range from how you hope to handle pain relief to fetal monitoring. Think about the environment in ... how often you have internal exams during labor. Pain management. This is important for most women and is ...

  17. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N


    of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day......Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact....... Fasting blood samples, intravenous glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance body composition assessment were carried out. Physical activity was measured using combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring during the first and the last week of the intervention. Following the exercise intervention...

  18. Improving hand hygiene behaviour among adolescents by a planning intervention. (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyu; Jiang, Tingting; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf


    To improve regular hand hygiene in adolescents, educational messages based on medical information have not been very successful. Therefore, a theory-guided self-regulatory intervention has been designed with a particular focus on planning strategies. A randomised controlled trial with 307 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, was conducted in high schools. The control group received educational hand hygiene leaflets, whereas the experimental group received a self-regulatory treatment which required them to generate specific action plans and coping plans. Three times during one month, both groups received verbal reminder messages about planning to wash their hands properly. At one-month follow-up, hand hygiene behaviour as well as planning to practise hand hygiene were higher in the self-regulation than in the education group (p hand hygiene practice in adolescents.

  19. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation]. (United States)

    de Montigny, F


    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [Palliative care birth plan: a field of perinatal medicine to build]. (United States)

    Tosello, B; Le Coz, P; Payot, A; Gire, C; Einaudi, M-A


    Some couples may choose to continue the pregnancy unable to decide for termination of pregnancy. Such situations recently occurred in neonatology units and may lead to neonatal palliative care. Faced with all uncertainties inherent to medicine and the future of the baby, medical teams must inform parents of different possible outcome step by step. Consistency in the reflection and intentionality of the care is essential among all different stakeholders within the same health team to facilitate support of parents up to a possible fatal outcome. This issue in perinatal medicine seems to be to explore how caregivers can contribute in the construction of parenthood in a context of a palliative care birth plan.

  1. Healthcare system intervention for prevention of birth injuries – process evaluation of self-assessment, peer review, feedback and agreement for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyström Monica E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is fundamental in high quality healthcare systems but despite an excellent record of perinatal care in Sweden some children still suffer from substandard care and unnecessary birth injuries. Sustainable patient safety improvements assume changes in key actors’ mental models, norms and culture as well as in the tools, design and organisation of work. Interventions positively affecting team mental models on safety issues are a first step to enhancing change. Our purpose was to study a national intervention programme for the prevention of birth injuries with the aim to elucidate how the main interventions of self-assessment, peer review, feedback and written agreement for change affected the teams and their mental model of patient safety, and thereby their readiness for change. Knowledge of relevant considerations before implementing this type of patient safety intervention series could thereby be increased. Methods Eighty participants in twenty-seven maternity units were interviewed after the first intervention sequence of the programme. A content analysis using a priori coding was performed in order to relate results to the anticipated outcomes of three basic interventions: self-assessment, peer review and written feedback, and agreement for change. Results The self-assessment procedure was valuable and served as a useful tool for elucidating strengths and weaknesses and identifying areas for improvement for a safer delivery in maternity units. The peer-review intervention was appreciated, despite it being of less value when considering the contribution to explicit outcome effects (i.e. new input to team mental models and new suggestions for actions. The feedback report and the mutual agreement on measures for improvements reached when signing the contract seemed exert positive pressures for change. Conclusions Our findings are in line with several studies stressing the importance of self-evaluation by

  2. Racism, health status, and birth outcomes: results of a participatory community-based intervention and health survey. (United States)

    Carty, Denise C; Kruger, Daniel J; Turner, Tonya M; Campbell, Bettina; DeLoney, E Hill; Lewis, E Yvonne


    Many community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships address social determinants of health as a central consideration. However, research studies that explicitly address racism are scarce in the CBPR literature, and there is a dearth of available community-generated data to empirically examine how racism influences health disparities at the local level. In this paper, we provide results of a cross-sectional, population-based health survey conducted in the urban areas of Genesee and Saginaw Counties in Michigan to assess how a sustained community intervention to reduce racism and infant mortality influenced knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of racism and to explore how perceived racism is associated with self-rated health and birth outcomes. We used ANOVA and regression models to compare the responses of intervention participants and non-participants as well as African Americans and European Americans (N = 629). We found that intervention participants reported greater acknowledgment of the enduring and differential impact of racism in comparison to the non-intervention participants. Moreover, survey analyses revealed that racism was associated with health in the following ways: (1) experiences of racial discrimination predicted self-rated physical health, mental health, and smoking status; (2) perceived racism against one's racial group predicted lower self-rated physical health; and (3) emotional responses to racism-related experiences were marginally associated with lower birth-weight births in the study sample. Our study bolsters the published findings on perceived racism and health outcomes and highlights the usefulness of CBPR and community surveys to empirically investigate racism as a social determinant of health.

  3. Dyadic planning of health-behavior change after prostatectomy: a randomized-controlled planning intervention. (United States)

    Burkert, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Gralla, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Knoll, Nina


    In this study, we investigated the role of dyadic planning for health-behavior change. Dyadic planning refers to planning health-behavior change together with a partner. We assumed that dyadic planning would affect the implementation of regular pelvic-floor exercise (PFE), with other indicators of social exchange and self-regulation strategies serving as mediators. In a randomized-controlled trial at a German University Medical Center, 112 prostatectomy-patients with partners were randomly assigned to a dyadic PFE-planning condition or one of three active control conditions. Questionnaire data were assessed at multiple time points within six months post-surgery, measuring self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise as primary outcomes and social exchange (support, control) and a self-regulation strategy (action control) as mediating mechanisms. There were no specific intervention effects with regard to dyadic PFE-planning or pelvic-floor exercise, as two active control groups also showed increases in either of these variables. However, results suggested that patients instructed to plan dyadically still benefited from self-reported dyadic PFE-planning regarding pelvic-floor exercise. Cross-sectionally, received negative control from partners was negatively related with PFE only in control groups and individual action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and PFE for participants instructed to plan PFE dyadically. Longitudinally, action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise for all groups. Findings provide support for further investigation of dyadic planning in health-behavior change with short-term mediating effects of behavior-specific social exchange and long-term mediating effects of better self-regulation.

  4. Strategic targeting of advance care planning interventions: the Goldilocks phenomenon. (United States)

    Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle


    Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions.

  5. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.


    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  6. The Best Laid Plans: Examining the Conditions under Which a Planning Intervention Improves Learning and Reduces Attrition (United States)

    Sitzmann, Traci; Johnson, Stefanie K.


    Planning plays an instrumental role in prominent self-regulation theories (e.g., action regulation, control, goal setting), yet as a scientific community we know little about how people carry out their learning plans. Using an experimental field study, we implemented a repeated-measures intervention requiring trainees to create a plan for when,…

  7. A Birth-cohort testing intervention identified hepatitis c virus infection among patients with few identified risks: a cross-sectional study


    Southern, William N.; Norton, Brianna; Steinman, Meredith; DeLuca, Joseph; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Smith, Bryce D.; Litwin, Alain H.


    Background International guidelines and U.S. guidelines prior to 2012 only recommended testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients at risk, but adherence to guidelines is poor, and the majority of those infected remain undiagnosed. A strategy to perform one-time testing of all patients born during 1945–1965, birth cohort testing, may diagnose HCV infection among patients whose risk remains unknown. We sought to determine if a birth-cohort testing intervention for HCV antibody...

  8. Early home intervention with low-birth-weight infants and their parents. (United States)

    Barrera, M E; Rosenbaum, P L; Cunningham, C E


    We investigated the effects of a year-long home intervention with a sample of preterm infants randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a developmental intervention, a parent-infant intervention, and a no-treatment control group. A full-term no-treatment control was also used. Both intervention approaches focused on the parent-child unit, providing training for parents to improve observational skills, emotional support, and information about community resources. However, whereas specific tasks to facilitate the child's development were provided in the developmental intervention group, the quality of the parent-infant interaction was the target for treatment in the other group. All infants were assessed at 4, 8, 12, and 16 months of age corrected for prematurity. The results suggest that although both intervention approaches were effective in modifying some aspects of the home environment and, to a lesser degree, in improving infants' cognitive development, the parent-infant interaction approach seemed to have the greater impact. These findings confirm previous observations regarding the cognitive development of preterm and full-term infants during the first 18 months of life and demonstrate changes in behavior and behavior styles in both pre- and full-term infants as they become older.

  9. Feasibility of Implementing an Early Intervention Program in an Urban Low-Income Setting to Improve Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Survivors Following Birth Asphyxia



    Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of neonatal mortality, accounting for 23% of neonatal deaths. An early intervention program (EIP) could improve neuro-developmental outcomes in survivors of birth asphyxia, but its feasibility in low-income countries has not been tested.  In this pilot study in Zambia, eighty live-born infants > 1500 g of weight who had birth asphyxia and received resuscitation with bag and mask were enrolled for a study of standard care or EIP. Mothers/babies pairs were rand...

  10. Natural Family Planning (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  11. A facility birth can be the time to start family planning: postpartum intrauterine device experiences from six countries. (United States)

    Pfitzer, Anne; Mackenzie, Devon; Blanchard, Holly; Hyjazi, Yolande; Kumar, Somesh; Lisanework Kassa, Serawit; Marinduque, Bernabe; Mateo, Marie Grace; Mukarugwiro, Beata; Ngabo, Fidele; Zaeem, Shabana; Zafar, Zonobia; Smith, Jeffrey Michael


    Initiation of family planning at the time of birth is opportune, since few women in low-resource settings who give birth in a facility return for further care. Postpartum family planning (PPFP) and postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) services were integrated into maternal care in six low- and middle-income countries, applying an insertion technique developed in Paraguay. Facilities with high delivery volume were selected to integrate PPFP/PPIUD services into routine care. Effective PPFP/PPIUD integration requires training and mentoring those providers assisting women at the time of birth. Ongoing monitoring generated data for advocacy. The percentages of PPIUD acceptors ranged from 2.3% of women counseled in Pakistan to 5.8% in the Philippines. Rates of complications among women returning for follow-up were low. Expulsion rates were 3.7% in Pakistan, 3.6% in Ethiopia, and 1.7% in Guinea and the Philippines. Infection rates did not exceed 1.3%, and three countries recorded no cases. Offering PPFP/PPIUD at birth improves access to contraception.

  12. Regional variation in obstetrical intervention for hospital birth in the Republic of Ireland, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutomski Jennifer E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetrical interventions during childbirth vary widely across European and North American countries. Regional differences in intrapartum care may reflect an inpatient-based, clinician-oriented, interventional practice style. Methods Using nationally representative hospital discharge data, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore regional variation in obstetric intervention across four major regions (Dublin Mid Leinster; Dublin Northeast; South; West within the Republic of Ireland. Specific focus was given to rates of induction of labour, caesarean delivery, epidural anaesthesia, blood transfusion, hysterectomy and episiotomy. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between geographical region and interventions while adjusting for patient case-mix. Results 323,588 deliveries were examined. The incidence of interventions varied significantly across regions; the greatest disparities were observed for rates of induction of labour and caesarean delivery. Women in the South had nearly two-fold odds of having prostaglandins (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.68-1.82, whereas women in the West had 1.85 odds (95% CI 1.77-1.93 of artificial rupture of membrane. Women delivering in the Dublin Northeast, South and West regions had more than two-fold increased odds of elective caesarean delivery relative to women delivering in the Dublin Mid Leinster region. The Dublin Northeast region had the highest odds of emergency caesarean delivery (adjusted OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.31-1.40. Conclusions Substantial regional variation in intrapartum care was observed within this small, relatively homogeneous population. The association of intervention use with region illustrates the need to encourage uptake of scientific based practice guidelines to better inform clinical judgment.

  13. [Parliament and the demographic question: a study of the debate over birth control and family planning in the National Congress]. (United States)

    Da Rocha, M I


    The author explores the involvement of Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate in issues of population policy, family planning, and birth control. The focus is on the period 1960-1985, with special attention to actions taken by the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission. The debate within the National Congress on these issues is described, and the opinions of members of Parliament are outlined. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We? (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro


    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…

  15. The practical use of an interactive visualization and planning tool for intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation (United States)

    Fabry, Thomas; Blaha, Jan; Vanherpe, Liesbeth; Braesch, Christian; Tabourot, Laurent; Feral, Bruno


    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we explore the use of a technical-scientific software program facilitating the intervention planning in irradiated environments using sound mathematical concepts. We show how the software can be used in planning future operations using a case studies: the decommissioning of a beam dump for a linear 160 MeV H- accelerator. Interactive visualization of the facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning are explored, as well as automatic calculation of the expected integrated individual dose contracted during an intervention.

  16. The practical use of an interactive visualization and planning tool for intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabry, Thomas; Vanherpe, Liesbeth; Braesch, Christian; Tabourot, Laurent; Feral, Bruno


    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we explore the use of a technical-scientific software program facilitating the intervention planning in irradiated environments using sound mathematical concepts. We show how the software can be used in planning future operations using a case studies: the decommissioning of a beam dump for a linear 160 MeV H− accelerator. Interactive visualization of the facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning are explored, as well as automatic calculation of the expected integrated individual dose contracted during an intervention.

  17. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach


    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N.; Vaughn, S.


    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  18. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl


    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  19. Reasons Why Women Choose Home Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Angelie P. Andrino


    Full Text Available Maternal deaths in the Philippines remain high. These deaths are mostly due to the large proportion of home births, complications of pregnancy and delivery, and lack of access to facilities and competently trained staff. Utilizing a descriptive, one-shot survey design, the study aimed to determine the reasons why women in a municipality in Iloilo prefer home birth. The respondents were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and interpret the findings. The study revealed that the proportion of home births progressively declined from 2012 to 2014. Birth being imminent or inevitable is the number one reason that supports home birth. Autonomy, safety, affordability, readily available birthing equipment and supplies, accessibility of birth attendant, remote access by going to the birthing center, lack of transportation, and bad weather conditions also led women to give birth at home. Women from the rural areas of the municipality utilized available resources in the community which prompted the predominance of home deliveries assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs and even midwives, who were readily available nearby. This study recommends continuous improvement in existing maternal health interventions and strategies through engagement of women in policy planning, improvement of health service delivery, infrastructural enhancement, better care practices and continuous health education.

  20. Study on Birth Defect Intervention and Standardization Mode%出生缺陷干预及规范化模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文强; 幸惠云


    Objective:To study and explore the intervention of birth defects on the effect of themarried couples, in order to reduce the birth rate of birth defects, improve the comprehensive quality of the birth population reference.Method: 12 000 married couples in our region from June 2011 to May 2014 were selected as the research objects, and they were given birth defect intervention on its three. The first level intervention was to prevent the birth of children with birth defects, secondary interventions was to reduce the incidence of birth defects, three intervention was to treat children of birth defects. Interventions focus was on primary intervention to prevent birth defects in children born.District,town,village three level of division of labor,cooperation, for marriedcouples of childbearing age premarital examination,free eugenics propaganda and education,pre pregnancy virus and genetic disease detection, pre pregnancy and early pregnancytaking free pregnancy B ultrasound examination,Fu Shi Fu,regular follow-up.Result:Premarital education to carry out rate,pre-marital medical examination rate,pregnancy B-examination and regular follow-up of the number of persons in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013,2012 and 2011(P<0.05).Early pregnancy rates of four viruses tested positive for the virus (rubella virus,herpes virus, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus), a genetic disease before pregnancy rate (thalassemia,G6PD deficiency) in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013, 2012 and 2011(P<0.05).And the number of women in early pregnancy taking Forceval was significantly higher than that of 2013,2012 and 2011.The birth defect rate in 2014 was significantly lower than that in 2013,2012,2011(P<0.05), the intensity was positively correlated with the level of intervention.Conclusion:For married women of childbearing age of birth defect intervention, especially the level of intervention, to the birth of children with birth defects play a preventive role

  1. Clinical Reasoning in the Assessment and Intervention Planning for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Climie, Emma A.; Mah, Janet W. T.; Chase, Cheryl Y.


    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with insight into the clinical reasoning involved in the assessment and intervention planning for a child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The reader will be guided through the authors' conceptualization of this case, and suggestions for intervention in the classroom will be…

  2. Psychotherapeutic Orientations: A Comparison of Conceptualizations, Interventions, and Treatment Plan Costs. (United States)

    Kopta, Stephen Mark; And Others


    Delineated patterns of conceptualization and intervention of four psychotherapeutic orientations (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, family systems, eclectic) and then determined how these patterns related to treatment plan costs. Conceptualization and intervention categories given more focus by the psychodynamic group correlated positively with…

  3. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  4. Automatic image processing solutions for MRI-guided minimally invasive intervention planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, YH


    In this thesis, automatic image processing methods are discussed for the purpose of improving treatment planning of MRI-guided minimally invasive interventions. Specifically, the following topics are addressed: rib detection in MRI, liver motion modeling in MRI and MR-CT registration of planning ima

  5. Automatic image processing solutions for MRI-guided minimally invasive intervention planning


    Noorda, YH


    In this thesis, automatic image processing methods are discussed for the purpose of improving treatment planning of MRI-guided minimally invasive interventions. Specifically, the following topics are addressed: rib detection in MRI, liver motion modeling in MRI and MR-CT registration of planning image for HIFU treatment.

  6. Acceptability of a theory of planned behaviour email-based nutrition intervention. (United States)

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A


    This study investigated feasibility and acceptability of a new email-delivered intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a university-based population of Australian young adults. The study explored whether there are differences in the reported feasibility and acceptability between demographic groups within the population of interest and at three levels of intervention intensity. The email-delivered intervention program consists of an implementation intention 'planning task' and between 3 and 15 short email messages over a 15-day study period. The intervention program was developed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and was designed to modify perceived behavioural control. One hundred and ten participants (mean age = 19.21 years, 25.6% male) completed the feasibility and acceptability questionnaire at Day 15. This questionnaire contained items about all intervention components. High acceptability and feasibility scores were found for all intervention parts and at all levels of intervention intensity. There were few significant differences in the reported acceptability of items between key demographic sub-groups, and no differences in reported acceptability at different levels of intervention intensity. These results suggest that this email-delivered intervention is an acceptable and feasible tool for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for participants in the target population.

  7. A prospective study of effects of psychological factors and sleep on obstetric interventions, mode of birth, and neonatal outcomes among low-risk British Columbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Wendy A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women’s psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes. Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC, Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through providers’ offices, media, posters, and pregnancy fairs. We examined associations between pregnant women’s fatigue, sleep deprivation, and psychological states (anxiety and childbirth fear and women’s exposure to obstetrical interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes (preterm, admission to NICU, low APGARS, and low birth weight. Methods Data from our cross-sectional survey were linked, using women’s personal health numbers, to birth outcomes from the Perinatal Services BC database. After stratifying for parity, we used Pearson’s Chi-square to examine associations between psychological states, fatigue, sleep deprivation and maternal characteristics. We used hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test 9 hypotheses comparing women with high and low childbirth fear and anxiety on likelihood of having epidural anaesthetic, a caesarean section (stratified for parity, assisted vaginal delivery, and adverse neonatal outcomes and women with and without sleep deprivation and high levels of fatigue on likelihood of giving birth by caesarean section, while controlling for maternal, obstetrical (e.g., infant macrosomia, and psychological variables. Results Significantly higher proportions of multiparas, reporting difficult and upsetting labours and births, expectations of childbirth interventions, and health stressors, reported high levels of childbirth fear. Women who reported antenatal relationship, housing, financial, and health stressors and multiparas

  8. Characteristics of rural birth defects and intervention strategies%农村出生缺陷特征及干预对策临床研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 杨妹; 陈娟文; 吴秋婵; 林怡


    目的:探讨我市农村出生缺陷的临床特征,为临床制订干预措施提供科学依据。方法:对我市农村出生缺陷的发生率和特征进行临床分析,与城市出生缺陷进行比较。结果:我市农村出生缺陷发生率为73.51/万,城乡出生缺陷发生率有显著差异,农村出生缺陷发生率比城市高近一倍,(P均<0.005),农村出生缺陷前三位依次为消化系统畸形、四肢畸形和神经系统畸形,分别占出生缺陷的28.39%、24.15%和11.86%。结论:我市农村出生缺陷发生率还处于较高水平,而且神经系统出生缺陷比较突出,主要原因是农村育龄妇女对口服叶酸预防出生缺陷等措施不理解、不接受,思想认识还未真正提高;基层围产保健水平低。我市农村人口占80%以上,因此,在制定出生缺陷干预对策时,应将重点放在影响人力资源与人民生活质量的病种和农村上。%Goal To investigate the clinical characteristics of birth defects in our city, and to provide scientific basis for clinical intervention. Methods the incidence and characteristics of birth defects in rural areas were analyzed, and compared with the urban birth defects. Finally The city rural birth defect rate 73.51/, urban and rural birth defect rate has the remarkable difference, rural incidence of birth defects rate nearly one times higher than that of urban, respectively (P<0.005). The rural birth defects in the former three followed by digestive system malformations, limb deformities and nervous system malformation, respectively, accounting for birth defects of 28.39%and 24.15%and 11.86%. Discussion our city rural birth defects incidence is still at a higher level and nervous system of birth defects is more outstanding, main reason is rural women of childbearing age oral folic acid to prevent birth defects and other measures do not understand, do not accept and ideas have not really improve;primary Wai care

  9. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.


    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  10. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Paulina O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (% of preterm births ( Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend  The overall rate of low birth weight infants ( Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid basis for planning interventions to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes. This epidemiological information also showed the need to assess several factors that could contribute to explain these trends, as the demographics changes, medical interventions and the increasing probability of survival of extremely and very preterm child.

  11. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  12. Simulation based planning of surgical interventions in pediatric cardiology (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L.


    Hemodynamics plays an essential role in the progression and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, while medical imaging provides increasingly detailed anatomical information, clinicians often have limited access to hemodynamic data that may be crucial to patient risk assessment and treatment planning. Computational simulations can now provide detailed hemodynamic data to augment clinical knowledge in both adult and pediatric applications. There is a particular need for simulation tools in pediatric cardiology, due to the wide variation in anatomy and physiology in congenital heart disease patients, necessitating individualized treatment plans. Despite great strides in medical imaging, enabling extraction of flow information from magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging, simulations offer predictive capabilities that imaging alone cannot provide. Patient specific simulations can be used for in silico testing of new surgical designs, treatment planning, device testing, and patient risk stratification. Furthermore, simulations can be performed at no direct risk to the patient. In this paper, we outline the current state of the art in methods for cardiovascular blood flow simulation and virtual surgery. We then step through pressing challenges in the field, including multiscale modeling, boundary condition selection, optimization, and uncertainty quantification. Finally, we summarize simulation results of two representative examples from pediatric cardiology: single ventricle physiology, and coronary aneurysms caused by Kawasaki disease. These examples illustrate the potential impact of computational modeling tools in the clinical setting.

  13. Methodical Approach to Developing a Decision Support System for Well Interventions Planning (United States)

    Silich, V. A.; Savelev, A. O.; Isaev, A. N.


    The paper contains aspects of developing a decision support systems aimed for well interventions planning within the process of oil production engineering. The specific approach described by authors is based on system analysis methods and object model for system design. Declared number of problem-decision principles as follows: the principle of consolidated information area, the principle of integrated control, the principle of development process transparency. Also observed a set of models (class model, object model, attribute interdependence model, component model, coordination model) specified for designing decision support system for well intervention planning.

  14. Perspectives of expectant women and health care providers on birth plans. (United States)

    Aragon, Melissa; Chhoa, Erica; Dayan, Riki; Kluftinger, Amy; Lohn, Zoe; Buhler, Karen


    Objective : Un plan d’accouchement est un document détaillant les préférences et les attentes d’une femme à l’égard du travail et de l’accouchement. Les recherches empiriques explorant la valeur des plans d’accouchement ont obtenu des résultats contradictoires quant à la question de savoir si ces derniers exercent un effet positif ou négatif sur le travail et l’accouchement, ce qui semble souligner la nécessité de procéder à d’autres études sur le sujet. Cette étude avait pour but de comprendre les points de vue des femmes, des fournisseurs de soins et des accompagnateurs à l’égard de l’utilisation de plans d’accouchement. Méthodes : Un questionnaire transversal a été distribué à un échantillon de commodité de femmes enceintes ou ayant accouché, de fournisseurs de soins et d’accompagnateurs entre janvier 2012 et mars 2012 en Colombie-Britannique. Résultats : En tout, 122 femmes et 110 fournisseurs de soins de santé et accompagnateurs ont rempli le questionnaire. Tant les femmes que leurs fournisseurs de soins et de soutien estimaient que le plan d’accouchement était utile à titre d’outil de communication et d’éducation. Toutefois, les répondants ont souligné que les femmes pourraient être déçues ou mécontentes dans les cas où la mise en œuvre du plan d’accouchement s’avère impossible. Parmi les plus importants éléments du plan d’accouchement qui ont été identifiés, on trouvait la maîtrise de la douleur, les mesures visant le confort (p. ex. mobilité pendant le travail), les préférences postpartum (p. ex. allaitement), l’atmosphère (p. ex. intimité) et les croyances quant à l’accouchement (p. ex. aspects culturels). Conclusion : Il s’agit de la première étude à identifier les avantages et les désavantages de l’utilisation d’un plan d’accouchement, ainsi que les aspects les plus importants d’un tel plan, et ce, tant du point de vue des femmes que de celui de

  15. Evaluation of a planned behavior theory-based intervention programme to promote healthy eating. (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos


    The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention program based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior, with the addition of attitude strength and role identity. The aim was to alter adolescents' healthy eating attitudes and behaviour. In the sample were 335 high school students, who were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and included posters and lectures promoting healthy eating. The measures included a questionnaire assessing the hypothesis and a food frequency questionnaire which measured eating habits. Analysis showed the intervention was effective in proving attitudes toward healthy eating and attitude strength, intention, perceived behavioral control, and healthy eating behaviour, but not effective in predicting subjective norms and role identity. Results provide evidence that intervention changed attitudes toward a behavior in a school setting.

  16. Serious adverse neonatal outcomes such as 5-minute Apgar score of zero and seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction are increased in planned home births after cesarean delivery. (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A


    The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infants in the United States from 2007-2014. We report in this study outcomes of women who had one or more prior cesarean deliveries and included women who had a successful vaginal birth after a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) at home and in the hospital, and a repeat cesarean delivery in the hospital. We excluded preterm births (Apgar score of 0 of 1 in 890 (11.24/10,000, relative risk 9.04, 95% confidence interval 4-20.39, p<.0001) and an incidence of neonatal seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction of 1 in 814 (Incidence: 12.27/10,000, relative risk 11.19, 95% confidence interval 5.13-24.29, p<.0001). Because of the significantly increased neonatal risks, obstetric providers should therefore not offer or perform planned home TOLACs and for those desiring a VBAC should strongly recommend a planned TOLAC in the appropriate hospital setting. We emphasize that this stance should be accompanied by effective efforts to make TOLAC available in the appropriate hospital setting.

  17. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya. (United States)

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth


    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya.

  18. Self-efficacy, planning and action control in an oral self-care intervention. (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf


    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline and 1 month later. The self-regulation intervention improved levels of oral self-care, dental planning and action control. Moreover, a moderated mediation model with planning as the mediator between experimental conditions and dental outcome, and self-efficacy as well as action control as moderators elucidated the mechanism of change. More self-efficacious participants in the self-regulation condition benefitted in terms of more planning, and those who monitored their actions yielded higher levels of oral hygiene. Dental self-efficacy, dental planning and action control are involved in the improvement of oral self-care. Their joint consideration may contribute to a better understanding of health behavior change.

  19. Parenting stress in mothers after very preterm birth and the effect of the Infant Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meijssen; M.J. Wolf; K. Koldewijn; A.G. van Wassenaer; J.H. Kok; A.L. van Baar


    Objective Purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting stress as a secondary outcome of the Infant Behavioural Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP). Methods In a randomized controlled trial 86 very preterm infants and their parents were assigned to the intervention group and 90 to

  20. A randomized trail comparing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with a strategy of short-acting thrombolysis and immediate planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A randomized trail comparing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with a strategy of short-acting thrombolysis and immediate planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction!050000$河北医科大学第二医院河北医科大学心脏介入中心@傅向华

  1. Review of interventional procedures in the very low birth-weight infant (<1.5 kg): complications, lessons learned and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffan, Eoghan E. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); McNamara, Patrick J.; Whyte, Hilary; L' Herault, Johanne [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; John, Philip; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Image-Guided Therapy Unit, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Interventional radiology (IR) procedures in very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1.5 kg) are challenging due to size, immaturity, comorbidities and lack of devices of suitable size. Infants are moved from the neonatal intensive care unit to the IR suite, further exposing them to risk. Our purpose was to review our experience of interventional procedures in VLBW infants, specifically complications and potential risks. VLBW infants referred for image-guided therapy between 1998 and 2005 were identified and medical records reviewed. ''Complications'' were divided into: major or minor, periprocedural or postprocedural, and intervention-/device-related, patient-related or equipment-related. Transport risk index of physiological stability (TRIPS) scores were calculated. A total of 116 infants (68 male, 48 female) underwent 176 procedures (159 vascular access-related and 17 nonvascular). Of 158 complications identified, 116 were major and 42 were minor. Major complications included hypothermia (n=33), line manipulations/removals (n=25), bleeding (n=12), thrombosis (n=4), cardiac arrest (n=3), tamponade (n=2), and multiorgan failure (n=1). Of the complications, 119 were categorized as intervention-/device-related, 32 patient-related and 7 equipment-related. There were no significant differences between pre- and postprocedural TRIPS scores. Successful completion of IR procedures in the VLBW infant is possible, but complications still occur in these fragile infants. (orig.)

  2. Evaluating the impact of the community-based health planning and services initiative on uptake of skilled birth care in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiifi Amoako Johnson

    Full Text Available The Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS initiative is a major government policy to improve maternal and child health and accelerate progress in the reduction of maternal mortality in Ghana. However, strategic intelligence on the impact of the initiative is lacking, given the persistant problems of patchy geographical access to care for rural women. This study investigates the impact of proximity to CHPS on facilitating uptake of skilled birth care in rural areas.Data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Survey, on 4,349 births from 463 rural communities were linked to georeferenced data on health facilities, CHPS and topographic data on national road-networks. Distance to nearest health facility and CHPS was computed using the closest facility functionality in ArcGIS 10.1. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the effect of proximity to health facilities and CHPS on use of skilled care at birth, adjusting for relevant predictors and clustering within communities. The results show that a substantial proportion of births continue to occur in communities more than 8 km from both health facilities and CHPS. Increases in uptake of skilled birth care are more pronounced where both health facilities and CHPS compounds are within 8 km, but not in communities within 8 km of CHPS but lack access to health facilities. Where both health facilities and CHPS are within 8 km, the odds of skilled birth care is 16% higher than where there is only a health facility within 8km.Where CHPS compounds are set up near health facilities, there is improved access to care, demonstrating the facilitatory role of CHPS in stimulating access to better care at birth, in areas where health facilities are accessible.

  3. Effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy and anthropometrics at birth on offspring metabolic profile at 2.8 years - results from the Lifestyle in Pregnancy and Offspring (LiPO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S


    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are linked to offspring adverse metabolic profile, and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women may have long-term positive effect on their children. Furthermore, although the association between birth weight and later metabolic...... outcomes is well established, little is known about the predictive value of abdominal circumference at birth. Objectives: To study: i) effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women on offspring metabolic risk factors and ii) predictive values of birth weight (BW) and birth abdominal...... circumference (BAC). Design: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial; the Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) study Setting: Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark Participants: Offspring of LiP study participants (n=157) and offspring of normal weight mothers (external reference group, ER, n=97...

  4. Obstetric Care Consensus No. 4: Periviable Birth. (United States)


    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  5. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research (United States)

    Pramana, Kharis Erasta Reza; Ertsen, Maurits Willem


    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the form of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both the development of intervention and research, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the development of the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as hydrological research is often designed without adequate consideration of how to account for human agency and that these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning for hydrological research, based on evaluating three hydrological research efforts targeting small-scale water development initiatives in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three cases was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention initiatives, we propose two analysis steps, including (1) consideration of possible surprises and possible actions and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout small-scale hydrological intervention-based initiatives, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  6. Temporal Trends in Late Preterm and Early Term Birth Rates in 6 High-Income Countries in North America and Europe and Association With Clinician-Initiated Obstetric Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Jennifer L.; Kramer, Michael S.; Deb-Rinker, Paromita;


    Importance: Clinicians have been urged to delay the use of obstetric interventions (eg, labor induction, cesarean delivery) until 39 weeks or later in the absence of maternal or fetal indications for intervention. Objective: To describe recent trends in late preterm and early term birth rates in 6......: Use of clinician-initiated obstetric intervention (either labor induction or prelabor cesarean delivery) during delivery. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual country-specific late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth rates. Results: The study population included 2 415 432 Canadian...... births in 2006-2014 (4.8% late preterm; 25.3% early term); 305 947 Danish births in 2006-2010 (3.6% late preterm; 18.8% early term); 571 937 Finnish births in 2006-2015 (3.3% late preterm; 16.8% early term); 468 954 Norwegian births in 2006-2013 (3.8% late preterm; 17.2% early term); 737 754 Swedish...

