WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth defects prevention

  1. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some health problems for the baby, such as low birth weight. It’s never too late to quit smoking. Learn more about smoking during pregnancy » Avoid marijuana and other “street drugs”. A ... a baby who is born preterm, of low birth weight, or has other health problems, such as ...

  2. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  3. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A H; Shapira, S K; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; LIN, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  4. Systems Biology and Birth Defects Prevention: Blockade of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Prevents Arsenic-Induced Birth Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Ahir, Bhavesh K.; Sanders, Alison P.; Julia E. Rager; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The biological mechanisms by which environmental metals are associated with birth defects are largely unknown. Systems biology–based approaches may help to identify key pathways that mediate metal-induced birth defects as well as potential targets for prevention. Objectives: First, we applied a novel computational approach to identify a prioritized biological pathway that associates metals with birth defects. Second, in a laboratory setting, we sought to determine whether inhibiti...

  5. A Prescription for the Prevention of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Harold C.

    1984-01-01

    Factors influencing birth defects include maternal age (teenagers and women over 32 are at risk), genetics, drug use, diet habits, and environmental hazards. The physical, social, and economic costs of birth defects are extreme. Prevention must involve efforts to change some of these factors. (Author/CS)

  6. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Defects Atrial Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great ... Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy ...

  7. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  8. Maternal intake of vitamin E and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Traven, Flavia K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. Methods We analyzed data from 4,525 controls and 8,665 cases from the 1997–2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09 – 1.87). Conclusions Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. PMID:24740457

  9. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects.

  10. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  11. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  12. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D.; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2). Prevalence did not differ significantly across sites, over time, or by inclusion of pregnancy termination. Laterality defects were more common among preterm cases compared to term cases, and in children born to mothers who were non-white or younger than 20 years compared to white mothers or those age 25–29 years. The distribution of associated cardiac and extracardiac defects, excluding the expected heterotaxy anomalies, varied by type of laterality defect. Cases with heterotaxy were significantly more likely than those with SIT to have double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular canal defects, pulmonary stenosis, non-tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, totally and partially anomalous pulmonary venous return; also more likely to have orofacial clefts, esophageal atresia, bowel atresias, and omphalocele, though not reaching statistical significance. Relatively more common among cases with SIT were Dandy-Walker malformation, anotia/microtia, and limb deficiency. The similarity in the demographic characteristics of heterotaxy and SIT supports the hypothesis that they are part of a continuum of abnormal left-right axis patterning. These findings on laterality defects may help guide clinical care, future research, and prevention strategies. PMID:25099286

  13. The Association Between Reported Venlafaxine Use in Early Pregnancy and Birth Defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara ND; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the use of venlafaxine (Effexor®), an antidepressant used to treat major depression and anxiety disorders in adults, during pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether use of venlafaxine during pregnancy is associated with specific birth defects. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a population-based, case-control study in the United States. Our analysis included mothers with pregnancies affected by one of 30 selected birth defects (cases) and babies without birth defects (controls) with estimated dates of delivery between 1997–2007. Exposure was any reported use of venlafaxine from one month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% Fisher’s Exact confidence intervals (CIs) for 24 birth defect groups for which at least 400 case mothers were interviewed. Our adjusted analyses controlled for maternal age and race-ethnicity. Results Among the 27,045 NBDPS participants who met inclusion criteria, 0.17% (14/8,002) of control mothers and 0.40% (77/19,043) of case mothers reported any use of venlafaxine from one month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. Statistically significant associations were found for anencephaly, atrial septal defect (ASD) secundum or ASD not otherwise specified, coarctation of the aorta, cleft palate, and gastroschisis. Conclusions Our data suggest associations between periconceptional use of venlafaxine and some birth defects. However, sample sizes were small, confidence intervals were wide, and additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23281074

  14. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth Defe

  15. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  16. Preventing birth defects: The value of the NBDPS case-control approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolk, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Birth Defect Registries provide a basis for epidemiological research into risk factors, thus facilitating a growing understanding of what causes congenital anomalies and how one might target preventive public health actions and reduce inequalities. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) has used 10 U.S. registries as a basis for a large case-control study. This commentary reviews its methodology and selected areas of output. The strengths of NBDPS lie in the quality of diagnostic coding and classification of birth defects and its size. The sources of bias in NBDPS data relate particularly to retrospective exposure ascertainment entailing a long period of recall, incomplete ascertainment of terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly, and unknown bias in case selection. NBDPS results have shown the protective effect of healthy dietary patterns, but have not been as informative as expected in relation to furthering understanding of the protective effect of folic acid. NBDPS medication studies are making important contributions to addressing the gap in existing evidence systematically across a wide range of birth defects, but are challenged by the quality of information on exposure, dose and underlying disease condition, and the interpretation of results of multiple testing. Studies of environmental contaminants in collaboration with experts in exposure assessment have linked addresses to residential exposure measures, using the advantages of information on residential history and confounders, but are challenged by the need to consider exposure mixtures. NBDPS could increase its public health impact by placing more emphasis on socioeconomic inequalities.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  18. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  19. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  20. Assessment of student pharmacists' knowledge concerning folic acid and prevention of birth defects demonstrates a need for further education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sean M

    2002-03-01

    Adequate periconceptional consumption of folic acid can prevent neural tube birth defects, and all women capable of becoming pregnant are recommended to consume 400 microg/d. Most women, however, are unaware of this recommendation and do not consume adequate amounts of folic acid. It is important, therefore, that healthcare professionals, such as pharmacists, be capable of educating women regarding folic acid. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding prevention of birth defects by folic acid among student (future) pharmacists in the final year of a professional degree program. Over a 3-y period (1998-2000), students (n = 98) enrolled in a PharmD program completed a survey consisting of five multiple-choice questions concerning folic acid and birth defects. Almost all students (93.9%) correctly identified folic acid as preventing birth defects. Of these students, many also knew that supplementation should begin before pregnancy (73.9%). Fewer, however, were able to correctly identify either the recommended level of intake (55.4%) or good sources of folic acid (57.6-65.2%). These results show that although student (future) pharmacists are aware of folic acid's ability to prevent birth defects, many lack the specific knowledge needed to effectively counsel women in future clinical practice.

  1. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  2. Association between maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and congenital heart defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, SM; Desrosiers, TA; Lawson, CC; Lupo, PJ; Riehle-Colarusso, T; Stewart, PA; van Wijngaarden, E; Waters, MA; Correa, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring and estimated maternal occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents, aromatic solvents, and Stoddard solvent during the period from one month before conception through the first trimester. Methods The study population included mothers of infants with simple, isolated CHDs and mothers of control infants who delivered from 1997 through 2002 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Two methods to assess occupational solvent exposure were employed: an expert consensus-based approach and a literature-based approach. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between solvent classes and CHDs. Results 2,951 control mothers and 2,047 CHD case mothers were included. Using the consensus-based approach, associations were observed for exposure to any solvent and any chlorinated solvent with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6 and OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.8 respectively). Using the literature-based approach, associations were observed for: any solvent exposure with aortic stenosis (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.1); and Stoddard solvent exposure with d-transposition of the great arteries (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0 to 4.2), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3), and pulmonary valve stenosis (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). Conclusions We found evidence of associations between occupational exposure to solvents and several types of CHDs. These results should be interpreted in light of the potential for misclassification of exposure. PMID:22811060

  3. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  4. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy.

  5. A GCH1 haplotype and risk of neural tube defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Chapa, Claudia; Nousome, Darryl; Duhon, Cody; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-11-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) is an essential cofactor and an important cellular antioxidant. BH(4) deficiency has been associated with diseases whose etiologies stem from excessive oxidative stress. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of de novo BH(4) synthesis. A 3-SNP haplotype in GCH1 (rs8007267, rs3783641, and rs10483639) is known to modulate GCH1 gene expression levels and has been suggested as a major determinant of plasma BH(4) bioavailability. As plasma BH(4) bioavailability has been suggested as a mechanism of neural tube defect (NTD) teratogenesis, we evaluated the association between this GCH1 haplotype and the risk of NTDs. Samples were obtained from 760 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). The three SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan® SNP assays. An extension of the log-linear model was used to assess the association between NTDs and both offspring and maternal haplotypes. Offspring carrying two copies of haplotype C-T-C had a significantly increased NTD risk (risk ratio [RR]=3.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-11.50), after adjusting for the effect of the maternal haplotype. Additionally, mothers carrying two copies of haplotype C-T-C had a significantly increased risk of having an NTD-affected offspring (RR=3.46, 95% CI: 1.05-11.00), after adjusting for the effect of the offspring haplotype. These results suggest offspring and maternal variation in the GCH1 gene and altered BH(4) biosynthesis may contribute to NTD risk.

  6. Diabetes and Obesity-Related Genes and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J.; Canfield, Mark A.; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A. J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Shaw, Gary M.; Waller, D. Kim; Olshan, Andrew F.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999–2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. PMID:23132673

  7. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Devine, O.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of expo

  8. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Defects Atrial Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great ... Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy ...

  9. The Heart-Placenta Axis in the First Month of Pregnancy: Induction and Prevention of Cardiovascular Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti K. Linask

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapolating from animal studies to human pregnancy, our studies showed that folate (FA deficiency as well as one-time exposure to environmental factors in the first two to three weeks of human gestation can result in severe congenital heart defects (CHDs. Considering that approximately 49% of pregnancies are unplanned, this period of pregnancy can be considered high-risk for cardiac, as well as for neural, birth defects, as the woman usually is not aware of her pregnancy and may not yet be taking precautionary actions to protect the developing embryo. Using avian and mouse vertebrate models, we demonstrated that FA supplementation prevents CHD induced by alcohol, lithium, or elevation of the metabolite homocysteine, a marker for FA deficiency. All three factors affected the important Wnt signaling pathway by suppressing Wnt-mediated gene expression in the heart fields, resulting in a delay of cardiomyocyte migration, cardiomyogenesis, and CHD. Optimal protection of cardiogenesis was observed to occur with FA supplementation provided upon morning after conception and at higher doses than the presently available in prenatal vitamin supplementation. Our studies demonstrate pathways and cell processes that are involved with protection of one-carbon metabolism during heart development.

  10. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  11. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  12. Analysis of Selected Maternal Exposures and Non-Syndromic Atrioventricular Septal Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonali S.; Burns, Trudy L.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Lin, Angela E.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the descriptive epidemiology of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs), a group of serious congenital heart defects (CHDs), has been recently reported, non-genetic risk factors have not been consistently identified. Using data (1997–2005) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, an ongoing multisite population-based case–control study, the association between selected non-genetic factors and non-syndromic AVSDs was examined. Data on periconceptional exposures to such factors were collected by telephone interview from 187 mothers of AVSD case infants and 6,703 mothers of unaffected infants. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression models. Mothers who reported cigarette smoking during the periconceptional period were more likely to have infants with AVSDs compared with non-smokers, independent of maternal age, periconceptional alcohol consumption, infant gestational age, family history of CHDs, and study site (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.4). The association was strongest in mothers who smoked more than 25 cigarettes/day. In addition, mothers with periconceptional passive smoke exposure were more likely to have infants with AVSDs than unexposed mothers, independent of maternal age, active periconceptional smoking, infant gestational age, and family history of CHDs (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.0). No associations were observed between AVSDs and maternal history of a urinary tract infection or pelvic inflammatory disease, maternal use of a wide variety of medications, maternal occupational exposure, parental drug use, or maternal alcohol consumption. If the results of this preliminary study can be replicated, minimizing maternal active and passive smoke exposure may decrease the incidence of AVSDs. PMID:22903798

  13. 基因组学在预防出生缺陷中的应用%Application of Genomic Technologies in the Prevention of Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建军; 方锴; 杨焕明

    2013-01-01

    China is a country suffering from high rate, 5.6%, of birth defects. Birth defects as one of the most commom causes of infant death, has risen to the second cause of infant death in 2011 from the fourth in 2000. In 2011, 19.1%infant deaths were from birth defects. Genetic factor is one of the most important factors of birth defects. With the rapid development of genomics research and genetic testing platform, the genetic testing has been more widely used in the prevention of birth defects. In this paper, we discuss the application of genomic technologies, as well as its importance, in the prevention of birth defects as for the three levels′ system of birth defects prevention.%中国是出生缺陷的高发国,出生缺陷总发生率约为5.6%,出生缺陷在全国婴儿死因中的构成比顺位由2000年的第4位上升至2011年的第2位,达到19.1%。遗传因素是出生缺陷发生的一个重要原因,随着基因组学的研究进展以及基因检测平台的高速发展,使得基因检测在常见的染色体异常、新生儿代谢性疾病及单基因病等出生缺陷预防中的应用越来越广泛。以出生缺陷的三级预防体系为基础,探讨基因组学在其体系中的应用对完善中国出生缺陷的预防工作是非常重要的。

  14. Preventing Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    NERVIDUCT malformation caught the attention of the Chinese government in 1983 when professor Yan Renying, now director of the China Maternal and Infant Health Care Center, conducted an epidemiological survey of new-borns in Shunyi County, Beijing, and discovered that one-third of infant mortality in the area was caused by

  15. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors in a city of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Romariz Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.

  16. Study on the Secondary Prevention Strategy for Birth Defects%出生缺陷二级预防策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂荣; 肖绪武; 孙瑾; 刘启贵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the economic effectiveness of three strategies of the sec-ondary prevention for birth defects in order to provide the basis for the prevention decision on congenital disa-bilities .Methods:A decision tree model was used to make a decision analysis on the cost-effectiveness of the three strategies .Results :The birth defects detection rates of three strategies were 82 .82% ,98 .2% ,94 . 50% respectively .The cost of one birth defect detected of the third strategy was lowest .Conclusions :In-creasing an ultrasound screening for high-risk pregnant women is an economical and effective strategy to pre-vent birth defects .%目的:评价、比较出生缺陷的3种二级预防策略的经济学效果,为有效预防先天性残疾提供决策依据。方法:采用决策树模型,对3种策略的成本-效果进行比较。结果:3种策略的出生缺陷检出率分别为82.82%、98.2%、94.50%,策略3成本/效果比最低。结论:高危孕妇增加超声筛查是一种既经济又有效的预防策略。

  17. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

  18. New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162970.html New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects ... HealthDay News) -- In a recommendation that reaffirms previous guidelines, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force said that ...

  19. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ol Português Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika and Microcephaly Microcephaly is a birth defect in ... pregnancy or has stopped growing after birth. Congenital Zika Syndrome Congenital Zika syndrome is a pattern of ...

  20. Craniofacial birth defects: The role of neural crest cells in the etiology and pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome and the potential for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    Of all the babies born with birth defects, approximately one-third display anomalies of the head and face [Gorlin et al., 1990] including cleft lip, cleft palate, small or absent facial and skull bones and improperly formed nose, eyes, ears, and teeth. Craniofacial disorders are a primary cause of infant mortality and have serious lifetime functional, esthetic, and social consequences that are devastating to both children and parents alike. Comprehensive surgery, dental care, psychological counseling, and rehabilitation can help ameliorate-specific problems but at great cost over many years which dramatically affects national health care budgets. For example, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that the lifetime cost of treating the children born each year with cleft lip and/or cleft palate alone to be US$697 million. Treating craniofacial malformations, of which in excess of 700 distinct syndromes have been described, through comprehensive, well-coordinated and integrated strategies can provide satisfactory management of individual conditions, however, the results are often variable and rarely fully corrective. Therefore, better techniques for tissue repair and regeneration need to be developed and therapeutic avenues of prevention need to be explored in order to eliminate the devastating consequences of head and facial birth defects. To do this requires a thorough understanding of the normal events that control craniofacial development during embryogenesis. This review therefore focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the basic etiology and pathogenesis of a rare craniofacial disorder known as Treacher Collins syndrome and emerging prospects for prevention that may have broad application to congenital craniofacial birth defects.

  1. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: A prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Huan; MA, DUAN; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. Material/Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20–45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the indepen...

  2. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association betwe

  3. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... places to get information include: books written for parents of children with birth defects national organizations such as the March of Dimes, the National Information Center for Children and Youth With Disabilities, and those ... groups or other parents Keep a file with a running list of ...

  4. Birth Defects Surveillance in the United States: Challenges and Implications of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburia-Mwalili, Adel; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Major birth defects are an important public health issue because they are the leading cause of infant mortality. The most common birth defects are congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, and Down syndrome. Birth defects surveillance guides policy development and provides data for prevalence estimates, epidemiologic research, planning, and prevention. Several factors influence birth defects surveillance in the United States of America (USA). These include case ascertainment methods, pregnancy outcomes, and nomenclature used for coding birth defects. In 2015, the nomenclature used by most birth defects surveillance programs in USA will change from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM. This change will have implications on birth defects surveillance, prevalence estimates, and tracking birth defects trends.

  5. 叶酸补充在出生缺陷一级预防措施中的应用%Use of folic acid in the primary prevention of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓蓉

    2013-01-01

      to eliminate the cause of diseases, prevent the occurrence of birth defects and improve the quality of newborns.Approach:Giving 1480 cases of women at childbearing age from pre-pregnancy or early stage of pregnancy a small dose of folic acid tablets"Serianen", as well as educational materials about the prevention of birth defects and eugenic trainings from January 2008 to December 2010.Results: the follow-up surveys on the 1480 cases of women after childbirth show, that non of their newborns has got birth defects such as neural tube defect or congenital heart disease, which means the preventive measures are 100% effective.Conclusion: Folic acid can effectively prevent birth defects such as neural tube defect and congenital heart disease. At the same time, the key of prevention of birth defects lies in taking primary preventive measures.%  目的:探讨叶酸补充在出生缺陷一级预防措施中的应用价值,预防出生缺陷的发生,提高人口出生素质。方法:2008年1月至2010年12月,让我区1480例准备生育的育龄女性从孕前及怀孕早期开始服用小剂量的叶酸增补剂斯利安,并为她们发放预防出生缺陷的宣传资料,对其进行分期优生培训。在1480例女性产后1个月至1年对其进行追踪调查。结果:调查结果显示,本组1480例女性所产小儿无一例发生神经管畸形及先天性心脏病等出生缺陷,预防出生缺陷的有效率为100%。结论:补充叶酸能有效地预防神经管畸形及先天性心脏病等出生缺陷。预防出生缺陷的关键在于采取一级预防措施。

  6. Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162464.html Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC Study ... born with devastating birth defects linked to the Zika virus is no longer confined to Brazil, a ...

  7. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main types of prenatal tests for birth defects. Amniocentesis 1 Amniocentesis (pronounced am-nee-oh-sen-TEE-sis ) is ... Some birth defects that can be detected with amniocentesis are Down syndrome and certain types of muscular ...

  8. Craniofacial Birth Defects: The Role of Neural Crest Cells in the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Treacher Collins Syndrome and the Potential for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Of all the babies born with birth defects, approximately one-third display anomalies of the head and face [Gorlin et al., 1990] including cleft lip, cleft palate, small or absent facial and skull bones and improperly formed nose, eyes, ears, and teeth. Craniofacial disorders are a primary cause of infant mortality and have serious lifetime functional, esthetic, and social consequences that are devastating to both children and parents alike. Comprehensive surgery, dental care, psychological co...

  9. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  10. 超声检查在出生缺陷预防中的应用%Ultrasonographic examination for prevention of fetal birth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keong WONG

    2009-01-01

    During pregnancy, a unique and dramatic sequence of events occurs, defining the most remarkable transformation of a single cell into a recognizable human being. Uhrasonographic examination is play a important role for prevention of fetal birth defect. For some years, there have been dramatic advances in ultrasound technology, including improved spatial and contrast resolution, three-dimensionaland four-dimenstional imaging, harmonic imaging, new and improved ultrasound sanning probes, and improved digital review workstations, to name a few. Likewise, our knowledge of normal fetal anatomy and pathology, and the pathophysiology of disease have increased substantially. The internet has made communication among researcheres earier. There have been many collaborative studies and refinements of the guidelines for the performance of the obstetric ultrasound examination. But there are still some differences in the approach to the obstetric ultrasound examination from one group to the others. Some issues such as what constitutes a basic ultrasound examination, what structure should be perform and interpret the examination, how safe is ultrasound, how should it be recorded and documented, how should it be reported,and how accurate rate of diagnosis fetal congenital malformation. In conclusion is that, the appeal of the ultrasound examination is that it is a noninvasive, safe procedure that has a high degree of patient acceptance and can yield a wealth of information. It is always a delight to examine the obstetric patient and reassure her about her pregnancy, when appropriate. However, there are times when an abnormality is strongly suspected but it may be equivoal or may not fit into a specific category. Under these circumstances, the best pathway for the sonologist to is to do a follow-up examination and seek consultation. If time does not allow a follow-up examination, then the sonologist should communicate to the referring physician and the patient that a definiitve

  11. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    2001-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  12. Spatiotemporal Property Analysis of Birth Defects in Wuxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI-LEI WU; GONG CHEN; XIN-MING SONG; CHENG-FU LI; LEI ZHANG; LAN LIU; XIAO-YING ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the temporal trends and spatial patterns of birth defects occurring in Wuxi, a developed region of China. Methods Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the temporal trends of birth defect prevalence based on the birth defect rates over the past 16 years. Birth defect cases with detailed personal and family information were geo-coded and the relative risk in each village was calculated. General G statistic was used to test the spatial property with different scales. Results Wavelet analysis showed an increasing temporal trend of birth defects in this region. Clustering analysis revealed that changes continued in the spatial patterns with different scales. Conclusion Wuxi is confronted with severe challenges to reduce birth defect prevalence. The risk factors are stable and show no change with spatial scale but an increasing temporal trend. Interventions should be focused on villages with a higher prevalence of birth defects.

  13. Traffic jam in the primitive streak: the role of defective mesoderm migration in birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herion, Nils J; Salbaum, J Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers are formed that contribute to the formation of all major tissues in the developing embryo. We here review mouse genetic models in which defective gastrulation leads to mesoderm insufficiencies in the embryo. Depending on severity of the abnormalities, the outcomes range from incompatible with embryonic survival to structural birth defects, such as heart defects, spina bifida, or caudal dysgenesis. The combined evidence from the mutant models supports the notion that these congenital anomalies can originate from perturbations of mesoderm specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and mesodermal cell migration. Knowledge about the molecular pathways involved may help to improve strategies for the prevention of major structural birth defects.

  14. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range,glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinat Gabbay-Benziv; E Albert Reece; Fang Wang, Peixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age(18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3million American women have diabetes mellitus, andit has been estimated that this number will doubleby 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is asignificant public health problem that increases therisk for structural birth defects affecting both maternaland neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most commontypes of human structural birth defects associated withPGD are congenital heart defects and central nervoussystem defects. However, diabetes can induce birthdefects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rateof birth defects increases linearly with the degree ofmaternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor thatmediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal careand glycemic control are effective means to reducebirth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reducethe incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seenin the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal modelshave revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress,which activates cellular stress signalling leading todysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosisin the target organs, including the neural tube andembryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signalregulatingkinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in thedeveloping neural tube leading to neural tube defects(NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfoldedprotein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acidabrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces theformation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin,which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway orER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birthdefects. Gabbay-Benziv R et al . Birth defects in pregestational diabetes

  15. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC Finding highlights importance of preventing infection ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women infected with the Zika virus are 20 times more likely to have ...

  17. Advanced molecular and cytogenetic technologies in birth defect diagnosis and prevention%分子和细胞遗传学新技术在出生缺陷诊断及防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marilyn M. LI

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become an important diagnostic tool as an adjunct to classical cytogenetics. FISH utilizes DNA probes comprised of specific nucleic acid sequences tagged with fluorescent molecules to identify the number and location of specific DNA sequences in human cells. These probes can be used to determine various numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations, in many cases, gene dosage and/or structure alterations. Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for a considerable number of birth defects, and more than 50% of spontaneous abortions. These numbers have been significantly higher since the advent of FISH technology that allows the detection of submicroscopic chromosome alterations. The clinic application of FISH technology in postnatal, prenatal, and preimplantation diagnoses has been playing an important role in the diagnosis and prevention of birth defects. As new technologies evolve, more and more new FISH techniques - such as subtelomeric FISH, multicolor FISH (M-FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and microarray - are used in clinical diagnoses, the role of FISH technology in both research and clinical aspects of birth defects will surely continue to expand.

  18. Analysis of the Relationship Between Pregnancy Checkups and Birth Defects Prevention%孕前优生健康检查与出生缺陷预防的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇义

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of the relationship between pre pregnancy checkups and birth defects prevention and its effect on the prevention of birth defects. Methods 355 women who did pre pregnancy health examination in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2013 as the observation group, the other to participate in investigation of 380 cases of women who not for pre pregnancy health examination as control group. Establish files for two groups of pregnant women, recorded follow-up situation, pregnancy outcome, the incidence of birth defects registration, compared incidence of birth defects of two groups. Results In observation group, the incidence of birth defects was 0.3%(1 cases of cleft lip and palate), was significantly lower than control group of 1.9%(3 cases of cleft lip and palate , 2 cases of neural tube defects, 1 cases of congenital heart disease, 1 cases of finger/toe deformity), difference was statistically significance (P0.05). Conclusion Using eugenic health before pregnancy in the application of married female school-age pregnancy before can effectively control their disease, through the analysis of the risk factor intervention, evaluate to prevent birth defects in situation, the maximum reduce the incidence of birth defects in newborns.%目的:探析孕前优生健康检查与出生缺陷预防关系及其在预防出生缺陷方面的效果。方法整群选择2010年1月-2013年12月期间于该院进行孕前优生健康检查355名妇女作为观察组,另以参与调查研究且未行孕前优生健康检查380例妇女作为对照组。为两组孕妇建立档案,对随访情况进行记录,登记妊娠结局、出生缺陷发生率,比较两组出生缺陷发生率。结果观察组出生缺陷发生率为0.3%(1例唇腭裂),显著低于对照组1.9%(3例唇腭裂、2例神经管畸形、1例先天性心脏病、1例指/趾畸形),对比差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论孕前优生健康在已婚适龄女性孕产前的应

  19. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  20. Survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of preventing birth defects in married reproduction women%已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪己东; 翁彦云; 徐沛金; 戴黎玫; 武英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in community in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) for married women in reproductive age. Method A self-designed general information form and a questionnaire on KAP of married women′s preventing birth defects were used to investigate the KAP among 300 married nulliparous women. Result The average rate of cognitive knowledge of birth defects was 60.8%, the average rate of cognitive behaviors was 59.2%, and the average rate of cognitive attitude was 67.4%. Conclusion In order to reduce the rate of birth defects and improve the quality of births, we should implement three-level prevention education system, enrich the health education methods to enhance the knowledge, attitude and behavior of married women.%目的:了解已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为情况,为制订相关的护理对策提供依据。方法采用自行设计的一般资料调查表和预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为调查表对300名已婚育龄妇女进行调查。结果已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识平均认知率为60.8%,行为平均认知率为59.2%,态度平均认知率为67.4%。结论实施三级预防,采取多种形式的健康教育方法以提高已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为水平,从而降低出生缺陷率,提高出生人口的素质。

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

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    Frassoldi Emanuela

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects are a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality in Italy, however little is known of the etiology of most defects. Improvements in diagnosis have revealed increasing numbers of clinically insignificant defects, while improvements in treatment have increased the survival of those with more serious and complex defects. For etiological studies, prevention, and management, it is important to have population-based monitoring which provides reliable data on the prevalence at birth of such defects. Methods We recently initiated population-based birth defect monitoring in the Provinces of Mantova, Sondrio and Varese of the Region of Lombardy, northern Italy, and report data for the first year of operation (1999. The registry uses all-electronic source files (hospital discharge files, death certificates, regional health files, and pathology reports and a proven case-generation methodology, which is described. The data were checked manually by consulting clinical records in hospitals. Completeness was checked against birth certificates by capture-recapture. Data on cases were coded according to the four-digit malformation codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9. We present data only on selected defects. Results We found 246 selected birth defects in 12,008 live births in 1999, 148 among boys and 98 among girls. Congenital heart defects (particularly septal defects were the most common (90.8/10,000, followed by defects of the genitourinary tract (34.1/10, 000 (particularly hypospadias in boys, digestive system (23.3/10,000 and central nervous system (14.9/10,000, orofacial clefts (10.8/10,000 and Down syndrome (8.3/10,000. Completeness was satisfactory: analysis of birth certificates resulted in the addition of two birth defect cases to the registry. Conclusion This is the first population-based analysis on selected major birth defects in the Region. The high birth prevalences for

  2. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  3. Seasonality in birth defects, agricultural production and urban location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Rees, Daniel I; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    This paper tests whether the strength of the "spring spike" in birth defects is related to agricultural production and urban location using Texas Birth Defects Registry data for the period 1996-2007. We find evidence of a spike in birth defects among children conceived in the spring and summer, but it is more pronounced in urban non-agricultural counties than in other types of counties. Furthermore, the spike lasts longer in urban non-agricultural counties as compared to other types of counties.