  7. Influence of planning and civil initiative, as a form of public intervention, on gentrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Ivana


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to establish the connection between gentrification and planning, as a form of state and civil intervention, along with citing instances of local community reactions to negative effects of gentrification. The work examines how these two forms of public intervention, by means of implementing measures/actions, influence positive and negative effects of gentrification and contribute to maintaining balance between them. Furthermore, it explains how they act in service of public interest. The main criterion for the selection of research examples has been the form of intervention implemented (measures/actions, that is, their diversity. Most examples have been drawn from the USA where, on account of its liberal economic system, the power of planning is weaker, negative effects of gentrification are more dominant and gentrification itself is considered a negative phenomenon. The main objective of the analysis is to determine how to minimize the negative effects. A small number of examples presented have been taken from developed European countries, since those states exert stronger influence on planning and the state/community is more responsible for housing problems and existence of different groups of individuals in the community. Those instances illustrate the maximization of positive effects. In addition, some examples have been drawn from transitional, post-socialist Balkan countries where anti-planning attitude is dominant and negative effects of gentrification are more present. Given their effects on gentrification, the most successful measures/actions, applied in the form of public intervention, ordered by category, are as follows: affordable housing, jobs, local regulations, partnership and direct actions.

  8. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal. (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri


    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake.

  9. Promotion of birth spacing on Idjwi Island, Zaire. (United States)

    Caraël, M; Stanbury, J B


    Idjwi Island in Lake Kivu in eastern Zaire supports approximately 50,000 largely subsistence farmers, the Bani-Iju. Rapid population growth, a declining economy, and a deteriorating environment have already converged to produce significant malnutrition in this isolated community. The highly structured and traditional social order, particularly regarding reproductive mores, is examined here in its relevance to an intervention program for reducing the demographic pressure by increasing birth spacing. The mean birth interval of approximately three years appears to be shrinking, and is far too brief to prevent rapid population growth. The program, which included films about contraception, did not lead to a longer birth interval among the Bani-Iju, but did succeed in informing women about family planning. It is concluded that no intervention program for promotion of family planning is likely to be effective without substantial improvement in the economy.

  10. Non-occupational physical activity during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis of observational and interventional studies (United States)

    Wen, Ju; Xun, Pengcheng; Chen, Cheng; Quan, Minghui; Wang, Ru; Liu, Yu; He, Ka


    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between non-occupational physical activity (PA) during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB). By searching PubMed and EMBASE from inception to August 20, 2016, 25 observational studies (18 cohorts and 7 case-controls) and 12 interventional studies were identified. Comparing the highest to the lowest category of leisure-time PA during pregnancy, the pooled relative risk (RR) of PTB was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74–0.93] for cohort studies and 0.60 (95% CI = 0.43–0.84) for case-control studies. No overall significant association was found between domestic or commuting PA and the risk of PTB. In addition, PA intervention did not indicate significant beneficial effect on the risk of PTB. Evidence from the observational studies suggested that leisure-time, but not domestic or commuting, PA during pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of PTB. The findings were not supported by small-scale and short-term interventional studies. Further research with objective measurement on leisure-time PA is warranted. PMID:28327589

  11. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice. (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M


    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans.

  12. Birth Control (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  13. Application Research of "3+1" Mode for Birth Defects Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Cheng-liang XIONG


    Objective To explore the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects and quality control measures based on the population,and to obtain the related information data for birth defects.Methods With the community population as the basis,adopting the unified monitoring scheme dominant by the leadership and administration of government,with districts(counties)as the monitoring sites,the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects was based on a complete monitoring team with the combination of villages/residents'committees,townships(towns),counties(districts)and the municipality.Demonstration research was carried out in the pilot districts/counties in Chongqing City.Results Birth defects population monitoring system based on population and family planning management and service network was established,and during 2005 and 2006,application research was carried out for the monitoring methods among birth deflects population in the pilot districts(counties),obtaining the relevant information in regional birth defects,with a monitoring coverage of over 99%.Conclusion Fully utilizing the birth management functions of Population and Family Planning System and the advantages of service networks,long term,dynamic birth defects monitoring system based on community population was established,with the integration of birth defects monitoring and regular reproductive health services,obtaining overall birth defects occurrence information in details,providing scientific basis for the government to formulate scientific,practical,economic and effective birth defects intervention policy,so as to improve the quality of the population.

  14. The Effects of Using the Transition Planning Inventory and a Structured IEP Process as a Transition Planning Intervention on IEP Meeting Outcomes (United States)

    Rehfeldt, Jason D.; Clark, Gary M.; Lee, Steven W.


    This study examined two areas. First, the authors looked at whether secondary individualized education program (IEP) teams who used the "Transition Planning Inventory" (TPI) in conjunction with a structured IEP meeting that based discussions and decisions on TPI data as a planning intervention generated significantly more…

  15. Case Study Evaluation of an Intervention Planning Tool to Support Emotional Well-Being and Behaviour in Schools (United States)

    Stanbridge, Joanna K.; Campbell, Lorraine N.


    Questions of how best to support both children's emotional well-being and behaviour in schools are pervasive. The efficacy of an intervention planning tool to support internalising and externalising emotional needs and promote early intervention was explored in a small-scale case study. Adults were trained in two primary schools to carry out the…

  16. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi


    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  17. 孕妇孕期营养及体重干预对分娩结局的影响%Effect of Maternal Nutrition on Birth Weight Intervention During Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the influence of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and birth weight intervention on outcome. Methods 12 weeks singleton pregnancy 268 cases for the study were conventional prenatal education and pregnancy nutrition guidance, weight control interventions.Results The intervention group of pregnant women at 28, 36 weeks of pregnancy and before delivery BMI lower than the reference group, the intervention group of pregnant women giving birth asphyxia, great children, the incidence of low birth weight children is lower than the reference group, the intervention group, birth weight and Apgar score better than the reference group.Conclusion By professional nutritional guidance during pregnancy and maternal weight control, which has optimization birth outcomes.%目的:探讨孕妇孕期营养及体重干预对分娩结局的影响。方法选择12周左右单胎妊娠孕妇268例作为研究对象,分别采用常规孕期教育和孕期营养指导、体重控制干预。结果干预组孕妇在孕28、36周及分娩前BMI低于参照组;干预组孕妇分娩新生儿窒息、巨大儿、低出生体重儿发生率低于参照组,干预组新生儿体重及Apgar评分优于参照组。结论通过对孕妇孕期进行专业营养指导及控制孕妇体重,优化分娩结局。

  18. Evaluation of Health Plan Interventions to Influence Chronic Opioid Therapy Prescribing (United States)

    Saunders, Kathleen; Shortreed, Susan; Thielke, Stephen; Turner, Judith A.; LeResche, Linda; Beck, Randi; Von Korff, Michael


    Objectives Evaluate health plan interventions targeting physician chronic opioid therapy (COT) prescribing. Methods In 2006, Group Health’s (GH) integrated group practice (IGP) initiated diverse interventions targeting COT prescriber norms and practices. In 2010, the IGP implemented a COT guideline, including a mandated online course for physicians managing COT. These interventions were not implemented in GH’s network practices. We compared trends in GH-IGP and network practices for 2006–12 in the percent of patients receiving COT and their opioid dose. We compared physician beliefs before versus after the mandated course and pre- to post-course changes in COT dosing for IGP physicians who took the course. Results From 2006 to 2012, mean (SE) daily opioid dose among IGP COT patients (intervention setting) declined from 74.1 (1.9) mg. morphine equivalent dose (MED) to 48.3 (1.0) mg. MED. Dose changes among GH network COT patients (control setting) were modest—88.2 (5.0) mg. MED in 2006 to 75.7 (2.3) mg. MED in 2012. Among physicians taking the mandated course in 2011, we observed pre- to post-course changes toward more conservative opioid prescribing beliefs. However, COT dosing trends did not change pre- to post-course. Discussion Following initiatives implemented to alter physician prescribing practices and norms, mean opioid dose prescribed to COT patients declined more in intervention than control practices. Physicians reported more conservative beliefs regarding opioid prescribing immediately after completing an online course in 2011, but the course was not associated with additional reductions in mean daily opioid dose prescribed by physicians completing the course. PMID:25621426

  19. In the literature: home birth: safe enough, but not for the first baby. (United States)

    Buekens, Pierre; Keirse, Marc J N C


    The "Birthplace in England" study compared low-risk pregnancies by planned place of birth at the onset of labor: home, midwifery unit, or obstetric unit. The study showed that childbirth interventions were less frequent in all nonobstetric settings than in obstetric units, confirming what has been noted elsewhere. For parous women, there was no difference in perinatal outcomes by place of birth. For nulliparous women, perinatal outcomes were similar in midwifery and obstetric units, but the frequency of poor outcomes with planned home births was higher. The major strengths of the study are its prospective design and large sample size. The results support providing choices to women, but suggest that women should not be encouraged to give birth at home for their first baby. (BIRTH 39:2 June 2012).

  20. The Traditional Birth Attendant in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning: A Guide to Her Training and Utilization. (United States)

    Verderese, Maria de Lourdes; Turnbull, Lily M.

    The publication provides guidelines for assisting developing countries in determining strategies for the utilization and training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). TBA's are persons (usually women in rural areas) who assist the mother at childbirth and who initially acquired their skills through experience rather than formal training. After…

  1. The importance of organ geometry and boundary constraints for planning of medical interventions. (United States)

    Misra, S; Macura, K J; Ramesh, K T; Okamura, A M


    Realistic modeling of medical interventions involving tool-tissue interactions has been considered to be a key requirement in the development of high-fidelity simulators and planners. Organ geometry, soft-tissue constitutive laws, and boundary conditions imposed by the connective tissues surrounding the organ are some of the factors that govern the accuracy of medical intervention planning. In this study it is demonstrated that, for needle path planning, the organ geometry and boundary constraints surrounding the organ are the most important factors influencing the deformation. As an example, the procedure of needle insertion into the prostate (e.g. for biopsy or brachytherapy) is considered. Image segmentation is used to extract the anatomical details from magnetic resonance images, while object-oriented finite element analysis (OOF) software is used to generate finite element (FE) meshes from the segmented images. Two-dimensional FE simulations that account for complex anatomical details along with relative motion between the prostate and its surrounding structure using cohesive zone models are compared with traditional simulation models having simple organ geometry and boundary constraints. Nodal displacements for these simpler models were observed to be up to 14 times larger than those obtained from the anatomically accurate models.

  2. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. (United States)

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob


    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  3. Designing evaluation plans for health promotion mHealth interventions: a case study of the Milk Man mobile app. (United States)

    White, Becky K; Burns, Sharyn K; Giglia, Roslyn C; Scott, Jane A


    Evaluating complex health promotion interventions that use mobile apps requires comprehensive and adaptive evaluation plans. As mobile usage becomes increasingly sophisticated and personalised, broad evaluation plans are important in determining the impact and efficacy of a mobile health (mHealth) app. Evaluation should consider user feedback and outcome measures, as well as examine elements such as the robustness of the technology, the intervention principles and engagement strategies, and the interaction of the user with the technology. This paper introduces four mHealth evaluation models and tools and describes the evaluation plan that has been developed for Milk Man, a breastfeeding app targeting new and expectant fathers. Milk Man is a socially connected, gamified app that is being tested in a large Randomised Control Trial (RCT). While there is a need for mobile apps to be evaluated in adequately powered RCTs, trialling mobile apps over a long period of time presents challenges. Incorporating robust evaluation design will help ensure that technological performance, app intervention principles, as well as health and behavioural outcomes are measured. The detail and scope of the Milk Man app evaluation plan will ensure the findings add to the evidence base and have broad relevance to health promotion practitioners.So what? Evidence about the efficacy of mHealth interventions is an emerging area and appropriate evaluation skills are needed. This paper illustrates an evaluation planning approach for mHealth interventions that could be adapted for use by health promotion practitioners and researchers.

  4. Preterm Birth (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  5. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R


    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  6. 江西省铅山地区出生缺陷监测结果分析及干预措施探讨%Analysis on birth defects monitoring result and discussion on its interventions in Yanshan county of Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余愔; 陈祖林


    Objective: Birth defects situation in Yanshan County of Jiangxi Province were analyzed to provide the scientific basis for establishing interventions against birth defects. Methods: The monitoring database collected by Yanshan Medical and Health Service and Family Planning Service Station about 20 150 cases of perinatal fetus born from January 2004 to December 2009 in this area were analyzed by adopting epidemiological method based on population through three - stage network of women and children. Results: There were 20 150 cases of live births, 183 cases of perinatal fetus with birth defects and birth defects rate was 9. 08‰. The top sequent 5 birth defects are congenital; heart disease, congenital hydrocephalus, polydactylism, congenital deafness and cheilopalatognathus sequent. Conclusion: Birth defects rate can be reduced by strengthening pre - pregnancy monitoring and health education for maternal with prevention first to improve antenatal diagnosis technology and perform termination of pregnancy timely.%目的 分析江西省铅山县出生缺陷的发生情况,为本地区制定出生缺陷预防措施提供科学依据.方法 利用妇幼三级网络,采用以人群为基础的流行病学调查方法搜集出生缺陷资料,对2004年1月~2009年12月全县医疗保健单位和县计生服务站在该地区出生的围产儿共20 150例监测数据库资料进行分析.结果 活产儿20 150例,围产儿出生缺陷183例,出生缺陷发生率为9.08%.其前5顺位是先天性心脏病心(先心)、先天性脑积水、多指(趾)、先天性耳聋、唇腭裂.结论 加强孕前监测和孕产妇的孕前健康教育,预防为主,提高产前诊断技术,适时终止妊娠,可有效降低出生缺陷的发生率.

  7. Dystocia, stillbirth, gestation length, and birth weight in Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal crosses from a planned experiment. (United States)

    Olson, K M; Cassell, B G; McAllister, A J; Washburn, S P


    Holstein and Jersey cows were mated to 4 Holstein (H) bulls and 4 Jersey (J) bulls to create HH, HJ, JH, and JJ genetic groups (sire breed listed first) in a diallele crossbreeding scheme. Calvings (n = 756) occurred in research herds in Virginia, Kentucky, and North Carolina with 243, 166, 194, and 153 calvings in the HH, HJ, JH, and JJ groups, respectively. Birth weights (BW), dystocia scores (0 for unassisted and 1 for assisted), and stillbirth (0 for alive or 1 for dead within 48 h) were recorded at calving. Gestation lengths (GL) were determined from breeding dates. An animal model was used to analyze BW and GL, and an animal model with logistic regression was used for dystocia and stillbirth. Fixed effects considered for model inclusion were genetic group, herd-year-season, sex, parity (primiparous or multiparous), twin status, and gestation length. Genetic group and effects significant in the model building process were kept in the final model for each trait. Heifer calves had lower BW, shorter GL, and had a lower odds ratio (0.53) for dystocia than bull calves. Twins had lower BW, shorter GL, were 3.86 times more likely to experience dystocia, and 7.80 times more likely to be stillborn than single births. Primiparous cows had calves with lower BW, shorter GL, were 2.50 times more likely to require assistance at birth, and were 2.35 times more likely to produce stillborns than calves from multiparous cows. Genetic group did not affect GL. Least squares means (kg) for BW were 37.7 +/- 1.1, 29.1 +/- 1.1, 30.3 +/- 1.0, and 22.5 +/- 1.3 for HH, HJ, JH, and JJ, respectively. Animals in HH weighed more than animals of other genetic groups; the JJ group had the smallest BW, with no differences for BW between HJ and JH. Probability of dystocia in JJ and JH were 5.73% and 18.98% of HH. Calves in HJ and HH were not different for dystocia. Calves in HJ were 3.38 times more likely to be stillborn than calves in JH, but no other genetic group differences were significant

  8. Adherence to physical and mental activity interventions: Coping plans as a mediator and prior adherence as a moderator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.


    Objective. Adherence to behavioural intervention programmes is a necessary condition for beneficial outcomes to be achieved. This study tested whether social cognitive variables and coping plans predict adherence. Design and methods. Adherence was examined in a randomized controlled trial with healt

  9. Obstetric Care Consensus No. 4 Summary: Periviable Birth. (United States)


    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  10. Early Intervention Effect Analysis of Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants ( Analysis of 348 Cases)%早产低体重儿的早期干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 赵泽宇


    目的 探讨早产低体重儿的早期干预效果.方法 选择2011年7月—2013年6月在我院出生的早产低体重儿348例,按照掷骰子法分为早期干预组与对照组,每组各174例.早期干预组予视听刺激、抚触、运动训练等对早产低体重儿进行早期干预,对照组不采取任何干预措施,观察并比较两组婴儿出生90 d、180 d、360 d的身高及体重、智力发育、精神运动发育情况.结果 干预90 d、180 d、360 d后,干预组身高、体重、智力发育、精神运动发育水平均优于对照组(P<0.05),且随着时间的推移上述各项指标比较差异更加显著.结论 对早产低体重儿进行早期干预,能够在促进身高、体重正常生长发育的同时,提高其智力及精神运动发育水平.%Objective To investigate the early intervention effect on preterm low birth weight infants. Methods Clinical data of 348 cases of preterm low birth weight infants were divided into early intervention group and control group with in accordance with the dice method, 174 cases in each group. Early intervention group was given visual stimulation, massage, exercise training for early intervention on low birth weight infants, while the control group did not undergo any intervention. The 90 d, 180 d, 360 d's height, weight, intellectual development, psychomotor development situation of the 2 groups were observed and compared. Results The 90 d, 180 d, 360 d's height, weight, mental development, spiritual movement devel-opment level of the intervention group was better than that of the control group (P<0. 05). As time went by, the differences of the above indicators were more significant. Conclusion Early intervention for premature infants with low birth weight, can not only promote the normal growth and development of height and weight but also improve the level of intellectual and spiritual movement development of the infants.

  11. State of the art in computer-assisted planning, intervention, and assessment of liver-tumor ablation. (United States)

    Schumann, Christian; Rieder, Christian; Bieberstein, Jennifer; Weihusen, Andreas; Zidowitz, Stephan; Moltz, Jan Hendrik; Preusser, Tobias


    Percutaneous, image-guided thermal tumor ablation procedures are used increasingly for minimally invasive, local treatment of tumors in the liver. The planning of these procedures; the support of targeting, monitoring, and controlling during the intervention itself; and the assessment of the treatment response can all benefit significantly from computer assistance. The outcome can be optimized by supporting the physician in the process of determining an intervention strategy that enables complete destruction of the targeted tumor while reducing the danger of complications. During the intervention, computer-assisted methods can be used to guide the physician in the implementation of the intended strategy by providing planning information. Assessment of the intervention result is carried out by comparison of the achieved coagulation with the target tumor volume. Supporting this comparison facilitates the early detection of potential recurrences. This report provides an overview of state-of-the-art computer-assisted methods for the support of thermal tumor ablations in the liver. Proper approaches for image segmentation, access-path determination, simulation, visualization, interventional guidance, and post-interventional assessment, as well as integrated work flow-oriented solutions, are reviewed with respect to technical aspects and applicability in the clinical setting.

  12. Implementation Planning to Promote Parents' Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Feinberg, Adam B.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.


    Behavioral interventions delivered across home and school settings can promote positive outcomes for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, stakeholders who deliver these interventions may struggle to implement interventions as intended. Low levels of treatment integrity can undermine potentially positive intervention outcomes. One way…

  13. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services (United States)

    ... necessary to treat sick babies and moms. A birth center can provide natural pain control and pain control with mild narcotic medications, ... be an option. Women who want a natural birth with minimal medical intervention or pain control may feel more comfortable in a birth ...

  14. An Intervention for HPV Risk Reduction Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: An Exploratory Study with College-Aged Women (United States)

    Sweeney, Jocelyn Brineman; McAnulty, Richard D.; Reeve, Charlie; Cann, Arnie


    The goal of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a group intervention in reducing risks of contracting human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged women. Using a randomized design, the study examined the effectiveness of an HPV educational group intervention guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was provided in a…

  15. 早期干预对极低出生体重早产儿智能发育的影响研究%Effect of early intervention on intelligence development in very low-birth weight preterm children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉丹; 林振浪; 陈尚勤; 赵凯怡; 陈翔


    目的探讨早期干预对极低出生体重早产儿智能发育的影响,为极低出生体重早产儿的早期干预提供依据。方法239例极低出生体重早产儿为早产随访组,采用鲍秀兰早期教育资料制定的干预计划,进行系统干预,并与326例失访的早产儿童以及与随访组相似的326例正常儿童进行对照分析。采用Gesel 儿童发育量表等标准化工具进行发育评估。结果早产随访组Gesel 儿童发育量表5项均分、总发育商(developmental quotient,DQ)总分与早产失访组相比差异均有统计学差异(均 P<0.05)。结论早期干预能显著促进极低出生体重早产儿的智能发育,提高患儿的生活质量。%Objective To investigate the effects of early intervention on intel igence development in very low- birth weight preterm children. Methods Total 329 very low- birth weight premature infants born in our hospital received systematic invention based on the early education program developed by Bao Xiulan (intervention group);326 very low- birth weight preterm children served as non- intervention group and 326 normal children served as normal control group. The intel igence development was assessed with Gese1l child development scale and other standardized tools. Results The average scores of 5 items in Gese1l child development scale and the total developmental quotient(DQ) score of intervention group were significantly higher than those of non- intervention group (P<0.05). Conclusion Early intervention can significantly promote intel igence development of the premature infants who have extremely low birth weight.

  16. Birth Injury (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... lying in an abnormal position in the uterus before birth. Overall, the rate of birth injuries is much lower now than in previous decades because of improved ...

  17. Birth Weight (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  18. The Action Plan--a new instrument to collect data on interventions in secondary prevention in adolescents. (United States)

    Hüsler, Gebhard; Werlen, Egon; Rehm, Jürgen


    It is difficult to draw causal conclusions about the effectiveness of secondary prevention programs for adolescents at risk, when the programs use a variety of different interventions. The Action Plan is an instrument that is designed to make collection of such data possible. This allows calculating different kinds of intervention patterns for each participant and program, which, in combination with outcome measures, gives an estimate of successful vs. less successful interventions. The study compared intervention patterns from 12 different sites in a national intervention program in Switzerland. The program, called supra-f (, started in 1999 and will end in 2005. Results are presented from the ongoing study with approximately 600 adolescents. We calculated effect sizes (ES) to compare interventions with outcome measures. Effect sizes (ES) are presented on well being, coping, self-esteem, delinquency, and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis) in relation to intervention packages, risk groups (low, moderate, high), and age (two groups: 11-15 and 16-20 years of age) using data collected from 1999-2002.

  19. The Birth of a Plan The formulation of the 12th Five-Year Plan shows the operation of China's public policy-making mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In March 2008,the National Development and Reform Committee ( NDRC) began to evaluate the progress of the 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (2006-10),in an effort to push forward its implementation and prepare for the formulation of the next big blueprint.At the end of that year,the NDRC published 39 major subjects under eight categories for the formulation of the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15),and invited bids to carry out relevant studies.Thousands of experts and researchers focused on hundreds of topics,which finally yielded research reports of millions of words.Based on these reports,the NDRC set out to draft the basic lines of the 12th Five-Year Plan and reported to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the State Council.

  20. Planning for, implementing and assessing the impact of health promotion and behaviour change interventions: a way forward for health psychologists. (United States)

    Wallace, L M; Brown, K E; Hilton, S


    Researchers in the field of health psychology have increasingly been involved in translating a body of knowledge about psychological factors associated with health-relevant behaviours, into the development and evaluation of interventions that seek to apply that knowledge. In this paper we argue that a changing economic and political climate, and the strong behavioural contribution to disease morbidity and mortality in developed nations, requires health psychologists to plan more rigorously for, and communicate more effectively, about how health promotion, social cognition and behaviour change interventions will have impact and be increasingly embedded into health services or health promotion activity. We explain academic and wider socio-economic uses of 'impact' in health services research. We describe the relationship between impact and dissemination, and impact as distinct from, but often used interchangeably with the terms 'implementation', 'knowledge transfer' and 'knowledge translation' (KT). The evidence for establishing impact is emergent. We therefore draw on a number of impact planning and KT frameworks, with reference to two self- management interventions, to describe a framework that we hope will support health psychologists in embedding impact planning and execution in research. We illustrate this further in an on-line annexe with reference to one of our own interventions, Mums-and-MS (see Supplemental Material).

  1. Advance care planning uptake among patients with severe lung disease: a randomised patient preference trial of a nurse-led, facilitated advance care planning intervention (United States)

    Sinclair, Craig; Auret, Kirsten Anne; Evans, Sharon Frances; Williamson, Fiona; Dormer, Siobhan; Greeve, Kim; Koay, Audrey; Price, Dot; Brims, Fraser


    Objective Advance care planning (ACP) clarifies goals for future care if a patient becomes unable to communicate their own preferences. However, ACP uptake is low, with discussions often occurring late. This study assessed whether a systematic nurse-led ACP intervention increases ACP in patients with advanced respiratory disease. Design A multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial with preference arm. Setting Metropolitan teaching hospital and a rural healthcare network. Participants 149 participants with respiratory malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease. Intervention Nurse facilitators offered facilitated ACP discussions, prompted further discussions with doctors and loved ones, and assisted participants to appoint a substitute medical decision-maker (SDM) and complete an advance directive (AD). Outcome measures The primary measure was formal (AD or SDM) or informal (discussion with doctor) ACP uptake assessed by self-report (6 months) and medical notes audit. Secondary measures were the factors predicting baseline readiness to undertake ACP, and factors predicting postintervention ACP uptake in the intervention arm. Results At 6 months, formal ACP uptake was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intervention arm (54/106, 51%), compared with usual care (6/43, 14%). ACP discussions with doctors were also significantly higher (p<0.005) in the intervention arm (76/106, 72%) compared with usual care (20/43, 47%). Those with a strong preference for the intervention were more likely to complete formal ACP documents than those randomly allocated. Increased symptom burden and preference for the intervention predicted later ACP uptake. Social support was positively associated with ACP discussion with loved ones, but negatively associated with discussion with doctors. Conclusions Nurse-led facilitated ACP is acceptable to patients with advanced respiratory disease and effective in increasing ACP discussions and completion

  2. Effect analysis of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan%中山地区重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施的实施对降低唐氏综合征出生率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 江陵; 吴剑波; 陈昂; 陈咏莲; 李莉敏


    Objective; To analysize the effect of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan, 2010 -2011. Methods; Prenatal screening of Down's syndrome has been free in residents since January 1, 2010. The Surveillance and Intervention were carried out at the same time. Data of the surveillance were analyzed, 2008 -2011 , comparing the difference of the incidences. Results; After the surveillance and intervention, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome increased significantly. The rate of live births with Down's syndrome decreased in 2010 -2011 (1. 63 -0. 64/ten thousand) compared with 2008 and 2009 (3. 5-3. 78/ten thousand). Conclusion; The Surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on were effective on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan.%目的 分析2010年-2011年中山地区对重大出生缺陷采取的监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面的实际效果.方法 2010年1月1日始中山市对户籍人口实施免费产前筛查唐氏综合征,并进行监控和干预措施,通过2008年-2011年中山市出生缺陷监测网监测唐氏综合征儿数据,比较唐氏综合征出生率的差异.结果 实施重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施后,唐氏综合征的产前诊断率显著提高,唐氏综合征出生率2010年-2011年(1.63-0.64/万)较2008年-2009年(3.5-3.78/万)有明显下降(P =0.001).结论 2010年-2011年中山市对重大出生缺陷采取监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面起到很好的效果.

  3. Unsanctioned births in China. (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A


    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  4. Treatment Fidelity: Special Educators' Perceptions of Measures Used to Monitor the Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans (United States)

    Thorne, Jennifer


    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires empirically based interventions to be used when treating chronic problem behaviors. The fundamental part of behavior modification is the ability to demonstrate that behavior change occurred due to the intervention. This can only be accomplished when the intervention is…

  5. 早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育的影响%Effect of early intervention on low birth weight infant physical development and nerve behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To discuss the effect of early intervention on low birth weight infant physical development and nerve behavior. Methods 96 cases of low birth weight infants as the discussion object, randomly divided into the intervention group and the non intervention group two group, and selected 42 cases of normal term infants as control group, the implementation of infant massage, nutrition guidance, early education, motion perception, language training in the intervention group, three groups of infant weight, body length, head circumference were measured. Results the intervention group weight, length, head circumference was better than the untreated group, the intervention had no significant difference between group and control group. Conclusion early intervention on low birth weight infants physical and neurobehavioral development is obviously promote.%目的分析讨论早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育的影响。方法选取96例低出生体重儿为讨论对象,随机分为干预组和未干预组两组,同期选择42例正常足月的婴儿为对照组,对干预组实施婴儿抚触、营养指导、早期教育、感知运动、语言等训练,对三组婴儿六个月之后的体重、身长、头围等进行检查测量。结果干预组的体重、身长、头围明显优于未干预组,干预组和对照组之间无显著性差异。结论早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育有明显的促进作用。

  6. The Nature and Use of Individualized Learning Plans as a Promising Career Intervention Strategy (United States)

    Solberg, V. Scott; Phelps, L. Allen; Haakenson, Kristin A.; Durham, Julie F.; Timmons, Joe


    Individualized learning plans (ILPs) are being implemented in high schools throughout the United States as strategic planning tools that help students align course plans with career aspirations and often include the development of postsecondary plans. Initial indications are that ILPs may be an important method for helping students achieve both…

  7. College-age twins: university admission policies / twin research: birth weight and neuromotor performance; transfusion syndrome markers; vanishing twins and fetal sex determination; mz twin discordance for wilson's disease / media: big at birth; planned separation of conjoined twins; x factor twins; Cinema: the identical. (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L


    There is a lack of research findings addressing the unique college admissions issues faced by twins and other multiples. The advantages and disadvantage twins face, as reported by college administrators, twins and families are reviewed. Next, recent research addressing twins' birth weight and neuromotor performance, transfusion syndrome markers, the vanishing twin syndrome and monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance for Wilson's disease is described. News items concerning the birth of unusually large twins, the planned separation of conjoined twins, twin participants in the X Factor games and a film, The Identical, are also summarized.

  8. Research Progress of Factors Related to Birth Defect and Interventional Measures%出生缺陷相关因素的研究进展及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Birth defect prevails worldwide as a heavy burden to the state, society and the family, and affects the quality of population and development of social civilization.It is a basic national policy to control and improve the quality of the population, whereas birth defect is an important factor which affects the quality of the population.In this paper,hereditary factors,environmental factors,drug factors,psychological factors of birth defect are described.The surveillance,tertiary prevention,government intervention,establishment of early warning systems and other research progress of interventional measures of birth defect are discussed,in aiming to improve the quality of the population and protect the population health.%出生缺陷在全世界占有相当高的比例,给国家、社会和家庭带来了沉重负担,影响到人口素质及社会文明的发展.控制人口数量,提高人口素质是我国的一项基本国策,而出生缺陷则是严重影响人口素质的一个重要因素.现从遗传因素、环境因素、药物因素、心理因素等方面阐述出生缺陷的相关因素,并从出生缺陷监测、三级预防、政府政策干预以及建立出生缺陷预警系统等方面探讨出生缺陷干预措施的研究进展,为提高人口素质,保护人群健康提供基础.

  9. A study about the prenatal comprehensive intervention models for child-birth respond capacity and birth outcomes for the primiparous mothers%产前综合干预模式对初产妇分娩应对能力及分娩结局的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 叶彩眉


    Objective To investigate the influence of prenatal integrated intervention model for the childbirth respond and birth outcomes of primiparous mothers. Methods A total of 417 cases patients were the objects for the study, which were treated in our hospital from Jan 2012 to Feb 2014, all the patients were divided into control group (203 cases) and intervention group (214 cases). After 28 weeks pregnant, the control group received regular check-ups and care, while the intervention group received comprehensive intervention contrary to the four paths of the sources of self-efficacy. Results After intervention, the score of OE-16 scores and EE-16 score of control group with only a small increase, while the intervention group was increased obviously, and the difference between the two groups was statistically signifi-cant(P0.05﹚,干预组总产程时间较对照组短(P<0.05﹚,且剖宫产率也较对照组低(P<0.05﹚。结论产前综合干预对提高初产妇的分娩自我效能感水平与分娩应对能力有益,是一种降低剖宫产率的重要护理举措,值得在产科临床进一步推广应用。

  10. BCG vaccination at birth and early childhood hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Sørup, Signe; Aaby, Peter


    vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalisation in Denmark, a high-income setting. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to give birth at three Danish hospitals were invited to participate. After parental consent, newborn children were allocated to BCG or no intervention within 7 days of age......-protocol analyses. RESULTS: 4184 pregnant women were randomised and their 4262 children allocated to BCG or no intervention. There was no difference in risk of hospitalisation up to 15 months of age; 2129 children randomised to BCG experienced 1047 hospitalisations with a mean of 0.49 hospitalisation per child......BACKGROUND: The BCG vaccine is administered to protect against tuberculosis, but studies suggest there may also be non-specific beneficial effects upon the infant immune system, reducing early non-targeted infections and atopic diseases. The present randomised trial tested the hypothesis that BCG...