  4. The effect of health education on preventing birth defects in a community of Nanjing City%南京市社区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧云; 胡娅莉; 崔晓宁; 姚敬; 洪红

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价南京市鼓楼区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果,为以社区为基础的出生缺陷一级预防提供科学依据.方法 选择2008年3月~2009年7月在南京市鼓楼区建围产期保健小卡的孕妇作为调查对象并进行出生缺陷相关知识宣传教育,采用问卷调查早孕人群干预前后出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的变化,分析其影响因素.结果 干预后早孕人群对预防出生缺陷相关知识的总得分(34.43±3.10)高于干预前(29.56±4.77) (t=58.50,P<0.001).干预后21道题目回答正确率均高于干预前,其中仅1道题干预前后正确率的差异无统计学意义(P=0.458).年龄、文化程度、职业和家庭人均月收入对干预效果都有明显的影响(均有P<0.05).年龄大者比年龄小者,本科及以上文化程度比初中及以下者,医护人员比工人,家庭人均月收入1 001 ~元、2 001~元、3 001~元、4 001~元、≥5 001元比≤1 000元者对知识的掌握明显增多.结论 利用健康教育的模式对早孕人群进行干预,能提高其预防出生缺陷的能力.应对文化程度偏低、家庭收入较少的育龄妇女进行预防出生缺陷知识的普及.%Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in Gulou District of Nanjing City, in order to provide scientific evidence for the first-level prevention of the birth defect based on community. Methods Health education was conducted among the pregnant women who build card of perinatal health during March 2008 to July 2009 in Gulou District of Nanjing City. The questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of birth defect prevention among the early pregnant women. The results were analyzed to find the changes of knowledge , attitude and practice of birth defect prevention before- and after- intervention, and to find the influencing factors of intervention effect. Results There was significant promotion (i = 58. 50

  5. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

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    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  6. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  7. Birth Defects from Zika More Far-Reaching Than Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162538.html Birth Defects From Zika More Far-Reaching Than Thought Studies found greater ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika's ability to damage the infant brain may be ...

  8. Maternal Exposure to Methotrexate and Birth Defects: a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, April L.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J. Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 1997 and December 2009. Mothers of cases and controls were asked detailed questions concerning pregnancy history, demographic information, and exposures in a telephone interview. Approximately 0.06% (n=16/27,623) of case and 0.04% (n=4/10,113) of control mothers reported exposure to methotrexate between three months prior to conception through the end of pregnancy. Of the 16 case infants, 11 (68.8%) had a congenital heart defect (CHD). The observed CHDs included atrial septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, valvar pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. One case infant had microtia in addition to a VSD and another had VACTER association. Exposed cases without a CHD had one of the following birth defects: cleft palate, hypospadias, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or craniosynostosis. Based on a limited number of methotrexate-exposed mothers, our findings support recent case reports suggesting an association between early pregnancy exposure to methotrexate and CHDs. Because of the rarity of maternal periconceptional exposure to methotrexate, long-term, population-based case-control studies are needed to confirm these findings and better evaluate the association between methotrexate and birth defects. PMID:24898111

  9. Maternal exposure to methotrexate and birth defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, April L; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 1997 and December 2009. Mothers of cases and controls were asked detailed questions concerning pregnancy history, demographic information, and exposures in a telephone interview. Approximately 0.06% (n = 16/27,623) of case and 0.04% (n = 4/10,113) of control mothers reported exposure to methotrexate between 3 months prior to conception through the end of pregnancy. Of the 16 case infants, 11 (68.8%) had a congenital heart defect (CHD). The observed CHDs included atrial septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, valvar pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. One case infant had microtia in addition to a VSD and another had VACTER association. Exposed cases without a CHD had one of the following birth defects: cleft palate, hypospadias, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or craniosynostosis. Based on a limited number of methotrexate-exposed mothers, our findings support recent case reports suggesting an association between early pregnancy exposure to methotrexate and CHDs. Because of the rarity of maternal periconceptional exposure to methotrexate, long-term, population-based case-control studies are needed to confirm these findings and better evaluate the association between methotrexate and birth defects.

  10. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  11. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bager Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of folic acid use in pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. We studied 243 women with pregnancies complicated by some forms of birth defect(s. These patients were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies. The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7 percent. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome, and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with the folic acid use. Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy.

  12. Birth defects registries in the genomics era: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Meow-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Birth defects or congenital anomalies are one of the major causes of disability in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. Increasingly, there is a shift to genetic testing and genomics study of birth defects. However, the translation from bench findings to bedside medicine has been muted. There is a need to address this imbalance where congenital anomalies remained the top etiology for neonatal mortality in developing countries. To build capacity in low resource countries, there is a need for accurate collection and ascertainment of birth defects in developing countries. The systematic collection and analysis of data on major birth defects using birth defects registries (BDRs) are an integral part of all clinical genetic services. Healthcare planners in developing countries must be aware of the advantages and limitations of BDRs. Despite the advent of the genomics era, BDRs are essential to the planning and developing care and prevention services at local and national levels, particularly in low resource or developing countries.

  13. Zika virus and birth defects: an obstetric issue

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    Tochukwu C. Okeke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that is relatively unknown, unstudied and under-diagnosed, but has potentials to spread to new geographical areas that favour survival of Aedes mosquitoes. It is associated with an alarming rise in babies with microcephaly that require much care and support with a lot of financial assistance. This is a review article on Zika virus and birth defects; a worrisome issue in today's obstetric and medical practices. Since Zika's discovery in Uganda, the virus was known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia with no or mild symptoms. It has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade with accelerated geographic spread of the virus in the last nine years. The risk of Zika virus to the fetus is poorly understood, difficult to quantify and problematic. The causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly was initially speculative, strongly suspected and scientifically unproven. However, on 13th April, 2016, it was concluded that Zika virus is the cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC authors reviewed and weighed evidences using established scientific criteria to conclude after a careful review of the report published in the New England Journal of Medicine. There is no prophylaxis, treatment or vaccine to protect against Zika virus infection. However, preventive personal measures are highly recommended to avoid mosquito bites. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2488-2496

  14. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  15. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  16. Playing the role of preventing and curing birth defects in the second grade general hospitals%发挥二级综合医院在防治出生缺陷中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张园园; 蔡慧兰; 吴晨

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对6个县市二级综合医院产前筛查等情况进行调查研究,探讨预防出生缺陷的新途径.方法 采取定性定量相结合的办法、访谈法、问卷调查法等.结果 二级综合医院开展遗传咨询、产前筛查、产前诊断、新生儿疾病筛查等方面工作做得不够,婚检和婚前保健工作存在薄弱环节.结论 我国出生缺陷总发生率呈上升趋势,加强二级综合医院妇产科建设,充分发挥其产前筛查、遗传咨询、产前诊断职能,有利于帮助解决出生缺陷这一突出的公共卫生问题.%Objective To investigate and study the conditions of prenatal screening and other items in the second grade general hospitals of six counties and cities, and to explore a new way to prevent birth defects. Methods A combination of qualitative and quantitative ways, interviews, questionnaires and other approaches were taken. Results Carrying out genetic counseling, prenatal screening & diagnosis, neonatal disease screening and other items were not good enough in the second grade general hospitals. Meanwhile, the antemarital physical examination and premarital health service had weaknesses. Conclusion The total incidence rate of birth defects in China increases in the ascendant trend. Therefore, it is vital to strengthen the construction of the department of obstetrics and gynecology in the second grade general hospitals, and the hospitals should fully display its functional role in prenatal screening, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis which can help resolve the prominent public health problem of birth defects.

  17. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

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    Min Yu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  18. Birth order and neural tube defects: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R

    2004-01-15

    There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For neural tube defects (NTDs) there is no consensus as to whether first or increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on NTDs was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children first born or of high birth order to have NTDs. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Children with higher birth order are more likely to have spina bifida but not anencephaly. This same effect was also seen for all NTDs combined, which probably reflects the association with spina bifida. These results suggest the compilation of anencephaly and spina bifida data can be the explanation for the controversies seen in the literature.

  19. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

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    Rinku Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, large number of unplanned pregnancies, poor coverage of antenatal care, poor maternal nutritional status, high consanguineous marriages rate, and high carrier rate for hemoglobinopathies. India being the second most populous country with a large number infant born annually with birth defects should focus its attention on strategies for control of birth defects. Many population based strategies such as iodization, double fortification of salt, flour fortification with multivitamins, folic acid supplementation, periconceptional care, carrier screening and prenatal screening are some of proven strategies for control of birth defects. Strategies such as iodization of salt in spite of being initiated for a long time in the past do have a very little impact on its consumption (only 50% were using iodized salt. Community genetic services for control of birth defects can be easily flourished and integrated with primary health care in India because of its well established infrastructure and personnel in the field of maternal and child health care. As there is wide variation for infant mortality rate (IMR in different states in India, so there is a need of deferential approach to implement community genetic services in states those had already achieved national goal of IMR. On the other hand, states those have not achieved the national goal on IMR priority should be given to management of other causes of infant mortality.

  20. Analysis on Effect of Thalassemia Interventions on Prevention of Birth Defects%地中海贫血干预措施预防出生缺陷的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远流; 刘百灵; 樊钰辰

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨地中海贫血干预措施预防出生缺陷的效果。方法对门诊所有产检孕妇及其丈夫27076例进行地中海贫血相关知识宣教,同时进行地中海贫血筛查,双方筛查阳性的夫妇均进行地中海贫血基因诊断,对高风险的孕妇进行产前诊断,确诊重型地中海贫血胎儿者建议终止妊娠。结果共筛查27076例,其中建卡孕妇筛查14877例,丈夫筛查12199例。地贫筛查双方均阳性的夫妇341对,其中高风险的孕妇148例进行产前诊断,确诊重型地中海贫血胎儿28例,均引产。结论孕期地中海贫血干预可以避免重度地中海贫血胎儿的出生,从而降低出生缺陷发生率。%Objective To investigate the effect of thalassemia interventions on the prevention of birth defects . Methods We performed the publicity and education of thalassemia-related knowledge in 27 076 cases ( including pregnant women and their husbands ) as well as a thalassemia screening in prenatal clinic .The couples whose thalassemia screening results showed positive were given a thalassemia gene diagnosis for both and prenatal diagnosis for high-risk pregnant women.The pregnant women with thalassemia major fetus were suggested to terminate pregnancy .Results A total of 27 076 cases were enrolled in the thalassemia screening ,including 14 877 pregnant women building the card and 12 199 husbands.The thalassemia screening results were positive for 341 couples.One hundred and forty-eight cases of high-risk pregnant women were given a prenatal diagnosis ,and 28 confirmed thalassemia major fetuses received induction of labor.Conclusion The thalassemia intervention during pregnancy can avoid the birth of thalassemia major fetuses , thereby it can reduce the incidence of birth defects .

  1. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community......-wide consumption of lead-tainted rum by enslaved Africans. Skeletons excavated in 1997-1998 (n= 45) were examined for congenital anomalies, using clinical/experimental descriptions to differentially diagnose possible ARBD. Enamel lead data served as a proxy for developmental exposure to tainted rum in a subsample...

  2. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  3. The Association of Maternal Lifestyle with Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Pei

    congenital malformations. These findings in future may have some important implications for prevention of birth defects in Northwest China.

  4. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  5. Genetic basis of susceptibility to teratogen induced birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Palacios, Ana M; Chapa, Claudia J; Zhu, Huiping; George, Timothy M; Finnell, Richard H

    2011-08-15

    Birth defects remain the leading cause of infant death in US. The field of teratology has been focused on the causes and underlying mechanisms of birth defects for decades, yet our understanding of these critical issues remain unacceptably vague. Conclusions from years of animal and human studies made it clear that the vast majority of birth defects have multifactorial origins, with contributions from environmental and genetic factors. The environment comprises not only of the physical, biological, and chemical external environment surrounding the pregnant woman, but it also includes the internal environment of the woman's body that interact with the developing embryo in a complex fashion. The importance of maternal and embryonic genetic factors consisting of countless genetic variants/mutations that exist within every individual contribute to birth defect susceptibility is only now being more fully appreciated. This great complexity of the genome and its diversity within individuals and populations seems to be the principal reason why the same teratogenic exposure can induce severe malformation in one embryo, while fail to do so to other exposed embryos. As the interaction between genetic and environmental factors has long been recognized as the first "Principle of Teratology" by Wilson and Warkany [1965. Teratology: Principles and techniques. Chicago: University of Chicago Press], it is only recently that the appropriate investigative tools have been developed with which to fully investigate this fundamental principle. The introduction of high throughput technologies like whole genome sequencing or genome-wide association studies are promising to deliver an enormous amount of new data that will shed light on the genomic factors that contribute susceptibility to environmental teratogens. In this review, we attempt to summarize the epidemiological and experimental literature concerning birth defects whose phenotypic expression can be clearly related to the

  6. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  7. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhoncanse, Geiza César; Germano, Carla Maria R.; de Avó, Lucimar Retto da S.; Melo, Débora Gusmão

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant pApgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24676186

  8. The Importance of B Ultrasound Screening in the Prevention of Birth Defects%B超筛查在预防出生缺陷中的重要性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the use of B-summary prenatal screening to prevent birth defects and improve the quality of birth. Methods 24 cases of abnormal fetus were selected as the study object in January 2010 to January 2014 in our hospital. Statistics B Super diagnosis. Results This study examined 1 702 women who were pregnant, 24 cases of congenital fetal malformation occurs, the incidence of 1.41%. Congenital defects decreased incidence of fetal year. Including: eight cases of anencephaly children (0.47%), 6 cases of hydrocephalus (0.35%), 2 cases of spinal fracture (0.12%), 3 cases of cleft lip and palate (0.18%), 5 cases of myelomeningocele (0.29%). 24 cases of congenital malformations in the fetus, 22 cases (91.67%) by the B-ultrasound diagnosis, 2 cases (8.33%) due to the family planning service station street conditions, it could not be accurately judged by ultrasound, introduced to the district or city hospitals diagnosed. 24 cases of congenital malformation fetus gestational age of 15~30 weeks, 15~27 weeks second trimester of fetal malformation 19 cases,the incidence of 79.17%, the third trimester of fetal malformation 28~30 weeks 5 cases, the incidence of 20.83%, the second trimester a higher proportion of fetal malformation detected. Conclusion Trimester prenatal care helps detecting congenital fetal malformation, using B-screening and prevention of congenital defects in the fetus, non-invasive, simple and effective. In clinical conduct and promotion of the prenatal examination methods, professional training and capacity building of ultrasound doctors, help to improve the quality of births to minimize the rate of birth defects is delivered.%目的:研究总结出生前使用B超筛查预防出生缺陷,提高人口出生素质。方法本文采取回顾性分析法进行研究。抽取我站妇产科2010年1月~2014年1月产检筛查出的24例畸形胎儿为研究对象。统计B超确诊率。结果本次研究中共检测1702名产妇

  9. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  10. Correlation Between Birth Defects and Dietary Nutrition Status in a High Incidence Area of China1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO-YUAN ZHANG; QING-SHAN ZHANG; JIN ZHAO; YU-FU QIN; XIU-FENG YANG; GONG CHEN; JU-FEN LIU; XIN-MING SONG; XIAO-YING ZHENG; TING ZHANG; LIANG-MING LIN; FANG WANG; RUO-LEI XIN; XUE GU; YU-NA HE; DONG-MEI YU; PEI-ZHEN LI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between birth defects and dietary nutrient intake in a high risk area of China.Methods A dietary survey was performed and serum folic acid was measured in women whose pregnancy was affected by neural tube defects(NTDs)or unaffected by any birth defects(BDs)in Zhongyang and Jiaokou Counties in Shanxi Province of China.Results The local average censureption of foods including dark green vegetables,fluits,fat and meat,and nutrient intake(e.g.energy,protein,retinol,riboflavin,vitamin E,and selenium)were lower than the national average level.In women of childbearing age,these regions,the intake of nutrients was much lower than the recommended nutrient intake(9%-77%)The case-centrel dietary nutrition smdv of women whose pregnancy was affected bv BDs(including MTDs and congenital heart defects)demonstrated that,in early pregnancy,adequate nutrition(I.e.eating meat,fresh vegetables,fruit more than once a week)was a protective factor,while eating germinated potatoes was a risk factor.The geometrical mean(p5-p95)of serum folic acid in women with NTD birth defects was 9.6 nmol/L(3.6,23.03),which was significantly lower than that in normal women(14.03 nmol/L). Conclusion Wemen of childbearing age in the two counties of Shanxi Province,Chim,have a marked insufficient intake of some nutrients,especially folic acid,zinc,vitamins A and B12.This nutrient deficiency may be an important risk factor for the high prevalence of birth defects in these regions.Therefore,adequate dietary nutrition in early pregnancy can prevent BDs.

  11. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  12. Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans--Michigan, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Copeland, Glenn; Olney, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    Birth defects and genetic disorders are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in many countries. Population-based data on birth defects among Arab-American children have not been documented previously. Michigan has the second largest Arab-American community in the United States after California. Using data from the Michigan Birth Defects Registry (MBDR), which includes information on parents' country of birth and ancestry, birth prevalences were estimated in offspring of Michigan women of Arab ancestry for 21 major categories of birth defects and 12 congenital endocrine, metabolic, and hereditary disorders. Compared with other non-Hispanic white children in Michigan, Arab-American children had similar or lower birth prevalences of the selected types of structural birth defects, with higher rates of certain hereditary blood disorders and three categories of metabolic disorders. These estimates are important for planning preconception and antenatal health care, genetic counseling, and clinical care for Arab Americans.

  13. Construction of HMI Network System for Individualized Maternity Intervention Service against Birth Defects in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-huai HU

    2007-01-01

    The paper expounds the community maternity service system against birth defects,from the viewpoint of individualized service in family planning. We have utilized modern information technology to develop health management information (HMI) network with individualized maternity, and to establish the community service system for intervention of birth defects. The service system applied the concept of modern health management information to implementing informational management for screening,treatment, following up, outcome monitoring, so as to provide a base for promotion of health, diagnosis, treatment as well as scientific research, with the prenatal screening of Down's syndrome as a model. The introduction to informational network during the processes of service has been carried out with regards to its composition, function and application, while introducing the effects of computerized case record individualized in prevention, management and research of Down's syndrome.

  14. Fluoxetine and infantile hypertrophic pylorus stenosis : a signal from a birth defects drug exposure surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We report an association found in a surveillance study which systematically evaluated combinations of specific birth defects and drugs used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Method The database of a population-based birth defects registry (birth years 1997-2007) was systematically screene

  15. Application Research of "3+1" Mode for Birth Defects Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Cheng-liang XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects and quality control measures based on the population,and to obtain the related information data for birth defects.Methods With the community population as the basis,adopting the unified monitoring scheme dominant by the leadership and administration of government,with districts(counties)as the monitoring sites,the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects was based on a complete monitoring team with the combination of villages/residents'committees,townships(towns),counties(districts)and the municipality.Demonstration research was carried out in the pilot districts/counties in Chongqing City.Results Birth defects population monitoring system based on population and family planning management and service network was established,and during 2005 and 2006,application research was carried out for the monitoring methods among birth deflects population in the pilot districts(counties),obtaining the relevant information in regional birth defects,with a monitoring coverage of over 99%.Conclusion Fully utilizing the birth management functions of Population and Family Planning System and the advantages of service networks,long term,dynamic birth defects monitoring system based on community population was established,with the integration of birth defects monitoring and regular reproductive health services,obtaining overall birth defects occurrence information in details,providing scientific basis for the government to formulate scientific,practical,economic and effective birth defects intervention policy,so as to improve the quality of the population.

  16. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  18. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  19. Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher if Baby Covered by Medicaid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163268.html Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher If Baby Covered ... defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds ...

  20. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina

    2006-06-01

    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  1. The relation between antihistamine medication during early pregnancy & birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines are a group of medications which can inhibit various histaminic actions at one of two histamine receptors (H1 or H2. H1 receptor antagonists are used for the relief of allergic dermatological and nondermatological conditions. We will review classes of antihistamines (H1 antagonists and the relationship between specific antihistamines and specific birth defects. Although many findings provide reassurance about the relative safety of many antihistamine drugs and that any malformation reported is most probably caused by chance, studies are still required to assure fetal safety. As pruritus is sometimes troublesome for pregnant women topical medications like emollients should be tried first in the first trimester of pregnancy. Also pregnant women should be advised to consult their health care provider before taking any medication.

  2. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  3. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J.; Brender, Jean D.; Romitti, Paul A.; Kantamneni, Jiji R.; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A.; Vuong, Ann M.; Langlois, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997–2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers’ overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS. PMID:25473985

  4. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Xie

    Full Text Available To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014.The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI and crude odds ratio (ORs were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural with BDs.From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants, showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20, in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19, and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24. The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD, Other malformation of external ear (OMEE, Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK, and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65-4.11 and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30-2.84, respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31-0.65 and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.38, respectively.The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs.

  5. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... text version SOURCE: Adapted from Trussell J in Contraceptive Technology, 2011, and FDA Office of Women’s Health ... about how to avoid repeat births with both male and female teens. http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/ ...

  7. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Stock, Sarah; Groenwold, Rolf H H;

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential b...... benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix) or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death....

  8. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  9. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  10. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  11. U.S. Health Care Costs from Birth Defects Total Almost $23 Billion a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163141.html U.S. Health Care Costs From Birth Defects Total Almost $ ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- About three of every 100 U.S. newborns have a serious birth defect, and health ...

  12. Population red blood cell folate concentrations for prevention of neural tube defects: bayesian model

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLOY, ANNE

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED OBJECTIVE: To determine an optimal population red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration for the prevention of neural tube birth defects. DESIGN: Bayesian model. SETTING: Data from two population based studies in China. PARTICIPANTS: 247,831 participants in a prospective community intervention project in China (1993-95) to prevent neural tube defects with 400 μg/day folic acid supplementation and 1194 participants in a population based randomized trial (20...

  13. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    OpenAIRE

    Song Xinming; Pang Lihua; Chen Gong; Meng Bin; Wang Jinfeng; Wu Jilei; Zhang Keli; Zhang Ting; Zheng Xiaoying

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS)". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD) occurr...

  14. Prediction and prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y

    2007-08-01

    Rates of preterm birth have continued to rise despite intensive research efforts over the last several decades. A woman who has a spontaneous preterm birth is at high risk for a subsequent preterm birth. Studies have identified clinical, sonographic, and biochemical markers that help to identify the women at highest risk. Determining cervical length and measuring cervicovaginal fibronectin have been proposed as useful tools for evaluating women at risk of preterm birth and may identify those who might benefit from a timely course of antenatal corticosteroids, but effective interventions to prevent preterm birth remain elusive. In the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth, recent trials have confirmed the use of progesterone beginning in the second trimester as an effective intervention. Optimal management of women with a history of spontaneous preterm birth includes a thorough review of the obstetric, medical, and social history, with attention to potentially reversible causes of preterm birth (eg, smoking cessation, acute infections, strenuous activities), accurate ultrasound dating, consideration of progesterone therapy beginning at 16-20 weeks of gestation, and close surveillance during the pregnancy for evolving findings. Results from the ongoing trials of cerclage as an interventional therapy and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as a preventive therapy will provide additional knowledge for the optimal management of these high-risk women.

  15. Urban and rural difference and educational difference of cognition degree of birth defect prevention in uygur autonomous region%维吾尔族聚居区出生缺陷预防认知度的城乡区别及文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the relationship of geography and education and cognition degree of birth defect prevention in Uygur Autonomous Region investigated in Urumqi, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang from January 2006 to July 2013. Methods Statistics of 322 children with birth defects from January 2006 to July 2013 in Urumqi, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang were summarized. And it was received combined analysis with geography and education of pregnant women to explore the relationship of geography and education and cognition degree of birth defect prevention. Results The awareness rates of unban pregnant women with the high education of at least college about pregnancy folic acid intake, dietary intake of iodine, avoiding environmental pollution, avoiding rubella virus, avoiding the use of teratogenic drugs, genetic defects, avoiding consanguineous marriage, the best eugenic age, pets feeding before and during pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis, avoid smoking and secondhand smoke, the significance of alpha-fetoprotein test and pregnancy tome after taking contraceptive drugs were significantly higher than those of rural pregnant women with the education of at most college (P<0.05). Conclusion Cognition degree of birth defect prevention has certain educational and geographic difference and it is also related to special geographic environment of Urumqi. Prevent birth defects has a certain degree of education and regional differences, and also with the county special geographical environment.%目的:总结新疆维吾尔自治区乌鲁木齐市2006年1月~2013年7月调查维吾尔族聚居区生长地域和文化程度与出生缺陷预防认知度之间的关系。方法总结新疆维吾尔自治区乌鲁木齐市2006年1月~2013年7月322例出生缺陷儿数据,并将其与孕妇地域和文化程度进行结合分析,统计地域和文化程度与出生缺陷预防认知度之间的关系。结果大学专科及以上文化及城镇孕

  16. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  17. 北京61272例新生儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis of the birth defects among 61 272 live born infants in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛; 刘晓红; 王粉燕; 赵心亮; 张羲; 张运平

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the birth defect condition in Haidian district of Beijing city, 61 272 live-born infants who were delivered in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from 2003 to the March of 2009 are analyzed. Methods: Data was collected from the hospital' s medical records and from the birth defect surveillance. Results: Among the newborns studied, 1 076 were found having birth defect (17.56‰). The most common birth defects are congenital heart defect, followed by dysmorphosis of external ear, polydactyly, hypospadia, cleft lip and palate. In addition, three birth defects that are not included in the birth defect surveillance list were enorchia, renal agenesis and giant hemangioma. The birth defect rates of preterm and small for gestational age infants are significantly higher than it of the term infants. The birth defect patterns for these two types of abnormal infants are distinct. Conclusion: We have determined the pattern of birth defects in Beijing, which may help in policy-making regarding the prevention and intervention of birth defects.

  18. Data input module for Birth Defects Systems Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Kenneth B; Singh, Amar V; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    The need for a computational bioinformatics infrastructure to manage the vast digital information from functional genomics and proteomics motivated us to develop Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM) as an open resource to facilitate analysis and discovery in developmental biology and developmental toxicity. This report describes the design, development and implementation of the data loading module of BDSM, referred to as LoadBDSM. It includes a shared data directory resource that can be granted various levels of security for different research groups or investigators to manage experimental datasets individually or in groups. LoadBDSM allows the upload of data and experiment details using controlled semantics for developmental exposure (toxicant, dosing scenario, intervention), biological sample (species, tissue, stage) and disease outcome (time, risk, phenotype). It adheres to existing controlled vocabulary plus rules of inference (ontologies) for experiment, data and metadata annotations. LoadBDSM extends the capabilities of BDSM to support the emergence of "embryo-formatics" defined here as the data, information and knowledge from genomic sciences applied to, or derived from, an embryological context. This includes, but is not limited to, delineating pathways and biological regulatory networks for specific chemicals or classes of developmental toxicants, developing novel biomarkers indicative of exposure and/or predictive of adverse effects, and integrating modern computing and information technology with data from molecular biology.

  19. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  20. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  1. Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry: Birth Defects Among Infants Born to US Military Families: 2001 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-30

    large intestinal atresia/stenosis 751.2 Anophthalmia/microphthalmia 743.0, 743.1 Pyloric stenosis 750.5 Congenital cataract 743.30-743.34...occurred in US military families worldwide. Data on birth defects were gathered using nationally standardized definitions for major congenital ...745.4 Congenital hip dislocation 754.30, .31, .35 Atrial septal defect 745.5 Reduction deformity, upper limbs 755.20-755.29 Endocardial cushion

  2. Defect Prevention Based on 5 Dimensions of Defect Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Kumaresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Discovering the unexpected is more important than confirming the known [7]. In software development,the “unexpected” one relates to defects. These defects when unattended would cause failure to the productand risk to the users. The increasing dependency of society on software and the crucial consequences that afailure can cause requires the need to find out the defects at the origin itself. Based on the lessons learntfrom the earlier set of projects, a defect framework highlighting the 5 Dimensions (Ds of defect origin isproposed in this work. The defect framework is based on analyzing the defects that had emerged fromvarious stages of software development like Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Timeline (defectsdue to lack of time during development. This study is not limited to just identifying the origin of defects atvarious phases of software development but also finds out the reasons for such defects, and defectpreventive (DP measures are proposed for each type of defect. This work can help practitioners chooseeffective defect avoidance measures.In addition to arriving at defect framework, this work also proposes a defect injection metric based onseverity of the defect rather than just defect count, which gives the number of adjusted defects produced bya project at various phases. The defect injection metric value, once calculated, serves as a yardstick tomake a comparison in the improvements made in the software process development between similar set ofprojects

  3. Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164346.html Cases of Zika-Linked Birth Defects Dropped in Brazil in 2016 ... despite the continued spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus. Researchers predicted 1,133 cases of microcephaly ...

  4. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  5. Maternal Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Certain Birth Defects1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Yang, Wei; Herring, Amy; Abrams, Barbara; Shaw, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity represents a lack of access to enough food to meet basic needs. We hypothesized that food insecurity may increase birth defect risks, because it is an indicator of increased stress or compromised nutrition, which are both implicated in birth defect etiologies. This study used population-based case-control data. Included in the analysis were 1,189 case mothers and 695 control mothers who were interviewed by telephone. We calculated a food insecurity score as the number of affir...