  11. 极低出生体重儿23例早期护理干预效果研究%Study on the effect of early nursing intervention on 23 very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨早期护理干预对极低出生体重儿存活率及并发症的影响.方法:将46例极低出生体重儿随机分为观察组和对照组各23例.观察组给予早期护理干预(微量喂养、抚触、体位管理等),对照组给予常规护理.观察两组极低出生体重儿护理后体重增长情况、不良反应发生率.结果:与对照组比较,观察组极低出生体重儿体重增长速度快(P<0.01),呕吐、哭闹、胃潴留、腹胀发生率明显降低(P<0.01).结论:早期护理干预能够提高极低出生体重儿的存活率,减少并发症,值得临床推广.%Objective: To investigate the effect of early nursing intervention on the survival rate and complications of very low birth weight infants.Methods: 46 very low birth weight infants were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group ( 23 cases for each group ).The early nursing intervention ( micro - amount feeding, massage, position management,etc.) was given to the infants in the observation group and the infants in the control group received routine nursing care.The weight gain and incidence of adverse reactions of very low birth weight infants were observed after nursing care in both groups.Results: The weight gain of very low birth weight infants was faster in the observation group than the control group (P <0.01 );the incidence of vomiting, crying, gastric retention, abdominal distension was significantly lower in the observation group than the control group ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion: The early nursing intervention can improve the survival rate of very low birth weight infants and reduce the incidence of complications.

  12. 低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停护理干预效果观察%The effect observation of nursing intervention in low birth weight infants with apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽波; 袁明泽; 陈丽君


    目的:观察新生儿监护病房( NICU)中低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停的临床护理效果。方法回顾性分析低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停180例临床护理干预及治疗效果。结果呼吸暂停多发生于胎龄28~34周,出生体质量1500~1800g的早产儿;胎龄<28周,出生体质量<1500g的早产儿呼吸暂停的发生率可高达89.92%;胎龄>34周,出生体质量在1800~2500g的低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停发生率明显降低,对于有呼吸暂停的低出生体质量儿均应予心率,呼吸及血氧饱和度的监测。结论对于低出生体质量儿尤其是胎龄<28周及出生体质量<1500g的患儿发生呼吸暂停应给予密切监测、认真评估及早期及时干预。%Objective To observe the effect of nursing care for low birth weight infants with apnea in NICU. Methods Retrospectively analysed the treatment and nursing effects for 180 low birth weight infants with apnea. Results The apnea occurred in the gestational age in 28~34 weeks,which were born in 1500~1800g. The premature whose gestational age less than 28 weeks and birth weight less than 1500g,apnea occurrence rate is 89. 92%. For the infants with gestational age more than 34 weeks and birth weight in 1800~2500g,the incidence of apnea was significantly decreased. For the low birth weight infants with apnea should be given the monitoring for heart rate,respiration and blood oxygen saturation. Conclusion For low birth weight infants with apnea,especially for the infants whose gestational age less than 28weeks and birth weight of less than 1500g,should be given close monitoring,careful evaluation and timely intervention.

  13. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants. (United States)

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T


    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents' modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents' personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn.

  14. How menstrual shame affects birth. (United States)

    Moloney, Sharon


    In Western, industrialised culture, menstruation and birth are commonly seen as unstable, pathological processes requiring medical control. Girls learn to see menstruation as shameful and secretive. Menarche is a nodal event around which girls' beliefs and attitudes to being female are organised. The perception of menstruation as a liability has foundational implications for future female experiences, particularly birth. Other cultures have recognised menstruation and birth as spiritual phenomena, with menarche and childbirth experienced as powerful initiatory processes. My PhD research explored the links between cultural attitudes to menstruation and spirituality, and women's experiences of birth. My feminist perspective recognised the power imbalances, patriarchal controls and structural inequities that oppress women in their intimate body experiences. Menstrual shame was identified as a core patriarchal organising principle that inculcates and perpetuates male dominance and female subordination. Engendering the perception of female physiology - and thus womanhood - as inherently flawed, menstrual shame was a key factor that predisposed women to approach birth feeling fearful, disempowered and vulnerable to intervention. However, my research also unearthed a counter-cultural group of women who had transformed their relationship with both menstruation and birth. Redesignating menstruation as a spiritual phenomenon enabled these women to dismantle their menstrual shame, connect with their female spirituality and give birth fearlessly and powerfully. For others, the profound spirituality of birth transformed their understanding of menstruation. Contrary to cultural norms, both menstruation and birth can be sacred female experiences which are sources of authority and empowerment.

  15. Self-Efficacy, Planning, or a Combination of Both? A Longitudinal Experimental Study Comparing Effects of Three Interventions on Adolescents' Body Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Luszczynska

    Full Text Available The superiority of an intervention combining two sets of theory-based behavior change techniques targeting planning and self-efficacy over an intervention targeting planning only or self-efficacy only has rarely been investigated.We compared the influence of self-efficacy, planning, and self-efficacy+planning interventions with an education-based control condition on adolescents' body fat, assuming mediating effects of respective social cognitive variables and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. The moderating role of the built environment was examined.Participants (N = 1217, aged 14-18 years were randomly assigned to four conditions: planning (n = 270, self-efficacy (n = 311, self-efficacy+planning (n = 351, and control (n = 285. The measurement was conducted at baseline (T1, two-month follow-up (T2, and fourteen-month follow-up (T3. Interventions/control group procedures were delivered at T1 and T2. Percent of body fat tissue (measured at T1 and T3 was the main outcome. Social cognitive mediators (self-efficacy and planning were assessed at T1 and T2. The behavioral mediator (MVPA and the presence of built MVPA facilities (the moderator were evaluated at T1 and T3.Similar small increases of body fat were found across the three intervention groups, but the increment of body fat was significantly larger in the control group. On average, differences between control and intervention groups translated to approximately 1% of body fat. Effects of the interventions on body fat were mediated by relevant social cognitive variables and MVPA. A lower increase of body fat was found among intervention group participants who had access to newly-built MVPA facilities.We found no superiority of an intervention targeting two social cognitive variables over the intervention targeting one cognition only.

  16. Self-Efficacy, Planning, or a Combination of Both? A Longitudinal Experimental Study Comparing Effects of Three Interventions on Adolescents’ Body Fat (United States)

    Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Hagger, Martin S.; Banik, Anna; Horodyska, Karolina; Knoll, Nina; Scholz, Urte


    Background The superiority of an intervention combining two sets of theory-based behavior change techniques targeting planning and self-efficacy over an intervention targeting planning only or self-efficacy only has rarely been investigated. Purpose We compared the influence of self-efficacy, planning, and self-efficacy+planning interventions with an education-based control condition on adolescents’ body fat, assuming mediating effects of respective social cognitive variables and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The moderating role of the built environment was examined. Methods Participants (N = 1217, aged 14–18 years) were randomly assigned to four conditions: planning (n = 270), self-efficacy (n = 311), self-efficacy+planning (n = 351), and control (n = 285). The measurement was conducted at baseline (T1), two-month follow-up (T2), and fourteen-month follow-up (T3). Interventions/control group procedures were delivered at T1 and T2. Percent of body fat tissue (measured at T1 and T3) was the main outcome. Social cognitive mediators (self-efficacy and planning) were assessed at T1 and T2. The behavioral mediator (MVPA) and the presence of built MVPA facilities (the moderator) were evaluated at T1 and T3. Results Similar small increases of body fat were found across the three intervention groups, but the increment of body fat was significantly larger in the control group. On average, differences between control and intervention groups translated to approximately 1% of body fat. Effects of the interventions on body fat were mediated by relevant social cognitive variables and MVPA. A lower increase of body fat was found among intervention group participants who had access to newly-built MVPA facilities. Conclusions We found no superiority of an intervention targeting two social cognitive variables over the intervention targeting one cognition only. PMID:27410961

  17. Birth Control Methods (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  18. Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabassa Leopoldo J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.

  19. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III


    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  20. Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning (United States)


    Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. Conclusion Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the

  1. 针对剖宫产新生儿早期护理干预模式的效果评价%Evaluation of the effect of early nursing intervention mode for the newborn infants given birth through cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽绚; 蔡荣英


    Objective Evaluation of the effect of early nursing intervention mode for the newborn infants given birth by cesarean section. Methods Chose the newborn infants given birth by cesarean section in our hospital during January 2014 and December 2015 as study objects. 150 cases of neonatal baby were divided into the control group (75 cases) and observation group (75 cases) according to random number table method. The control group was given routine nursing care, while the observation group was given early nursing intervention on the basis of control group. The clinical indexes of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results There were no significant differences in the mixed feeding, breastfeeding, artificial feeding and sucking rate between the two groups(P>0.05). In the observation group, the duration of jaundice, the incidence of sepsis, skin rash, physiological weight loss, and the size of the normal clinical indicators were better than the control group( P0.05),观察组的黄疸消褪时间,脓疱疹、皮疹发生率,生理性体重降低、大小便次正常等临床指标优于对照组( P<0.05)。结论剖宫产新生儿给予早期护理干预模式,能明显改善新生儿预后,提高新生儿母乳喂养率,值得推广。

  2. Assessing Social Validity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Driscoll, Steven A.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Elliott, Stephen N.


    This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior…

  3. The planning of a national breastfeeding educational intervention for medical residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Pound


    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the ideal form of nutrition for newborns, yet our recent pan-Canadian study showed that the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of primary care pediatricians and family physicians are suboptimal with regard to breastfeeding. Objective: We aim to develop, implement, and evaluate a national breastfeeding educational intervention at the postgraduate residency level. Methods: Our initial development process is informed by Kern's approach to curriculum development. To date, we have completed breastfeeding education needs assessment surveys of both practicing physicians and medical residents. We have also developed learning outcomes as well as possible strategies for implementing and evaluating this future educational intervention. Results: The results of our needs assessment surveys provided a rationale to develop a breastfeeding educational intervention for medical residents. Through stakeholder consultations, we have developed five initial learning outcomes for a national breastfeeding educational intervention. We have also identified promising strategies for implementing and evaluating the intervention. Conclusions: This systematic process has provided an opportunity to create a national breastfeeding educational intervention for medical residents. It has fostered collaboration between experts and knowledge users, with the goal of impacting breastfeeding rates and duration of women, which will lead to improved maternal and child outcomes.

  4. 促进早产低体重儿智能及心理发育的综合干预%Affect of Comprehensive Intervention for preterm low birth weight children with intelligence and psychological development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅娟; 吕庆鹏; 何志萍; 曾巧慧


    Objective To explore the affect of Comprehensive Intervention for preterm low birth weight children with intelligence and psychological development.Methods 40 preterm low birth weight children from January 2010 to December 2012 from the second people's hospital of nanhai district as the observation group.And selected 44 cases with preterm low birth weight children at the same period as the control group.The control group treated withthe traditional treatment and care of preterm children.And the the observation group treated with Comprehensive intervention on the basis of the control group.The Mental development index (MDI) and psychological development were compared after the intervention.Results The MDI in the observation group after six months (102.5 ± 11.8 score vs 82.9 ± 12.7 score),12 months (108.9 ± 10.9 score vs91.5 ± 13.4 score) and two years later (116.5 ± 8.9 score vs98.9 ± 12.2 score) intervention were significantly higher than the same period in the control group,P<0.05.After 1 year intervention,the Big movement,fine motor,adaptability,language and social behavior score in the observation group were significantly higher than the control group.P<0.05.Conclusions The Comprehensive intervention can effectively enhance the intelligence and psychological development of preterm low birth weight children.%目的 探讨综合干预对早产低体重儿智能及心理发育的影响.方法 将佛山市南海区第二人民医院2010年1月至2012年12月收治的40例早产低体重儿作为观察组,同期选择44例早产低体重儿作为对照组,对照组仅采用传统的早产儿治疗及护理,观察组在对照组基础上进行综合干预,比较两组新生儿干预后的智能发育指数(MDI)及心理发育状况.结果 观察组干预6个月(102.5±11.8分vs 82.9±12.7分)、12个月(108.9±10.9分vs91.5±13.4分)及2年后(116.5±8.9分vs98.9±12.2分)的MDI指数均显著高于对照组同期,干预1年后,观察组新生儿的大运

  5. Women's perceptions of caesarean birth: a Roy international study. (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aber, Cynthia; Haussler, Susan; Weiss, Marianne; Myers, Sheila Taylor; Hall, Jaye L; Waters, V Lynn; King, Charlette; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu; Rantanen, Anja; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Newton, Jennifer; Silva, Virginia


    The purpose of this Roy adaptation model-based multi-site international mixed method study was to examine the relations of type of caesarean birth (unplanned/planned), number of caesarean births (primary/repeat), and preparation for caesarean birth to women's perceptions of and responses to caesarean birth. The sample included 488 women from the United States (n = 253), Finland (n = 213), and Australia (n = 22). Path analysis revealed direct effects for type of and preparation for caesarean birth on responses to caesarean birth, and an indirect effect for preparation on responses to caesarean birth through perception of birth the experience.

  6. A quality improvement plan for hypertension control: the INCOTECA Project (INterventions for COntrol of hyperTEnsion in CAtalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès-Fernandez Roser


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different studies have shown insufficient blood pressure (BP control in hypertensive patients. Multiple factors influence hypertension management, and the quality of primary care is one of them. We decided therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement plan directed at professionals of Primary Health Care Teams (PHCT with the aim to achieve a better control of hypertension. The hypothesis of the study is that the implementation of a quality improvement plan will improve the control of hypertension. The primary aim of this study will be to evaluate the effectiveness of this plan. Methods and design Design: multicentric study quasi-experimental before – after with control group. The non-randomised allocation of the intervention will be done at PHCT level. Setting: 18 PHCT in the Barcelona province (Spain. Sample: all patients with a diagnosis of hypertension (population based study. Exclusion criteria: patients with a diagnosis of hypertension made later than 01/01/2006 and patients younger than 18 years. Intervention: a quality improvement plan, which targets primary health care professionals and includes educational sessions, feedback to health professionals, audit and implementation of recommended clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertensive patients. Measurements: age, sex, associated co-morbidity (diabetes mellitus type I and II, heart failure and renal failure. The following variables will be recorded: BP measurement, cardiovascular risk and antihypertensive drugs used. Results will be measured before the start of the intervention and twelve months after the start of the study. Dependent variable: prevalence of hypertensive patients with poor BP control. Analysis: Chi-square test and Student's t-test will be used to measure the association between independent qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively. Non-parametric tests will be used for the analysis of non

  7. 极低出生体重早产儿早期干预的临床效果%The clinical effect of early intervention on very low birth weight premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷克竞; 李永佳; 唐国红; 张本金


    Objective To explore the influence of early intervention on physical and intelligent development of premature infants with very low birth weight. Methods Selected 32 premature infants of very lowbirth weight treated in neonatal intensive care unit during November 2011 to October 2012 as the intervention group. To avoid the violation of medical ethics, we select another 32 premature infants with very low birth weight who were born before November 2011and aged between 9 to 15 months as the control group. The intervention group was treated with early intervention, including regular physical development evaluation, neuromotor examination and test of intelligence. The intervention group was followed-up until correction age of 1 year and the control group was only at the year of correction age of 1 year. Results The physical development in the intervention group was better than the control group at the age of 1, the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) significantly higher than those of the control group as well. The incidences of low intelligence and cerebral palsy were lower than those of the control group. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusion Early intervention is obviously effective in promoting the physical and intelligent development of very low birth weight premature infants, reducing the incidence of low intelligence and cerebral palsy, and improving the long-term living quality of the survivors. Still, the method centers on family, and therefore, is feasible and effective. So the doctors for children′s care from basic hospitals should vigorously promote the method.%目的:探讨早期干预对极低出生体重早产儿体格及智能发育的影响。方法:选择本院2011年11月至2012年10月新生儿重症监护病房救治存活的极低出生体重早产儿32例做为干预组,选择2011年11月以前出生的9~15个月极低出生体重早产儿连续收录32例做为对照组,对干

  8. Medical and surgical interventions to improve outcomes in obese women planning for pregnancy. (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Bahadursingh, Sarasvati; Ramsewak, Samuel; Teelucksingh, Surujpal


    Obesity is a known risk factor for infertility in women. The exact mechanism through which obesity is linked to infertility is still not fully understood. Hyperleptinaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and resultant hyperandrogenism are all thought to play a role. Various medical and surgical interventions have been attempted to improve fertility rates in obese women. Encouraging evidence for pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery and assisted reproduction are yet to be seen. In this chapter, we review the hormonal changes in obesity and the evidence behind medical and surgical interventions to improve fertility in obese women.

  9. Clinical Reasoning in the Assessment and Intervention Planning for Writing Disorder (United States)

    Harrison, Gina L.; McManus, Kelly L.


    The incidence of writing disorder is as common as reading disorder, but it is frequently under-identified and rarely targeted for intervention. Increasing clinical understanding on various subtypes of writing disorder through assessment guided by data-driven decision making may alleviate this disparity for students with writing disorders. The…

  10. The importance of organ geometry and boundary constraints for planning of medical interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misra, S.; Macura, K.J.; Ramesh, K.T.; Okamura, A.M.


    Realistic modeling of medical interventions involving tool–tissue interactions has been considered to be a key requirement in the development of high-fidelity simulators and planners. Organ geometry, soft-tissue constitutive laws, and boundary conditions imposed by the connective tissues surrounding

  11. Timing of nutritional interventions in very-low-birth-weight infants: optimal neurodevelopment compared with the onset of the metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam


    Recent nutritional research in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants is focused on the prevention of protein malnutrition during the first postnatal weeks. At this early age, nutritional protein fortification depends on amino acid infusion via a central vein because of the immature gastrointestinal tract. In 2010 new guidelines on nutrition were proposed by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition nutrition committee. In particular, the relative increase in the protein fraction in the nutrition of these infants aims to prevent early postnatal weight loss, to prevent morbidity, and to stimulate neurodevelopment. On the other hand, an increasing number of follow-up studies in VLBW infants indicate that, in particular, those infants who show rapid growth after preterm birth are at risk of metabolic consequences and cardiovascular disease later in life. In this review, we describe the quest to develop a customized diet that offers optimal nutrition at several time points of growth and development during the first year of life. This diet should prevent early malnutrition, enhance neurodevelopment, and limit the increase in total body fat during the first 6 mo. We question whether one type of early diet suffices for normal neurodevelopment with a normal body composition in later life or whether we need several types of diet at various stages of development.

  12. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  13. Commission for the Accreditation of Birth Centers (United States)

    ... center staff and your chosen family and friends Music therapy Massage or therapeutic touch Sterile water papules ... CABC accredited birth center does not use certain interventions, such as vacuum assisted delivery, medication to speed ...

  14. The planning of a national breastfeeding educational intervention for medical residents


    Pound, Catherine M.; Katherine A. Moreau; Hart, Francine; Ward, Natalie; Plint, Amy C.


    Background: Breastfeeding is the ideal form of nutrition for newborns, yet our recent pan-Canadian study showed that the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of primary care pediatricians and family physicians are suboptimal with regard to breastfeeding.Objective: We aim to develop, implement, and evaluate a national breastfeeding educational intervention at the postgraduate residency level.Methods: Our initial development process is informed by Kern’s approach to curriculum development. To date...

  15. 心理干预对HIV感染产妇分娩结局的影响%Effect of psychological intervention on birth outcomes in HIV-infected mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧红; 刘琼


      Objective To explore the effect of psychological intervention on birth outcomes in HIV-infected mothers. Methods A total of 142 natural childbirth mothers were selected in our hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. They were divided into healthy control group (n = 33), health intervention group (n = 39), AIDS control group (n = 32), and AIDS intervention group (n = 38);respectively. Psychological intervention groups received psychological nursing intervention on the basis of conventional care, and control groups received conventional care of the maternal. The severity of depression, anxiety, bleeding, labor duration, pain scores, satisfaction, complications, and neonatal asphyxia were analyzed. Results The severity of depression, anxiety, and pain scores were better in AIDS intervention group than in control group (P<0.05 for all). The satisfaction was improved significantly (P<0.05). The amount of bleeding and the labor time were significantly less in AIDS intervention group than in the control group. Conclusion There is a positive effect of psychological intervention on birth outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women.%  目的:探讨心理干预对HIV感染产妇分娩结局的影响.方法:选出2009年1月1日至2011年12月31日在本院自然分娩的产妇142例为实验对象,分为健康对照组(n =33)、健康干预组(n =39)、艾滋病对照组(n =32)和艾滋病干预组(n =38).心理干预组在常规护理的基础上给予心理护理干预.对照组按临产妇常规护理法处理.分析各组抑郁程度、焦虑程度、出血量、产程时间、疼痛评分、满意度、并发症和新生儿窒息等八个指标的变化.结果:艾滋病干预组的抑郁程度、焦虑程度、疼痛评分、主观感受、满意度、出血量和产程时间等指标均明显优于对照组,两两比较均P <0.05.结论:心理干预对艾滋病感染产妇的分娩结局产生了积极的影响.

  16. The gains from early intervention in Europe: Fiscal surveillance and fiscal planning using cash data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hughes Hallett


    Full Text Available The use of real-time cash data allows us to make accurate intra-annual forecasts of an economy’s fiscal position, and to issue early warning signals for the need to correct fiscal imbalances. This paper shows how those signals can be used to design the necessary fiscal corrections, and discusses the gains that can be achieved from such interventions. Examples from Germany and Italy show that large corrections are often necessary early on to make adjustments later on acceptable and to keep debt ratios from escalating. There is a credibility issue here; we find the difference between front-loaded and back-loaded adjustment schemes is likely to be vital for the time consistency of fiscal policymaking. We also show that, without early interventions, the later deficit reductions typically double in size – meaning governments become subject to the excessive deficit procedure and significant improve-ment tests more often. Thus the budget savings from early intervention and the use of cash data are significant; in our examples they are similar in size to the operating budget of the department of housing and urban development in Germany. Similar results apply in other Eurozone countries.

  17. Computational simulations in coronary bifurcations: Paving the future of interventional planning. (United States)

    Collet, Carlos; Serruys, Patrick W


    Anatomical evaluation is of paramount importance in the treatment of bifurcation lesions. Left main coronary artery bifurcation geometry differs from left anterior descending artery/diagonal and circumflex artery/obtuse marginal bifurcations. Individualized approach with pre-procedural planning has the potential to improve outcomes after bifurcation treatment.

  18. The Plate Model: a visual method of teaching meal planning. DAIS Project Group. Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study. (United States)

    Camelon, K M; Hådell, K; Jämsén, P T; Ketonen, K J; Kohtamäki, H M; Mäkimatilla, S; Törmälä, M L; Valve, R H


    Dietitians from Canada, Finland, France, and Sweden have explored methods of teaching meal planning to persons with diabetes and dyslipidemia in the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study. The Plate Model, a method commonly used in Europe, is a simple alternative to the traditional exchange-based method for teaching meal planning. In this visual method, a dinner plate serves as a pie chart to show proportions of the plate that should be covered by various food groups. Portions of foods and appropriate food choices can be depicted for meals and snacks in assorted forms of the model. Methods of presenting the model range from professional photography to hand-drawn sketches and displays of food replicas. Benefits of the model for adult learners include enhancement of the connection between dietary theory and practice, promotion of memory retention and understanding through visual messages, and experience of a positive approach to nutrition counseling. Various cuisines and festive foods can be incorporated into the model. The Plate Model offers a meal planning approach that is simple and versatile. The effectiveness of the model and its applications to other populations need to be evaluated.

  19. Treatment planning for image-guided neuro-vascular interventions using patient-specific 3D printed phantoms (United States)

    Russ, M.; O'Hara, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Mokin, M.; Jimenez, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Bednarek, D.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C.


    Minimally invasive endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) are the preferred procedures for treatment of a wide range of vascular disorders. Despite benefits including reduced trauma and recovery time, EIGIs have their own challenges. Remote catheter actuation and challenging anatomical morphology may lead to erroneous endovascular device selections, delays or even complications such as vessel injury. EIGI planning using 3D phantoms would allow interventionists to become familiarized with the patient vessel anatomy by first performing the planned treatment on a phantom under standard operating protocols. In this study the optimal workflow to obtain such phantoms from 3D data for interventionist to practice on prior to an actual procedure was investigated. Patientspecific phantoms and phantoms presenting a wide range of challenging geometries were created. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) data was uploaded into a Vitrea 3D station which allows segmentation and resulting stereo-lithographic files to be exported. The files were uploaded using processing software where preloaded vessel structures were included to create a closed-flow vasculature having structural support. The final file was printed, cleaned, connected to a flow loop and placed in an angiographic room for EIGI practice. Various Circle of Willis and cardiac arterial geometries were used. The phantoms were tested for ischemic stroke treatment, distal catheter navigation, aneurysm stenting and cardiac imaging under angiographic guidance. This method should allow for adjustments to treatment plans to be made before the patient is actually in the procedure room and enabling reduced risk of peri-operative complications or delays.

  20. STD/HIV prevention in Turkey: planning a sequence of interventions. (United States)

    Aral, S O; Fransen, L


    This study was initiated to assess which mix of early STD/HIV prevention interventions would potentially be effective, cost-effective and sustainable in Turkey; and to program an intervention sequence to maximize synergy among the interventions. During rapid assessment we: 1) reviewed past issues of 3 leading newspapers; 2) collected information on TV coverage; 3) interviewed key informants including taxicab drivers, hotel employees, grocery store owners, academicians in public health and law, investigators of STD/HIV and reproductive tract infections, and officials in the ministry of health; 4) reviewed available evidence on STD/HIV morbidity, sexual behavior patterns, migration patterns and same/opposite gender sex trade. We found: 1) discrepancies between decision makers' perceptions and social realities with respect to the epidemiology of sexual behavior and STDs, and the state of public health programs; 2) discrepancies between sexual practices and public expression regarding sexual practices; 3) economic, demographic, and political pressures in Turkey and in surrounding countries for the expansion of prostitution; 4) a sexual double standard and gender specific migration patterns which sustain a high demand for commercial sex; 5) patterns of health care seeking behaviors and provision of STD clinical services which indicate other STDs may play a very important role in spread of HIV infection; 6) an important mass media role in opinion formation; 7) consensual denial of risk for the majority based on beliefs embedded in machismo, nationalism and religion, and a resulting marginalization and externalization of STD/HIV risk; 8) high prevalence of syphilis among both Turkish and immigrant female prostitutes in Istanbul (early latent 8 and 13%; late latent 0 and 4%; previous history 9 and 22%) 9) and high rates of syphilis among male prostitutes (early latent 11%, late latent 21% and previous history 58%). We concluded that interventions should initially include

  1. Analysis on Effect of Thalassemia Interventions on Prevention of Birth Defects%地中海贫血干预措施预防出生缺陷的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远流; 刘百灵; 樊钰辰


    目的:探讨地中海贫血干预措施预防出生缺陷的效果。方法对门诊所有产检孕妇及其丈夫27076例进行地中海贫血相关知识宣教,同时进行地中海贫血筛查,双方筛查阳性的夫妇均进行地中海贫血基因诊断,对高风险的孕妇进行产前诊断,确诊重型地中海贫血胎儿者建议终止妊娠。结果共筛查27076例,其中建卡孕妇筛查14877例,丈夫筛查12199例。地贫筛查双方均阳性的夫妇341对,其中高风险的孕妇148例进行产前诊断,确诊重型地中海贫血胎儿28例,均引产。结论孕期地中海贫血干预可以避免重度地中海贫血胎儿的出生,从而降低出生缺陷发生率。%Objective To investigate the effect of thalassemia interventions on the prevention of birth defects . Methods We performed the publicity and education of thalassemia-related knowledge in 27 076 cases ( including pregnant women and their husbands ) as well as a thalassemia screening in prenatal clinic .The couples whose thalassemia screening results showed positive were given a thalassemia gene diagnosis for both and prenatal diagnosis for high-risk pregnant women.The pregnant women with thalassemia major fetus were suggested to terminate pregnancy .Results A total of 27 076 cases were enrolled in the thalassemia screening ,including 14 877 pregnant women building the card and 12 199 husbands.The thalassemia screening results were positive for 341 couples.One hundred and forty-eight cases of high-risk pregnant women were given a prenatal diagnosis ,and 28 confirmed thalassemia major fetuses received induction of labor.Conclusion The thalassemia intervention during pregnancy can avoid the birth of thalassemia major fetuses , thereby it can reduce the incidence of birth defects .

  2. Birthing Classes (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  3. Trends in differences between births and surviving infants reported for immunization program planning and external data sources in Eastern and Southern Africa 2000-2013. (United States)

    Kaiser, Reinhard; Chakauya, Jethro M; Shibeshi, Messeret E


    To inform our WHO team's support for immunization programs in Member States in Eastern and Southern Africa, we compared annual trends from 2000 to 2013 in target populations reported by Member States through the WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form with United Nations (UN) population projections and modeled infant mortality estimates from the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Our findings indicated a tendency of underestimating births and surviving infants used by Member States as denominators for administrative immunization coverage rates, resulting in or contributing to overestimation of coverage. The difference with UN estimates appeared to be more pronounced for surviving infants than births. Measures of central tendency for individual country differences indicated that those differences decreased over time. Comparing trends of births and surviving infants with external sources can help monitoring progress in efforts to provide accurate and reliable target population estimates and sampling frames.

  4. Unmet need for family planning in Indonesia and the policy strategy of intervention in several countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to analyse the unmet need situation in Indonesia, identify determining factors and the intervention policy strategy in several countries. This paper was a literature study, taken from the data of the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS and various other sources. It is seen that unmet need level in Indonesia decreases from time to time. During the 1991 to 2012 IDHS, total unmet need decreased from 17% to 11% (4.5% for spacing and 6.9% for limiting. However, the number is considered still quiet high so an effort to solve it is needed. Determinants of unmet need can be associated with various factors such as demographical characteristic and social economic, education, culture, geographical access and condition in the area. Recommended to the government in order to develop policy strategy focused on intervention of unmet need determinants, improve financial resource allocation for access improvement of contraception service and develop capacity, improve service quality including staff training, and also public education in big scale to decrease social barriers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1680-1685

  5. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy ( study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy ( study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. Methods/Design This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use. This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Discussion Infancy is likely to

  6. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia


    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  7. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM


    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  8. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;


    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  9. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nørrelykke Nissen, Thomas


    BackgroundChildhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via non-specific effects.MethodsA randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitment...... vaccinated. From 3 to 13 months there were 7028 vs. 6791 events, IRR = 1.02 (0.97 to 1.07).ConclusionsThis study did not find a non-specific public health benefit of BCG on parent reported infections. BCG may have reduced the incidence of infections in children of BCG vaccinated mothers during the first 3...... period. Participating children were randomized to receive BCG within seven days of birth or to a no intervention control group. Parent reported infections (events) were collected using telephone interviews at 3 and 13 months. Data collectors were blinded to allocation.ResultsThe analyses included 4224...

  10. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu


    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆华; 刘霞


    [ABSTRACT]Objective: To explore the influences of early comprehensive intervention out of hospital on physical and motor development of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI).Methods: 35 VLBWI that hospitalized in our hospital were used as intervention group, 40 healthy full term infants as control group. The infants in intervention group were given early systemic comprehensive intervention. The physical and motor developments of infants in 2 groups were respectively observed at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months age.Results: The physical and motor development of VLBWI at birth, 3 months and 6 months age were obviously lagged behind healthy full term infants(P0.05); but the head circumference of VLBWI was still less than that of healthy full term infants (P0.05).Conclusions: Early comprehensive intervention out of hospital in infancy can stimulate the growth potential of VLBWI and help them achieve normal developmental level.%目的::探讨出院后早期综合干预对极低出生体重儿婴儿期体格和运动发育的影响。方法:以我院35例极低出生体重儿为干预组,以同期40例正常健康足月儿为对照组,干预组早期给予系统化的综合干预。分别于3月龄、6月龄、9月龄、12月龄时观察两组体格发育和运动发育情况。结果:干预组极低出生体重儿在出生、3月龄、6月龄时体格和运动发育均明显落后于对照组足月儿(P<0.05)。9月龄时,极低出生体重儿身长、体重和运动发育已达足月儿水平(P>0.05);但干预组极低出生体重儿的头围仍小于对照组足月儿(P<0.05)。12月龄时,极低出生体重儿的体格发育和运动发育均已达足月儿水平(P>0.05)。结论:出院后早期对极低出生体重儿实施综合干预,能使极低出生体重儿在婴儿期完成体格和运动发育的追赶生长,达到正常发育的水平。

  12. CDC WONDER: Births (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  13. Birth Control Explorer (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  14. Birth control pills - combination (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  15. Essure Permanent Birth Control (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  16. Evaluation of the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Becker, Stephen P.


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as implemented by school mental health (SMH) providers using a randomized trial design. Seventeen SMH providers from five school districts implemented the HOPS…

  17. Long-term adherence to a physical activity intervention: the role of telephone-assisted vs. self-administered coping plans and strategy use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Ziegelmann, J.P.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.


    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of coping plans and the use of selection, optimisation and compensation (SOC) strategies within an experimental evaluation of a 26-week physical exercise intervention. METHODS: Older women (N=86, M (age)=73.7 years) were randomly assigned to a telephone-as

  18. Utilizing the RE-AIM Framework in formative evaluation and program planning for a healthy food choice intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta (United States)

    A robust approach to program planning is needed for the development and execution of effective and sustainable behavioral interventions with large public health impact. The purpose of this formative research was to apply dimensions of the RE-AIM (i.e., Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation,...

  19. Using the RE-AIM framework in formative evaluation and program planning for a nutrition intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta (United States)

    The objective of this study is the identification of prominent themes to be considered when planning a nutrition intervention using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework. Qualitative formative research was used on women's social and civic organization...