  6. Acardia : Epidemiologic Findings and Literature Review From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Carey, John C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Halliday, Jane; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Luna Munoz, Leonora; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-01

    Acardia is a severe, complex malformation of monozygotic twinning, but beyond clinical case series, very few epidemiologic data are available. The goals of this study were to assess the epidemiologic characteristics of acardia from birth defect registries in the International Clearinghouse for Birth

  7. Utilizing new evidence in the prevention of recurrent preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Lim; A. Goossens; A.C. Ravelli; K. Boer; H.W. Bruinse; B.W.J. Mol

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Treatments that have proven to be effective in large randomized controlled trials are implemented in clinical practice at varying rates. We measured to what extent new and established strategies were applied to prevent recurrent preterm birth in the Netherlands. Methods: In two academic h

  8. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P neural tube defects from the pre-fortification period to the post-fortification period. Folic acid fortification via several basic food sources has shown to be a successful public health intervention for Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  9. 常州市育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的城乡差异%Differences of KAP of prevention of birth defects between rural and urban women of childbearing age in Changzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷敏; 张子珩; 温勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the differences of knowledge, attitude and practice ( KAP) of prevention of birth defects between rural and urban women of childbearing age in Changzhou city. Methods; Multistage sampling method was used to investigate 2 003 women of childbearing age from five cities and two counties in Changzhou city by a face - to - face questionnaire survey. Results; The awareness rates of knowledge among the women of childbearing age in urban area and rural area were 82. 6% and 81.0% , respectively; 79. 8% , 78.0% , 88. 7% , and 72. 2% of urban women considered TORCH screening, chromosomal examination, infectious diseases screening, and nutritional level detection were necessary, respectively; for rural women, the proportions were 74.5% , 72.0% , 80.5% , and 61. 5% , respectively; 70. 0% of urban women and 60. 6% of rural women searched eugenic knowledge using network. Conclusion; Compared with urban women, the awareness rate of rural women to knowledge of birth defects was low, the lack of knowledge has impact on the attitude of women to prevention of birth defects directly, they cant form beneficial behaviors to prevent birth defects actively, which indicates that the health education is lacking, the cognition and behavior of the women need improvement.%目的:探讨常州市城乡育龄妇女预防出生缺陷的知识、态度和行为差异.方法:采用多阶段抽样的方法对常州市5区2县的2 003例育龄妇女进行面对面的问卷调查.结果:城市育龄妇女知识知晓率为82.6%,农村为81.0%;认为TORCH筛查、染色体检查、传染病筛查和营养水平检测有必要的城市育龄妇女的比例为79.8%、78.0%、88.7%、72.2%,农村育龄妇女的比例为74.5%、72.0%、80.5%、61.5%;会上网搜索有关优生方面知识的城市育龄妇女为70.0%,农村育龄妇女为60.6%.结论;相对于城市而言,常州市农村育龄妇女对出生缺陷知识的知晓率低,知识的匮乏直接

  10. Mothers of Kids with Severe Birth Defects May Have Shorter Lives: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and history of pregnancy complications. Cohen noted that premature death risk was higher among women whose children were born with multiple defects, as opposed to one birth defect. "Of course, we can never make a definitive cause-and-effect determination with a single study," cautioned ...

  11. Monitoring and analysis on birth defects in shanghai in 2009%2009年上海市出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧婷; 蔡任之; 杨青; 宋桂香

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence of birth defects and explore the related risk factors of birth defects in shanghai in 2009.Methods: The monitoring data of birth defects in hospitals of Shanghai in 2009 were collected, the intrauterine development of neonates with birth defects were understood, logistic regression analysis was used to analyze and explore the related risk factors of birth defects.Results: The incidence of birth defects in Shanghai in 2009 was 12.41‰, which was higher than those in former years; the incidence of congenital heart disease was the highest among various birth defects, the intrauterine development of neonates without birth defects was better than that of neonates with birth defects.Conclusion: In recent years, the incidence of birth defects increases, the phenomenon needs more attention, propaganda and education should be enhanced, and prenatal screening and prevention of birth defects should be strengthened too.%目的:分析上海市2009年新生儿出生缺陷的发生情况,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关危险因素.方法:收集2009年上海市接产医院出生监测数据,了解出生缺陷新生儿宫内发育情况,运用Logistic回归分析探索出生缺陷的相关危险因素.结果:上海市2009年出生缺陷的发生率为12.41‰,比历年有所升高,全市首位出生缺陷为先天性心脏病,无出牛缺陷新生儿宫内发育要优于有出生缺陷的新生儿.结论:近年来出生缺陷发生率的上升需要得到重视,应加强宣教,做好出生缺陷的产前筛查与预防.

  12. 海口市孕产妇预防出生缺陷知识、态度、行为及服务利用现况调查%Prevalence survey on knowledge, attitude, behavior, and service utilization of birth defects prevention among the pregnant women in Haikou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英; 陈冰; 王波; 陈永莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study knowledge,attitude,behavior,and service utilization of birth defects prevention among the pregnant women in Haikou,provide scientific reference for constructing appropriate regional prevention mode of birth defects.Methods:Stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used to conduct a questionnaire survey among 2 996 pregnant women from December 2013 to December 2014 in Haikou city.Results:Most of the pregnant women took a positive attitude on birth defects,67.69% of the pregnant women took folic acid before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy; 52.20% of the pregnant women received premarital examination,the main reason for not receiving premarital medical examination was not necessary to check; 45.49% of the pregnant women received examination before pregnancy,the main reason for not receiving examination before pregnancy was an unplanned pregnancy; 30.11% of the pregnant women received eugenic knowledge related training,23.80% of the pregnant women received genetic counseling; 99.60% of the pregnant women received prenatal examination and 36.82% of the pregnant women received prenatal examination for the first time on the eighth gestational week and before the eighth gestational week ; the majority of pregnant women received prenatal examination for the first time over the sensitive period of fetal malformations.Conclusion:The health resources are concentrated in urban areas,the rural women have relatively few opportunities for maternal counseling and pre-pregnancy examination; to expand health service areas of the health department,the allocation of resources and capacity building should be strengthened,the consciousness and behavior of prevention of birth defects should be improved,the utilization of health services about birth defects prevention should be improved,which is a key point of prevention work for birth defects in Haikou.%目的:研究海口市孕产妇预防出生缺陷知识、态度

  13. Maternal hypertensive disorders, antihypertensive medication use, and the risk of birth defects: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Bennekom, C.M. Van; Louik, C.; Werler, M.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Mitchell, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study previously identified associations between specific maternal hypertensive disorders and/or prenatal exposure to antihypertensive medication and birth defects. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Slone Birth Defects Study, 1998-2010. POPULATION: A total of 5568 cases with birth d

  14. Congenital malformations in Ecuadorian children: urgent need to create a National Registry of Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio González-Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fabricio González-Andrade1, Ramiro López-Pulles21Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital, Quito, Ecuador; 2Science and Technology Process of the Ministry of Public Health, Biomedical Center of the Central University and Regional Autonomic University of the Audes, Quito, Ecuador Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, EcuadorAim: This study sets out (a to estimate the prevalence of admissions by birth defects, using the official database of hospitals of Ecuador; and (b to set the basis for a new National Register of Birth Defects in Ecuador that works as a program for the clinical and epidemiological investigation of risk factors in the etiology of congenital anomalies in Ecuadorian hospitals, using a case-control methodological approach. This is the first report in their class.Methods: The data used in this study are derived from the National Register of Hospital Admission/Discharges of the Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos; data of the Ministry of Public Health were also used. Ecuador does not have an official Medical Birth Registry or a Congenital Malformations Registry.Results: A total of 51,375 discharges by congenital malformations were registered in a 7-year period. Of these, 16,679 admissions were of children aged less than 1 year of age, with a birth prevalence rate (BPR of 72.33/10,000 births. 77% of the congenital defects registered comprise the 50 most common birth defects observed in this age group. Cleft lip was the most prevalent birth defect in children less than 1 year of age and the second most common defect in children 1 to 5 years of age. Unilateral cleft lip shows a BPR of 4.57/10,000 births; cardiac birth defects as a group have a BPR of 4.2; hydrocephalus a BPR of 3.77; and Down’s syndrome a BPR of 3.70. Undescended testicle was the most prevalent birth defect in children between 1 to 5 years. 9384 children under 1 year of age were male (55.9% and 7053 were female (42.1%. BPR in males was 40.45 and in

  15. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  16. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

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    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  17. The Relationship between Drug-and Chemical-exposure and Birth Defects during Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启芳; 张忠恕; 方可娟; 丁亦诺; 顾江; 王仁礼; 杨跃英; 李海放; 蒋秀蓉; 薛寿征

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was conductedin 36 hospitals of the urban and suburban areas of Shanghai about the relationships between birth defects and drug use and chemieal exposures during pregnancy in the period of July 1987-December 1990. The case group was composed of 1.609 subjects, and the control group 3,218 cases. On statistical analysis, it was found that a correlation existed between birth defects and the intake of APC and diazepam, and the exposure to pesticides, organic soh, ents, benzene, synthetic resin and physical factors (noises) on the part of the mother, and the exposure to harmful chemicals and physical factors and the smoking of 20 or more cigarettes a day on the part of the father. It is also found that the familial hereditary history of the parents and muhigravidio,, malnutrition, common colds, hepatitis and diarrhea during pregnancy may also be related to the birth defects.

  18. [Interconnection between assisted reproductive technologies, pregnancy complications and risk of birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar', V V

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to investigate the relationship between pregnancy complications, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The study was conducted on 1331 couples with complicated reproductive history. It is found that miscarriage and other complications of pregnancy depend rather on the etiopathogenesis of infertility than on the technique of ART. The highest frequency of complications of pregnancy was diagnosed in women with endocrine disorders. In case of congenital malformations in the fetus the frequency of birth defects was 3.6% after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 1.8% in case of spontaneous pregnancy. It was found an increased risk of birth defects in singleton boys conceived by IVF.

  19. A Survey on Effective Defect Prevention - 3T Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chandani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defects are most detrimental entities which deter the smooth operation and deployment of the software system and can arise in any part of the life cycle, they are most feared, but still Defect Prevention is mostly discounted field of software quality. Unattended defects cause a lot of rework and waste of effort. Hence only finding the defects is not important, finding the root cause of the defect is also important which is quite difficult due to levels of abstraction in terms of people, process, complexity, environment and other factors. Through this study various techniques of Defect classification, prevention and root cause analysis are analysed. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the structured process showing defect prevention flow and inferring three T's (Tracking, Technique and Training after analysis.

  20. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syuichi OokiDepartment of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART.Methods: Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference, 35–39, and 40+ years.Results: Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed.Conclusion: Maternal age is

  1. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161034.html H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect ... Swedish researchers report that the vaccine against the H1N1 "swine flu" strain of influenza doesn't seem ...

  2. COMPARISON OF GEOCODING METHODS USED IN CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Accurate geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded maternal residence a...

  3. Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects : the role of polymorphisms of placental transporter proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daud, Aizati N. A.; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Bakker, Marian K.; Wang, Hao; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Plosch, Torsten; Wilffert, Bob

    2014-01-01

    One of the ongoing issues in perinatal medicine is the risk of birth defects associated with maternal drug use. The teratogenic effect of a drug depends, apart from other factors, on the exposition of the fetus to the drug. Transporter proteins are known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics of dru

  4. Practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland: a national survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, V

    2011-03-01

    Preterm birth can result in adverse outcomes for the neonate and\\/or his\\/her family. The accurate prediction and prevention of preterm birth is paramount. This study describes and critically analyses practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland.

  5. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortification in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Orioli, Iêda M; da Graça Dutra, Maria; Nazer-Herrera, Julio; Rivera, Nelson; Ojeda, María Elena; Canessa, Aurora; Wettig, Elisabeth; Fontannaz, Ana María; Mellado, Cecília; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2005-06-01

    To verify whether the decreasing neural tube defects birth prevalence rates in Chile are due to folic acid fortification or to pre-existing decreasing trends, we performed a population survey using a network of Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC, Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) maternity hospitals in Chile, between the years 1982 and 2002. Within each maternity hospital, birth prevalence rates of spina bifida and anencephaly were calculated from two pre-fortification periods (1982-1989 and 1990-2000), and from one fortified period (2001-2002). There was no historical trend for spina bifida birth prevalence rates before folic acid fortification, and there was a 51% (minimum 27%, maximum 66%) decrease in the birth prevalence rates of this anomaly in the fortified period. The relative risks of spina bifida were homogeneous among hospitals in the two period comparisons. There was no historical trend for the birth prevalence of anencephaly comparing the two pre-fortified periods, but the relative risks were heterogeneous among hospitals in this comparison. There was a 42% (minimum 10%, maximum 63%) decrease in the birth prevalence rate of anencephaly in the fortified period as compared with the immediately pre-fortified period, with homogeneous relative risks among hospitals. Within the methodological constraints of this study we conclude that the birth prevalence rates for both spina bifida and anencephaly decreased as a result of folic acid fortification, without interference of decreasing secular trends.

  6. Advances in prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis for birth defect%出生缺陷产前筛查及产前诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清明; 周瑾

    2011-01-01

    出生缺陷已成为世界婴儿死亡、儿童和成人残疾的主要原因之一,是目前全世界关注的一个重大公共卫生问题.出生缺陷由遗传因素、环境致畸因素或两者共同作用所致.我国是出生缺陷高发国家,通过早期诊断、早期干预可以避免至少70%出生缺陷.出生缺陷干预是一个系统工程,产前筛查和产前诊断是胎儿出生缺陷干预的有效手段,是出生缺陷干预二级预防中的重要组成部分.%Birth defects has been one of main causes of infant mortality, children and adult disability, and are becoming main public heath problem worldwide. Birth defects are associated with environmental factors, genetic factors or interactions of the genetic factors and environmental factors. It is high rates of birth defects in China, at least 70% of the birth defects can be avoided of early diagnosis is determined and early interventions are performed. Intervention of birth defects is a system process, prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis are effective interventions, and they are the key components of the secondary prevention in birth defects control.

  7. Analysis on the the monitoring results of birth defect in Zhanjiang%湛江市出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎文清; 杨妹; 陈娟文; 叶婉华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the status and epidemiologic characteristics of birth defect in Zhanjiang, seek a more effective intervention countermeasure to reduce birth defect.Methods: According to the nation birth defect monitoring network and registration reporting requirement of monitoring plan in Zhanjiang, the monitoring data of birth defect eases in 2009 were analyzed retrospectively, then the resuits were analyzed by statistical method.Results: In 2009, 335 infants with birth defect were born in Zhanjiang, the incidence of birth defeet was 65.45/ten thousand, which was lower than that of the entire province, achieved the goal of child development plan in Guangdong province (90/ten thousand) But after cancelling compulsion pre -marital physical examination in 2003, the incidence of birth defect increased year by year, compared with the incidence of birth defect in 2003, the incidence of birth defect in 2006 increased by nearly 1/2 (P <0.01 ), after "two summaries" intermediate stage appraisal in 2006, the incidence of birth defect decreased.Conclusion: Although the incidence of birth defect in Zhanjiang is lower than the average levels in the nation and the entire province, but the prevention and control work is still stern.The government and the entire society should move together and complete the third - level prevention earnestly, which may be the basic measures to reduce the occurrence of birth defect.%目的:探讨湛江市出生缺陷现状和流行病学特征,寻找降低出生缺陷更有效的干预对策.方法:根据全国出生缺陷监测网及湛江市监测方案的登记报告要求,对2009年出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析,结果采用统计学方法进行显著性检验.结果:2009年湛江市出生缺陷儿335例,出生缺陷发生率为65.45/万,较全省出生缺陷发生率低,达到广东省儿童发展规划的目标(90/万).但2003年湛江市取消强制婚检后,出生缺陷发生率逐年上升,2006

  8. Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Beate; Yu, Fei; Fruin, Scott; Chapa, Guadalupe; Shaw, Gary M; Harris, John A

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of birth defects ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program in neonates and fetuses delivered in southern California in 1987-1993. By using measurements from ambient monitoring stations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, they calculated average monthly exposure estimates for each pregnancy. Conventional, polytomous, and hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for subgroups of cardiac and orofacial defects. Odds ratios for cardiac ventricular septal defects increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing second-month CO exposure (odds ratio (OR)(2nd quartile) CO = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.48; OR(3rd quartile) CO = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.19, 3.67; OR(4th quartile) CO = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.44, 6.05). Similarly, risks for aortic artery and valve defects, pulmonary artery and valve anomalies, and conotruncal defects increased with second-month ozone exposure. The study was inconclusive for other air pollutants. The authors' results are supported by the specificity of the timing of the effect and some evidence from animal data; however, this is the first known study to link ambient air pollution during a vulnerable window of development to human malformations. Confirmation by further studies is needed.

  9. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  10. Epidemiology of external birth defects in neonates in South western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare T.I.B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of birth defects in Nigeria, particularly in our setting. This study determined the epidemiology of external congenital anomalies in Southwest Nigerian children. Patients and Methods: This was a stratified, randomized study of neonates presenting with external birth defects in Ife-Ijesha in Southwestern Nigeria, from August 2003 to July 2004. The neonates were screened for obvious congenital malformations by thorough physical examination. Results: A total of 624 neonates were screened, 43 (6.9% of whom had external birth defects (prevalence: 3.7 ± 0.8% SD. There was a slight male preponderance (M: F= 1.4: 0.9. The overall prevalence rates of external congenital and major anomalies in Ife-Ijesa are 6.9 and 3.7% respectively. A higher prevalence for major malformations, 6.3%, was also found within the minority ethnic groups in these communities compared to the native majority. Musculoskeletal abnormalities are the most common anomaly, followed by those of abnormal external genitalia and head defects. Conclusion: Major malformations are more common amongst the minority settlers in this study, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were the most prevalent.

  11. Monitoring and analysis of perinatal birth defect%围产儿出生缺陷的监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海丽; 陈源鸿; 王丽平; 蔡娟; 温新创

    2012-01-01

    Objective Analysis of epidemiology and influencing factors of perinatal birth defects from 2002 to 2010. Method The defect rate of perinatal birth and influencing factors were analyzed based on the birth defect surveillance data and the birth information from Nanshan Hospital, Guangdong Medical College. Results The birth defect rate was 15.88‰ over the period of nine years,and it was significantly increased since 2007.The death rate of defect birth accounted for 24.88% of the total perinatal death. The top birth defects were congenital heart disease, multi-fingered and jointed fingered, total cleft lip and palate, fetal edema syndrome, and neural tube malformations, accounted for 52.55% of total birth defects. The birth defect was related to residence origin of the parents, gender and number of the neonates, season of the birth, as well as pregnant times, delivery times, age and education levels of the pregnant women. Conclusion The control of birth defect is critical.Further investigations on the etiology of birth defect are needed to provide effective prevention and control strategies.Extensive health education and guidance on marriage and pregnancy, prenatal and post natal cares,and physical examination on neonates are the effective ways to reduce the rate of birth defects and increase the quality of population.%目的 分析2002-2010年围产儿出生缺陷流行病学特征及影响因素.方法 以2002-2010年广东医学院附属南山医院分娩信息及出生缺陷的监测资料为基础,对缺陷率及影响因素进行分析.结果 9年间出生缺陷率为15.88%,2007年后缺陷率明显增高;缺陷儿死亡占围产儿死亡的24.88%;前五位出生缺陷依次为先天性心脏病、多指+并指、总唇腭裂、胎儿水肿综合征、神经管畸形,共占畸形总数的52.55%;出生缺陷发生与户籍、性别、季节、胎数及产妇年龄、文化程度、孕次、产次有关.结论 出生缺陷防控形势严峻,应深入

  12. The impact of thalidomide use in birth defects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales Luiz Vianna, Fernanda; Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Although the thalidomide tragedy occurred more than 50 years ago, the medication is still being used worldwide for different reasons, and several aspects regarding its teratogenicity remain unsolved. Despite the strict regulation implemented, new cases of thalidomide embryopathy (TE) are still being registered in Brazil. Furthermore, the molecular processes that lead to malformations when the embryo is exposed to thalidomide have not yet been fully identified. In this article, we perform a critical analysis of thalidomide's history in Brazil, highlighting aspects of the occurrence of TE over the decades. Finally, we present the main perspectives and challenges for ongoing surveillance and prevention of TE in Brazil. The effective control of dispensing thalidomide, especially in areas where leprosy is endemic, is one of the most important and challenging points. Furthermore, the emergence of thalidomide analogues is fast approaching, and their availability would pose additional concerns. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms and targets of thalidomide in both experimental and human models is essential for generating new insights into teratogenic mechanisms, so that safer thalidomide analogues can be developed.

  13. Preventing neural tube defects in Europe : A missed opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, A; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; Armstrong, N; Haeusler, M; Berghold, A; Gillerot, Y; Baguette, A; Gjerga, R; Barisic, [No Value; Christiansen, M; Goujard, J; Steinbicker, [No Value; Rosch, C; McDonnell, R; Scarano, G; Calzolari, E; Neville, A; Cocchi, G; Bianca, S; Gatt, M; De Walle, H; Braz, P; Latos-Bielenska, A; Gener, B; Portillor, [No Value; Addor, MC; Abramsky, L; Ritvanen, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Daltveit, AK; Aneren, G; Olars, B; Edwards, G

    2005-01-01

    Each year, more than 4500 pregnancies in the European Union are affected by neural tube defects (NTD). Unambiguous evidence of the effectiveness of peri conceptional folic acid in preventing the majority of neural tube defects has been available since 1991. We report on trends in the total prevalenc

  14. Characteristics of rural birth defects and intervention strategies%农村出生缺陷特征及干预对策临床研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 杨妹; 陈娟文; 吴秋婵; 林怡

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨我市农村出生缺陷的临床特征,为临床制订干预措施提供科学依据。方法:对我市农村出生缺陷的发生率和特征进行临床分析,与城市出生缺陷进行比较。结果:我市农村出生缺陷发生率为73.51/万,城乡出生缺陷发生率有显著差异,农村出生缺陷发生率比城市高近一倍,(P均<0.005),农村出生缺陷前三位依次为消化系统畸形、四肢畸形和神经系统畸形,分别占出生缺陷的28.39%、24.15%和11.86%。结论:我市农村出生缺陷发生率还处于较高水平,而且神经系统出生缺陷比较突出,主要原因是农村育龄妇女对口服叶酸预防出生缺陷等措施不理解、不接受,思想认识还未真正提高;基层围产保健水平低。我市农村人口占80%以上,因此,在制定出生缺陷干预对策时,应将重点放在影响人力资源与人民生活质量的病种和农村上。%Goal To investigate the clinical characteristics of birth defects in our city, and to provide scientific basis for clinical intervention. Methods the incidence and characteristics of birth defects in rural areas were analyzed, and compared with the urban birth defects. Finally The city rural birth defect rate 73.51/, urban and rural birth defect rate has the remarkable difference, rural incidence of birth defects rate nearly one times higher than that of urban, respectively (P<0.005). The rural birth defects in the former three followed by digestive system malformations, limb deformities and nervous system malformation, respectively, accounting for birth defects of 28.39%and 24.15%and 11.86%. Discussion our city rural birth defects incidence is still at a higher level and nervous system of birth defects is more outstanding, main reason is rural women of childbearing age oral folic acid to prevent birth defects and other measures do not understand, do not accept and ideas have not really improve;primary Wai care

  15. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  16. Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects: the role of polymorphisms of placental transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Aizati N A; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Bakker, Marian K; Wang, Hao; de Walle, Hermien E K; Plösch, Torsten; Wilffert, Bob

    2014-05-01

    One of the ongoing issues in perinatal medicine is the risk of birth defects associated with maternal drug use. The teratogenic effect of a drug depends, apart from other factors, on the exposition of the fetus to the drug. Transporter proteins are known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics of drugs and have an effect on drug level and fetal drug exposure. This condition may subsequently alter the risk of teratogenicity, which occurs in a dose-dependent manner. This review focuses on the clinically important polymorphisms of transporter proteins and their effects on the mRNA and protein expression in placental tissue. We also propose a novel approach on how the different genotypes of the polymorphism can be translated into phenotypes to facilitate genetic association studies. The last section looks into the recent studies exploring the association between P-glycoprotein polymorphisms and the risk of fetal birth defects associated with medication use during pregnancy.

  17. Methodological approaches to evaluate teratogenic risk using birth defect registries: advantages and disadvantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Poletta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different approaches have been used in case-control studies to estimate maternal exposure to medications and the risk of birth defects. However, the performance of these approaches and how they affect the odds ratio (OR estimates have not been evaluated using birth-defect surveillance programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope and limitations of three case-control approaches to assess the teratogenic risk of birth defects in mothers exposed to antiepileptic medications, insulin, or acetaminophen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 110,814 non-malformed newborns and 58,514 live newborns with birth defects registered by the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC between 1967 and 2008. Four controls were randomly selected for each case in the same hospital and period, and three different control groups were used: non-malformed newborns (HEALTHY, malformed newborns (SICK, and a subgroup of SICK, only-exposed cases (OECA. Associations were evaluated using OR and Pearson's chi-square (P<0.01. There were no concordance correlations between the HEALTHY and OECA designs, and the average OR differences ranged from 3.0 to 11.5 for the three evaluated medicines. The overestimations observed for HEALTHY design were increased as higher OR values were given, with a high and statistically significant correlation between the difference and the mean. On the contrary, the concordance correlations obtained between the SICK and OECA designs were quite good, with no significant differences in the average risks. CONCLUSIONS: The HEALTHY design estimates the true population OR, but shows a high rate of false-positive results presumably caused by differential misclassification bias. This bias decreases with the increase of the proportion of exposed controls. SICK and OECA odds ratios cannot be considered a direct estimate of the true population OR except under certain conditions. However, the SICK and OECA

  18. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Shirangi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15. Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03 and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48 and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42. This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  19. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  20. Methodological Approaches to Evaluate Teratogenic Risk Using Birth Defect Registries: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, Fernando A.; López Camelo, Jorge S.; Gili, Juan A.; Leoncini, Emmanuele; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Different approaches have been used in case-control studies to estimate maternal exposure to medications and the risk of birth defects. However, the performance of these approaches and how they affect the odds ratio (OR) estimates have not been evaluated using birth-defect surveillance programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope and limitations of three case-control approaches to assess the teratogenic risk of birth defects in mothers exposed to antiepileptic medications, insulin, or acetaminophen. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 110,814 non-malformed newborns and 58,514 live newborns with birth defects registered by the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC) between 1967 and 2008. Four controls were randomly selected for each case in the same hospital and period, and three different control groups were used: non-malformed newborns (HEALTHY), malformed newborns (SICK), and a subgroup of SICK, only-exposed cases (OECA). Associations were evaluated using OR and Pearson's chi-square (P<0.01). There were no concordance correlations between the HEALTHY and OECA designs, and the average OR differences ranged from 3.0 to 11.5 for the three evaluated medicines. The overestimations observed for HEALTHY design were increased as higher OR values were given, with a high and statistically significant correlation between the difference and the mean. On the contrary, the concordance correlations obtained between the SICK and OECA designs were quite good, with no significant differences in the average risks. Conclusions The HEALTHY design estimates the true population OR, but shows a high rate of false-positive results presumably caused by differential misclassification bias. This bias decreases with the increase of the proportion of exposed controls. SICK and OECA odds ratios cannot be considered a direct estimate of the true population OR except under certain conditions. However, the SICK and OECA designs could

  1. 10年围产儿出生缺陷调查研究%Investigation and analysis of perinatal birth defects during 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管淑彩; 李敏; 刘青

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨出生缺陷的状况及其影响因素,为降低出生缺陷干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 回顾性监测分析我院2001年1月至2010年12月10年间分娩的围产儿出生缺陷状况.结果 10年监测17 365例围产儿,其中出生缺陷儿205例,平均出生缺陷发生率为11.81‰,总体出生缺陷的年度发生率间无显著性差异(χ2=4.303,P=0.890>0.05),但2006年至2010年与2001年至2005年相比,神经管畸形的构成比明显下降(17.09%vs29.55%,χ2=4.474,P=0.034 0.05 ). But compared with the period of 2001-2005, the constituent ratio of neural tube defect at the period of 2006-2010 decreased significantly ( 17.09% vs 29. 55% ,χ2 = 4. 474,P = 0.034 <0.05,OR =0. 492 ). The first 5 types of birth defect were neural tube defect, polysyndactyly, cheilopalatognathus, urinary tract defect and congenital cardiopathy in turn, and the incidence rates of them were 2. 66 , 2.49 , 1. 22 , 1. 10 and 0. 98 , respectively. The sum of incidence of the first three types occupied 52. 69% of overall birth defect rate. The age of puerperants (x = 14. 946,P =0.000 <0. 05,OR = 1.712 ) and the gender of perinatal infants (χ2 = 6.488 ,P = 0. 011 <0. 05, OR = 1.440 ) were closely related with birth defect. There were 52. 20% of birth defect diagnosed before birth, and B-ultrasound was the main method for diagnosing ( 57. 07% ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defect in the area needs to be cut down, especially the types of neural tube defects, polysyndactyly and cheilopalatognathus. Low-dose of folic acid has significant effect in preventing neural tube defects.

  2. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Folic acid (FA) may have a role in the prevention of pregnancy complications. However, the efficacy of FA supplementation in reducing the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is still unclear. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth (PTB). The research protocol was designed a priori, defining methods for searching the literature in electronic databases, including and examining articles, and extracting and analyzing data. We included all randomized trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton gestations without prior PTB who were randomized to prophylactic treatment with either FA supplementation or control (placebo or no treatment). The primary outcome was the incidence of PTB pregnancy does not prevent PTB <37 weeks. Daily FA supplementation remains the most important intervention to reduce the risk of neural tube defects.

  3. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Topics Cerebral Palsy Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Down Syndrome All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds NIH workshop identifies complex health problems among ...