  20. Experience of reasons and intervention measures of 7 cases of birth defects of multi finger(toe)%出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例原因分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨出生缺陷多指(趾)儿的原因及干预措施。方法:2009年10月-2013年9月收治出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例,针对其发生率、孕周、胎儿性别、孕妇的年龄、文化程度、孕早期情况、出生缺陷、转归等7个方面进行统计及分析。结果:发生率:出生缺陷儿的发生率70.63‰,围产儿的死亡率32.60‰;多指(趾)儿发生率26.92%,围产儿存活率100%。孕周:37周1例,38周3例,39周2例,40周1例,7例均为足月产。胎儿性别:男4例,女3例,性别没有差异。孕妇年龄:26岁1例,27岁1例,28岁2例,29岁2例,30岁1例,孕妇年龄没有差别。文化程度:小学1例,初中3例,大专3例。孕早期情况:感冒1例,发热1例,无异常5例。畸形部位:多指5例,多趾1例,右足并趾1例。转归:活产7例,均为活产。结论;对7例出生缺陷儿的原因分析,加强对优生优育的宣教,避免不良生活习惯,避免孕早期病毒感染和孕期的保健,提高生存质量的重要措施。%Objective:To explore the reasons and intervention measures of birth defects of multi finger(toe).Methods:7 cases with birth defects of multi finger(toe) were selected from October 2009 to September 2013.We analyzed the incidence,gestational weeks,fetus gender,maternal age,culture degree,early pregnancy,birth defects and prognosis.Results:The incidence rate of birth defects in children was 70.63‰,and perinatal mortality was 32.60‰.Multi finger(toe) rate was 26.92%,and the perinatal survival rate was 100%.Gestational age:1 case was 37 weeks,3 cases were 38 weeks,2 cases were 39 weeks,1 case were 40 weeks,7 cases were all full-term birth.The sex of the fetus:4 cases were male,3 cases were female,there was no gender differences.Age of pregnant women:1 case was 26 years old,1 case was 27 years old,2 cases were 28 years old,2 cases were 29 years old,1 case was 30 years old,there was no difference in

  1. 早期干预对早产儿和低出生体质量儿婴儿期行为发育的影响%Effects of early interventions to behavior development in infancy among premature and infants with low body mass at birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭钊安; 童梅玲; 黄萍; 邓静云; 胡幼芳; 张俊珍


    BACKGROUND: The beginning of the research on early interventions of premature and low birth body mass infants was a bit late. Evaluations on the effects of early interventions were just done at 1 year old or after 1 year old.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effects of early interventions on infancy behavior development in premature and low birth weight infants.DESIGN: Randomized case-control trial study.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTION: Sixty cases of premature and low birth body infants were chosen from Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University and were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group included 16 males and 14 females, the mean body mass at birth was(2 268 +531) g. In the control group, there were also 16 males and 14 females, the mean body mass at birth was(2 307 + 398) g. A set of early stage upbringing plan designed by Professors Chen RH and Deng JY of Nanjing Medical University, which targeted for 0 to 3-year-old children was applied. The parents of the control group would go to early education clinic to learn how to train children by the doctor's instruction when the infants were born and in the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12thmonth after birth. It was required that the parents should complete the training tasks of everyday, at the same time, the growth of physical build as well as the development of behaviors should be followed up and monitored.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Development quotients in the 3rd, 6th, 9thand 12th month of both experimental and control groups.RESULTS: The average values of five developmental quotients in adaptability, gross motor, fine motor, language and sociability in the experimentalgroup were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, there were statistical differences in fine motor and social communication between the two groups from the 3nd month. When in the 12th month, there were significant differences in adaptability(97 +5, 89 +4), fine motor(98 + 10, 88 ± 8

  2. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  3. O registro de nascimento e sua importância em planejamento materno-infantil Live-birth register and its importance to maternal and child care planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Levy


    Full Text Available Foi estimada a proporção de nascimentos registrados conforme o artigo 63 do decreto n.° 4.857 de 9 de novembro de 1939 - Lei dos Registros Públicos que obirga o registro de nascimento "no cartório do lugar em que tiver ocorrido o parto, no prazo de 15 dias após o nascimento", ou "na falta ou impedimento do pai", até 60 dias após o nascimento. No distrito de São Paulo, por "lugar onde ocorreu o parto", entende-se cada um dos 48 subdistritos em que o mesmo se subdivide. Com base em amostras colhidas em maternidades, foram estimadas essas proporções, no ano base de 1969.With basic on a probabilistic sample of live births collected in maternities, an estimative of the proportion of live births registered was made. According to the Brazilian law, the register has to be done in an especific date and place, depending on the local area where the birth occurred. The year-base for this study was 1969.

  4. The effect of educational intervention on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married women in a military barrack in northern Nigeria. (United States)

    Abdulrazaq, A G; Kabir, S; Mohammad, N S; Suleiman, I H


    Army barracks in Nigeria have low contraceptive prevalence rates (CPRs) and many children per family. The aim of this interventional study, involving 963 married women, is to determine the impact of health education on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married barrack women. The intervention group attended a 50-minute health talk and demonstrations on family planning methods. In the intervention group, the mean knowledge score rose significantly, from 5.5 points to 7.8 points post-intervention (t = -16.7281, p = 0.0000, df = 460). In addition, the CPR increased significantly, from 11.8% at baseline to 22.4% post-intervention (McNemar's chi2 = 125.41, p = 0.0000). Such significant changes were not noted in the control group. We conclude that health education is an effective intervention for improving knowledge about and attitudes towards contraceptives and their use among married women in military barracks in Nigeria. Intense and sustained health education is therefore recommended in addressing the low CPR in Nigeria.

  5. HIV sexual risk behaviors and perception of risk among college students: implications for planning interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun Joseph A


    below the age of 20 years perceived themselves as not having any chance of being infected with HIV. Predictors of moderate/good perception of HIV risk were drug and alcohol use, inconsistent condom use, and multiple partnerships. Conclusion Students in the study sample engaged in various HIV risk behaviors but have a poor appreciation of their risk of HIV infection. While low rates of condom use was a problem among older students (30 years and older, multiple partnerships were more common among younger students, and marijuana and alcohol use were related to low condom use among females. Our findings support the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions on college campuses.

  6. Mapping Environmental Inequalities Relevant for Health for Informing Urban Planning Interventions-A Case Study in the City of Dortmund, Germany. (United States)

    Flacke, Johannes; Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Köckler, Heike; Bolte, Gabriele


    Spatial differences in urban environmental conditions contribute to health inequalities within cities. The purpose of the paper is to map environmental inequalities relevant for health in the City of Dortmund, Germany, in order to identify needs for planning interventions. We develop suitable indicators for mapping socioeconomically-driven environmental inequalities at the neighborhood level based on published scientific evidence and inputs from local stakeholders. Relationships between socioeconomic and environmental indicators at the level of 170 neighborhoods were analyzed continuously with Spearman rank correlation coefficients and categorically applying chi-squared tests. Reclassified socioeconomic and environmental indicators were then mapped at the neighborhood level in order to determine multiple environmental burdens and hotspots of environmental inequalities related to health. Results show that the majority of environmental indicators correlate significantly, leading to multiple environmental burdens in specific neighborhoods. Some of these neighborhoods also have significantly larger proportions of inhabitants of a lower socioeconomic position indicating hotspots of environmental inequalities. Suitable planning interventions mainly comprise transport planning and green space management. In the conclusions, we discuss how the analysis can be used to improve state of the art planning instruments, such as clean air action planning or noise reduction planning towards the consideration of the vulnerability of the population.

  7. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond


    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home un

  8. Natural Recovery and Planned Intervention in Coastal Wetlands: Venice Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facca


    Full Text Available The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming.

  9. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women. (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice


    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  10. [Parenthood and the birth of the family]. (United States)

    Andro, Gwenaëlle; Baleyte, Jean-Marc


    A project to start a family can be knocked off course by a couple's infertility. While medical intervention frequently leads to the birth of a baby, it is not always enough to ensure that the child is "born" psychologically. This article presents a clinical situation which highlights issues surrounding unattainable parenthood then the birth of the family, the impossible weaning from the mother's body and family transmission.

  11. Feasibility of Implementing an Early Intervention Program in an Urban Low-Income Setting to Improve Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Survivors Following Birth Asphyxia Faisabilité de mise en œuvre d'un Programme d'Intervention Précoce dans les milieux urbains à faibles revenus afin d'améliorer le résultat neurodéveloppemental chez les enfants survivant à une asphyxie à la naissance Viabilidad de la aplicación de un Programa de Intervención Precoz en un entorno urbano de bajos ingresos para mejorar el neurodesarrollo en los supervivientes luego de un cuadro de asfixia perinatal



    Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of neonatal mortality, accounting for 23% of neonatal deaths. An early intervention program (EIP) could improve neuro-developmental outcomes in survivors of birth asphyxia, but its feasibility in low-income countries has not been tested.  In this pilot study in Zambia, eighty live-born infants > 1500 g of weight who had birth asphyxia and received resuscitation with bag and mask were enrolled for a study of standard care or EIP. Mothers/babies pairs were ...

  12. 基层医院流产后计划生育服务干预效果探讨%Discussion on intervention effect of family planning service after abortion in grass-roots hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永丽; 李夏影


    cases was 49.15% (983/2000), intervention group of 984 cases was 48.20% (984/2000), a total of 1967 cases, recovery was 98.35% (1967/2000); Patients after intervention in intervention group was obviously higher than that of controls(P<0.05), intervention group after the intervention actively using contraception(78.05%) were significantly higher than those in the control group 51.90% (P<0.05), while the intervention group in vitro ejaculation, safety period, emergency contraception, condoms, birth control pills, placing IUD were higher than that in control group (allP<0.05), an unwanted pregnancy(9.50%), intervention group 1 year again abortion rate was 3.50%, significantly lower than the control group were 22.10%, 11.30% respectively (P<0.05).Conclusion Basic-level hospitals after artificial abortion family planning service intervention can improve the control level of contraception knowledge of women of childbearing age, improve the proportion of using contraception, effectively reduce an unwanted pregnancy and abortion rate and improve the level of reproductive health.

  13. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson


    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  14. Change in primary midwife-led care in the Netherlands in 2000-2008: A descriptive study of caesarean sections and other interventions among 807,437 low-risk births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P.M.; Jonge, A. de; Pal-de-Bruin, K.M. van der; Hukkelhoven, C.W.P.M.; Scheepers, P.L.; Lagro-Janssen, A.


    OBJECTIVE: to study whether an increase in intrapartum referrals in primary midwife-led care births in the Netherlands is accompanied by an increase in caesarean sections. DESIGN: nationwide descriptive study. SETTING: The Netherlands Perinatal Registry. PARTICIPANTS: 807,437 births of nine year coh

  15. Change in primary midwife-led care in the Netherlands in 2000-2008: A descriptive study of caesarean sections and other interventions among 807,437 low risk births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P.M.; Jonge, A. de; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Hukkelhoven, C.W.P.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    Objective: to study whether an increase in intrapartum referrals in primary midwife-led care births in the Netherlands is accompanied by an increase in caesarean sections. Design: nationwide descriptive study. Setting: The Netherlands Perinatal Registry. Participants: 807,437 births of nine year coh

  16. Change in primary midwife-led care in the Netherlands in 2000–2008: A descriptive study of caesarean sections and other interventions among 789,795 low risk births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P.M.; Jonge, A. de; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Hukkelhoven, C.W.P.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Lgero-Jansen, A.L.M.


    OBJECTIVE: to study whether an increase in intrapartum referrals in primary midwife-led care births in the Netherlands is accompanied by an increase in caesarean sections. DESIGN: nationwide descriptive study. SETTING: the Netherlands Perinatal Registry. PARTICIPANTS: 789,795 births of nine year coh

  17. Change in primary midwife-led care in the Netherlands in 2000-2008: A descriptive study of caesarean sections and other interventions among 789,795 low risk births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P.M.; Jonge, A. de; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Hukkelhoven, C.W.P.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    Objective to study whether an increase in intrapartum referrals in primary midwife-led care births in the Netherlands is accompanied by an increase in caesarean sections. Design nationwide descriptive study. Setting the Netherlands Perinatal Registry. Participants 789,795 births of nine year cohorts

  18. Change in primary midwife-led care in the Netherlands in 2000-2008: a descriptive study of caesarean sections and other interventions among 789,795 low risk births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, P.M.; Jonge, A. de; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Hukkelhoven, C.W.P.M.; Scheepers, P.L.; Lagro-Janssen, A.


    OBJECTIVE: to study whether an increase in intrapartum referrals in primary midwife-led care births in the Netherlands is accompanied by an increase in caesarean sections. DESIGN: nationwide descriptive study. SETTING: the Netherlands Perinatal Registry. PARTICIPANTS: 789,795 births of nine year coh

  19. Training traditional birth attendants to use misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat in home births. (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Bohl, Daniel D; Hossain, Shahed; Azmi, Ashrafi Jahan; Begum, Mohsina


    A 50-fold disparity in maternal mortality exists between high- and low-income countries, and in most contexts, the single most common cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In Bangladesh, as in many other low-income countries, the majority of deliveries are conducted at home by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or family members. In the absence of skilled birth attendants, training TBAs in the use of misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat to measure postpartum blood loss may strengthen the ability of TBAs to manage PPH. These complementary interventions were tested in operations research among 77,337 home births in rural Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBAs' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and changes in attitudes and practices related to PPH management in home births after undergoing training on the use of misoprostol and the blood collection delivery mat. We conclude that the training was highly effective and that the two interventions were safely and correctly used by TBAs at home births. Data on TBA practices indicate adherence to protocol, and 18 months after the interventions were implemented, TBA knowledge retention remained high. This program strengthens the case for community-based use of misoprostol and warrants consideration of this intervention as a potential model for scale-up in settings where complete coverage of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) remains a distant goal.

  20. Birth control pill - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  1. Preterm Labor and Birth (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  2. Effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle intervention for low back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee: protocol and statistical analysis plan for two randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M. O’Brien

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background These trials are the first randomised controlled trials of telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle interventions for low back pain and knee osteoarthritis. This article describes the protocol and statistical analysis plan. Method These trials are parallel randomised controlled trials that investigate and compare the effect of a telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle intervention for improving pain intensity in overweight or obese patients with low back pain or knee osteoarthritis. The analysis plan was finalised prior to initiation of analyses. All data collected as part of the trial were reviewed, without stratification by group, and classified by baseline characteristics, process of care and trial outcomes. Trial outcomes were classified as primary and secondary outcomes. Appropriate descriptive statistics and statistical testing of between-group differences, where relevant, have been planned and described. Conclusions A protocol for standard analyses was developed for the results of two randomised controlled trials. This protocol describes the data, and the pre-determined statistical tests of relevant outcome measures. The plan demonstrates transparent and verifiable use of the data collected. This a priori protocol will be followed to ensure rigorous standards of data analysis are strictly adhered to.

  3. Encyclopedia of Birth Control. (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  4. Birth Control Patch (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  5. Birth Control Pill (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  6. Birth Control Ring (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  7. Birth Control Shot (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  8. Birth Control Pill (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  9. Birth Control Patch (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  10. Birth Control Shot (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  11. Contraception and Birth Control (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  12. Birth Defects (For Parents) (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  13. A Research on the Second Childbirth Expectation and the Birth Plan for the Fertility Age Population of Chinese%中国育龄人群二孩生育意愿与生育计划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 王广州


    首先提出构建队列终身二孩生育意愿方法,并以2012-2014年中国家庭幸福感热点问题调查数据为基础,对我国育龄人群生育意愿与生育计划进行测量。研究发现,育龄人群意愿生育水平较低且保持稳定,全部育龄人群的二孩终身生育意愿稳定在55%左右,而单独的生育意愿更低,明确打算生育二孩的单独育龄夫妇不到30%,而明确不打算生育二孩的单独育龄妇女超过40%。根据目前的调查结果,考虑到三孩及以上意愿生育人群比例的下降,取消生育限制与实行全面二孩政策的差别不大。即使二孩生育意愿与生育计划之间不存在差距,以往把理想子女数和有偏差的二孩生育意愿作为实际的生育水平来进行判断也是有误的。%Based on the construction of the cohort second childbirth expectation and taking the 2012, 2013 and 2014 data of Happiness of Chinese Family as example, this paper has measured the second childbirth expectation and the birth plan of the fertility age population of Chinese. We found the fertility age population of Chinese has relative low and stable second childbirth expectation. It is about 55% of the fertility age population expected to have the second child. Comparing with the all fertility age population, the couples with one spouse being an only child has much lower fertility expectation. Only 30% of the couples with one spouse being an only child have the clearly expectation to have the second child and more than 40% of them do not want the second child. Considering on the probability of the third child and above is very low, the differences between no family planning policy and the second child policy are not very big. Even if there is no difference between the second birth expectation and the real birth plan, it will make wrong conclusion for some researches taking the ideal number of children or fertility expectation as fertility plan.

  14. Spatiotemporal Property Analysis of Birth Defects in Wuxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To describe the temporal trends and spatial patterns of birth defects occurring in Wuxi, a developed region of China. Methods Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the temporal trends of birth defect prevalence based on the birth defect rates over the past 16 years. Birth defect cases with detailed personal and family information were geo-coded and the relative risk in each village was calculated. General G statistic was used to test the spatial property with different scales. Results Wavelet analysis showed an increasing temporal trend of birth defects in this region. Clustering analysis revealed that changes continued in the spatial patterns with different scales. Conclusion Wuxi is confronted with severe challenges to reduce birth defect prevalence. The risk factors are stable and show no change with spatial scale but an increasing temporal trend. Interventions should be focused on villages with a higher prevalence of birth defects.

  15. Assessments and Intervention for Pupils with Reading Difficulties in Sweden--A Text Analysis of Individual Education Plans (United States)

    Andreasson, Ingela; Wolff, Ulrika


    Since 1995 all Swedish compulsory schools have been required to establish Individual Educational Plans (IEPs) for pupils with special educational needs. According to the Swedish Education Act such a plan should be drawn up if pupils do not achieve the goals in the curriculum or the syllabus. The process of IEPs covers a prior investigation to…

  16. A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model. (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Costa, Lara-Jeane C; McBee, Matthew; Anderson, Kathleen L; Yerby, Donna Carlson; Childress, Amy; Knuth, Sean B


    In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n=138), and then randomized into treatment (n=68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n=70). A typical group also was included (n=67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.

  17. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackman CL


    Full Text Available Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB and the theory of reasoned action (TRA have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults.Methods: The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1 primary or secondary interventions, 2 with any quantitative design, 3 published in the English language, 4 between January 2003 and March 2014, 5 that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6 which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7 utilized TPB or TRA.Results: Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication.Conclusion: Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors

  18. at birth, at a birth, by birth, from birth, of... birth与give birth to

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    birth是中学英语教材中的一个常用词,也常见于birthday(生日)、birthplace(出生地)、birthrate(出生率)和birth control(计划生育)等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看,这些复合词和短语的意义容易理解,但下面一些含birth的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。

  19. Study on effect of midwifery nursing intervention on the mode of delivery and birth process of elderly parturient women%助产护理干预对高龄产妇分娩方式及产程的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To explore the effect of midwifery nursing intervention on the mode of delivery and birth process of elderly parturient women.Methods:96 elderly parturient women were selected.They were randomly divided into the observation group(48 cases) and the control group(48 cases).The observation group was given midwifery nursing intervention,and the control group was given routine nursing,then we observed the mode of delivery and birth process of two groups.Results:In the observation group,the mode of delivery and birth process were significantly better than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The application of midwifery nursing intervention for elderly parturient women helped to promote natural delivery.It also had an important significance to shorten the production process.%目的:探讨助产护理干预对高龄产妇分娩方式及产程的影响.方法:收治高龄产妇96例,随机分为观察组(48例)和对照组(48例),观察组行助产护理干预,对照组行常规护理,观察两组的分娩方式及产程.结果:观察组的分娩方式及产程都明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:助产护理干预应用于高龄产妇的护理中有助于促进产妇自然分娩,对于产程的缩短也有着重要的意义.

  20. 降低出生缺陷关键技术及干预措施的研究%Study on key techniques and intervention in reducing birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宝生; 林克萍; 陈红; 李苏云; 苏洁; 卢晓红; 贺静; 朱姝; 焦存仙; 章锦曼; 唐新华; 陶滢


    低风险孕妇的妊娠结局,未发现活产儿中有上述目标疾病的患儿。血清学筛查对DS的检出率为84%( 27/32),假阳性率为6.153%( 1702/27 660)。结论孕前及孕早期补充叶酸可降低出生缺陷风险,但育龄期妇女主动补充叶酸者仅占1/3;血清学筛查可高效检出DS、ES和NTD;遗传咨询对诊断高风险和遗传病家族史的人群至关重要;以血清学筛查和产前诊断为关键技术,与常规产前检查相结合,可以降低严重出生缺陷的发生率,应成为我国的新型围产保健策略。%ObjectiveTo investigate key techniques and intervention in reducing birth defects. Method Down's syndrome (DS), trisomy-18 (Edwards syndrome, ES), neural tube defects (NTD), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), thalassemia, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) were chosen as target disease. From Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2009, the condition of intake folie acid were investigated in 5004 pregnant women in Panlong District and Wuhua District of Kunming City. All of the 27 660 pregnant women undergoing prenatal examination were enrolled into the study from the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, the Second People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, the First People's Hospital of Qujing City, the Second People's of Qujing City, Qujing Women and Children's Hospital, People's Hospital of Lincang City, Kunming Maria Women's Hospital, Maternal and Infant's Care Unit of Panlong District of Kunming City, Maternal and Infant's Hospital of Dali City. The screening was performed on serum of those pregnant women at 8 -20 +6 gestational weeks. Prenatal cytogenetic analysis and fetal ultrasonogrspy were performed on the high risk or indicated women after genetic counseling. DNA analysis was administered on those women with family or childbearing history of DMD,SMA, thalassemia, or G6PD. Outcome of pregnancy was followed up to evaluate the effect of

  1. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice


    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  2. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    account for two thirds of them. A better understanding of the factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth is of utmost importance for planning effective measures to reduce the burden of its increasing rates.

  3. Prediction and prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y


    Rates of preterm birth have continued to rise despite intensive research efforts over the last several decades. A woman who has a spontaneous preterm birth is at high risk for a subsequent preterm birth. Studies have identified clinical, sonographic, and biochemical markers that help to identify the women at highest risk. Determining cervical length and measuring cervicovaginal fibronectin have been proposed as useful tools for evaluating women at risk of preterm birth and may identify those who might benefit from a timely course of antenatal corticosteroids, but effective interventions to prevent preterm birth remain elusive. In the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth, recent trials have confirmed the use of progesterone beginning in the second trimester as an effective intervention. Optimal management of women with a history of spontaneous preterm birth includes a thorough review of the obstetric, medical, and social history, with attention to potentially reversible causes of preterm birth (eg, smoking cessation, acute infections, strenuous activities), accurate ultrasound dating, consideration of progesterone therapy beginning at 16-20 weeks of gestation, and close surveillance during the pregnancy for evolving findings. Results from the ongoing trials of cerclage as an interventional therapy and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as a preventive therapy will provide additional knowledge for the optimal management of these high-risk women.

  4. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;


    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...... female children born of Danish mothers in Denmark between 1973 and 1991 were included (n = 523,757) and followed for a total of 4,739,547 person-years at risk. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on birth weight was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The cohort...... was followed up in the NPR for PCOS diagnoses from age 15 years until the end of 2006. Furthermore, information on maternal diabetes diagnoses was extracted from the NPR. RESULT(S): The risk of PCOS was significantly increased in women with birth weight =4,500 g (incidence rate ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence...

  5. Congenital malformations in Ecuadorian children: urgent need to create a National Registry of Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio González-Andrade


    females 30.40.Conclusion: This report documents the prevalence estimates for birth defects reported in the hospital discharge data. These estimates are important to 1 plan for health-care and education needs of the Ecuadorian population, 2 identify increased occurrences of birth defects in specific geographic regions, 3 serve as a reference point for assessment of provincial surveillance systems, 4 evaluate national public health interventions, 5 compare Ecuador prevalence estimates with those of other countries, and 6 help determine the appropriate allocation of resources for basic and public health research. There is an urgent need to establish a National Registry of Birth Defects involving different sources of information such as prenatal medical records, birth records and medical records during the first year of life at an early stage, and surveys on cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic surveys and cytogenetics of therapeutic abortions.Keywords: Ecuador, genetics, birth defects surveillance, database, prevalence, epidemiology, congenital malformations

  6. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice. (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne


    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.

  7. The Importance of Natural Change in Planning School-Based Intervention for Children with Developmental Language Impairment (DLI) (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie


    Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…

  8. Increasing Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making: Trial of a Social-Cognitive Intervention in Rural Vietnam (United States)

    Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Owen, Neville


    We tested a social-cognitive intervention to influence contraceptive practices among men living in rural communes in Vietnam. It was predicted that participants who received a stage-targeted program based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) would report positive movement in their stage of motivational readiness for their wife to use an…

  9. Planning a multi-site, complex intervention for homeless people with mental illness: the relationships between the national team and local sites in Canada's At Home/Chez Soi project. (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Goering, Paula; Dudley, Michael; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Michelle; Piat, Myra; Prévost, Natasha; Strehlau, Verena; Vallée, Catherine


    This research focused on the relationships between a national team and five project sites across Canada in planning a complex, community intervention for homeless people with mental illness called At Home/Chez Soi, which is based on the Housing First model. The research addressed two questions: (a) what are the challenges in planning? and (b) what factors that helped or hindered moving project planning forward? Using qualitative methods, 149 national, provincial, and local stakeholders participated in key informant or focus group interviews. We found that planning entails not only intervention and research tasks, but also relational processes that occur within an ecology of time, local context, and values. More specifically, the relationships between the national team and the project sites can be conceptualized as a collaborative process in which national and local partners bring different agendas to the planning process and must therefore listen to, negotiate, discuss, and compromise with one another. A collaborative process that involves power-sharing and having project coordinators at each site helped to bridge the differences between these two stakeholder groups, to find common ground, and to accomplish planning tasks within a compressed time frame. While local context and culture pushed towards unique adaptations of Housing First, the principles of the Housing First model provided a foundation for a common approach across sites and interventions. The implications of the findings for future planning and research of multi-site, complex, community interventions are noted.

  10. Planning a preschool intervention in Finland – how to use digital technologies to increase community spirit and promote healthy energy balance-related behaviours?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetta Lehto


    Full Text Available Background: Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs formed in childhood tend to persist into adulthood and thus it is important to promote healthy behaviours already at young age. In addition, socio-economic differences in EBRBs are already shown in small children. Thus it would be very important to tackle these differences in childhood and promote healthy EBRBs among children from low socio-economic status families. In order to succeed, strategies to motivate especially low socio-economic families need be used, e.g. by using social elements in interventions. Preschool could be an important setting to promote healthy behaviours among all children. In Finland over 70 % children attend preschool at ages 3-5 and the majority of children attend communal preschools. Aim(s: DAGIS intervention study aims to promote healthy EBRBs and to narrow socio-economic differences in these behaviours among preschool children. Digital technologies will be used in the intervention. Methods and results: Methods and specific aims of the intervention will be set after the results of the needs assessment (conducted in autumn 2015 and workshops for preschool personnel and parents (will be conducted in 2016 are analyzed. The intervention (2017-2018 will be conducted in preschools, and parents will be involved via preschools. Number of study children will be 800. We intend to use digital technologies/applications with a social element for families/preschools to help and motivate behavioral changes in EBRBs. A social element is needed because it is known to be an important motivator especially among low socio-economic groups, whereas individual elements are found to be ineffective (Cleland 2013, Bonevski 2014. Targeted EBRBs will be set later, but they could be e.g. sedentary behaviour, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and/or sugar intake. Conclusions: We plan a preschool intervention which aims to promote healthy EBRBs and diminish socio-economic differences

  11. Politics, power, and birth. (United States)

    Tillett, Jackie


    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  12. Labor and Birth (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  13. Narcissism and birth order. (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S


    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  14. Low Birth Rate and Women’s Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CHINA has achieved remarkable results in birth control since adopting a basic state policy of family planning to control the birth rate and increase the population quality. According to the "1997 Statistic Bulletin for National Economy and Social Development," a document recently issued by the State Statistics Bureau, China maintained a low birth rate of 16.57 per thousand in 1997—a natural population growth of one percent. Women of child-bearing age now average about two births each, a decrease from six in 1970.

  15. 低出生体重儿低血糖发生、早期干预及后期随访的临床研究%Clinical Studies of Occurrence Early Intervention and Late Follow-uPof Low Birth Weight Infants Hypoglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英丽; 张继英; 尚云非; 林珍; 亢娟


    目的:了解低出生体重儿低血糖发生、早期干预降低低血糖脑损伤及相关随访情况。方法:收集2009年5月至2013年5月收治的足月小样儿73例及早产儿91例。其中足月小样儿组有17例发生低血糖,早产儿组41例发生低血糖。比较两组在出生时间、出生体重及胎龄等方面对血糖影响。结果:164例出生低体重儿中共有58例患有低血糖。其两组在出生时间、出生体重、血糖无显著差异,胎龄有显著性差异。新生儿低血糖的出现与出生体重有相关性,出现低血糖的新生儿与血糖水平正常的新生儿出生体重有统计学上的显著性差异。经过早期干预在核磁和脑电图未发现脑损伤情况。随访发现足月儿小样儿组有2例发生脑损伤。早产儿组有1例发生脑损伤。结论:影像学上的阴性结果并不意味着患儿的远期预后不受影响。%Objective: To investigate the low birth weight infants hypoglycemia,hypoglycemia early intervention to reduce brain damage and related follow-upcases.Methods:From May 2009 to May 2013 were treated 73 cases of full-term small for gestational age and 91 cases of preterm infants.Which the term small for gestational age group17 cases of hypoglycemia,hypoglyc emia groupof 41 patients in preterm infants.Comparison of the two groups at the time of birth,birth weight and gestational age and other aspects of the impact on blood sugar.Results: 164 cases of low birth weight total of 58 cases of infants suffering from low blood sugar.The two groups in the time of its birth,birth weight,blood glucose was no significant difference,there was a significant difference in gestational age.The emergence of neonatal hypoglycemia correlated with birth weight,neonatal hypoglycemia and blood glucose levels normal birth weight newborns have significant difference statistically.Early intervention is not found after brain injury in NMR and EEG.Term follow-upfound that

  16. Effects of individualized medical intervention on liquids and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus in late pregnancy%个体化医学干预对妊娠期糖尿病孕妇孕晚期血脂及新生儿出生体重的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴姝; 韦青; 冯筱; 李磊; 俞力


    目的:探讨个体化医学干预对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM )孕妇孕晚期血脂与新生儿出生体重的影响。方法测定GDM孕妇115例(A组)和265例正常孕妇(B组)三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL‐C)及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL‐C)等血脂水平。A组中,40例行个体化医学干预(A1组),75例行门诊随访干预(A2组)。记录新生儿出生体重。结果与B组相比,A2组 T G较高,HDL‐C较低(P<0.05)。A1组 TG和 LDL‐C较B组低(P<0.05)。A2组新生儿出生体重较A1组和B组高(P<0.05)。GDM孕妇TG水平与新生儿出生体重正相关(r=0.42,P<0.05)。结论TG水平与新生儿出生体重之间存在较大关系。个体化医学干预能够改善GDM 孕妇孕晚期的血脂水平、降低新生儿出生体重。%Objective To explore the effects of individualized medicalized intervention on maternal liquids and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM ) in late pregnancy .Methods Plasma levels of triglyceride (TG ) ,high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL‐C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL‐C) in late pregnancy were detected in 115 pregnant women with GDM (group A) and 75 women with normal pregnancy(group B) .Of group A ,40 cases(group A1) were treated with individualized medical intervention and 75 cases(group A2) treated with outpatient follow‐up intervention .The neonatal birth weights were recorded .Results TG was higher ,but HDL‐C was lower ,in group A2 than those in group B(P<0 .05) .TG and LDL‐C were lower in group A1 than those in group B(P<0 .05) .The neonatal birth weight was lower in groups of A1 and B than that in group A2(P<0 .05) .There was a positive correlation between TG and neonatal birth weight in group A (r=0 .42 ,P<0 .05) .Conclusion Neonatal birth weight is closely related to TG in late pregnancy .The individualized medical intervention

  17. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.


    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  18. How did formative research inform the development of a home-based neonatal care intervention in rural Ghana? (United States)

    Hill, Z; Manu, A; Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Gyan, T; Turner, K; Weobong, B; Ten Asbroek, A H A; Kirkwood, B R


    Formative research is often used to inform intervention design, but the design process is rarely reported. This study describes how an integrated home visit intervention for newborns in Ghana was designed. As a first step in the design process, the known intervention parameters were listed, information required to refine the intervention was then identified and a formative research strategy designed. The strategy included synthesizing available data, collecting data on newborn care practices in homes and facilities, on barriers and facilitators to adopting desired behaviors and on practical issues such as whom to include in the intervention. The data were used to develop an intervention plan through workshops with national and international stakeholders and experts. The intervention plan was operationalized by district level committees. This included developing work plans, a creative brief for the materials and completing a community volunteer inventory. The intervention was then piloted and the intervention materials were finalized. The design process took over a year and was iterative. Throughout the process, literature was reviewed to identify the best practice. The intervention focuses on birth preparedness, using treated bednets in pregnancy, early and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, special care for small babies and prompt care seeking for newborns with danger signs. The need for a problem-solving approach was identified to help ensure behavior change. A subset of behaviors were already being performed adequately, or were the focus of other interventions, but were important to reinforce in the visits. These include attending antenatal care and care seeking for danger signs in pregnancy. On the basis of the intervention content, the timing of newborn deaths and the acceptability of visits, two antenatal and three visits in the first week of life (days 1, 3 and 7) were planned. Several household members were identified to include in the visits as they

  19. Smart city planning from a bottom-up approach: local communities' intervention for a smarter urban environment (United States)

    Alverti, Maroula; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Serraos, Konstantinos


    The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of "smart" cities from the perspective of inclusive community participation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).The concept of a smart city is critically analyzed, focusing on the power/knowledge implications of a "bottom-up" approach in planning and how GIS could encourage community participation in smart urban planning. The paper commences with a literature review of what it means for cities to be "smart". It draws supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities with respect to the built environment and the human factor. The second part of the paper, analyzes the "bottom-up" approach in urban planning, focusing on community participation reviewing forms and expressions through good practices from European cities. The third part of the paper includes a debate on how smart urban cities policies and community participation interact and influence each other. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of the insights that were found and offers recommendations on how this debate could be addressed by Information and Communication Technologies and GIS in particular.