  4. Birth Defects in Gaza: Prevalence, Types, Familiarity and Correlation with Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Al Shawwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of registration at birth, and of incidence of major structural birth defects (BD obtained in Gaza at Al Shifa Hospital, where 28% of total births in Gaza Strip occur. Doctors registered 4,027 deliveries, with a protocol comprehensive of clinical, demographic, kin and environmental questions. Prevalence of BD is 14/1,000, without association with intermarriage or gender of the child. Prevalence of late miscarriages and still births are respectively 23.3/1,000 and 7.4/1,000, and of premature births 19.6/1,000. Couples with a BD child have about 10 times higher frequency of recurrence of a BD in their progeny than those with normal children, but none of their 694 siblings and only 10/1,000 of their 1,423 progeny had BD, similar to the frequency in general population. These data suggest occurrence of novel genetic and epigenetic events in determination of BD. Children with BD were born with higher frequency (p < 0 001 in families where one or both parents were under “white phosphorus” attack, that in the general population. Bombing of the family home and removal of the rubble were also frequently reported by couples with BD occurrence. These data suggests a causative/favoring role of acute exposure of parents to the weapons-associated contaminants, and/or of their chronic exposure from their persistence in the environment on the embryonic development of their children.

  5. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  6. Prevalence Study of Birth Defects in the City of Panzhihua%攀枝花市出生缺陷的现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永莲; 张方芳; 唐俊; 罗汝琼; 伍文霞; 张光艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop the prevention of birth defects and improve the quality of births from the prehension of the incidence, distribution characteristics, influencing factors and causes of birth defect, and institute implementation. Methods: Babies born between October 1st 2008 and September 30th 2011 were recorded according to the city monitoring program of birth defect. Results: There are totally 30 111 perinatal babies are observed and diagnosed. 381 babies with over twenty-eight weeks old were found birth defect. The rate of birth defect was 12.65 per thousand. To make a comparison between male and female, the difference have significant. Male incidence was statistical higher than female incidence (x2=ll.49,P〈0.01). There was no differences on birth defects mothers in all age groups. The main birth defect were cleft lips, ear deformity and multi finger toe in Panzhihua. Conclusion: The rate of birth defect decreased in near three years in Panzhihua. The keys of reduction lied in completely intervention measures on birth defects, three Prevention measures and enhanced health care during pregnancy.%目的:掌握攀枝花市出生缺陷发生率,了解出生缺陷分布特征、影响因素、发生原因等,制定预防出生缺陷实施方案,提高出生人口素质。方法:按照“攀枝花市出生缺陷监测方案”的要求,在攀枝花市所有出生缺陷监测单位对2008年10月1日至2011年9月30日出生的围产儿进行监测。结果:共监测30111例围产儿,胎龄28周以上出生缺陷381例,出生缺陷发生率为126.5/万;男性出生缺陷发生率高于女性,差异具有统计学意义(x2=11.49,P〈0.01);出生缺陷儿母亲各年龄组间差异无统计学意义。攀枝花市出生缺陷主要为总唇裂、多指(趾)、外耳畸形等。结论:攀枝花市三年来出生缺陷发生率呈下降趋势;全面实施出生缺陷干预措施,认真落实“三级预防”措施、

  7. Study on Birth Defect Intervention and Standardization Mode%出生缺陷干预及规范化模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文强; 幸惠云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study and explore the intervention of birth defects on the effect of themarried couples, in order to reduce the birth rate of birth defects, improve the comprehensive quality of the birth population reference.Method: 12 000 married couples in our region from June 2011 to May 2014 were selected as the research objects, and they were given birth defect intervention on its three. The first level intervention was to prevent the birth of children with birth defects, secondary interventions was to reduce the incidence of birth defects, three intervention was to treat children of birth defects. Interventions focus was on primary intervention to prevent birth defects in children born.District,town,village three level of division of labor,cooperation, for marriedcouples of childbearing age premarital examination,free eugenics propaganda and education,pre pregnancy virus and genetic disease detection, pre pregnancy and early pregnancytaking free pregnancy B ultrasound examination,Fu Shi Fu,regular follow-up.Result:Premarital education to carry out rate,pre-marital medical examination rate,pregnancy B-examination and regular follow-up of the number of persons in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013,2012 and 2011(P<0.05).Early pregnancy rates of four viruses tested positive for the virus (rubella virus,herpes virus, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus), a genetic disease before pregnancy rate (thalassemia,G6PD deficiency) in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013, 2012 and 2011(P<0.05).And the number of women in early pregnancy taking Forceval was significantly higher than that of 2013,2012 and 2011.The birth defect rate in 2014 was significantly lower than that in 2013,2012,2011(P<0.05), the intensity was positively correlated with the level of intervention.Conclusion:For married women of childbearing age of birth defect intervention, especially the level of intervention, to the birth of children with birth defects play a preventive role

  8. Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, Janet D; Mai, Cara T; Petersen, Emily E; Liberman, Rebecca F; Forestieri, Nina E; Stevens, Alissa C; Delaney, Augustina; Dawson, April L; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Dunn, Julie E; Higgins, Cathleen A; Meyer, Robert E; Williams, Tonya; Polen, Kara N D; Newsome, Kim; Reynolds, Megan; Isenburg, Jennifer; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney-Delman, Dana M; Moore, Cynthia A; Boyle, Coleen A; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-03-03

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations(†) (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.

  9. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  10. 如皋市出生缺陷病因与死亡原因分析%Analysis of the causes of birth defects and death in Rugao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕; 顾建明; 陆平; 黄文美; 李鸿斌

    2013-01-01

    influencing factors of local maternal folic acid levels and birth defects .Three-grade prevention of birth defects should be further implemented .%目的:评估如皋市现阶段出生缺陷主要病因及死亡原因。方法对如皋市2007年至2012年出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析与阶段性比较。结果2007年至2012年出生缺陷发生率为6.04‰,年平均下降0.21‰。出生缺陷前10位病因为唇裂和腭裂、多指及并指(趾)、心间隔先天畸形、马蹄内翻足、大肠先天性缺如闭锁和狭窄、先天性(外)耳道缺如闭锁和狭窄、小耳、先天性脑积水、尿道下裂、脊柱裂等,占出生缺陷总数的79.14%,其中以肌肉骨骼系统和消化系统的体表缺陷为主。出生缺陷前10位死亡原因为心间隔先天畸形、唇裂和腭裂、心脏的其他先天畸形、先天性脑积水、大肠先天性缺如、闭锁和狭窄、脑及其他短缺畸形、先天性膈疝、先天性肾盂积水、腹裂、脊柱裂等,占出生缺陷死亡数的76.58%,占出生缺陷总数的20.38%,其中以循环系统和神经系统疾病为主。出生缺陷围产期死亡率为1.45‰,婴儿期死亡率为0.74‰。叶酸增补项目对如皋市神经管畸形发生率下降作用并不明显(χ2=0.21,P>0.05)。男孩出生缺陷发生率高于女孩(χ2=6.12,P<0.05),孕母年龄≥30岁出生缺陷发生率较高(χ2=6.87,P<0.05)。结论出生缺陷发生率逐年增长的现象得到纠正,综合干预措施发挥了一定作用。建议推广应用神经系统和循环系统出生缺陷监测的方法,探索当地孕母叶酸水平等影响因素与出生缺陷的关系,并进一步落实出生缺陷三级干预措施。

  11. Multivitamins, Folic Acid and Birth Defects: Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviors of Hispanic Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background: Consumption of folic acid prior to conception can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a recommendation that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 [mu]g of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for a NTD-affected…

  12. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  13. Detection results of birth defects in 5,281 perinatal infants%5281例围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕玲; 黄惠萍; 卢伟棉

    2013-01-01

    目的 降低出生缺陷率,提高人口素质.方法 对2008年10月1日至2010年9月30日于本院分娩的5281例围产儿出生缺陷情况及其相关危险因素进行统计、分析,为开展出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据.结果 3年来围产儿出生缺陷率平均为16.10‰,呈逐年上升趋势.先天性心脏病以及四肢骨骼肌肉系统缺陷为最常见的出生缺陷,分列1、2位.孕母年龄对围产儿出生缺陷有重要影响,>35岁组出生缺陷率明显高于其他各年龄组.出生缺陷的性别、产母居住地城乡差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 加强孕前、孕早期预防以及产前诊断,可减少出生缺陷的发生;需进一步加强胎儿心血管系统、四肢等超声产前检查;高龄孕妇孕中期应常规行产前诊断.%Objective To reduce the rate of birth defects and improve the quality of population.Methods Birth defects and its related risk factors were statistically analyzed in 5,281 perinatal infants who had been born in our hospital during the period of October 1,2008 to September 30,2010 so as to provide support for the prevention and intervention of birth defects.Results The rate of birth defects was 16.10 per thousand in the recent three years,with an increasing trend year by year.Congenital heart disease and defects of extremities musculoskeletal system were the most common birth defects,ranking the first and second place.Maternal age had an important impact on birth defects.Pregnant women aged >35 had a significantly higher rate of birth defects than those with different ages.No significant differences in sexes and both urban and rural areas were found.Conclusions Intensified prevention before pregnancy and in early pregnancy and strengthened prenatal diagnosis can reduce the incidence of birth defects.Prenatal ultrasonic examination for fetal cardiovascular system and limbs needs to be further strengthened.The women of advanced maternal age should receive routine

  14. Analysis of birth defects in Urumqi during 2011 to 2015%乌鲁木齐市2011年-2015年出生缺陷情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 丁娟

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究乌鲁木齐市2011年~ 2015年出生缺陷的资料,探讨乌鲁木齐市主要出生缺陷类型、影响因素及变化规律,并提出干预措施.方法 对乌鲁木齐市2011年~ 2015年的出生缺陷资料进行分析,观察乌鲁木齐市出生缺陷的变化趋势.结果 2011-2015年5年间,乌鲁木齐市发生出生缺陷儿1422例,出生缺陷总发生率66.67/万,出生缺陷前5位依次为总唇裂、多指(趾)、神经管畸形、先天性脑积水、先天性心脏病.不同年份的出生缺陷顺位有所不同.结论 部分对于干预措施敏感的致死和严重致残出生缺陷发生率逐步下降,我市出生缺陷现有综合防治策略取得了明显的成效;出生缺陷防控工作重点的变化.为降低国产儿出生缺陷发生率,做好婚前医学检查、加强孕产妇孕前、孕期保健,增强出生缺陷防范意识,产检进行产前筛查和孕中期彩超排畸筛查,是降低围产儿出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.%Objective:Study data of birth defects,in Urumqi from 2013 ~ 2015,Discussion major types of birth defects in Urumqi,affecting factors and changes in laws and proposed interventions.Methods:Analysis of birth defects in Urumqi during 2011 to 2015,observing the change trend of birth defects in Urumqi.Results:2011-2015,five years,1422 cases of birth defects in Urumqi,the incidence of birth defects in total 66.67 / m,the top five birth defects of cleft lip,multi-finger (toe),and neural tube defects,congenital hydrocephalus and congenital heart disease.Different years of birth defects in the sequence is different.Conclusion:Part to the intervention sensitive to death or severe disability gradually decreased incidence of birth defects,birth defects existing obvious achievements have been made in the integrated control strategy;The change of birth defect prevention and control work key.In order to reduce the incidence of perinatal birth defects,completes the pre-marital medical

  15. [Folic acid: Primary prevention of neural tube defects. Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas Centeno, M J; Miguélez Lago, C

    2016-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations of the nervous system, they have a multifactorial etiology, are caused by exposure to chemical, physical or biological toxic agents, factors deficiency, diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, genetic alterations and unknown causes. Some of these factors are associated with malnutrition by interfering with the folic acid metabolic pathway, the vitamin responsible for neural tube closure. Its deficit produce anomalies that can cause abortions, stillbirths or newborn serious injuries that cause disability, impaired quality of life and require expensive treatments to try to alleviate in some way the alterations produced in the embryo. Folic acid deficiency is considered the ultimate cause of the production of neural tube defects, it is clear the reduction in the incidence of Espina Bifida after administration of folic acid before conception, this leads us to want to further study the action of folic acid and its application in the primary prevention of neural tube defects. More than 40 countries have made the fortification of flour with folate, achieving encouraging data of decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects. This paper attempts to make a literature review, which clarify the current situation and future of the prevention of neural tube defects.

  16. Prevalence and pattern of birth defects in a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Mkpe; Oloyede, Olufemi A; Bassey, Goddy; Kejeh, Benjamin M; Otaigbe, Barbara E; Opara, Peace I; Eneh, Austa U; Akani, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    Objective To ascertain the prevalence and pattern of congenital abnormalities that are peculiar to the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. It involved data from the labor ward and neonatal birth registers of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital on the total number of births and the babies that were delivered with major birth defects between August 2011 and December 2014. We also conducted a statistical comparison of the prevalence of congenital abnormalities in the Niger Delta with that in other regions of Nigeria and the developed world of Europe. Results Out of the 7,670 deliveries that occurred, 159 maternities had babies with major birth defects giving a prevalence of 20.73 cases per 1,000 live births. This figure is far more than that which was obtained in other regions of Nigeria −4.15:cases per 1,000 live births in the South East (P51:1,000 in the North East (P<0.001). Eighty-five (53.46%) of the defects occurred in 1,681 unbooked patients, while 74 (46.54%) happened in 5,989 booked maternities (P<0.001). The predominant abnormalities were those of the central nervous system at 27.0%, gastrointestinal system 11.95%, cardiovascular system 10.69%, anterior abdominal wall 8.18%, skeleton 6.29%, and chromosomal abnormalities at 5.66%. Conclusion The prevalence of major birth defects at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital was 20.73 cases per 1,000 live births and it was more in the unbooked than the booked maternities. All body systems were affected with those of the central nervous system predominating at 27.0% of the total diagnosed defects.

  17. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  18. Defect Prevention Approaches in Medium Scale it Enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    V, Suma

    2010-01-01

    The software industry is successful, if it can draw the complete attention of the customers towards it. This is achievable if the organization can produce a high quality product. To identify a product to be of high quality, it should be free of defects, should be capable of producing expected results. It should be delivered in an estimated cost, time and be maintainable with minimum effort. Defect Prevention is the most critical but often neglected component of the software quality assurance in any project. If applied at all stages of software development, it can reduce the time, cost and resources required to engineer a high quality product.

  19. 奉贤区13266例围产儿出生缺陷分析%Analysis on 13 266 perinatal infants with birth defects in Fengxian district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾维红

    2011-01-01

    defects and the perinatal infants without birth defects (x2 = 1 345.85, P < 0. 001 ); prenatal diagnosis and therapeutic abortion could reduce the incidence of birth defects in liveborn infants, and change the rank order of birth defects. Conclusion: The occurrence of birth defects is related to maternal age, but it is independent of gender, the time of conception and census register; the mortality of infants with birth defects is one of the main reasons of perinatal mortality; tertiary prevention is one of the main measures to reduce the occurrence of birth defects and perinatal morality.