  20. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...... and feasible, although more time should be allocated for training, and teaching materials should be translated into the local language. Knowledge, skills, and confidence of learners increased significantly immediately after training. However, overall pass rates for skills tests of learners after training were...

  1. Transfer to hospital in planned home births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne


    was chosen. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion, containing data from 215,257 women. The total proportion of transfer from home to hospital varied from 9.9% to 31.9% across the studies. The most common indication for transfer was labour dystocia, occurring in 5.1% to 9.8% of all women...

  2. What to include in your birth plan (United States)

    ... unmedicated, or "natural," childbirth, and others know they absolutely do not want to have an unmedicated childbirth. ... want for labor and delivery? Do you want music? Lights? Pillows? Photos? Make a list of items ...

  3. Birth control after 1984. (United States)

    Djerassi, C


    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  4. Birth control pills overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  5. Accredited Birth Centers (United States)

    ... 9743 Accredited since January 2016 98 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg ... Accredited since November 2015 96 Footprints in Time Midwifery Services and Birth Center Accredited 351 N. Water ...

  6. A DSM-based “2.0” System for Human Intervention Planning and Scheduling in Facilities Emitting Ionizing Radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Baudin, M; De Jonghe, J


    To efficiently and safely plan, schedule and control its interventions in underground facilities, which are subject to ionizing radiations, CERN is currently developing a collaborative Web-based system. A similar project for maintenance management is also under way. On top of presenting their key requirements, this paper shows how the implementation of DSM can enhance a so-called Web 2.0 or collaborative dimension by bringing an intuitive and fair way of taking the dependencies between several activities into account. It is also discussed that the incoherencies brought in DSM by collaborative use (for instance regarding the time intervals) can be addressed by enlarging the binary DSM span of dependencies to ones of the Allen’s interval algebra or at least a subset of its dependencies.

  7. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design. (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah


    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support.

  8. Deployment of self-expandable stents in aneurysmatic cerebral vessels: comparison of different computational approaches for interventional planning. (United States)

    Bernardini, A; Larrabide, I; Petrini, L; Pennati, G; Flore, E; Kim, M; Frangi, A F


    In the last few years, there has been a growing focus on faster computational methods to support clinicians in planning stenting procedures. This study investigates the possibility of introducing computational approximations in modelling stent deployment in aneurysmatic cerebral vessels to achieve simulations compatible with the constraints of real clinical workflows. The release of a self-expandable stent in a simplified aneurysmatic vessel was modelled in four different initial positions. Six progressively simplified modelling approaches (based on Finite Element method and Fast Virtual Stenting--FVS) have been used. Comparing accuracy of the results, the final configuration of the stent is more affected by neglecting mechanical properties of materials (FVS) than by adopting 1D instead of 3D stent models. Nevertheless, the differences showed are acceptable compared to those achieved by considering different stent initial positions. Regarding computational costs, simulations involving 1D stent features are the only ones feasible in clinical context.

  9. 有限干预下的 UAV 低空突防航迹规划%Human intervention flight path planning for UAV low-altitude penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任鹏; 高晓光


    低空突防航迹规划是实现有人机和无人机(unmanned aerial vehicle,UAV)编队协同作战的关键技术,针对目前智能算法在求解低空突防航迹规划问题中存在的不足,充分发挥人脑这个超级智能系统来引导飞行航迹求解过程,将基于角度量编码的小生境伪并行自适应遗传算法(niche adaptive pseudo parallel genetic algo-rithm,NAPPGA)和人有限干预情况下的智能决策结合起来,提出 UAV 低空突防航迹规划技术。通过大量仿真计算,结果表明,应用该技术预规划和重规划的三维航迹能够有效实现威胁回避、地形回避和地形跟随,满足UAV 低空突防要求,具有一定的实用性。%The flight path planning for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)low-altitude penetration is a key technology for achieving manned and unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative combat.The technique of human in-tervention flight path planning for UAV low-altitude penetration against several limitations of the existing intel-ligent algorithms is proposed.It makes full use of the human brain to guide the solution procedures of the flight path planning,combining the niche adaptive pseudo parallel genetic algorithm (NAPPGA)based on angle codes and the intelligent decision with human intervention.A lot of simulation studies show that the solving off-line and on-line three-dimensional flight paths by this technique can meet the requirements for UAV low-altitude penetration to realize efficient implementation of threat avoidance,terrain avoidance and terrain following.This method has a certain practicality.

  10. Improving outcomes from high-risk surgery: a multimethod evaluation of a patient-centred advanced care planning intervention (United States)

    Senthuran, Siva; Blakely, Brette; Lane, Paul; North, John; Clay-Williams, Robyn


    Introduction Patients who are frail, have multiple comorbidities or have a terminal illness often have poor outcomes from surgery. However, sole specialists may recommend surgery in these patients without consultation with other treating clinicians or allowing for patient goals. The Patient-Centred Advanced Care Planning (PC-ACP) model of care provides a framework in which a multidisciplinary advanced care plan is devised to incorporate high-risk patients' values and goals. Decision-making is performed collaboratively by patients, their family, surgeons, anaesthetists, intensivists and surgical case managers. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of this new model of care, and to determine potential benefits to patients and clinicians. Methods and analysis After being assessed for frailty, patients will complete a patient–clinician information engagement survey pretreatment and at 6 months follow-up. Patients (and/or family members) will be interviewed about their experience of care pretreatment and at 3 and 6 months follow-ups. Clinicians will complete a survey on workplace attitudes and engagement both preimplementation and postimplementation of PC-ACP and be interviewed, following each survey, on the implementation of PC-ACP. We will use process mapping to map the patient journey through the surgical care pathway to determine areas of improvement and to identify variations in patient experience. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethical approval from Townsville Hospital and Health Service HREC (HREC/16/QTHS/100). Results will be communicated to the participating hospital, presented at conferences and submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed MEDLINE-indexed journal. PMID:28242771

  11. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen


    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  12. Genomics of Preterm Birth (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.


    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  13. Role of the state in population planning: Singapore and Pakistan. (United States)

    Hassan, R


    State intervention in population and family planning has been gradually increasing on the assumption that unregulated population growth poses serious national problems requiring public action. Among 152 developing nations in areas surveyed with respect to population and family planning policies in 1980, 52 supported family planning primarily from a demographic rationale and 65 from a health or human rights rationale, while only 35 provide no support. There appear to be 4 major underlying sociophilosophical perspectives on the role of the state in population planning: 1) the deontic/utilitarian whose prime concern is with the rights and obligations of present generations to future generations; this view provides a very vague basis for a general policy of population planning, 2) the environmentalist, which with varying degrees of pessimism in different formulations argue the need to limit population and economic growth because of the limited nature of the world's resources; this view ignores a considerable body of evidence that more than just overpopulation is involved in environmental problems, 3) the family planning perspective, advocated and supported by various international organizations and conferences, holds that decisions about birth control should be made by prospective parents. The assumption is that making birth control methods and education readily accessible to everyone will eventually result in birth rates which are desirable for the society as a whole. In practice, it is difficult to establish whether such voluntaristic measures are enough to control population, 4) the developmental distributionist position sees low birth rates as resulting from modernization, including such factors as more equitable distribution of income and increased educational and social services. Pakistan's family planning program has undergone 3 major bureaucratic reorganizations and shifts in strategy consequent on changes in national leadership since services were 1st offered

  14. Determinants of birth intervals in Vietnam: a hazard model analysis. (United States)

    Swenson, I; Thang, N M


    There was absence of any regional differences in parity progressions and length of birth intervals, although urban-rural differences persisted at most birth orders, suggesting that, as in other studies, the urban-rural differentials are the primary source of variations in fertility between different areas of a country. The significantly higher probability of a subsequent birth after birth order 2 in areas with high infant mortality compared to those with low infant mortality suggests that women in the high-risk provinces may be more likely to advance beyond parity 2 and continue on into the advanced parities. The provinces identified as having high infant mortality had also been identified in other studies as the provinces with the highest crude birth rates and population growth rates, the least available family planning services, and highest crude death rates. Mothers' education was consistently related to the likelihood of another birth at each birth order, with the most-educated women experiencing a significantly lower probability of having a subsequent birth at every birth order. This concurs with results in other studies, suggesting that the woman's education is a prime determinant of fertility and that increasing the educational attainment of women is one of the most beneficial measures to reduce fertility. The significant relationship between the previous birth interval of the index child and the probability that the index child would be followed by a subsequent birth conforms with other studies of birth interval dynamics that suggest that pregnancy-spacing for a given woman remains constant throughout her reproductive career.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Revising acute care systems and processes to improve breastfeeding and maternal postnatal health: a pre and post intervention study in one English maternity unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bick Debra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women in the UK give birth in a hospital labour ward, following which they are transferred to a postnatal ward and discharged home within 24 to 48 hours of the birth. Despite policy and guideline recommendations to support planned, effective postnatal care, national surveys of women’s views of maternity care have consistently found in-patient postnatal care, including support for breastfeeding, is poorly rated. Methods Using a Continuous Quality Improvement approach, routine antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care systems and processes were revised to support implementation of evidence based postnatal practice. To identify if implementation of a multi-faceted QI intervention impacted on outcomes, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration, maternal health and women’s views of care, were collected in a pre and post intervention longitudinal survey. Primary outcomes included initiation, overall duration and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Secondary outcomes included maternal morbidity, experiences and satisfaction with care. As most outcomes of interest were measured on a nominal scale, these were compared pre and post intervention using logistic regression. Results Data were obtained on 741/1160 (64% women at 10 days post-birth and 616 (54% at 3 months post-birth pre-intervention, and 725/1153 (63% and 575 (50% respectively post-intervention. Post intervention there were statistically significant differences in the initiation (p = 0.050, duration of any breastfeeding (p = 0.020 and duration of exclusive breastfeeding to 10 days (p = 0.038 and duration of any breastfeeding to three months (p = 0.016. Post intervention, women were less likely to report physical morbidity within the first 10 days of birth, and were more positive about their in-patient care. Conclusions It is possible to improve outcomes of routine in-patient care within current resources through continuous quality

  16. Cost-utility analysis of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy in patients with moderate-to-high risk acute coronary syndrome and planned percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel V


    Full Text Available Background: Prasugrel is recommended over clopidogrel in poor/intermediate CYP2C19 metabolizers with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and planned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, reducing the risk of ischemic events. CYP2C19 genetic testing can guide antiplatelet therapy in ACS patients. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of genotype-guided treatment, compared with prasugrel or generic clopidogrel treatment without genotyping, from the US healthcare provider’s perspective. Methods: A decision model was developed to project lifetime economic and humanistic burden associated with clinical outcomes (myocardial infarction [MI], stroke and major bleeding for the three strategies in patients with ACS. Probabilities, costs and age-adjusted quality of life were identified through systematic literature review. Incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs were calculated for the treatment strategies, with quality-adjusted life years (QALYs as the primary effectiveness outcome. Relative risk of developing myocardial infarction and stroke between patients with and without variant CYP2C19 when receiving clopidogrel were estimated to be 1.34 and 3.66, respectively. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Clopidogrel cost USD19,147 and provided 10.03 QALYs versus prasugrel (USD21,425, 10.04 QALYs and genotype-guided therapy (USD19,231, 10.05 QALYs. The ICUR of genotype-guided therapy compared with clopidogrel was USD4,200. Genotype-guided therapy provided more QALYs at lower costs compared with prasugrel. Results were sensitive to the cost of clopidogrel and relative risk of myocardial infarction and stroke between CYP2C19 variant vs. non-variant. Net monetary benefit curves showed that genotype-guided therapy had at least 70% likelihood of being the most cost-effective alternative at a willingness-to-pay of USD100,000/QALY. In comparison with clopidogrel, prasugrel therapy was more cost

  17. Trends of preterm birth and low birth weight in Japan: a one hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorifuji Takashi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportions of preterm birth (PTB, ie., delivered before 37 gestational weeks and low birth weight (LBW, ie., birth weight less than 2500 g at delivery have been rising in developed countries. We sought to examine the factors contributing to the rise in Japan, with particular focus on the effects of obstetric interventions. Methods We used a database maintained by one large regional hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered live singleton births from 1997 to 2010 (n = 19,221. We assessed the temporal trends in PTB and LBW, then divided the study period into four intervals and compared the proportions of PTB and LBW. We also compared the newborns’ outcomes between the intervals. Results PTB, in particular medically indicated PTB, increased considerably. The increase was largely explained by changes in caesarean sections. The neonatal outcomes did not worsen, and instead the Apgar scores and proportions requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission improved. In particular, the risks of NICU admission in the interval from 2007 to 2010 were decreased among all births [odds ratio (OR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.75, 0.95] and medically indicated births (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68 compared with the interval from 1997 to 2000. Conclusions Despite the increases in PTB as well as LBW, the present study suggests benefits of obstetric interventions. Rather than simple categorization of PTB or LBW, indicators such as perinatal mortality or other outcomes may be more appropriate for evaluation of perinatal health in developed countries.

  18. Birth Control Ring (United States)

    ... 5 of her menstrual cycle. It remains in place for 3 weeks in a row. At the end of the third week, on the same day of the week ... birth control until the ring has been in place for 7 days. If the ring is out for more than 3 hours during your third week wearing it, call your doctor to see ...

  19. Visual Memory at Birth. (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others


    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  20. The Birth of "Frankenstein" (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer


    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  1. The Birth Order Puzzle. (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others


    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  2. Social inequality in birth outcomes in Korea, 1995-2008. (United States)

    Park, Mi-Jin; Son, Mia; Kim, Young-Ju; Paek, Domyung


    Social inequality in adverse birth outcomes has been demonstrated in several countries. The present study examined the separate and joint effects of parental education and work in order to investigate the causal pathways of social class effects on adverse birth outcomes in Korea. The occurrence of low birth weight, preterm births, and intrauterine growth retardation was examined among 7,766,065 births in Korea from 1995 to 2008. The effect of social inequality, as represented by parental education and work, was examined against adverse birth outcomes using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for other covariates. Parental education had the most significant and greatest effect on all three adverse outcomes, followed by parental work and employment, which had lesser effects. For adverse birth outcomes, the gap between educational levels increased steadily in Korea from 1995 to 2008. Throughout the analysis, the effect of maternal manual work on adverse birth outcomes was apparent in the study results. Given this evidence of social inequality in education and employment, social interventions should aim at more in-depth and distal determinants of health.

  3. Making birthing safe for Pakistan women: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two out of three neonatal deaths occur in just 10 countries and Pakistan stands third among them. Maternal mortality is also high with most deaths occurring during labor, birth, and first few hours after birth. Enhanced access and utilization of skilled delivery and emergency obstetric care is the demonstrated strategy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This trial aims to compare reduction in neonate mortality and utilization of available safe birthing and Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care services among pregnant mothers receiving ‘structured birth planning’, and/or ‘transport facilitation’ compared to routine care. Methods A pragmatic cluster randomized trial, with qualitative and economic studies, will be conducted in Jhang, Chiniot and Khanewal districts of Punjab, Pakistan, from February 2011 to May 2013. At least 29,295 pregnancies will be registered in the three arms, seven clusters per arm; 1 structured birth planning and travel facilitation, 2 structured birth planning, and 3 control arm. Trial will be conducted through the Lady Health Worker program. Main outcomes are difference in neonatal mortality and service utilization; maternal mortality being the secondary outcome. Cluster level analysis will be done according to intention-to-treat. Discussion A nationwide network of about 100,000 lady health workers is already involved in antenatal and postnatal care of pregnant women. They also act as “gatekeepers” for the child birthing services. This gate keeping role mainly includes counseling and referral for skill birth attendance and travel arrangements for emergency obstetric care (if required. The review of current arrangements and practices show that the care delivery process needs enhancement to include adequate information provision as well as informed “decision” making and planned “action” by the pregnant women. The proposed three-year research is to develop, through national

  4. Transition to skilled birth attendance: is there a future role for trained traditional birth attendants? (United States)

    Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann


    A brief history of training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), summary of evidence for effectiveness of TBA training, and consideration of the future role of trained TBAs in an environment that emphasizes transition to skilled birth attendance are provided. Evidence of the effectiveness of TBA training, based on 60 studies and standard meta-analytic procedures, includes moderate-to-large improvements in behaviours of TBAs relating to selected intrapartum and postnatal care practices, small significant increases in women's use of antenatal care and emergency obstetric care, and small significant decreases in perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Such findings are consistent with the historical focus of TBA training on extending the reach of primary healthcare and a few programmes that have included home-based management of complications of births and the newborns, such as birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Evidence suggests that, in settings characterized by high mortality and weak health systems, trained TBAs can contribute to the Millennium Development Goal 4--a two-thirds reduction in the rate of mortality of children aged less than 14 years by 2015--through participation in key evidence-based interventions.

  5. Birth control - slow release methods (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  6. Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans--Michigan, 1992-2003. (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Copeland, Glenn; Olney, Richard S


    Birth defects and genetic disorders are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in many countries. Population-based data on birth defects among Arab-American children have not been documented previously. Michigan has the second largest Arab-American community in the United States after California. Using data from the Michigan Birth Defects Registry (MBDR), which includes information on parents' country of birth and ancestry, birth prevalences were estimated in offspring of Michigan women of Arab ancestry for 21 major categories of birth defects and 12 congenital endocrine, metabolic, and hereditary disorders. Compared with other non-Hispanic white children in Michigan, Arab-American children had similar or lower birth prevalences of the selected types of structural birth defects, with higher rates of certain hereditary blood disorders and three categories of metabolic disorders. These estimates are important for planning preconception and antenatal health care, genetic counseling, and clinical care for Arab Americans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  8. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight



    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  9. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  10. Birth Defects Research and Tracking (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  11. Teaching Physiologic Birth in Maternal–Newborn Courses in Undergraduate Nursing Programs: Current Challenges (United States)

    Birkhead, Ana C. Sanchez; Callister, Lynn Clark; Fletcher, Nicole; Holt, Allison; Curtis, Samantha


    For low-risk childbearing women, fewer technological interventions are associated with better physical and psychosocial outcomes; yet, the number of unmedicated physiologic births is decreasing. As a result, fewer undergraduate nursing students experience caring for women who choose physiologic birth, which presents a challenge for nurse educators and implications for preparing students to provide appropriate care for all childbearing women after the students graduate. This exploratory descriptive qualitative study was conducted among 150 randomly selected undergraduate nursing programs in the United States to explore the challenges of educating nursing students about low-intervention birth. Four themes described current challenges: lack of placement opportunities, education versus clinical practice, evidence-based support of physiologic birth, and the need for more research on pedagogical strategies that effectively educate future nurses to advocate for minimal intervention birth options for all women. PMID:23730128

  12. Effectiveness, Mediators, and Effect Predictors of Internet Interventions for Chronic Cancer-Related Fatigue : The Design and an Analysis Plan of a 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolvers, Marije Dj; Bruggeman-Everts, Fieke Z; Van der Lee, Marije L; Van de Schoot, Rens; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Mr


    BACKGROUND: Internet interventions offer advantages that especially cancer survivors who suffer from fatigue could benefit from. Given the growing number of such patients, Internet interventions could supplement and strengthen currently available health care. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the desi

  13. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235


    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  14. Study on Effects of Neuropsychology Development of Low Birth Weight Infants with Different Intervention Methods in a Certain Hospital in Nanhai, Foshan%不同干预方式对佛山市某医院低出生体重儿神经心理发育的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳; 林青梅; 刘少兰; 杨春芹; 邱红梅


    目的:探讨低出生体重( low birth weight ,LBW)儿神经心理发育及早期干预作用,为低出生体重儿保健干预方法的选择提供合理依据。方法:选取2009年1月-2010年12月出生,生后至36月龄定期进行系统保健8次的LBW婴幼儿109例,设综合康复组、早期干预组、常规保健组,另设一般对照组。第1组实施医院为主的综合康复,第2组实施家庭为主的干预措施,4组中于6、12、24、36月龄时进行Gesell婴儿发育量表的测试。结果:综合康复组大动作、精细动作发育与早期干预组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05),与足月儿比较无差异性(P>0.05),实现了追赶性生长;综合康复组、早期干预组间适应性行为比较差异无显著性(P>0.05),而语言、个人社交能力比较差异有显著性(P<0.05),早期干预组优于综合康复组。结论:科学评估,开展以家庭为主体的早期干预模式,并与神经康复科建立转诊机制,可最大限度长期、有效、方便、经济地促进低出生体重儿神经心理发育。%Objective:To explore the neuropsychology development in low birth weight ( LBW) infants and the effect of early intervention, and provide reasonable basis for the selection of low birth weight health care intervention. Methods: 109 cases of LBW infants were selected which was born from January 2009 to December 2010 and had the regular system care for 8 times after 36 months when it was born. The compre⁃hensive rehabilitation group (1st group), early intervention group (2nd group) , routine care group (3rd group), and normal control group (4th group) were set. The 1st group mainly took the hospital implementation of comprehensive intervention measures,the 2nd group mainly took the early intervention measures in the family. All the four groups took the Gesell scales of infant development test of objects in the month of 6, 12, 24, 36. Results

  15. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE counseling in family planning (FP services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2 and with their wives (session 3 in India.A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3% received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04 and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05, and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01. Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03 and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004 follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02. No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in

  16. Determinants of low birth weight in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzur Kader


    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an important public health concern. The study was aimed to identify the important socioeconomic, anthropometric and nutritional determinants associated with LBW. Factors included maternal household wealth status, age, literacy, nutritional status, parity, stature, gestational age and chewing betel nut or tobacco. Methods: The study included data of 4436 enrolled pregnant women in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention Matlab (MINIMat trial from November 2001 to October 2003. A random subset of (n= 3267 single live birth infants born between May 2002 and June 2004 with complete information on birth weight was analyzed. Pearson’s chi square test and logistic regression analysis were done to assess the association between the factors and LBW. Results: Almost one third of the infants were born with LBW and mean birth weight was 2693 g. Maternal poor wealth status, BMI less than 18.5, short stature (height < 152 cm and preterm (<37 weeks birth were found to be strong predictors of LBW. Women’s age, hemoglobin status and chewing tobacco or betel nut were not found to be associated with LBW. Conclusion: Women’s wealth status, literacy, maternal nutrition and prevention of preterm birth are the key factors that need to be considered to improve birth weight of infants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 130-134

  17. Assessment of diabetic distress and disease related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Isfahan: A way to tailor an effective intervention planning in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Azar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess diabetes distress and its related factors among type 2 diabetic patients to better tailor intervention planning in Isfahan-Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. Study population was patients with type 2 diabetes referring to Omolbanin, an outpatient diabetic center in Isfahan. 140 diabetic patients met the inclusion criteria and were all included in the study. Patient’s diabetes distress was measured by DDS. A 17-item self-report diabetes distress scale was used with subscales reflecting 5 domains: 1 Emotional burden (5 items, 2 Physician distress (4 items, 3 Regimen distress (5 items and 4 Interpersonal distress (3 items. The responses to each item were rated between 1 and 6 (1 = not a problem, 2 = a slight problem, 3 = a moderate problem, 4 = somewhat serious problem, 5 = a serious problem, 6 = a very serious problem. The minimum and the maximum of score in the scale were 17 and 114 respectively. Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 11.5. Results Mean age of participants were 53.23 years (SD = 7.82. 54.3% was female, 97.1% was married, and 57.1% had education lower than diploma. The average score of total diabetes distress was 2.96 ± 0.83. The average score of each domain was (3.40 ± 1.18, (2.57 ± 0.88, (2.97 ± 0.90, (2.76 ± 0.91 respectively. ‘Emotional Burden’ was considered as the most important domain in measuring diabetes distress. Total diabetes distress had significant association with age (p = 0.02, duration of diabetes (plc (r = 0.63, p Conclusion It seems some keywords have a main role in diabetes distress such as emotional support, communication with patient and physician, self-efficacy and social support. All of these points are achievable through empowerment approach in diabetes care plan.

  18. Maternal education, birth weight, and infant mortality in the United States. (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Dirienzo, Greg


    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its "indirect" effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its "direct" effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27-108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40-0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality.

  19. 事故后飞行人员心理治疗与干预方案的研制及应用%The development and application of the psychological therapy and interventional plans for the flight personnel after the accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜蕙; 王开辉; 董淑华; 戚菲; 冯琦; 杜长伟


    目的 探讨事故引起飞行人员心理损伤的症状及心理治疗干预方案.方法 用PTSD -SS量表对723名飞行人员进行心理损伤症状评估,针对症状研制治疗干预方案,将筛选出的273例应用不同的心理干预方法进行干预并比较效果.结果 PTSD-SS评定结果显示:事故后飞行人员易出现的心理反应症状排在前3位的依次是:对创伤消极主观评定(4.9%)、社会功能受损(2.1%)及持续警觉性增高(1.8%);干预前后比较发现心理干预方法以结构式心理干预为最好(=12.66,P<0.01);对128例事故后飞行人员实施干预方案的疗效自评前3位排序为:急性应激障碍反应干预方案(83.4%)、睡眠障碍干预方案(75.6%)、事故后应激障碍反应干预方案(73.1%).结论 研制的心理治疗干预方案能有效地减少事故后飞行人员的心理反应症状并对事故后应激障碍的发生有较好的预防效果.%Objective To explore the psychological therapy and interventional plans for psychological stress caused by flight accidents. Methods The PTSD-SS scale were adopted for psychological stress symptoms evaluation in 723 flight personnel, the intervention plans were developed according to symptoms, which would be screened 273 cases of the application of different psychological intervention methods and compared the effects. Results The PTSD-SS evaluation results showed that flight personnel who were after the accident appeared psychological reactions easily, the top three symptoms in order; negative subjective evaluation of the trauma (4.9% ) , social function impaired (2. 1% ) and continued vigilance increased (1. 8% ). The difference between before and after the comparison showed that the best of all is structural psychological intervention (t= 12. 66, P < 0.01) . Top three order of the intervention plans curative effect in 128 cases of flight personnel after the accidents: intervention plan for acute stress disorder ( 83. 4

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention and Support Threatened Abortion on Maternal Mental Health and Birth outcomes%认知行为干预及信息支持对先兆流产产妇心理状况及分娩结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探析认知行为干预及信息支持对先兆流产产妇心理状况及分娩结局的影响。方法整群选取2015年1月―2016年1月在该院治疗的124例先兆流产产妇随机分为研究组和对照组,每组62例,对照组患者予以常规护理,而研究组患者在此基础上加强认知行为干预及信息支持,对比干预前后两组患者的焦虑、抑郁评分以及分娩结局。结果干预后,研究组产妇焦虑评分为(47.9±4.3﹚分,抑郁评分为(44.7±3.8﹚分;对照组产妇焦虑评分为(52.9±4.1﹚分,抑郁评分(54.2±4.1﹚分。研究组产妇焦虑、抑郁评分均明显低于对照组,且研究组的保胎成功率(93.55%﹚也显著高于对照组(80.56%﹚,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05﹚。结论认知行为干预及信息支持能有效缓解先兆流产产妇紧张、焦虑等不良情绪,提高保胎成功率。%Objective Analysis of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention and Support Threatened abortion on maternal mental health and birth outcomes.Methods Group selection form January 2015 to January 2016 in our hospital 124 cases of threat-ened abortion pregnant women were randomly divided into study group and control group,each of the 62 patients in the control group were treated with routine care, and strengthen the study group patients cognitive behavioral intervention and support information on this basis, comparing before and after the intervention of two of anxiety, depression scores and birth outcomes in patients.Results After the intervention, the study group of maternal anxiety score was (47.9 ± 4.3﹚points, depres-sion score was (44.7 ± 3.8﹚points; control group, maternal anxiety score was (52.9 ± 4.1﹚points, depression score (54.2 ± 4.1﹚points. Study Group maternal anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower than the control group, and the suc-cess rate of miscarriage study group were also significantly higher, were significantly different (P

  1. Birth rites: redefining the visual language of birth. (United States)

    Uppal, Elaine


    This article provides a review of a Birth Rites organisation event to launch its new website and art competition. Birth Rites is the first and only collection of contemporary artwork dedicated to the subject of childbirth. The collection aims to redefine visual language in contemporary art around the subject of birth, making women the protagonists, with more choice and a greater understanding of the process. The organisation was founded by two women, Phoebe Mortimer and curator Helen Knowles.

  2. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine


    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  3. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia


    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  4. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia


    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  5. Early Pregnancy Eugenic Screening Intervention of Birth Defects%孕期优生筛查对出生缺陷干预效果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文霓; 王丽娟; 张盈; 吴玉璘


      Objective To investigate the maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin. Combination of B-ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means for screening and diagnosis of Jiangsu province in an area of target diseases Down's syndrome, neural tube defects. Methods This screening using time-resolved fluorescence method for the determination of PAPPA the pregnant women, serum, AFP,β-HCG level, combined with a variety of related factors, risk assessment. Results 1807 cases of second trimester pregnant women receiving prenatal screening were screened in pregnancy high-risk 21-trisomy 18-body, neural tube defects in 110 cases, the positive rate of 6.09%; and screening of high risk pregnant women the positive rate increased with increasing maternal age. 110 cases of screening-positive pregnant women, 84 cases of pregnant women receiving amniotic fluid chromosome, check out chromosomal abnormalities in two cases, 21 of them-three-body one cases;18-one cases of trisomy;B ultrasound trance administered defect in one case (one cases of spina bifida), hydrocephalus one case, two cases of congenital heart disease. Underwent induction of labor, labor induction rate of 100%. Conclusion Take the detection of maternal serum pregnancy-related protein, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin level, combined with B ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means screening for Down syndrome, neural tube defects, birth defects, to reduce its birth rate is important.%  目的 探讨检测孕妇血清中妊娠相关蛋白A(PAPPA)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)、绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)水平,结合B超检查、羊水检测等手段,对江苏省苏北某地区目标疾病唐氏综合征、神经管缺陷进行筛查

  6. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer. (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  7. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo


    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  8. Extension of the preceding birth technique. (United States)

    Aguirre, A


    The Brass-inspired Preceding Birth Technique (PBT), is an indirect estimation technique with low costs of administration. PBT involves asking women at a time close to delivery about the survival of the preceding births. The proportion dead is close to the probability of dying between the birth and the second birthday or an index of early childhood mortality (II or Q). Brass and Macrae have determined that II is an estimate of mortality between birth and an age lower than the birth interval or around 4/5 of the birth interval. Hospital and clinic data are likely to include a concentration of women with lower risks of disease because of higher educational levels and socioeconomic status. A simulation of PBT data from the World Fertility Survey for Mexico and Peru found that the proportions of previously dead children were 0.156 in Peru and 0.092 in Mexican home deliveries. Maternity clinic proportions were 0.088 in Peru and 0.066 in Mexico. Use of clinic and hospital data collection underestimated mortality by 32% in Peru and 15% in Mexico. Another alternative was proposed: interviewing women at some other time than delivery. If the interview was during a child/infant intervention after delivery, the subsample would still be subject to a bias, but this problem could be overcome by computing the weighted average of the actual probability of the older child being dead and the conditional probability of the younger child being dead or both younger and older children being dead. Correction factors could be applied using the general standard of the logit life table system of Brass. Calculation of a simple average of the ages of the younger children could provide enough information to help decide which tables to use. Five surveys were selected for testing the factors of dependence between probabilities of death of successive siblings: Bangladesh, Lesotho, Kenya, Ghana, and Guyana. Higher mortality was related to lower dependency factors between the probabilities of death

  9. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene


    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  10. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh P.


    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  11. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers. (United States)

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E


    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS.

  12. Birth control over 30. (United States)

    Asnes, M


    Among 30-40 year old women, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, which is indicative of the unreliability of the birth control methods they are using. The 1992 Ortho Birth Control Study interviewed almost 7000 women, of whom 8% listed withdrawal and 4% listed the rhythm method. These two methods have failure rates of 24% and 19%, respectively. Birth control methods often disappoint the users and increasingly they turn to sterilization. 48% of married women aged 15-44 had themselves been sterilized or had a sterilized partner in the Ortho survey. Although reversal of tubal ligation succeeds in 43-88% of cases, conception cannot be guaranteed. For women over the age of 30 who are healthy and do not smoke, low-estrogen or no-estrogen oral contraceptive pills are considered safe. Taking the pill also helps prevent ovarian and endometrial cancer. The failure rate is 6%. Barrier methods also offer protection from sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Condoms are favored by 33% of unmarried women and 19% of married women. Sexually active 40-44 year old unmarried women run a 14-19% risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in a 12-month period. Diaphragms offer some protection against STDs, but their failure rate is 18%. IUDs are regaining popularity, but only 1% of women use them (ParaGard T380A or Progestasert). Pelvic inflammatory disease is the reason: a 1992 study showed that 0.97% of women developed it within 20 days of use. Norplant is a long-term implant containing levonorgestrel with a failure rate of 0.5%. A 1993 study followed 1253 implant users over 12 months and found a very low rate of pregnancy, but 75% experienced some side effects during the first year. About half of the women using Norplant removed it after 2.5 years because of irregular bleeding. Depo-Provera is an injectable administered every 3 months, but after removal it can take up to a year for ovulation to return. Side effects may include hair loss and weight gain; and links to

  13. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  14. Birth setting, transfer and maternal sense of control: results from the DELIVER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, C.C.; Klomp, T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de


    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, low risk women receive midwife-led care and can choose to give birth at home or in hospital. There is concern that transfer of care during labour from midwife-led care to an obstetrician-led unit leads to negative birth experiences, in particular among those with plan

  15. Variation in home-birth rates between midwifery practices in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.


    Objective: to examine the reasons for the variation in home-birth rates between midwifery practices. method: multi-level analysis of client and midwife associated, case-specific and structural factors in relation to 4420 planned and actual home or hospital births in 42 midwifery practices. Findings:

  16. Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Ingrid J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and psychological problems after childbirth are common, and may have a significant negative and long-term impact on women’s wellbeing and daily functioning. The method of birth may be a particularly important factor influencing women’s health and wellbeing following birth, however, population-wide evidence is limited. This study uses data from 5,332 women who responded to a national survey of women’s experiences of maternity care in England. We examined women’s postnatal wellbeing in the first three months after birth, and whether these varied by mode of birth. Methods This is a secondary analysis of survey data using a random sample of women selected from birth registration. We used multinomial logistic regression models to examine the association between women’s self-reported psychological symptoms, health problems and mode of birth. Results Women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births and unplanned caesarean section births reported the poorest health and wellbeing, while those of women who had unassisted vaginal births and planned caesarean section births were less affected by the birth process. Most women’s physical and emotional health appeared to improve with time, however, those who had a forceps-assisted vaginal birth were more likely to report ongoing posttraumatic-type symptoms several months after the birth. Conclusions Mode of birth was associated with differences in outcomes at three months. By comparison to women who had unassisted vaginal births, the risk of reduced postnatal health and wellbeing was higher amongst the women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births but not amongst women who had ventouse-assisted vaginal births. This would suggest that it is important to differentiate the different types of instrumental birth in outcome studies. Of concern was the higher rate of posttraumatic-type symptoms among women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births relative to the other modes of

  17. D. W. Griffith's Controversial Film, "The Birth of a Nation." (United States)

    Pitcher, Conrad


    Presents a lesson plan that enables students to investigate race relations during the Progressive Era by analyzing D. W. Griffith's "The Birth of a Nation" and the controversy surrounding the release of the film. Explores the pros and cons of using motion pictures as teaching tool. Includes two student handouts. (CMK)

  18. Contraceptive use, birth spacing, and child survival in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, U.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.


    To reduce infant mortality through improved family planning, a better understanding of the factors driving contraceptive use and how this decision affects infant survival is needed. Using dynamic panel-data models of infant deaths, birth intervals, and contraceptive use, this study analyzes the caus

  19. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood. (United States)

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  20. Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blencowe Hannah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annually over 520,000 newborns die from neonatal sepsis, and 60,000 more from tetanus. Estimates of the effect of clean birth and postnatal care practices are required for evidence-based program planning. Objective To review the evidence for clean birth and postnatal care practices and estimate the effect on neonatal mortality from sepsis and tetanus for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases. Data were abstracted into standard tables and assessed by GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. For interventions with low quality evidence but a strong GRADE recommendation, a Delphi process was conducted. Results Low quality evidence supports a reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality (19% (95% c.i. 1–34%, cord infection (30% (95% c.i. 20–39% and neonatal tetanus (49% (95% c.i. 35–62% with birth attendant handwashing. Very low quality evidence supports a reduction in neonatal tetanus mortality with a clean birth surface (93% (95% c.i. 77-100% and no relationship between a clean perineum and tetanus. Low quality evidence supports a reduction of neonatal tetanus with facility birth (68% (95% c.i. 47-88%. No relationship was found between birth place and cord infections or sepsis mortality. For postnatal clean practices, all-cause mortality is reduced with chlorhexidine cord applications in the first 24 hours of life (34% (95% c.i. 5–54%, moderate quality evidence and antimicrobial cord applications (63% (95% c.i. 41–86%, low quality evidence. One study of postnatal maternal handwashing reported reductions in all-cause mortality (44% (95% c.i. 18–62% and cord infection ((24% (95% c.i. 5-40%. Given the low quality of evidence, a Delphi expert opinion process was undertaken. Thirty experts reached consensus regarding reduction of neonatal sepsis deaths by clean birth practices at home (15% (IQR 10–20 or in a facility (27% IQR 24–36, and by

  1. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects (United States)

    ... some health problems for the baby, such as low birth weight. It’s never too late to quit smoking. Learn more about smoking during pregnancy » Avoid marijuana and other “street drugs”. A ... a baby who is born preterm, of low birth weight, or has other health problems, such as ...

  2. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien


    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  3. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  4. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study. (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen


    Objective: The search for quality, cost-effective health care programs in the United States is now a major focus in the era of health care reform. New programs need to be evaluated as alternatives are developed in the health care system. The BirthPlace program provides comprehensive perinatal services with certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians working together in an integrated collaborative practice serving a primarily low-income population. Low-risk women are delivered by nurse-midwives in a freestanding birth center (The BirthPlace), which is one component of a larger integrated health network. All others are delivered by team obstetricians at the affiliated tertiary hospital. Wellness, preventive measures, early intervention, and family involvement are emphasized. The San Diego Birth Center Study is a 4-year research project funded by the U.S. Federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (#R01-HS07161) to evaluate this program. The National Birth Center Study (NEJM, 1989; 321(26): 1801-11) described the advantages and safety of freestanding birth centers. However, a prospective cohort study with a concurrent comparison group of comparable risk had not been conducted on a collaborative practice-freestanding birth center model to address questions of safety, cost, and patient satisfaction.Methods: The specific aims of this study are to compare this collaborative practice model to the traditional model of perinatal health care (physician providers and hospital delivery). A prospective cohort study comparing these two health care models was conducted with a final expected sample size of approximately 2,000 birth center and 1,350 traditional care subjects. Women were recruited from both the birth center and traditional care programs (private physicians offices and hospital based clinics) at the beginning of prenatal care and followed through the end of the perinatal period. Prenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and infant morbidity and mortality are being

  5. USAID's HIV / AIDS strategy for Asia: promoting early intervention. An inverview with Kerri-Ann Jones of the U.S. Agency for International Development's Asia Bureau about the USAID HIV / AIDS Strategic Plan for Asia. (United States)


    Although the World Health Organization estimates that $1.5-2.9 billion is needed per year to adequately support global HIV/AIDS prevention efforts, less than $200 million/year is being spent to prevent the transmission of HIV in the developing world. Worse still, US Agency for International Development (USAID) resources are shrinking. Two factors make HIV/AIDS prevention action in Asia a particularly urgent priority: more than half of the world's population lives in the region and the AIDS epidemic is still in its formative stages there. Rapid urbanization, high levels of migration, and large commercial sex and transportation industries are also typical in most countries of the region. In this context, the Asia Bureau of USAID adopted a strategic plan against HIV/AIDS in June 1993. In so doing, the bureau plans to work with the AIDSCAP program to coordinate prevention efforts and maximize the use of all available resources against the epidemic. Strategy focuses upon policy dialogue, communication to promote behavior change, improving the management of sexually transmitted diseases, improving access to condoms, monitoring and evaluation, and behavioral research. Interventions recommended by the plan, USAID coordination with other donors in the region, coordination with other AIDS prevention efforts already underway in a country, mission response to the plan, the interest of Asian governments in AIDS prevention, and the mechanism by which the plan is carried out are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  7. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback


    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke


    Background Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. Th...

  8. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira


    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  9. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk.This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services.Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8% when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%, regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6 for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3 for women of high obstetric risk.The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  10. Community mobilisation and health management committee strengthening to increase birth attendance by trained health workers in rural Makwanpur, Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manandhar Dharma


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth attendance by trained health workers is low in rural Nepal. Local participation in improving health services and increased interaction between health systems and communities may stimulate demand for health services. Significant increases in birth attendance by trained health workers may be affected through community mobilisation by local women's groups and health management committee strengthening. We will test the effect of community mobilisation through women's groups, and health management committee strengthening, on institutional deliveries and home deliveries attended by trained health workers in Makwanpur District. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial involving 43 village development committee clusters. 21 clusters will receive the intervention and 22 clusters will serve as control areas. In intervention areas, Female Community Health Volunteers are supported in convening monthly women's groups. The groups work through an action research cycle in which they consider barriers to institutional delivery, plan and implement strategies to address these barriers with their communities, and evaluate their progress. Health management committees participate in three-day workshops that use appreciative inquiry methods to explore and plan ways to improve maternal and newborn health services. Follow-up meetings are conducted every three months to review progress. Primary outcomes are institutional deliveries and home deliveries conducted by trained health workers. Secondary outcome measures include uptake of antenatal and postnatal care, neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates, and maternal morbidity. Trial registration number ISRCTN99834806

  11. Resultado de partos domiciliares atendidos por enfermeiras de 2005 a 2009 em Florianópolis, SC Resultado de partos domiciliares atendidos por enfermeras de 2005 a 2009 en Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil Outcomes of planned home birth assisted by nurses, from 2005 to 2009, in Florianópolis, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Green Koettker


    Full Text Available Estudo transversal sobre resultados obstétricos e neonatais dos partos domiciliares planejados assistidos por enfermeiras obstétricas em Florianópolis, SC. Dados coletados nos prontuários de 100 parturientes assistidas de 2005 a 2009 apontam 11 transferências hospitalares, sendo nove submetidas a cesariana. A maioria das que pariram no domicílio apresentou batimentos cardíacos fetais (94,0% e evolução no partograma normais (61,0%, adotou posição vertical na água, no período expulsivo (71,9%, e os recém-nascidos receberam Apgar do 5° minuto > 7 (98,9%. A frequência de episiotomia foi 1,0%, 49,4% não necessitaram sutura perineal. Os resultados indicam que o parto domiciliar é seguro.Estudio transversal sobre resultados obstétricos y neonatales de los partos domiciliares planificados asistidos por enfermeras obstétricas en Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil. Datos colectados en los prontuarios de 100 parturientas asistidas de 2005 a 2009, señalan 11 transferencias hospitalarias, siendo nueve sometidas a cesárea. La mayoría de las que parieron en el domicilio presentó pulsaciones cardíacas fetales (94,0% y evolución en el partograma normales (61,0%, adoptó posición vertical en el agua, en el período expulsivo (71,9%, y los recién nacidos recibieron Apgar al 5° minuto >7 (98,9%. La frecuencia de episiotomía fue 1,0%, 49,4% no necesitaron sutura perineal. Los resultados indican que el parto domiciliar es seguro.A cross-sectional study was performed to analyze obstetric and neonatal results of planned home births assisted by obstetric nurses in the city of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data collected from the medical records of 100 parturient women cared for between 2005 and 2009 indicated 11 hospital transfers, nine of which underwent a Cesarean section. The majority of women who had a home birth showed normal fetal heart beat (94.0% and progress on the partogram (61.0%, vertical water delivery was the position most

  12. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  13. Birth Defects Surveillance in the United States: Challenges and Implications of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification Implementation. (United States)

    Mburia-Mwalili, Adel; Yang, Wei


    Major birth defects are an important public health issue because they are the leading cause of infant mortality. The most common birth defects are congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, and Down syndrome. Birth defects surveillance guides policy development and provides data for prevalence estimates, epidemiologic research, planning, and prevention. Several factors influence birth defects surveillance in the United States of America (USA). These include case ascertainment methods, pregnancy outcomes, and nomenclature used for coding birth defects. In 2015, the nomenclature used by most birth defects surveillance programs in USA will change from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM. This change will have implications on birth defects surveillance, prevalence estimates, and tracking birth defects trends.

  14. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis. (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary


    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation.

  15. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a well recognized risk of complications for both women and infants of a twin pregnancy, increasing beyond 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is a recognized complication of a twin pregnancy, however, up to 50% of twins will be born after this time. The aims of this randomised trial are to assess whether elective birth at 37 weeks gestation compared with standard care in women with a twin pregnancy affects the risk of perinatal death, and serious infant complications. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised trial. Inclusion Criteria: women with a twin pregnancy at 366 weeks or more without contraindication to continuation of pregnancy. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Following written informed consent, eligible women will be randomised from 36+6 weeks gestation. The randomisation schedule uses balanced variable blocks, with stratification for centre of birth and planned mode of birth. Women will be randomised to either elective birth or standard care. Treatment Schedules: Women allocated to the elective birth group will be planned for elective birth from 37 weeks gestation. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve induction of labour. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section. For women allocated to standard care, birth will be planned for 38 weeks gestation or later. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve either awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour, or induction of labour if required. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section (after 38 and as close to 39 weeks as possible. Primary Study Outcome: A composite of perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity. Sample Size: 460 women with a twin pregnancy to show a reduction in the composite outcome from 16.3% to 6.7% with adjustment for the clustering of twin infants within mothers (p = 0.05, 80% power. Discussion This

  16. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  17. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  18. Theory-Based Interventions Combining Mental Simulation and Planning Techniques to Improve Physical Activity: Null Results from Two Randomized Controlled Trials (United States)

    Meslot, Carine; Gauchet, Aurélie; Allenet, Benoît; François, Olivier; Hagger, Martin S.


    Interventions to assist individuals in initiating and maintaining regular participation in physical activity are not always effective. Psychological and behavioral theories advocate the importance of both motivation and volition in interventions to change health behavior. Interventions adopting self-regulation strategies that foster motivational and volitional components may, therefore, have utility in promoting regular physical activity participation. We tested the efficacy of an intervention adopting motivational (mental simulation) and volitional (implementation intentions) components to promote a regular physical activity in two studies. Study 1 adopted a cluster randomized design in which participants (n = 92) were allocated to one of three conditions: mental simulation plus implementation intention, implementation intention only, or control. Study 2 adopted a 2 (mental simulation vs. no mental simulation) × 2 (implementation intention vs. no implementation intention) randomized controlled design in which fitness center attendees (n = 184) were randomly allocated one of four conditions: mental simulation only, implementation intention only, combined, or control. Physical activity behavior was measured by self-report (Study 1) or fitness center attendance (Study 2) at 4- (Studies 1 and 2) and 19- (Study 2 only) week follow-up periods. Findings revealed no statistically significant main or interactive effects of the mental simulation and implementation intention conditions on physical activity outcomes in either study. Findings are in contrast to previous research which has found pervasive effects for both intervention strategies. Findings are discussed in light of study limitations including the relatively small sample sizes, particularly for Study 1, deviations in the operationalization of the intervention components from previous research and the lack of a prompt for a goal intention. Future research should focus on ensuring uniformity in the format of the

  19. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak


    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  20. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong


    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  1. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  2. A dream birth? Try hypnobirthing! (United States)

    Graves, Katharine


    Hypnobirthing is often regarded as a method of pain relief without drugs. This is to miss the point, as it presupposes that pain is there in the first place. When a woman learns to release the preconceptions, fears and worries about birth that are endemic in our society, her experience of giving birth to her baby can be the most wonderful and empowering experience of her life. Mind and body working together can be a powerful and efficient combination. This is how birth is designed to be, as midwives and hospitals are beginning to discover. Thus hypnobirthing can provide a service that women want as well as save scarce NHS funds.

  3. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants


    Maghuyop-Butalid R; Mayo NA; Polangi HT


    Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A quest...

  4. Messages on pregnancy and family planning that providers give women living with HIV in the context of a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention intervention in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilliard S


    Full Text Available Starr Hilliard, Sarah A Gutin, Carol Dawson Rose Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Family planning is an important HIV prevention tool for women living with HIV (WLHIV. In Mozambique, the prevalence of HIV among women of reproductive age is 13.1% and the average fertility rate is high. However, family planning and reproductive health for WLHIV are under-addressed in Mozambique. This study explores provider descriptions of reproductive health messages in order to identify possible barriers and facilitators to successfully addressing family planning and pregnancy concerns of WLHIV. Methods: In 2006, a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention program was introduced in Mozambique focused on training health care providers to work with patients to reduce their transmission risks. Providers received training on multiple components, including family planning and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 providers who participated in the training in five rural clinics in three provinces. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analysis showed that providers' clinical messages on family planning, pregnancy, and PMTCT for WLHIV could be arranged along a continuum. Provider statements ranged from saying that WLHIV should not become pregnant and condoms are the only valid form of family planning for WLHIV, to suggesting that WLHIV can have safe pregnancies. Conclusion: These data indicate that many providers continue to believe that WLHIV should not have children and this represents a challenge for integrating family planning into the care of WLHIV. Also, not offering WLHIV a full selection of family planning methods severely limits their ability to protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and to fully exercise their reproductive rights. Responding to the reproductive health

  5. Analysis on the the monitoring results of birth defect in Zhanjiang%湛江市出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎文清; 杨妹; 陈娟文; 叶婉华


    Objective: To explore the status and epidemiologic characteristics of birth defect in Zhanjiang, seek a more effective intervention countermeasure to reduce birth defect.Methods: According to the nation birth defect monitoring network and registration reporting requirement of monitoring plan in Zhanjiang, the monitoring data of birth defect eases in 2009 were analyzed retrospectively, then the resuits were analyzed by statistical method.Results: In 2009, 335 infants with birth defect were born in Zhanjiang, the incidence of birth defeet was 65.45/ten thousand, which was lower than that of the entire province, achieved the goal of child development plan in Guangdong province (90/ten thousand) But after cancelling compulsion pre -marital physical examination in 2003, the incidence of birth defect increased year by year, compared with the incidence of birth defect in 2003, the incidence of birth defect in 2006 increased by nearly 1/2 (P <0.01 ), after "two summaries" intermediate stage appraisal in 2006, the incidence of birth defect decreased.Conclusion: Although the incidence of birth defect in Zhanjiang is lower than the average levels in the nation and the entire province, but the prevention and control work is still stern.The government and the entire society should move together and complete the third - level prevention earnestly, which may be the basic measures to reduce the occurrence of birth defect.%目的:探讨湛江市出生缺陷现状和流行病学特征,寻找降低出生缺陷更有效的干预对策.方法:根据全国出生缺陷监测网及湛江市监测方案的登记报告要求,对2009年出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析,结果采用统计学方法进行显著性检验.结果:2009年湛江市出生缺陷儿335例,出生缺陷发生率为65.45/万,较全省出生缺陷发生率低,达到广东省儿童发展规划的目标(90/万).但2003年湛江市取消强制婚检后,出生缺陷发生率逐年上升,2006

  6. Where are the Sunday babies? III. Caesarean sections, decreased weekend births, and midwife involvement in Germany (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander


    A previous study has shown a marked and continuing decline in weekend births in Germany between 1988 and 2003 (Lerchl, Naturwissenschaften 92:592-594, 2005). The present study was performed to investigate the possible influence of caesarean sections (CS) on weekend birth number and on the involvement of midwives in births for all 16 German states for the year 2003. In total, data from 706,721 births were sorted according to weekday of births and state, respectively, and the weekend births avoidance rates were calculated. Weekend births were consistently less frequent than births during the week, with an average of -15.3% for all states and due to fewer births on Saturdays (-13.6%) and Sundays (-16.7%). Between the states, weekend births avoidance rates ranged from -11.6% (Bremen) to -24.2% (Saarland). The proportion of CS was 25.5% for all states, ranging from 19.2% (Sachsen and Sachsen-Anhalt) to 30.5% (Saarland). CS and weekend births avoidance rates were significantly correlated, consistent with the hypothesis that primary (planned) CS are regularly scheduled on weekdays. The number of births per midwife (BPM) was calculated according to the number of active members in the states’ professional midwives’ organizations. The mean number of BPM was 59.5, ranging from 45.2 (Bremen) to 82.4 (Sachsen-Anhalt). CS and BPM were significantly correlated, consistent with the hypothesis that higher CS ratios are associated with lower midwife involvement in births. It is concluded that the decline in weekend births and lower involvement of midwives are caused, at least in part, by an increased number of caesarean sections.

  7. Nasal Birth Trauma: A Review of Appropriate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cashman


    Full Text Available The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  8. Nasal birth trauma: a review of appropriate treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C


    The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  9. Especially for Teens: Birth Control (United States)

    ... at the same time each day. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. There are many types of birth control pills. ... arm or buttock every 3 months. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. What is the implant? The implant is a ...

  10. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  11. Mindfulness Interventions. (United States)

    Creswell, J David


    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  12. The Birth Control Pill: Popular Discourse and Personal Experience


    Vogels, Shannon Claire


    This thesis explores the evolution of the birth control pill from contraceptive technology to a lifestyle drug over the past fifty years. Drawing from biomedicalization theory, I suggest that contraception is one of many areas of life that have become subject to medical intervention, and use the pill to illustrate how contemporary health is characterized by a shifting landscape of privatization and commodification, new sources of information and knowledge, and an emphasis on optimization of t...

  13. Risk perception and choice of place of birth in women with high risk pregnancies: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne; Ayers, Susan; Holden, Des


    Objective To examine the perception of risk among a group of women with high risk pregnancies who were either planning to give birth in hospital, or at home despite medical advice to the contrary. The intention was to consider differences and similarities between the groups to examine how perception of risk relates to choice of place of birth. Design Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Setting Maternity department in a hospital in South East England. Participants Twenty-six women with high risk pregnancies, at least 32 weeks pregnant. Half were planning hospital births and half homebirths. Measurements and findings Semi-structured interviews to investigate women's understanding and assessment of risk. Results were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes emerged: understanding of situation; judgement of risk; reassuring factors; impact of risk; and coping with risk. Women from both groups had some understanding of the implications of their medical/obstetric conditions. They displayed concerns about their babies' wellbeing. Women planning homebirths assessed their risks as lower and expressed less concerns than women planning hospital births. Women planning hospital births more frequently described following professional advice. Key conclusions Risk perception is individual and subjective. Women with high risk pregnancies who plan to give birth at home perceive risk differently to women who plan hospital births. Implications for practice Healthcare professionals working with women with high risk pregnancies should be aware of the potential for differences in definitions and perceptions of risk within this group.

  14. Should implementation intentions interventions be implemented in obesity prevention: the impact of if-then plans on daily physical activity in Dutch adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Vet (Emely); A. Oenema (Anke); P. Sheeran (Paschal); J. Brug (Hans)


    textabstractBackground Forming implementation intentions (specifying when, where and how to act) has been proposed as a potentially effective and inexpensive intervention, but has mainly been studied in controlled settings for straightforward behaviors. Purpose To examine if forming implementation i

  15. Adapted Intervention Mapping: A Strategic Planning Process for Increasing Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Opportunities in Schools via Environment and Policy Change (United States)

    Belansky, Elaine S.; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert; Crane, Lori A.; Waters, Emily; Marshall, Julie A.


    Background: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research ?ndings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Methods: Using a pair randomized design,…

  16. Role of Maternal Periodontitis in Preterm Birth (United States)

    Ren, Hongyu; Du, Minquan


    In the last two decades, many studies have focused on whether periodontitis is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). However, both epidemiological investigation and intervention trials have reached contradictory results from different studies. What explains the different findings, and how should future studies be conducted to better assess this risk factor? This article reviews recent epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies as well as intervention trials that evaluate the link between periodontitis and PTB. Periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes and inflammatory mediators and contribute to the induction of PTB. Animal studies revealed that maternal infections with periodontal pathogens increase levels of circulating IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and TNF-α and induce PTB. In vitro models showed that periodontal pathogens/byproducts induce COX-2, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α secretion and/or apoptosis in placental tissues/cells. The effectiveness of periodontal treatment to prevent PTB is influenced by the diagnostic criteria of periodontitis, microbial community composition, severity of periodontitis, treatment strategy, treatment efficiency, and the period of treatment during pregnancy. Although intervention trials reported contradictory results, oral health maintenance is an important part of preventive care that is both effective and safe throughout pregnancy and should be supported before and during pregnancy. As contradictory epidemiological and intervention studies continue to be published, two new ideas are proposed here: (1) severe and/or generalized periodontitis promotes PTB and (2) periodontitis only promotes PTB for pregnant women who are young or HIV-infected or have preeclampsia, pre-pregnancy obesity, or susceptible genotypes.

  17. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  18. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel


    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  19. A percepção dos profissionais sobre a assistência ao parto domiciliar planejado La percepción de los profesionales acerca de la atención al parto domiciliario planeado The perception of professionals regarding planned home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianne Cavalcanti Frank


    Full Text Available Estudo qualitativo com objetivo de compreender a percepção dos profissionais no acompanhamento do parto domiciliar planejado. Foram entrevistados oito profissionais que atuaram em partos domiciliares, em Cascavel/PR. A análise revelou que o domicílio, enquanto local de assistência, possibilita o protagonismo da mulher e da família pela tranquilidade, calma e autonomia. O ambiente é seguro quando se segue requisitos como baixo risco gestacional, avaliação adequada, no decorrer da evolução do parto, presença de materiais adequados, rede transdisciplinar e local pré-definido para encaminhamentos. Os profissionais apontam, ainda, como fundamental, a participação familiar no processo. Conclui-se que o parto domiciliar é uma excelente estratégia para transformar e melhorar a qualidade da atenção obstétrica.Estudio cualitativo con el objetivo de comprender la percepción de los profesionales en el acompañamiento del parto domiciliario planeado. Fueron entrevistados ocho profesionales que trabajaron en los partos domiciliarios en Cascavel/PR. El análisis reveló que el domicilio como un lugar de atención posibilita el protagonismo de la mujer y de la familia por la tranquilidad, calma y autonomía. El ambiente es seguro cuando se siguen los requisitos tales como bajo riesgo gestacional, evaluación adecuada de la evolución del parto, presencia de materiales adecuados, red transdisciplinaria y local predefinido para encaminamientos. Los profesionales apuntan también como fundamental la participación familiar en el proceso. Se concluyó que el parto domiciliario es una excelente estrategia para transformar y mejorar la calidad de la atención obstétrica.This is a qualitative study aimed to understand the perception of professionals regarding planned home birth. Eight professionals who took part in home births in Cascavel/PR were interviewed. The analysis revealed that home, as the care place, allows more prominence to women and

  20. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs. (United States)

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  1. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. (United States)

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M


    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  2. Vaginal breech birth: can we move beyond the Term Breech Trial? (United States)

    Hunter, Linda A


    Since the publication of the Term Breech Trial in 2000, planned cesarean has become the preferred mode of birth for women whose fetus is in a breech presentation. Over the past 20 years, however, subsequent evidence has not shown conclusively that cesarean birth is safer than vaginal birth for a fetus in a breech presentation when certain criteria are met. Many obstetric organizations support the option of planned vaginal birth for women with a breech presentation under strict prelabor selection criteria and intrapartum management guidelines. The growing trend toward cesarean unfortunately has left midwives and other intrapartum care providers in training with dwindling opportunities to competently master skills for vaginal breech birth. Although simulation training offers opportunities to practice infrequently encountered skills such as vaginal breech birth, it is unknown if this alternative will provide sufficient experience for future generations of clinicians. As a result, women with a breech presentation at term who desire a trial of labor often have limited choices. This article reviews the controversies surrounding the ideal mode of birth created by the Term Breech Trial. Criteria for vaginal breech birth are summarized and the role of simulation explored. Implications for midwifery practice when a breech presentation is diagnosed are also included.

  3. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Huck


    Full Text Available For ten years, the incidence of preterm birth does not decrease in developed countries despite the promotion of public health programs. Many risk factors have been identified including ethnicity, age, tobacco, and infection. However, almost 50% of preterm birth causes remain unknown. The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory and infectious diseases of tooth supporting tissues leading to an oral disability. They influence negatively general health worsening cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Periodontal diseases have been also suspected to increase the rate of preterm birth, but data remain contradictory. The objective of this review is to present the principal results of epidemiological, biological, and interventional studies on the link between periodontal diseases and preterm birth. The conclusions of this work underline the importance for the physician/obstetrician to identify women at risk for preterm birth and to address these patients to dentist for periodontal examination and treatment in order to limit adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  4. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy. (United States)

    Sharpless, J


    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  5. Integrating health interventions for women, newborn babies, and children: a framework for action. (United States)

    Ekman, Björn; Pathmanathan, Indra; Liljestrand, Jerker


    For women and children, especially those who are poor and disadvantaged, to benefit from primary health care, they need to access and use cost-effective interventions for maternal, newborn, and child health. The challenge facing weak health systems is how to deliver such packages. Experiences from countries such as Iran, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and China, and from projects in countries like Tanzania and India, show that outcomes in maternal, newborn, and child health can be improved through integrated packages of cost-effective health-care interventions that are implemented incrementally in accordance with the capacity of health systems. Such packages should include community-based interventions that act in combination with social protection and intersectoral action in education, infrastructure, and poverty reduction. Interventions need to be planned and implemented at the district level, which requires strengthening of district planning and management skills. Furthermore, districts need to be supported by national strategies and policies, and, in the case of the least developed countries, also by international donors and other partners. If packages for maternal, newborn and child health care can be integrated within a gradually strengthened primary health-care system, continuity of care will be improved, including access to basic referral care before and during pregnancy, birth, the postpartum period, and throughout childhood.

  6. Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, L.S. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Brain Institute, Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics (HOPE) Center, Miami, FL (United States); Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Yaylali, Ilker [Miami Children' s Hospital, Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program, Miami, FL (United States); Zurakowski, David [Harvard Medical School, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ruiz, Jennifer; Altman, Nolan R. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Brain Institute, Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics (HOPE) Center, Miami, FL (United States); Grossman, John A.I. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program, Miami, FL (United States); New York University, Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States)


    Detailed evaluation of a brachial plexus birth injury is important for treatment planning. To determine the diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Included in the study were 31 children with perinatal brachial plexus injury who underwent surgical intervention. All patients had cervical and brachial plexus MRI. The standard of reference was the combination of intraoperative (1) surgical evaluation and (2) electrophysiological studies (motor evoked potentials, MEP, and somatosensory evoked potentials, SSEP), and (3) the evaluation of histopathological neuronal loss. MRI findings of cord lesion, pseudomeningocele, and post-traumatic neuroma were correlated with the standard of reference. Diagnostic performance characteristics including sensitivity and specificity were determined. From June 2001 to March 2004, 31 children (mean age 7.3 months, standard deviation 1.6 months, range 4.8-12.1 months; 19 male, 12 female) with a brachial plexus birth injury who underwent surgical intervention were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of an MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma were 97% (30/31) and 100% (31/31), respectively, using the contralateral normal brachial plexus as the control. However, MRI could not determine the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) of the post-traumatic brachial plexus neuroma injury. Sensitivity and specificity for an MRI finding of pseudomeningocele in determining exiting nerve injury were 50% and 100%, respectively, using MEP, and 44% and 80%, respectively, using SSEP as the standard of reference. MRI in infants could not image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of definite avulsion. In children younger than 18 months with brachial plexus injury, the MRI finding of pseudomeningocele has a low sensitivity and a high specificity for nerve root avulsion. MRI and MR myelography cannot image well the exiting nerve roots to determine

  7. Teacher Use of Brain-Based Research, Response to Intervention, and Teacher Efficacy in Elementary Schools with High and Low Individual Education Plan Growth for English Language Learners (United States)

    Fernandez, Nicole


    The purpose of this study was to explore the possible causes that might contribute to the disproportionate percentage of English language learners ELLs with special education individual education plans (IEPs). Elementary school classroom teachers from school districts that exhibited high growth in the percentage of ELLs with IEPs during 2007-2010…

  8. Understanding surgery choices for breast cancer: how might the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Common Sense Model contribute to decision support interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivell, S.; Edwards, A.; Elwyn, G.; Manstead, A.S.


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the evidence about factors influencing breast cancer patients' surgery choices and the implications for designing decision support in reference to an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Common Sense Model of Illness Representations (CSM). BACKGROUND: A wide rang

  9. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....

  10. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  11. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert


    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  12. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai


    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  13. 11. Strategic planning. (United States)


    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  14. Team training for safer birth. (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios


    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women.

  15. Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India (United States)

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla


    Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

  16. 计划生育服务机构开展流产后计划生育服务的干预效果分析%Analysis of the Intervention Effect of Family Planning Service After Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨和分析计划生育服务机构开展流产后计划生育服务的干预效果。方法选取2013年6月~2016年6月在计划生育服务机构接受人工流产的80例妇女作为研究对象,根据随机数字表法分为两组,每组分别有40例人工流产妇女,对对照组人工流产妇女进行常规的流产后服务,对研究组人工流产妇女进行流产后计划生育服务,分析两组人工流产妇女的效果。结果研究组人工流产妇女干预之后的避孕节育相关知识得分为(9.57±0.21)分,与对照组人工流产妇女的(6.20±0.35)分相比较,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),研究组人工流产妇女的主动避孕率、非计划妊娠率(85.00%、7.50%)与对照组人工流产妇女(52.50%、20.00%)相比较,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论计划生育服务机构对人工流产妇女开展流产后的计划生育服务的干预效果较佳。%Objective To study and analysis the intervention effect of post-abortion family planning services carried out by family planning service agencies. Methods From June 2013 to June 2016 in family planning service agencies to accept abortion, 80 cases of women selected as the research object, according to random number table method is divided into two groups, each group 40 cases of artiifcial abortion women, the control group artificial abortion women with routine post-abortion services, the study group artiifcial abortion women with post-abortion family planning service, analysis the effect of two groups of artiifcial abortion women.Results The contraceptive knowledge score of the study group artiifcial abortion women after the intervention was (9.57±0.21) score, and the control group artiifcial abortion women was (6.20±0.35) score, with clear difference between groups (P<0.05), the active contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancy rate of the study group artiifcial abortion women (85.00%, 7

  17. The birth and routinization of IVF in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo


    How can it be that China today is home to some of the world’s largest IVF clinics, carrying out as many as 30,000 cycles annually? In this article, I address how IVF was developed in China during the early 1980s only to be routinized during the exact same period that one of the world’s most...... comprehensive family planning programmes aimed at preventing birth was being rolled out. IVF was not merely imported into China, rather it was experimentally developed within China into a form suitable for its restrictive family planning regulations. As a result, IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies...

  18. Birth Preparedness and Its Association with Skilled Birth Attendance and Postpartum Checkups among Mothers in Gibe Wereda, Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Lakew


    postpartum checkups were low. Encouraging women to attend recommended antenatal care visits and providing advice and education on birth preparedness and obstetric danger signs are important interventions to increase skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups.

  19. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G;


    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  20. The Birth of a Torpedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin


    Full Text Available The article describes the history of the birth of a torpedo, the roles of Robert Whitehead and Giovanni Lupis, specifies the technical characteristics of the first samples, and analyzes the difficul-ties faced in their development, and gives some samples of alternative products of this purpose.

  1. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri


    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  2. Particulate matter and preterm birth (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  3. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina


    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  4. Births: Final Data for 2012 (United States)

    ... 9, December 30, 2013 Table 25. Preterm and low birthweight births, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2012 Age and race and Hispanic origin of mother Preterm 1 Percent Number Total Early 3 Late 4 Total Early 3 Late 4 Unknown Total ...

  5. Maternal Characteristics and Temporal Trends in Birth Outcomes: Comparison between Spanish and Migrant Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Varea


    Full Text Available Low birth weight and preterm babies have been increasing in Spain since 1980, coinciding with important changes in the social and demographic structure of childbearing populations—including the contribution of a 25% of foreign mothers—and with increasing medical intervention in births. This study, based on 5,990,613 births, compares the temporary trends in reproductive patterns and birth outcomes in Spanish and foreign mothers during the period 1996–2009 and evaluates for the years 2007 to 2009 the relative contribution of mother's origin and Caesarean section to birth weight variability. Foreign mothers maintain their own reproductive pattern, whereas negative birth outcomes increase in all groups. Results from logistic regression analysis show that besides late maternity and primiparity also Caesarean section increases the risk for low birth weight. The reduction in Caesarean section rates between 2007 and 2009 might explain the reduction of low birth weight detected. A change of tendency simultaneously appears in most maternal and newborn characteristics, and in the mode of delivery in all ethnic groups since 2008. Coincidence in the timing of the change of trends points to a common factor. We suggest that the current world financial crisis could be this common cause, a hypothesis to be contrasted in future research.

  6. Introducing Midwifery-led Birth Centres to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Mattison


    Full Text Available In Ontario, maternal health systems are changing, with an increasing variety of childbirth options being offered to low-risk pregnant women. Midwifery became a regulated profession in the province in 1994: providing primary care throughout pregnancy, labour and for up to six weeks postpartum. Currently there are three midwifery-led birth centres operating in Ontario, two of which opened in early 2014. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MoHLTC has launched these new birth centres in order to offer women more choice in health care provider and birth setting. This shift is representative of the MoHLTC’s push to move services out of hospitals and into community-based settings. While the birth centre initiative is in its early stages and a formal program evaluation is needed, it has the potential, if scaled up, to decrease the need for hospital beds as well as reduce health care costs through more appropriate care for low-risk pregnancies, leading to fewer interventions.

  7. Housing instability and birth weight among young urban mothers. (United States)

    Carrion, Bianca V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R


    Housing instability is an understudied social condition that may be a severe stressor during pregnancy. Aims of this study are to identify correlates of housing instability and to explore the association between housing instability and birth weight among pregnant teens and young mothers. Participants included pregnant women ages 14-21 from seven community hospitals and health centers in New York City (N = 623). Data were collected via structured surveys during the second trimester of pregnancy (14 to 24 weeks gestation, M = 19.35, SD = 3.20). Birth weight was obtained through labor and delivery logs. Housing instability was operationalized as two or more moves within the past year. More than one in four (28.5 %) pregnant teens and young women in this sample reported housing instability. Women who reported housing instability were less likely to be enrolled in school, have parents as main source of financial support, live in a single-family home or apartment, or be food secure; they were more likely to smoke (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for important clinical, behavioral, and demographic factors typically associated with lower birth weight, housing instability remained a significant predictor of lower birth weight (B (SE) = -83.96(35.47), p = 0.018). Results highlight the importance of housing stability during pregnancy for infant health. Future interventions and policies should ensure that women are housing stable before, during, and after pregnancy.

  8. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erim Daniel O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization.

  9. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri


    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  10. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan. (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary


    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  11. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika (United States)

    ... ol Português Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika and Microcephaly Microcephaly is a birth defect in ... pregnancy or has stopped growing after birth. Congenital Zika Syndrome Congenital Zika syndrome is a pattern of ...

  12. Births and deaths including fetal deaths (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...


    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  14. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...


    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  16. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  17. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil. (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard


    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  19. Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to weight control in an overweight cohort. Results from a pan-European dietary intervention trial (DiOGenes). (United States)

    McConnon, Aine; Raats, Monique; Astrup, Arne; Bajzová, Magda; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Martinez, J Alfredo; Larson, Thomas Meinert; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas; van Baak, Marleen A; Shepherd, Richard


    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study investigates weight control in overweight and obese participants (27 kg/m(2)≤BMIexpectation, 14% in intention and 20% in desire scores. No relationship was established between intention, expectation or desire and behaviour at Time 1 or Time 2. Perceived need and subjective norm were found to be significantly related to weight regain, however, the model explained a maximum of 11% of the variation in weight regain. Better understanding of overweight individuals' trajectories of weight control is needed to help inform studies investigating people's weight regain behaviours. Future research using the TPB model to explain weight control should consider the likely behaviours being sought by individuals.

  20. Feasibility of Implementing an Early Intervention Program in an Urban Low-Income Setting to Improve Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Survivors Following Birth Asphyxia Faisabilité de mise en œuvre d'un Programme d'Intervention Précoce dans les milieux urbains à faibles revenus afin d'améliorer le résultat neurodéveloppemental chez les enfants survivant à une asphyxie à la naissance Viabilidad de la aplicación de un Programa de Intervención Precoz en un entorno urbano de bajos ingresos para mejorar el neurodesarrollo en los supervivientes luego de un cuadro de asfixia perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwyn Chomba


    Full Text Available Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of neonatal mortality, accounting for 23% of neonatal deaths. An early intervention program (EIP could improve neuro-developmental outcomes in survivors of birth asphyxia, but its feasibility in low-income countries has not been tested.  In this pilot study in Zambia, eighty live-born infants > 1500 g of weight who had birth asphyxia and received resuscitation with bag and mask were enrolled for a study of standard care or EIP. Mothers/babies pairs were randomized into control (standard care and intervention (EIP groups and were followed up at home on a bi-weekly basis from 8 weeks to 8 months of age. Forty two mothers/babies (52.5% completed the study at 8 months. Reasons for not completing the study were: 19 (50.1% were lost to follow up, 16 (42.1% withdrew, and 3 (7.8% died. Follow-up to 8 months of age was not feasible for the majority in a large urban city with a low income population. Thus, interventions for children who have suffered birth asphyxia that require additional health care visits may not be currently feasible in the setting tested. There is a need to conduct further EIP studies to determine ways to improve follow up rates of children surviving birth asphyxia. Integrating early intervention programs with other successful health programs, such as the existing immunization programs, may improve follow up rates.L'asphyxie à la naissance est une cause majeure de la mortalité néonatale et représente 23 % des morts néonatales. Un programme d'intervention précoce (EIP, sigle en anglais pourrait améliorer les résultats neurodéveloppementaux chez les nouveau-nés survivant à une asphyxie à la naissance, mais sa faisabilité dans les pays à faibles revenus n'a pas été testée. Dans cette étude pilote conduite en Zambie, quatre-vingt nourrissons nés vivants d'un poids > 1 500 g, ayant souffert d'une asphyxie à la naissance et réanimés avec un masque et un ballon, ont été retenus pour

  1. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality. (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.


    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  2. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.


    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  3. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van Erik A.


    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  4. Family planning Indonesia. (United States)

    Singarimbun, M


    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  5. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit


    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  6. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;


    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...... to the study. It is expected that a large number of gene-environmental hypotheses need to be based on case-control analyses within a cohort like this....

  7. Analysis of assistance procedures to normal birth in primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Luiz Vieira Garcia Novo


    Full Text Available Introduction: Current medical technologies in care in birth increased maternal and fetal benefits persist, despite numerous unnecessary procedures. The purpose of the normal childbirth care is to have healthy women and newborns, using a minimum of safe interventions. Objective: To analyze the assistance to normal delivery in secondary care maternity. Methodology: A total of 100 primiparous mothers who had vaginal delivery were included, in which care practices used were categorized: 1 according to the WHO classification for assistance to normal childbirth: effective, harmful, used with caution and used inappropriately; 2 associating calculations with the Bologna Index parameters: presence of a birth partner, partograph, no stimulation of labor, delivery in non-supine position, and mother-newborn skin-to-skin contact. Results: Birth partners (85%, correctly filled partographs (62%, mother-newborn skin-to-skin contact (36%, use of oxytocin (87%, use of parenteral nutrition during labor (86% and at delivery (74%, episiotomy (94% and uterine fundal pressure in the expulsion stage (58%. The overall average value of the Bologna Index of the mothers analyzed was 1.95. Conclusions: Some effective procedures recommended by WHO (presence of a birth partner, some effective and mandatory practices were not complied with (partograph completely filled, potentially harmful or ineffective procedures were used (oxytocin in labor/post-partum, as well as inadequate procedures (uterine fundal pressure during the expulsion stage, use of forceps and episiotomy. The maternity’s care model did not offer excellence procedures in natural birth to their mothers in primiparity, (BI=1.95.

  8. Latitude, birth date, and allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wjst


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. CONCLUSION: Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors.

  9. Intervention Engagement Moderates the Dose–Response Relationships in a Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lippke


    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions could lead to changes in behavior through changes in a mediator. This dose–response relationship might only hold true for those participants who are actively engaged in interventions. This Internet study investigated the role of engagement in a planning intervention to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in addition to testing the intervention effect on planning and behavior. A sample of 701 adults (mean = 38.71 years, 81% women were randomly assigned either to a planning intervention (experimental group or to one of 2 control conditions (untreated waiting list control group or placebo active control group. Moderated mediation analyses were carried out. Significant changes over time and time × group effects revealed the effectiveness of the intervention. The effect of the intervention (time 1 on changes in behavior (time 3; 1 month after the personal deadline study participants set for themselves to start implementing their plans was mediated by changes in planning (time 2; 1 week the personal deadline. Effects of planning on behavior were documented only at a moderate level of intervention engagement. This indicates an inverse U-shaped dose–response effect. Thus, examining participants’ intervention engagement allows for a more careful evaluation of why some interventions work and others do not.

  10. Delivery type not associated with global methylation at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani Shama


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth by cesarean delivery (CD as opposed to vaginal delivery (VD is associated with altered health outcomes later in life, including respiratory disorders, allergies and risk of developing type I diabetes. Epigenetic gene regulation is a proposed mechanism by which early life exposures affect later health outcomes. Previously, type of delivery has been found to be associated with differences in global methylation levels, but the sample sizes have been small. We measured global methylation in a large birth cohort to identify whether type of delivery is associated with epigenetic changes. Methods DNA was isolated from cord blood collected from the University of Michigan Women’s & Children Hospital and bisulfite-converted. The Luminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA and LINE-1 methylation assay were run on all samples in duplicate. Results Global methylation data at CCGG sites throughout the genome, as measured by LUMA, were available from 392 births (52% male; 65% CD, and quantitative methylation levels at LINE-1 repetitive elements were available for 407 births (52% male; 64% CD. LUMA and LINE-1 methylation measurements were negatively correlated in this population (Spearman’s r = −0.13, p =0.01. LUMA measurements were significantly lower for total CD and planned CD, but not emergency CD when compared to VD (median VD = 74.8, median total CD = 74.4, p = 0.03; median planned CD = 74.2, p = 0.02; median emergency CD = 75.3, p = 0.39. However, this association did not persist when adjusting for maternal age, maternal smoking and infant gender. Furthermore, total CD deliveries, planned CD and emergency CD deliveries were not associated with LINE-1 measurements as compared to VD (median VD = 82.2, median total CD = 81.9, p = 0.19; median planned CD = 81.9, p = 0.19; median emergency CD = 82.1, p = 0.52. This lack of association held when adjusting for maternal age

  11. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy. (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn


    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.

  12. Family planning costs and benefits. (United States)


    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  13. Computational radiology for orthopaedic interventions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shuo


    This book provides a cohesive overview of the current technological advances in computational radiology, and their applications in orthopaedic interventions. Contributed by the leading researchers in the field, this volume covers not only basic computational radiology techniques such as statistical shape modeling, CT/MRI segmentation, augmented reality and micro-CT image processing, but also the applications of these techniques to various orthopaedic interventional tasks. Details about following important state-of-the-art development are featured: 3D preoperative planning and patient-specific instrumentation for surgical treatment of long-bone deformities, computer assisted diagnosis and planning of periacetabular osteotomy and femoroacetabular impingement, 2D-3D reconstruction-based planning of total hip arthroplasty, image fusion for  computer-assisted bone tumor surgery, intra-operative three-dimensional imaging in fracture treatment, augmented reality based orthopaedic interventions and education, medica...

  14. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael;


    with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... than non-exposed children (margarine initiation 27·4 (95 % CI 10·8, 44·0) g). No differences in the odds of high (>4000 g) or low ( weight were observed between the children exposed and non-exposed to vitamin D fortification prenatally. Prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortified...

  15. John Snow and cholera--the bicentenary of birth. (United States)

    Gańczak, Maria


    The bicentenary of John Snow's birth, a legend in his field, for his research on epidemiology and the prevention ofcholera, constitutes a unique opportunity to commemorate this iconic figure. In the article, his spectacular achievements in this discipline are presented, including his epidemiological investigation during cholera epidemic and the well-known Broad Street intervention in Soho, in 1854, as well as his methodologically elegant experiment "on the grandest scale" in which he compared the cholera fatality rates in households served by two different water supply companies. Having referred to Snow's research, the cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 is also discussed.

  16. The Effect of Oral Polio Vaccine at Birth on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Andersen, Andreas; Hansen, Anna Sofie K;


    of 7012 healthy normal-birth-weight neonates were randomized to BCG only (intervention group) or OPV0 with BCG (usual practice). All children were to receive OPV with pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Seven...

  17. Low birth weight among adolescents at Cape Coast Metropolitan Hospital of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Afriyie


    Conclusions: Adolescents are at a higher risk of giving birth to babies of LBW than adults. Factors predicting LBW may not be different for adolescent and adult mothers. Interventions for prevention of negative sexual health outcomes should focus on adolescents. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4242-4247

  18. Interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrich, W. (ed.) (Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Medizinische Radiologie); Gross-Fengels, W. (ed.) (Allgemeines Krankenhaus Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie)


    In interventional radiology adjunctive medical therapy can increase patient's comfort, and should further reduce the risks of the procedures. In order to fulfill the responsibility of the interventionist to the patients and to increase the success rate of the interventions, a profound knowledge of certain drugs is indispensable. This includes, for example, sedatives, analgesics, cardiovascular drugs and agents to prevent infections, thromboembolic complications or restenoses. Moreover, a good monitoring system during complex procedures will increase the safety of radiological interventions. These topics and several more are presented in this book. (orig.). 32 figs.

  19. 美国个别化家庭服务计划概况及启示%The Individualized Family Service Plan and Its Implications for the Development of Early Intervention in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲; 章永


    Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) is the foundation of the whole early intervention work in America. Since it was first proposed in 1986 for 0-3 year-old infants, IFSP has made tremendous developments in theory and practice, accumulated rich experience and lessons which deserves to be learned. On the basis of reviewing IFSP’s development course in American laws, this article describes the basic con-notation of IFSP, introduces its formulation and implementation process, and analyzes its existing problems in practice, which will give reference for the development of early intervention work in China.%个别化家庭服务计划是美国整个早期干预工作的基石。自1986年美国首次提出为0到3岁的特殊婴幼儿制定个别化家庭服务计划以来,个别化家庭服务计划在理论和实践方面都取得了巨大的发展,积累了丰富的经验和教训。文章通过回顾个别化家庭服务计划在美国法律中的发展历史,介绍个别化家庭服务计划的基本内涵、制定和实施过程以及在实践中存在的问题,以期在法律保障、干预团队建设以及服务提供方面为我国特殊儿童早期干预工作的开展提供借鉴。

  20. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L


    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  1. The domestication of human birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Stefanović


    Full Text Available Observations of the burial places of newborns at the prehistoric site at Lepenski Vir (Serbia revealed the possibility that deliveries took place inside houses that were heated. Warm houses provided a thermally stable environment which, in turn, could solve the problem of thermoregulation, that is critical for the survival of babies. In this study it is shown that the creation of these good conditions for giving birth could have been an important step in human evolution that could have led to a demographic expansion.

  2. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad


    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration ( no.: NCT01103219

  3. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik


    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  4. Healthcare access and quality of birth care: narratives of women living with obstetric fistula in rural Tanzania



    Background Increasing births with skilled attendants and increasing health facilities with Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) can reduce maternal mortality and are considered critical interventions for ensuring safe motherhood. Despite Tanzania’s policy to support women to give birth with the assistance of skilled personnel, some women do not access this care. This article uses women’s stories to illustrate the challenges that caused them to fail to access adequate obstetric care in a timely man...

  5. The Choice of Pre-Birth Genetic Modification : Through Kant´s Ethics in the 21st Century


    Dumisic, Sanjin


    This essay discusses, departing from Kant’s deontological ethics, and deals with the ques- tion of which types of pre-birth genetic modification are acceptable from the perspective of Kant’s ethics theory? The conclusion is that Kant’s ethics can be in line with certain thera- peutic interventions. Yet the same ethics disapproves with any sort of pre-birth modifica- tion based on personal design, preferences and commodification of the process.

  6. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  7. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  8. The joint influence of marital status, interpregnancy interval, and neighborhood on small for gestational age birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuquan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpregnancy interval (IPI, marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997–2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (intermediate (12–35 months, or long (36+ months IPI, or as firstborn. The data had a 2-level hierarchical structure, with births nested in 49 neighborhoods. We used multilevel logistic regression to obtain adjusted effect estimates. Results Marital status modified the association between IPI and SGA birth. Being unmarried relative to married was associated with SGA birth for all IPI categories, particularly for subsequent births with short (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.95 and intermediate (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.26–1.74 IPIs. Subsequent births had a lower likelihood of SGA birth than firstborns. Intermediate IPIs were more protective for married (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.47–0.54 than unmarried mothers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56–0.76. Conclusion Being unmarried increases the likelihood of SGA birth as the IPI shortens, and the protective effect of intermediate IPIs is reduced in unmarried mothers. Marital status should be considered in recommending particular IPIs as an intervention to improve birth outcomes.

  9. Purulent Bacterial Meningitis at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Karimi


    Full Text Available Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which are known as the meninges. This infection may be caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. In this study, we presented the case of a female newborn with meningitis secondary to Streptococcus pneumonia. Her birth weight and height were normal. After 24 hours of birth, the neonate was diagnosed with tachypnea, without presenting any signs of fever or respiratory distress. The newborn was referred to Sheikh Children's Hospital, where chest X-ray showed clear lungs with no evidence of abnormality. Furthermore, the cardiothoracic ratio was normal. A complete blood count demonstrated white blood cell (WBC count of 5400/uL. In Blood/Culcture ratio (B/C test, Streptococcus pneumonia was reported, and the results of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis confirmed this result. Following 14 days of receiving antibiotic therapy, the results of CSF analysis were within the normal range. Her visual and hearing examinations were normal, and demonstrated improved situation. The infant was discharged with exclusive breastfeeding.

  10. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal


    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  11. Examination of Life Satisfaction, Child Maltreatment Potential and Substance Use in Mothers Referred for Treatment by Child Protective Services for Child Neglect and Substance Abuse: Implications for Intervention Planning. (United States)

    Plant, Christopher P; Donohue, Brad; Holland, Jason M


    There is evidence to suggest mothers who are served by child protective service agencies are relatively dissatisfied in their lives, leading some investigators to conclude life dissatisfaction may be associated with child maltreatment. To assist in better understanding this relationship the Life Satisfaction Scale for Caregivers (LSSC) was psychometrically developed in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred for behavioral treatment for child neglect and substance abuse by caseworkers from a local child protective service agency. The LSSC was developed to assess mothers' happiness in nine domains (family, friendships, employment/work, spirituality/religion, safety, sex life/dating, ability to avoid drugs, ability to avoid alcohol, control over one's own life). Results indicated two factors that appeared to be relevant to Social Satisfaction and Safety and Control Satisfaction. Higher satisfaction scores on both of these scales were negatively associated with child maltreatment potential and substance use at baseline (i.e., positive urinalysis test). Mothers who exposed their children to substances in utero or in infancy (a distinct type of child neglect) were found to report higher satisfaction scores on the LSSC than other types of child neglect. Hispanic-American, African-American, and Caucasian women reported similar levels of life satisfaction. Application of the LSSC as a non-stigmatizing, wellness-focused instrument is discussed within the context of intervention planning.

  12. Impact of doulas on healthy birth outcomes. (United States)

    Gruber, Kenneth J; Cupito, Susan H; Dobson, Christina F


    Birth outcomes of two groups of socially disadvantaged mothers at risk for adverse birth outcomes, one receiving prebirth assistance from a certified doula and the other representing a sample of birthing mothers who elected to not work with a doula, were compared. All of the mothers were participants in a prenatal health and childbirth education program. Expectant mothers matched with a doula had better birth outcomes. Doula-assisted mothers were four times less likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) baby, two times less likely to experience a birth complication involving themselves or their baby, and significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Communication with and encouragement from a doula throughout the pregnancy may have increased the mother's self-efficacy regarding her ability to impact her own pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink


    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  14. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-ping; REN Zhong-Zhou


    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qurit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth.

  15. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section


    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva


    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  16. The Birth of Aesthetic Experience (United States)

    Todorov, L.


    Student interest in literature is best developed through the creation of a "poetic mood" by the teacher. There also is a need for literature curriculum to be planned by grade levels to match student interest and maturity. (AV)

  17. Partos domiciliares planejados assistidos por enfermeiras obstétricas: transferências maternas e neonatais Partos domiciliarios planificados atendidos por enfermeras obstétricas: traslados maternales y neonatales Planned home births assisted by nurse midwives: maternal and neonatal transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Green Koettker


    intensiva neonatal. Según el estudio, el parto domiciliario planificado atendido por enfermeras obstétricas según protocolo de atención, exhibió buenos resultados maternales y neonatales, inclusive cuando fue necesario efectuar traslados hospitalarios.The objective of this explorative and descriptive study was to describe the rates and reasons for intrapartum transfers from home to hospital among women assisted by nurse midwives, and the outcomes of those deliveries. The sample consisted of eleven women giving birth and their newborns, from January 2005 to December 2009. Data was collected from the maternal and neonatal records and was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The transfer rate was 11%, most of the women were nulliparous (63.6%, and all of them were transferred during the first stage of labor. The most common reasons for transfer were arrested cervical dilation, arrested progress of the fetal head and cephalopelvic disproportion. Apgar scores were >7 for 81.8% of the newborns; and there were no admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit. The results show that planned home births assisted by nurse midwives following a clinical protocol, had good outcomes even when a transfer to the hospital was needed.

  18. [Postoperative patient. Treatment plan]. (United States)

    López Medina, I M; Sánchez Criado, V


    In order to prevent problems and complications which patients who have undergone surgery tend to suffer, it is fundamental to utilize a generic standardized treatment plan due to the preventive dimension which nursing care may then acquire. So that this treatment plan provide greater effectiveness, it should include standardized nursing interventions such as those listed in the Classification of Nursing Interventions since by this method, a common terminology is built up among professionals which provides continuity to treatment and facilitates the selection of adequate interventions for each situation. This report establishes the most frequent nursing diagnoses among post-surgical patients and adapts these to the nursing treatments in the Classification of Nursing Interventions.

  19. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen


    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  20. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.


    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  1. The necessity of Policy/Legislation for implementation of Early Intervention for Children with Disability: A case/context in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Sade Igoni


    Full Text Available The enactment of early intervention legislation ensures that all children with disabilities from birth to the age of three receive appropriate early intervention services. This policy or legislation is the rules and regulations for a country guiding the practice of early intervention, as well as stipulating the rights of children with disabilities. It acts as a guideline to Local, State, Federal government and other allied agencies in providing and establishing the necessary system of early intervention services. With regards to special education and early intervention for children or adults with disabilities in Nigeria, the only mandate comes from Section 8 of the National Policy on Education. However, there is no legal mandate from the government to carry out the objectives enumerated in Section 8 of the National Policy on Education with regards to children or adults with disabilities. For early intervention to be implemented effectively in Nigeria there must be an enacted Federal law, which will aid children with disabilities and their families. The aim of this paper is to describe the status of policies or legislation/law, with regards to implementation of early intervention for children with disabilities in Nigeria. Methodology: the study employed the use of simple descriptive statistics, and used questionnaires, unstructured interviews and literature reviews. The participants (57 females and 36 males included mostly professionals involved in early intervention for children with disabilities, and parents of children with disabilities in Nigeria. The study found that Government budgetary plan to implement a legal support or pass a bill in line with the enumerated objectives in Section 8 of the National Policy on education is minimal or non-existent. In addition, Government’s support in terms of needed resources/facilities is substituted for edible items for moral boosting. Lastly, government has a nonchalant attitude towards early

  2. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study


    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A H; Shapira, S K; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; LIN, S.; Olshan, A.F.


    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  3. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay. (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E


    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  4. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R Kadam


    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  5. Birth characteristics and recurrent otitis media with effusion in young children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, J.A.M.; Straetemans, M.; Zielhuis, G.A.


    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth characteristics and the recurrence of otitis media with effusion (OME). METHODS: Prospective cohort study on 136 children aged 2-7 years, who received tympanostomy tubes for bilateral otitis media with effusion. Checkups were planned 1 week after tub

  6. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang


    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  7. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J


    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill


    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  9. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.


    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  10. My Birth Story is Like a Dream: A Childbirth Educator’s Childbirth (United States)

    Isbir, Gözde G.


    Fear of childbirth is universal. Because of the stories of bad experiences passed down for years, many women fear childbirth. As a result, many women do not believe in the power of their own bodies and often hand over control of their bodies to health-care professionals, resulting in unhappy childbirth experiences because of unnecessary intervention during labor and birth. As a pregnancy trainer who prepares pregnant women for childbirth, the author wrote her personal childbirth story with an autoethnographic narrative method. Her aim is to help motivate pregnant women preparing for childbirth, health-care professionals preparing those pregnant women, and birthing staff. PMID:24381475

  11. Impact of community-based interventions on maternal and neonatal health indicators: Results from a community randomized trial in rural Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Stan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan has high maternal mortality, particularly in the rural areas. The delay in decision making to seek medical care during obstetric emergencies remains a significant factor in maternal mortality. Methods We present results from an experimental study in rural Pakistan. Village clusters were randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (16 clusters each. In the intervention clusters, women were provided information on safe motherhood through pictorial booklets and audiocassettes; traditional birth attendants were trained in clean delivery and recognition of obstetric and newborn complications; and emergency transportation systems were set up. In eight of the 16 intervention clusters, husbands also received specially designed education materials on safe motherhood and family planning. Pre- and post-intervention surveys on selected maternal and neonatal health indicators were conducted in all 32 clusters. A district-wide survey was conducted two years after project completion to measure any residual impact of the interventions. Results Pregnant women in intervention clusters received prenatal care and prophylactic iron therapy more frequently than pregnant women in control clusters. Providing safe motherhood education to husbands resulted in further improvement of some indicators. There was a small but significant increase in percent of hospital deliveries but no impact on the use of skilled birth attendants. Perinatal mortality reduced significantly in clusters where only wives received information and education in safe motherhood. The survey to assess residual impact showed similar results. Conclusions We conclude that providing safe motherhood education increased the probability of pregnant women having prenatal care and utilization of health services for obstetric complications.

  12. Analysis of the report of perinatal birth defects monitoring in fengtai district of beijing from 2006 to 2010%北京市丰台区2006-2010年出生缺陷监测数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 张静; 房春玉


    Objective: By understanding the incidence of perinatal birth defect in Fengtai district of Beijing, in order to explore the influencing factors and develop interventions to reduce the incidence of birth defect. Methods; The data of perinatal birth defects from 2006 to 2010 were gathered from monitoring hospitals in Fengtai district. Results: The incidence of birth defect in Fengtai district was 110.5/10000 and there was a upward trend during 5 years. The perinatal birth defects stood on the first 3 rank of incidence list followed by Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of auricle, Congenital heart defects. There were certain correlation among birth defects, the mother's residence geography, gestational age, birth weight, gestational age of birth. Conclusion: It is valuable to reduce the incidence by a well - planned birth defects monitoring and preventive health care program.%目的 分析丰台区出生缺陷的发生情况及相关因素,探索降低出生缺陷发生的干预措施.方法 对2006~2010年北京市丰台区出生缺陷监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2006~2010年出生缺陷总发生率为110.5/万,各年的出生缺陷发生率呈上升趋势;按照出生缺陷病种分类,位于前3位的为多指(趾)、外耳畸形、先天性心脏病;男婴与女婴出生缺陷发生率比较具有显著性差异;母亲户籍、分娩年龄、婴儿出生体重、孕周等是出生缺陷发生的影响因素.结论 做好出生缺陷监测工作,加强出生缺陷三级预防,是降低出生缺陷发生的必要措施.

  13. Family planning programs and fertility decline. (United States)

    Cuca, R


    A recently completed World Bank statistical study of family planning in 63 developing countries indicated that countries which experienced a large decline in birth rates between 1960-1977 were more likely to have a family planning program, an official population policy aimed at decreasing the birth rate, and a relatively high level of development than countries which experienced smaller or no decline in birth rates. The 65 countries represented 95% of the population of the developing world. Birth rate declines of 10% or more between 1960-1977 were experienced by: 1) 10 of the 26 countries which had a family planning program and a policy aimed at reducing the birth rate; 2) 6 of the 19 countries which had a family planning program but lacked clearly defined population objectives; and 3) 2 of the 18 countries without any population policy or program. Furthermore, the implementation of a family planning program and the adoption of a population policy were directly related to the development level of the country. This finding suggested that countries need to reach a certain level of development before they have the capacity to develop population programs and policies. When a country is sufficiently advanced to collect population data, awareness of population problems increases and they are more likely to adopt a population policy. In addition, government efficiency increases as development proceeds and governments must have a certain level of efficiency before they can implement effective programs.

  14. Mothers' Repartnering after a Nonmarital Birth (United States)

    Bzostek, Sharon H.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Carlson, Marcia J.


    This article examines the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of unmarried mothers' repartnering patterns following a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that, within five years after a birth, approximately two-thirds of unmarried mothers end their relationship with the focal child's biological father, and more than half of these mothers enter new…

  15. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ


    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association betwe

  16. Barrier methods of birth control - slideshow (United States)

    ... gov/ency/presentations/100107.htm Barrier methods of birth control - series—Female normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Birth Control A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  17. Student Volunteers as Birth Control Educators (United States)

    Sanders, Raymond S.; And Others


    A one-year project on birth control education that used students as birth control educators was initiated to increase student awareness of the need for contraception. Support for this method of disseminating information was demonstrated. The project facilitated student use of the Gynecological Clinic of the Student Health Center. (Author)

  18. Catholics vs. Protestants - Birth and Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael


    Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...

  19. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen


    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  20. What Is Preterm Labor and Birth? (United States)

    ... 70% of preterm infants are born during the late-preterm time frame. 3 Preterm birth is the most common cause of infant death ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  1. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen


    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  2. Intelligence, birth order, and family size. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi


    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  3. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure. (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur


    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  4. Birth Quota Trading Mechanism Design under the Planned Quota System---Study under the Background of the Universal Two-Child Policy%计划配额制下的准生权交易机制设计--以全面放开二孩为背景的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华磊; 王辉; 周晓波


    With the demographic change of generations, China is still in the middle-income stage, a demographic imbalance and the total population are still outstanding issues, the demographic imbalance requires us to promptly release the two-child policy, due to total population, we cannot claim the full liberalization fertility, under the background of the implementation of the universal two-child policy, how to go to find a third way between two-child policy and free fertility? This paper presents a birth quota trading mechanism under the planned quota system:statistics, distribution, trade, which is able to meet the China’ s popu-lation in total control, so that the total amount of the target have been implemented to prevent the occurrence of the Malthusian trap, on the micro,but also makes population structure reasonable, fertility behavior has been optimized in the family room, on time, space and different stages of income, achieving the purpose of reserving for future human resources,improving human cap-ital, settling the problem of becoming the aged before getting rich and oversized resource pressure,and thus the above policy help China move away from the middle-income stage into the developed countries. Of course, the reform of the family planning is an important measure which to give full basic effect of the market allocation resources, but also is an important part of the socialist market economic reform.%内容提伴随着人口世代的更迭,还处在中等收入阶段的中国将面临人口结构失衡和人口总量过大的双重问题,人口结构失衡要求我们放开生育政策,人口总量过大又要求我们不能完全放开生育政策。那么,在全面放开二孩与不限制生育之间能否寻找到第三条路?本文设计了一种计划配额制下的准生权交易机制:对准生权一统二放三交易,这即能满足国家在总量上控制人口,使得总量目标得到落实,避免掉入马尔萨斯人口陷阱,

  5. Infant mortality and low birth weight in cities of Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of low birth weight (LBW, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA, and infant mortality in two birth cohorts in Brazil. METHODS: The two cohorts were performed during the 1990s, in São Luís, located in a less developed area in Northeastern Brazil, and Ribeirão Preto, situated in a more developed region in Southeastern Brazil. Data from one-third of all live births in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 were collected (2,839 single deliveries. In São Luís, systematic sampling of deliveries stratified by maternity hospital was performed from 1997 to 1998 (2,439 single deliveries. The chi-squared (for categories and trends and Student t tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The LBW rate was lower in São Luís, thus presenting an epidemiological paradox. The preterm birth rates were similar, although expected to be higher in Ribeirão Preto because of the direct relationship between preterm birth and LBW. Dissociation between LBW and infant mortality was observed, since São Luís showed a lower LBW rate and higher infant mortality, while the opposite occurred in Ribeirão Preto. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of maternal smoking and better access to and quality of perinatal care, thereby leading to earlier medical interventions (cesarean section and induced preterm births that resulted in more low weight live births than stillbirths in Ribeirão Preto, may explain these paradoxes. The ecological dissociation observed between LBW and infant mortality indicates that the LBW rate should no longer be systematically considered as an indicator of social development.

  6. A plan of intervention to ensure the adaptation of the Salento depuration system to legislative decree 152/1999; Uno schema di programmazione degli interventi di adeguamento del sistema depurativo del Salento al decreto legislativo 152/1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Elia, E. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Cattedra di Protezione Idraulica del Territorio; Mari, M. [Acquedotto Pugliese, Servizio Tecnico di Coordinamento, Bari (Italy)


    The alarm provoked by few cases of cholera in october of 1994 led the central italian Government to declare a state of social, economic and environmental emergency in the Puglia region and to entrust the Prefect of Bari with the role of Commissioner. In this position he was charged with identifying and carrying out any intervention aimed at eliminating health risks (herewith including the building of sewage systems and wastewater treatment plants particularly those capable of recuperating the treated effluent for irrigation purposes and/or services). This report focuses on the program which drawn up for Salento area (Province of Lecce) where there was a critical absence of public works and examines which recommendations have actually been activated and others are currently being planned for further improvements in the work already brought to term. [Italian] L'allarme provocato da alcuni casi di colera, registrati nell'ottobre del 1994, indusse il Governo Centrale Italiano a dichiarare lo stato di emergenza socio-economico-ambientale nella Regione Puglia e ad affidare al Prefetto di Bari compiti di Commissario, con l'incarico di predisporre e attuare ogni intervento utile all'eliminazione del pericolo igienico-sanitario anche mediante la realizzazione di reti fognarie, di impianti di trattamento delle acque di rifiuto e di possibili recuperi degli effluenti depurati per usi dell'acqua a fini irrigui e/o di servizio. Nella presente ntoa si riferisce sulla attuazione del programma predisposto ed attuato in merito nell'area del Salento (Provincia di Lecce), nella quale la mancanza delle opere prima dette risultava particolarmente grave, nonche' sulle attivita' in corso di pianificazione per l'ulteriore miglioramento delle opere realizzate.

  7. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents. (United States)

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff


    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  8. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific (United States)

    Unger, Holger W; Gutman, Julie; Briand, Valerie; Fievet, Nadine; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Landis, Sarah H; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Dellicour, Stephanie; Ouma, Peter; Slutsker, Laurence; Terlouw, Dianne J; Kariuki, Simon; Ayisi, John; Nahlen, Bernard; Desai, Meghna; Madanitsa, Mwayi; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Kenneth; Mueller, Ivo; Stanisic, Danielle; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Lusingu, John; Westreich, Daniel; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Meshnick, Steven; Rogerson, Stephen


    Purpose The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria–nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. Participants Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015. Findings to date Data are available at the time of antenatal enrolment of women into their respective parent study and at delivery. The data set comprises essential data such as malaria infection status, anthropometric assessments of maternal nutritional status, presence of anaemia and birth weight, as well as additional variables such gestational age at delivery for a subset of women. Participating studies are described in detail with regard to setting and primary outcome measures, and summarised data are available from each contributing cohort. Future plans This pooled birth cohort is the largest pregnancy data set to date to permit a more definite evaluation of the impact of plausible interactions between poor nutritional status and malaria infection in pregnant women on fetal growth and gestational length. Given the current comparative lack of large pregnancy cohorts in malaria-endemic settings, compilation of suitable pregnancy cohorts is likely to provide adequate statistical power to assess malaria–nutrition interactions, and could point towards settings where such interactions are most relevant. The M3 cohort may thus help to identify pregnant women at high risk of adverse outcomes who may benefit from tailored intensive antenatal care including nutritional supplements and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective. PMID:28003287

  9. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian


    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  10. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  11. Birth defects registries in the genomics era: challenges and opportunities for developing countries. (United States)

    Thong, Meow-Keong


    Birth defects or congenital anomalies are one of the major causes of disability in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. Increasingly, there is a shift to genetic testing and genomics study of birth defects. However, the translation from bench findings to bedside medicine has been muted. There is a need to address this imbalance where congenital anomalies remained the top etiology for neonatal mortality in developing countries. To build capacity in low resource countries, there is a need for accurate collection and ascertainment of birth defects in developing countries. The systematic collection and analysis of data on major birth defects using birth defects registries (BDRs) are an integral part of all clinical genetic services. Healthcare planners in developing countries must be aware of the advantages and limitations of BDRs. Despite the advent of the genomics era, BDRs are essential to the planning and developing care and prevention services at local and national levels, particularly in low resource or developing countries.

  12. Iranian mothers' perception of the psychological birth trauma: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh


    Full Text Available Childbirth is one of the most vulnerable moments and the most important and memorable events in the lives of women that despite of bringing happiness, it can be associated with psychological trauma and endanger the mother and neonate health. Mothers' perception of the psychological birth trauma is a highly subjective process that depends on the cultural, social and biological conditions of mothers that is not achievable except with examination of their views. This study aimed to understand psychological birth trauma from the perceptions of Iranian mothers.A qualitative research design using in-depth interviews of 23 Iranian mothers was conducted from Tehran and Isfahan health centers. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using conventional content analysis.Two themes were extracted from the data: impact of psychological birth trauma and trends of psychological birth trauma. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data. Feelings of fear, anxiety, helplessness and sense of impending death (collapse were reported by the mothers.By considering the unforgettable experience of mothers from the psychological birth trauma, a plan for supportive care before, during and after birth is critical.

  13. Swaziland's Traditional Birth Attendants Survey. (United States)

    Lech, M M; Mngadi, T P


    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms registered in Swaziland. The total number of sampled respondents in the 25 Chiefdoms was 721. From the survey, it is estimated that there were probably 3000 TBAs in the country, and in the majority of cases such TBAs would be a 51-year old woman who herself had delivered six children and had worked as a TBA for at least 10 years. Between 9,000 and 12,000 deliveries are estimated to take place out of health facilities. Of these many, nearly 43.5% are assisted by "TBAs"; 16.3% of woman interviewed deliver relative/family member and 15.1% are assisted by friends/neighbours, etc. Some of TBAs carry out procedures which are considered to be potentially harmful. Nearly 30% of TBAs have administered herbs; 45% attend to abnormal deliveries (breech and multiple pregnancies); 26.7% re-use their cord cutting tools and in the case of haemorrhage 23.4% do manual procedures within reproductive tract of delivering women.

  14. Birth delivery trauma and malocclusion. (United States)

    Cattaneo, Ruggero; Monaco, Annalisa; Streni, Oriana; Serafino, Vittorio; Giannoni, Mario


    The aim of the investigation was to determine the dynamic of birth delivery and relate to dental occlusion among a group of adult subjects. The group studied was made up of 106 subjects (57 females and 49 males) referred for dental diagnosis and treatment. The average age was 26 with a range 22 to 30 years. In data collection and analysis the following were used as measures: dental occlusion (Angle Class I, II div 1, II div 2 and III) and type of delivery (normal, short, long, caesarean and other). Results showed that among 106 subjects 72 (68%) had malocclusion versus 34 (32%) with normal occlusion; 24 subjects (22.6%) have been normal delivery versus 82 (77.4%) with non-normal delivery. Class I is present in 34 subjects (32%), class II division 1 in 26 (24%), class II division 2 in 22. (20%), class III in 16 (14%), and 8 subjects (6%) fall in the section "other". Among 24 subjects with normal delivery 100% presented class I occlusion. However, among 82 subjects with non-normal delivery 10 subjects had a class I (12.2%) and the 72 (87.8%) had in the other classes, are distributed in the various subgroups of non-normal labor/delivery. None of the subjects with a malocclusion have a normal labor/delivery. Better understanding of the connections among osteopathic theory, craniosacral treatment and the outcomes upon dental occlusion, more rigorous evaluations are warranted.

  15. Prediction of preterm birth in twins. (United States)

    Makrydimas, George; Sotiriadis, Alexandros


    About 13% of twins are born before 34 weeks and 7% before 32 weeks. The prediction of preterm birth in twins is based on the same tests as in singleton pregnancies. In twin pregnancies, the cut-off for short cervix at the second trimester scan is less than 25 mm (compared with 15 mm in singletons); length less than 20 mm is associated with 42% risk for birth before 32 weeks and cervical length less than 25 mm is associated with 28% risk for birth before 28 weeks. The measurement of cervical length in pregnancies with symptoms of preterm labour may have limited accuracy in predicting preterm birth. In asymptomatic women, a positive fetal fibronectin test seems to be associated with 35% risk for birth before 32 weeks and 40% risk for birth less than 34 weeks, whereas a negative test decreases the risk to 6% and 17%, respectively. The differences in the predictive value of tests between twins and singletons reflect the diverse pathophysiology of preterm birth between the two groups.

  16. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity. Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types. Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:177-80.].

  17. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality.Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity.Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types.Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence.

  18. Could elective cesarean sections influence the birth weight of full-term infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There are no studies on birth weights among full-term infants born by means of elective cesarean section. We aimed to study this in private and public hospitals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Data were collected from the municipal medical birth register of Uberaba from January to December 2000. The data obtained (maternal age, type of delivery, number of prenatal care visits and birth weight, from full-term pregnancy from the university hospital (UH, which is a tertiary hospital that only attends patients within the National Health System (SUS, were compared with data from four private hospitals (PHs that attend health insurance plans and private patients. Student's t test, chi2 test and multiple logistic regression were used for statistical analysis, with the significance level set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In the PHs, 1,100 out of 1,354 births (81.2% were by cesarean section and in the UH, 373 out of 1,332 (28%. Birth weight increased significantly in association with increasing numbers of prenatal care visits, except for cesarean section cases in PHs. Birth weights among vaginal delivery cases in PHs were greater than in the UH (p < 0.05, but this was not observed among cesarean section cases. Multiple logistic regression showed that there was greater risk of low birth weight in PHs (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 4.55. CONCLUSION: Elective cesarean section performed in PHs may be associated with low birth weight among full-term infants.

  19. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler


    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. STUDY POPULATION: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous...... support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy...

  20. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;


    by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  1. Pudendal nerve block for vaginal birth. (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah


    Pudendal nerve block is a safe and effective pain relief method for vaginal birth. Providing analgesia to the vulva and anus, it is used for operative vaginal birth and subsequent repair, late second stage pain relief with spontaneous vaginal birth, repair of complex lacerations, or repair of lacerations in women who are unable to achieve adequate or satisfactory pain relief during perineal repair with local anesthesia. Key to its efficacy is the knowledge of pudendal nerve anatomy, the optimal point of infiltration of local anesthetic, and an understanding of the amount of time necessary to effect adequate analgesia.

  2. Delivering information: A descriptive study of Australian women’s information needs for decision-making about birth facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Rachel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is known about what information women want when choosing a birth facility. The objective of this study was to inform the development of a consumer decision support tool about birth facility by identifying the information needs of maternity care consumers in Queensland, Australia. Methods Participants were 146 women residing in both urban and rural areas of Queensland, Australia who were pregnant and/or had recently given birth. A cross-sectional survey was administered in which participants were asked to rate the importance of 42 information items to their decision-making about birth facility. Participants could also provide up to ten additional information items of interest in an open-ended question. Results On average, participants rated 30 of the 42 information items as important to decision-making about birth facility. While the majority of information items were valued by most participants, those related to policies about support people, other women’s recommendations about the facility, freedom to choose one’s preferred position during labour and birth, the aesthetic quality of the facility, and access to on-site neonatal intensive care were particularly widely valued. Additional items of interest frequently focused on postnatal care and support, policies related to medical intervention, and access to water immersion. Conclusions The women surveyed had significant and diverse information needs for decision-making about birth facility. These findings have immediate applications for the development of decision support tools about birth facility, and highlight the need for tools which provide a large volume of information in an accessible and user-friendly format. These findings may also be used to guide communication and information-sharing by care providers involved in counselling pregnant women and families about their options for birth facility or providing referrals to birth facilities.

  3. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth (United States)

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine


    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  4. Spatial planning


    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane


    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  5. The Birth Environment of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C


    This paper reviews our current understanding of the possible birth environments of our Solar System. Since most stars form within groups and clusters, the question becomes one of determining the nature of the birth aggregate of the Sun. This discussion starts by reviewing Solar System properties that provide constraints on our environmental history. We then outline the range of star-forming environments that are available in the Galaxy, and discuss how they affect star and planet formation. The nature of the solar birth cluster is constrained by many physical considerations, including radiation fields provided by the background environment, dynamical scattering interactions, and by the necessity of producing the short-lived radioactive nuclear species inferred from meteoritic measurements. Working scenarios for the solar birth aggregate can be constructed, as discussed herein, although significant uncertainties remain.

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births (United States)

    ... text version SOURCE: Adapted from Trussell J in Contraceptive Technology, 2011, and FDA Office of Women’s Health ... about how to avoid repeat births with both male and female teens. ...

  7. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug. (United States)

    Duda, Marty


    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  8. Pedophilia, sexual orientation, and birth order. (United States)

    Bogaert, A F; Bezeau, S; Kuban, M; Blanchard, R


    This study extended research on birth order and erotic preferences by examining birth order in a sample of pedophiles. Charts of 338 pedophiles, assessed from 1980-1994 in the Behavioural Sexology Department of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, were reviewed for family-demographic information. In total, 170 (57 heterosexual pedophiles, 68 homosexual pedophiles, and 45 bisexual pedophiles) of these men had sufficient sibling information to be included in the analyses. The results indicated that homosexual-bisexual pedophiles had a later birth order than heterosexual pedophiles and that this effect was primarily the result of the homosexual-bisexual group being born later among their brothers. The results extend previous findings that homosexual men, regardless of sample composition, have a later birth order than comparable groups of heterosexual men. The results also challenge some existing theories on the nature and origins of pedophilia.

  9. Live birth in an archosauromorph reptile (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Organ, Chris L.; Benton, Michael J.; Brandley, Matthew C.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.


    Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth. Our phylogenetic models indicate that Dinocephalosaurus determined the sex of their offspring by sex chromosomes rather than by environmental temperature like crocodilians. Our results provide crucial evidence for genotypic sex determination facilitating land-water transitions in amniotes. PMID:28195584

  10. Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk (United States)

    ... Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk Bad 'bugs' tied ... Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain types of bacteria in a pregnant woman's cervix and vagina can ...

  11. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents (United States)

    ... best interests ahead of their own when they make the decision to place the child for adoption (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007). Other reasons birth parents place their children for adoption include societal and ...

  12. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...... birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....


    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  14. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher-Giguere, C A


    We investigate the birth and evolution of Galactic isolated radio pulsars. We begin by estimating their birth space velocity distribution from proper motion measurements of Brisken et al. (2002, 2003). We find no evidence for multimodality of the distribution and favor one in which the absolute one-dimensional velocity components are exponentially distributed and with a three-dimensional mean velocity of 380^{+40}_{-60} km s^-1. We then proceed with a Monte Carlo-based population synthesis, modelling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam surveys. We present a population model that appears generally consistent with the observations. Our results suggest that pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with a Galactocentric radial distribution that is well described by the functional form proposed by Yusifov & Kucuk (2004), in which the pulsar surface density peaks at radius ~3 kpc. The birth spin period distribution extends to several h...

  15. The early use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics in susceptible women for the prevention of preterm birth of infectious etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald F


    /meta-analyses have been conducted but none has simultaneously addressed the optimal choice of agent, patient and timing of intervention. We conclude that inappropriate antibiotics used in inappropriate women at inappropriately late gestations do not reduce preterm birth. Conversely, a focused systematic review....../meta-analysis, which targeted the use of clindamycin before 22 weeks gestation, in women with objective evidence of abnormal genital tract flora, demonstrated that clindamycin produced a significant decrease in late miscarriage and preterm birth.......INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in high-income countries. The etiology of preterm birth is multifactorial but there is overwhelming evidence to implicate infection as a major cause. Abnormal genital tract flora in early pregnancy is predictive...

  16. [Interventional angioscopy]. (United States)

    Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Carlier, C; Cécile, J P


    Since 1987, routine angioscopic examination has been performed in 191 patients undergoing angioplasty, with interventions (196) after a 2 year surveillance period (55). Angioscopy allowed follow up "de visu" of the performance of angioplasty, details of its mechanism to be precise and under dilatation to be carried out. For femoral artery occlusions it allowed treatment "à la carte": conventional dilatation of vegetating atheroma, specific treatment of established thrombi (5) and abstention from therapy of atheroma covered by endothelium (3). It also enabled fresh thrombi complicating a stenosis or at the origin of a thrombus to be detected. The extraction technique employed (15) is described. It facilitated catheterization by directing the probe, enabled avoidance of bypassing of stenosis and flaps and of dissection or false introduction into collaterals (10). Directed biopsy could be carried out in inflammatory arteritis (7). Vegetating atheromatous lesions could be opened and extracted, facilitating subsequent dilatation and allowing an approach to removal of iliac artery obstructions without major risks of complications (13). Finally, after an ineffective dilatation or the presence of a dissection, it assisted making the decision to introduce a stent (9), the tolerance and outcome of these stents are described. Or the 196 patients considered suitable for angioplasty, our therapeutic conduct was modified by angioscopy in 58 cases (29%). Not simply a new diagnostic tool, it plays a role in interventional vascular techniques.

  17. Birth-death processes on trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we consider birth-death processes on a tree T and we are interested when it is regular, recurrent and ergodic (strongly, exponentially). By constructing two corresponding birth death processes on Z+, we obtain computable conditions sufficient or necessary for that (in many cases, these two conditions coincide). With the help of these constructions, we give explicit upper and lower bounds for the Dirichlet eigenvalue λ0. At last, some examples are investigated to justify our results.

  18. Kids having kids: the teen birth rate. (United States)

    Noonan, S S


    This article focuses on adolescent pregnancy and birth issues in the US. Although the birth rate among adolescents aged 10-19 years in New Jersey declined to 9609 infants per year in 1994, a decline of 7% from 1990, there remain concerns about the welfare of the mother and fetal development. Adolescent birth rates in New Jersey are higher for Black youths compared to White youths (100/1000 births vs. 25.4/1000). During 1990-94, births to girls aged 10-14 years increased from 241 to 284. There are many reasons for teenage pregnancy: abuse or coercion, peer pressure, misinformation, defiant behavior, person whims, and need for success through pregnancy. Pregnant teens frequently do not receive adequate prenatal care, maintain good nutrition, and/or refrain from unhealthy habits such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and/or drug use. The lack of prenatal care until late pregnancy may be due to lack of health insurance coverage or money for transportation. Teenagers have higher rates of premature births. Fetal development may be impaired due to lack of a proper maternal diet with a sufficient amount of folic acid, iron and protein, or food intake. Teenagers have twice the rate of spina bifida. Girls need to know the facts about the risk of premature birth and low birth weight associated with their cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Girls should be asked to reduce smoking to 3-5 cigarettes per week by the next visit and to stop entirely by the following visit. Teenagers need reinforcement in adopting the right eating patterns and curbing undesirable habits. Prenatal care should be comprehensive. The evidence suggests that fetal development is hampered by the competition for resources between the mother and fetus. Health care professionals must provide contraceptives and education; most hope that the repetitive cycle of repeat pregnancy and poverty does not continue.

  19. Birth Tourism and Neonatal Intensive Care: A Children's Hospital Experience. (United States)

    Mikhael, Michel; Cleary, John P; Dhar, Vijay; Chen, Yanjun; Nguyen, Danh V; Chang, Anthony C


    Objective The aim of this article is to examine characteristics of birth tourism (BT) neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods This was a retrospective review over 3 years; BT cases were identified, and relevant perinatal, medical, social, and financial data were collected and compared with 100 randomly selected non-birth tourism neonates. Results A total of 46 BT neonates were identified. They were more likely to be born to older women (34 vs. 29 years; p < 0.001), via cesarean delivery (72 vs. 48%; p = 0.007), and at a referral facility (80 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). BT group had longer hospital stay (15 vs. 7 days; p = 0.02), more surgical intervention (50 vs. 21%; p < 0.001), and higher hospital charges (median $287,501 vs. $103,105; p = 0.003). One-third of BT neonates were enrolled in public health insurance program and four BT neonates (10%) were placed for adoption. Conclusion Families of BT neonates admitted to the NICU face significant challenges. Larger studies are needed to better define impacts on families, health care system, and society.

  20. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  1. Reduction in stillbirths at term after new birth induction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mette; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel;


    OBJECTIVE: The risk of fetal death increases steeply after 42 gestational weeks. Since 2009, Denmark has had a more proactive policy including prevention of prolonged pregnancy, and early intervention in women with diabetes, preeclampsia, high body mass index and of a higher age group. The aim...... from 12.4% in year 2000 to 25.1% in 2012 (prisk of stillbirth after 37 weeks fell from 0.70 to 0.41/1000 ongoing pregnancies (p....4/1000 newborn (passociation between year of birth and risk of stillbirth. The lowest risk was observed in the years 2011-2012 as compared with years 2000-2002 with a fully adjusted HR of 0.69 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). The general earlier induction, the focused...

  2. Advances in the Prevention of infection-Related Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R. F.


    Infection-related preterm birth (PTB) is more common at early gestational ages and is associated with major neonatal mortality and morbidity. Abnormal genital tract microflora in early pregnancy predicts late miscarriage and early PTB. Accordingly, it is logical to consider antibiotics...... metronidazole) or used antibiotics not recommended for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) or BV-related organisms; (b) used antibiotics too late in pregnancy to influence outcome (23-27 weeks); and (c) included women whose risk of PTB was not due to abnormal genital tract colonization and hence unlikely...... to respond to antibiotics. These risks included: (a) previous PTB of indeterminate etiology; (b) low weight/body mass index; or (c) detection of fetal fibronectin, ureaplasmas, Group B streptococcus or Trichomonas vaginalis). While individual studies have found benefit of antibiotic intervention...

  3. Maternal socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with the sex ratio at birth in Vietnam. (United States)

    Pham, Bang Nguyen; Adair, Timothy; Hill, Peter S


    In recent years Vietnam has experienced a high sex ratio at birth (SRB) amidst rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes. However, little is known about the differentials in SRB between maternal socioeconomic and demographic groups. The paper uses data from the annual Population Change Survey (PCS) in 2006 to examine the relationship of the sex ratio of the most recent birth with maternal socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the number of previous female births. The SRB of Vietnam was significantly high at 111.4 (95% CI 109.7-113.1) for the period 1st April 2000 to 31st March 2006. Multivariate analysis reveals that sex of the most recent birth is strongly related with the number of previous female births. This association is consistent across different socioeconomic and demographic groups of women. Given the high SRB in Vietnam, further research into the reasons for high SRB in these groups is required, as are intervention programmes such as those raising the public awareness of its negative consequences.

  4. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou


    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  5. Challenges and Consequences of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami


    Full Text Available Preterm births have been a challenge to obstetricians and paediatricians. Preterm births affect all population irrespective of age, race and economic status due to lack of seriousness and awareness among the pregnant women. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality, amounting to billions of dollars each year, thus increasing the cost for health care. Proper awareness programs about preterm birth may help the women population to know and understand better the signs and symptoms of preterm labour. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality through this study.

  6. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California. (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan


    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th.

  7. Interventions for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.


    Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharm

  8. Birth Control Conspiracy Beliefs, Perceived Discrimination, and Contraception among African Americans: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Thorburn Bird, Sheryl; Bogart, Laura M


    We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey to explore the relationship of birth control conspiracy beliefs and perceived discrimination to contraceptive attitudes and behavior among a sample of African Americans (aged 18-45) in the USA (N = 71). Results indicated that a large percentage of respondents perceived discrimination targeted at African American women and endorsed birth control conspiracy beliefs, and that a significant proportion of female respondents perceived discrimination when getting family planning or contraceptive services. Stronger conspiracy beliefs and greater perceived discrimination were associated with negative attitudes toward contraceptive methods, particularly birth control pills, and with contraceptive behavior and intentions. Our findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs and perceived discrimination may play an important role in African Americans' attitudes toward and use of contraceptive methods.

  9. Birth control for new parents. (United States)

    Jimenez, S L


    The author describes a range of contraceptive methods, and their side effects, which may be acceptable for new parents. The methods are the oral contraceptive pill, Norplant, Depo-Provera, and intrauterine devices (IUD). Natural methods and permanent contraception are options described in insets. The author notes that differences in the effectiveness rates among available types of oral contraceptive pills are small enough not to merit consideration when deciding which kind of pill may be appropriate. Combination birth control pills are taken daily at the same time for 21 out of 28 days. Combination pills are not recommended for women with a history of hypertension or other cardiovascular diseases, thrombophlebitis, migraine headaches, diabetes, active gallbladder disease, or mononucleosis. Any hormonal method may be particularly risky for smokers over age 35. The mini-pill, containing a smaller amount of progesterone and no estrogen, is taken every day and is also on a 28-day cycle. Containing no estrogen, the mini-pill is often recommended for women who are nursing, who are over age 35, or who suffer from hypertension or migraines. Both adverse and positive side effects may be experienced from use. Norplant is the brand name of a contraceptive system which releases progesterone from under the skin of a woman's upper arm over the course of a five-year period. The system has a theoretical effectiveness rate of more than 99%, although the duration of effectiveness may be less than five years in overweight women. The most common side effect is irregular bleeding, and removal is often a longer and more difficult procedure than insertion. The most commonly used injectable hormonal contraceptive is Depo-Provera, a progesterone solution which works for up to three months. The majority of users experience some side effects. Finally, IUDs are highly effective and need to be replaced only every 1-10 years depending upon how they are made. Women typically experience

  10. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althabe Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. Methods We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1 diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2 training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3 providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and

  11. Reducing neonatal mortality associated with preterm birth: gaps in knowledge of the impact of antenatal corticosteroids on preterm birth outcomes in low-middle income countries. (United States)

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L; Jobe, Alan H; Miodovnik, Menachem; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Buekens, Pierre; Belizan, Jose; Althabe, Fernando


    The Global Network's Antenatal Corticosteroids Trial (ACT), was a multi-country, cluster-randomized trial to improve appropriate use of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) in low-resource settings in low-middle income countries (LMIC). ACT substantially increased ACS use in the intervention clusters, but the intervention failed to show benefit in the targeted < 5th percentile birth weight infants and was associated with increased neonatal mortality and stillbirth in the overall population. In this issue are six papers which are secondary analyses related to ACT that explore potential reasons for the increase in adverse outcomes overall, as well as site differences in outcomes. The African sites appeared to have increased neonatal mortality in the intervention clusters while the Guatemalan site had a significant reduction in neonatal mortality, perhaps related to a combination of ACS and improving obstetric care in the intervention clusters. Maternal and neonatal infections were increased in the intervention clusters across all sites and increased infections are a possible partial explanation for the increase in neonatal mortality and stillbirth in the intervention clusters, especially in the African sites. The analyses presented here provide guidance for future ACS trials in LMIC. These include having accurate gestational age dating of study subjects and having care givers who can diagnose conditions leading to preterm birth and predict which women likely will deliver in the next 7 days. All study subjects should be followed through delivery and the neonatal period, regardless of when they deliver. Clearly defined measures of maternal and neonatal infection should be utilized. Trials in low income country facilities including clinics and those without newborn intensive care seem to be of the highest priority.

  12. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson CB


    Full Text Available Charlotte Brix Andersson,1 Christina Flems,2 Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of the database: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia, delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data: Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion: Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. Keywords: DNQDB, Denmark, childbirth, anesthesia

  13. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen A Nohr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. CONCLUSION: Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and

  14. Contraceptive use and distribution of high-risk births in Nigeria: a sub-national analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanni Akinyemi


    Full Text Available Background: Family planning expansion has been identified as an impetus to harnessing Nigeria's demographic dividend. However, there is a need for data to address pockets of inequality and to better understand cultural and social factors affecting contraceptive use and health benefits. This paper contributes to addressing these needs by providing evidence on the trends and sub-national patterns of modern contraceptive prevalence in Nigeria and the association between contraceptive use and high-risk births in Nigeria. Design: The study utilised women's data from the last three Demographic and Health Surveys (2003, 2008, and 2013 in Nigeria. The analysis involved descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analyses were performed to examine the relationship between high-risk births and contraceptive use. Associations were examined using Poisson regression. Results: Findings showed that respondents in avoidable high-risk birth categories were less likely to use contraceptives compared to those at no risk [rate ratio 0.82, confidence interval: 0.76–0.89, p<0.001]. Education and wealth index consistently predicted significant differences in contraceptive use across the models. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that women in the high-risk birth categories were significantly less likely to use a modern method of contraception relative to those categorised as having no risk. However, there are huge sub-national variations at regional and state levels in contraceptive prevalence and subsequent high-risk births. These results further strengthen evidence-based justification for increased investments in family planning programmes at the state and regional levels, particularly regions and states with high unmet needs for family planning.

  15. Automatic planning of head and neck treatment plans. (United States)

    Hazell, Irene; Bzdusek, Karl; Kumar, Prashant; Hansen, Christian R; Bertelsen, Anders; Eriksen, Jesper G; Johansen, Jørgen; Brink, Carsten


    Treatment planning is time-consuming and the outcome depends on the person performing the optimization. A system that automates treatment planning could potentially reduce the manual time required for optimization and could also provide a method to reduce the variation between persons performing radiation dose planning (dosimetrist) and potentially improve the overall plan quality. This study evaluates the performance of the Auto-Planning module that has recently become clinically available in the Pinnacle3 radiation therapy treatment planning system. Twenty-six clinically delivered head and neck treatment plans were reoptimized with the Auto-Planning module. Comparison of the two types of treatment plans were performed using DVH metrics and a blinded clinical evaluation by two senior radiation oncologists using a scale from one to six. Both evaluations investigated dose coverage of target and dose to healthy tissues. Auto-Planning was able to produce clinically acceptable treatment plans in all 26 cases. Target coverages in the two types of plans were similar, but automatically generated plans had less irradiation of healthy tissue. In 94% of the evaluations, the autoplans scored at least as high as the previously delivered clinical plans. For all patients, the Auto-Planning tool produced clinically acceptable head and neck treatment plans without any manual intervention, except for the initial target and OAR delineations. The main benefit of the method is the likely improvement in the overall treatment quality since consistent, high-quality plans are generated which even can be further optimized, if necessary. This makes it possible for the dosimetrist to focus more time on difficult dose planning goals and to spend less time on the more tedious parts of the planning process.

  16. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth Defe

  17. Cultures of risk and their influence on birth in rural British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelsen Jude


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of Canadian rural communities offer local maternity services in the absence of caesarean section back-up to parturient residents. These communities are witnessing a high outflow of women leaving to give birth in larger centres to ensure immediate access to the procedure. A minority of women choose to stay in their home communities to give birth in the absence of such access. In this instance, decision-making criteria and conceptions of risk between physicians and parturient women may not align due to the privileging of different risk factors. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews and focus groups with 27 care providers and 43 women from 3 rural communities in B.C. Results When birth was planned locally, physicians expressed an awareness and acceptance of the clinical risk incurred. Likewise, when birth was planned outside the local community, most parturient women expressed an awareness and acceptance of the social risk incurred due to leaving the community. Conclusions The tensions created by these contrasting approaches relate to underlying values and beliefs. As such, an awareness can address the impasse and work to provide a resolution to the competing prioritizations of risk.

  18. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland


    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW, as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  19. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;


    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...


    Black–white disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is persistent and not explained by individual factors. Given that exposure to inequality is associated with increased risk of adverse health, we examined PTB risk (birth <37 weeks gestational age) explained by living in U.S. census tra...