  20. 出生缺陷监测现状、疾病谱变化趋势与监测方法探讨%Birth defect monitoring status, disease spectrum change trend and methods of monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杏敏; 吴红宇; 胡南

    2011-01-01

    目的 以扬州市2005年-2010年的出生缺陷监测结果为基础,阐述我国出生缺陷监测现状,为进一步探讨我国出生缺陷监测方法、干预措施等提供有效的的数据支持,从而提高出生缺陷监测研究水平.方法 总结扬州市2005年-2010年出生缺陷诊断分类及其变化趋势,探讨出生缺陷监测方法和统计口径.结果 先天性心脏病、小于28w治疗性引产数、出生缺陷诊断无法归类而列为“其它”三者呈上升趋势.结论 只有全面了解出生缺陷监测现状,准确统计出生缺陷发生率及其分类,才能有针对性地制订干预措施,更加有效地预防和减少出生缺陷.%Objective: Taking Yangzhou 2005 - 2010 years of birth defects monitoring results as the basis, elaborated our country of birth defects monitoring status and provided effective data support for the further study of Chinese birth defects monitoring methods, as well as improving birth defects surveillance study level. Methods: To sum up 2005 - 2010 years of birth defects diagnosis classification and changing trend of birth defects of Yangzhou city. Explore monitoring method and -statistical standards. Results: Congenital heart diseases, the number of less than 28 weeks abortion treatment, birth defects diagnosis as "others" which could not be explicitly classified show ascendant trend. Conclusion; Only a comprehensive understanding of birth defects monitoring status, the accurate statistics of the incidence of birth defects and its classification, can be targeted to develop interventions that more effectively prevent and reduce the incidence of birth defects.

  1. Research Progress of Factors Related to Birth Defect%出生缺陷相关因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅盛平; 张红

    2011-01-01

    It is a basic national policy to control the size of the population and improve its quality in China,but birth defect is an important factor that affects the population quality.This paper summarizes the occurrence,classification,etiology,pathogenesis of birth defects and explores birth defect surveillance,intervention and prevention work so as to lay the foundation for improving population quality and protecting people’s health.%控制人口数量,提高人口素质是我国的一项基本国策,而出生缺陷则是严重影响人口素质的一个重要因素。文章综述出生缺陷的发生、分类、发病因素、发病机制,探讨我国出生缺陷的监测、干预和预防工作的开展,为提高人口素质,保护人群健康打下基础。

  2. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  3. Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Yan; Phung, Mai T.; Shaw, Chad A.; Pham, Kim; Neil, Sarah E.; Patel, Ankita; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lee Kang, Sung-Hae; Lalani, Seema; Chinault, A. Craig; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. RESULTS Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates. CONCLUSIONS Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances

  4. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M;

    2015-01-01

    : This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins......BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS...

  5. Living with a Congenital Heart Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the dentist also can help prevent IE. Birth Control and Pregnancy Women who have heart defects should ... with their doctors about the safest type of birth control for them. Many of these women can safely ...

  6. 2007~2008年鄂州市围产儿出生缺陷情况调查%Investigation on perinatal birth defects in ezhou city from 2007 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾方红; 詹险峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解本地区围产儿出生缺陷的发生率、种类及构成,探讨出生缺陷影响因素和产前诊断的不足.方法 收集本院2007~2008分娩的产妇及围产儿资料,对之进行分析.结果 鄂州市2007~2008年围产儿出生缺陷发生率为8.26‰,出生缺陷类型主要有唇腭裂、多指、尿道下裂等.结论 加强孕前期一围孕期保健预防工作及围产期出生缺陷监测诊断工作,减少出生缺陷儿的发生.%Objective: To study the incidence and type of perinatal birth defect in Ezhou city and explore the related risk factors and the deficiency of prenatal diagnosis.Methods: Data of perinatal birth defects were from Ezhou central hospital from 2007 to 2008.Results: The incidence of birth defect in Ezhou city was 8.26‰.The common perinatal birth defects were listed as follows: cleft lip,fingers, and hypospadias, etc.Conclusion: Pregnancy prevention and prenatal diagnosis should be improved to reduce the incidence of birth defect.

  7. Chemicals which cause birth defects--teratogens: a special concern of research chemists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, V.K.

    1983-12-15

    Women who are research chemists suffer an unusually high risk of being exposed to teratogenic chemicals (chemicals which cause birth defects) for the principal reason that they spend a good share of their lives in the laboratory in contact with wide variety of chemicals including new chemicals which may be unsuspected teratogens. Women research chemists therefore need to be able (a) to recognize known teratogens and (b) to predict teratogenicity of a compound that has not been tested. This article discusses these two points with an emphasis on the following topics: how to obtain information on teratogenicity of chemicals; how to interpret teratogenicity data from the literature; and how to make an educated guess about the teratogenicity of chemical compounds.

  8. Analysis of the Monitoring Results of Birth Defect in Hospitals Between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha%长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖月娥; 朱琳; 周红女; 周燕飞; 李杏秀; 王卫东; 徐扬; 林蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the monitoring results of birth defect in hospital between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha in order to provide the basis for formulating the policy to reduce the birth defect rate of hospitals by health administrative department .[Methods] The statistical data from 13 birth defect monitoring hospitals of Changsha were analyzed .All the 13 hospital were accorded with birth defect definition and diagnostic standard in Chinese birth defect monitoring program and Chinese birth defect monitoring manual .All birth defect children were examined and registered by the trained physicians .The classification and statistical analysis were taken .[Results] In the past 10 years ,there were 173527 perinatal children born in 13 birth defect surveillance hospitals . Among them ,3856 children were birth defects .The total incidence rate was 222 .16/10000 .The incidence rate of birth defect during 10 years was increased obviously .The top 5 birth defects were congenital heart disease ,outer ear and other malformations ,cleft lip complicated with cleft palate ,multi-finger(toe) and congenital hydroceph-alus .Except the constituent ratio of congenital heart disease was increased ,the constituent ratio of 4 other birth defects had the declining trend .[Conclusion] The strategical change of the prevention mode of birth defect should be implemented so as to reduce the birth defect .%[目的]通过分析长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果数据,为上级医疗行政部门制定降低医院出生缺陷率的政策提供依据。[方法]参照长沙市13所出生缺陷监测医院的统计数据。13所医院均按照《中国出生缺陷监测方案》及《中国出生缺陷监测手册》中有关出生缺陷的定义特征和诊断标准,经专职医生临床体检和相关检查确诊并分类统计。[结果]10年中13所出生缺陷监测医院总出生围生儿为173527例,出生缺陷3856例,总发生率为222.16/万,10年间出生缺

  9. Analysis of monitoring results of birth defects in Jingning county in 2009 and 2010%景宁县2009-2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze incidence of birth defects in Jingning county and relevant influential factors for the development and evaluation of preventive measures. Methods Birth defects monitoring data were obtained from 4 hospitals in 2009 and 2010 in Jingning county following guidelines of Birth defects monitoring program of Jingning county. The data were analyzed including the incidence of birth defects, defect type, occurrence of birth defects of mothers during pregnancy and all the cases were followed up. Results In two years, the total incidence rate of birth defects was 1.064%, in a total of 26 cases of birth defects, 23 were single defect and 3 were multiple defects. Defect types included five multiple fingers, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, cleft palate, encephalocele. Conclusions Birth defects show a trend of increase in this county. This is most likely due to improvement of technology in perinatal prenatal diagnosis and early postnatal diagnosis. Influential factors that may cause birth defects include maternal illness, unsafe medications during pregnancy and maternal genetic factor. These results indicate that it is necessary to enhance pre-pregnancy care, improve the quality of premarital medical examination, pay attention to genetic consulting and prenatal health care, especially in early pregnancy care. It is also necessary to carry out prenatal screening and improve knowledge on birth defects prevention so as to reduce the occurrence of birth defects.%目的 分析浙江省景宁县出生缺陷的发生状况和影响因素,为制定和评价预防措施提供依据.方法 对景宁县内4家医院依据《景宁县出生缺陷监测方案》要求上报的2009年和2010年出生缺陷监测数据进行汇总,分析出生缺陷的发生率、缺陷类型、发生出生缺陷儿母亲孕期情况,并跟踪随访.结果 共监测景宁县两年中2 443例围产儿,出生缺陷26例,总出生缺陷发生率为10.64‰,其中单发缺陷23

  10. 武汉市出生缺陷相关因素分析%Analysis on the related factors of birth defect in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 杨蓉; 刘明珠; 刘艳; 胡荣华; 杜玉开

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the current situation of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010, explore the related effect factors of birth defect, provide a basis for further study. Methods; The data of birth defect were collected from 11 obstetrical institutions in Wuhan, 933 infants with birth defect were selected as case group, 933 lying - in women who gave birth to normal neonates from 2008 to 2010 were selected from Wuhan MCH information system as control group, the related data were obtained according to report cards of birth defect and MCH information system, then statistical analysis was performed. Results; The incidence of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010 was 17.77% , the incidence of birth defect in remote urban area was significantly higher than that in central urban area ( P <0.01); the incidence of birth defect among the lying - in women less than 25 years, equal to and more than 35 years were significantly higher than that among the lying - in women aged 25 ~35 years old (P <0.01) ; 11 factors, such as gravida, fetal gender, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy, were used as independent variables for logistic regression analysis, the result showed that permanent address during pregnancy, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion history were included into the modeL Living in remote urban area, viral infection and hyperemesis gravidarum during the first trimester of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion history ( more than two times) increased the risk of birth defect. Conclusion; Primary prevention of birth defect should be paid more attention to, large - scale case - control study based on population should be carried out, and the epidemiological factors of birth defect should be understood, in order to a-dopt corresponding interventional measures and reduce the occurrence of birth defect.%目的:了解2008~2010年武汉市出生缺陷发生的情况,弄清对出生缺陷发生有影响的相关

  11. Epidemiologic characteristics of birth defects in Shaanxi province in 2010%陕西省2010年出生缺陷流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小琴; 李盘; 周晓娟; 杨杨

    2012-01-01

    significant differences between boys and girls,and the incidence of birth defects was the highest among those pregnant women aged over 35 years(170. 5/10*). The incidence of birth defects among multiple births was higher than that among singleton. [Conclusions] The incidence of birth defect in Shaanxi province is lower than the nationwide average level in 2010. The epidemiologic features are that the incidence of birth defects have significant differences between urban and rural areas,among different age of mother,between singleton and multiple births. The government should attach importance to the primary prevention work of the neural tube defects in rural areas,and take effective measures on women over 35 age and multiple pregnancy.

  12. 宁波市北仑区2007~2010年出生缺陷调查分析%Investigation and analysis of birth defection from 2007 to 2010 in Beilun district Ningbo city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波; 王健民; 吴庆国; 王娇珍; 乐福文; 吴怀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide basic statistics for prevention and intervention of birth defection in this area, through understanding basic condition of the happening of children birth defection and constitution of diseases. Methods Information on birth defection registration during 4 years in whole district was reviewed, and birth defection diseases were classified and relevant data were calculated and analyzed. Results A total of 9665 perinatals in the district were monitored, including 509 birth defection children; the rate of birth defection was 5. 27% from 2007 to 2010. Birth defection in the top three diseases were: congenital heart diseases, limb deformities, eye and ear deformities. Conclusion The situation of birth defection in Beilun district isnt optimistic, and the popularization of eugenic knowledge, surveillance and intervention of birth defection must be strengthened, which is one of the most important measures to take to improve population quality.%目的 分析宁波市北仑区儿童出生缺陷的发生及其病种构成的基本情况,为本地区出生缺陷预防干预提供基本数据.方法 回顾研究该区14家医院4年所有出生缺陷登记的资料,对出生缺陷病种进行归类,将相关数据进行统计整理.结果 2007年至2010年的4年间,该区共监测9 665例围生儿,其中有出生缺陷509例,出生缺陷率5.27%.出生缺陷居前三位的病种依次为:先天性心脏病,四肢畸形和眼耳畸形.结论 北仑区人口出生缺陷情况不容乐观,必须加强优生优育知识的普及,加强对出生缺陷的监测和干预,这是提高人口素质的重要环节之一.

  13. Analysis of the Influencing Factors on 170 Cases of Birth Defects in a Hospital, Guizhou%贵州省某医院170例新生儿出生缺陷的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims of understanding the change of incidence of birth defects and its influencing factors, to provide the basis for birth defects prevention and intervention. Methods: Collected 170 cases of birth defects from the birth defects monitoring data in2003 - 2011 ,the chi-square test were used for analysis of the change of incidence of birth defects and its influencing factors. Results: The incidence of thebirth defects was 142.6 per million, the prenatal diagnosis rate is 17.65%, abnormal factors accounted for 41.12%; The first five rows of the birth defects are the Outer ear other deformities, multi-fingered, neural tube defects, clubfoot varus and limb shortening; Child born defective has a high incidence with mother below 20. Conclusion: Strengthening preconception care, prenatal care, prenatal screening and early pregnancy and pregnancy folic acid specification can be taken to prevent and reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:探讨新生儿出生缺陷的影响因素,为新生儿出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据.方法:基于贵州省某医院2003 -2011年出生缺陷的监测数据,运用卡方检验分析170例新生儿出生缺陷的特征变化及其影响因素.结果:该院出生缺陷检出率为142.6/万,产前诊断率为17.65%,异常因素占41.12%;出生缺陷前5位分别为外耳其它畸形、多指、神经管缺陷、马蹄足内翻和肢体短缩;母亲年龄<20岁缺陷儿发生率较高.结论:加强孕前保健、孕期保健、产前筛查和孕前与孕早期叶酸规范服用,是当前预防和减少出生缺陷发生的主要工作.

  14. CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS: COMPARISON OF GEOCODED AND NON-GEOCODED POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded residence at delivery will be used ...

  15. Development of web-based geocoding applications for the population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Le, Linh H; Wang, Xiaohang; Tao, Zhen; Druschel, Charlotte D; Cross, Philip K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used in mapping health data and analyzing the geographic distribution of disease. Mapping and spatially analyzing data normally begins with geocoding, a process of assigning geographic coordinates to an address so that it can be displayed and analyzed on a map. The objectives of this project were to develop Web-based geocoding applications for the New York State birth defects surveillance system to geocode, both automatically and interactively, the birth defect cases of the Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR) and evaluate the geocoding results. Geocoding software, in conjunction with a Java-based development tool (J Server), was used to develop the Web-based applications on the New York State Department of Health's Health Commerce System. The Web-based geocoding applications have been developed and implemented for the New York State birth defects surveillance system. These menu-driven applications empower users to conduct geocoding activities using only a PC and a Web browser without the installation of any GIS software. These powerful tools provide automatic, real-time, street-level geocoding of the routinely collected birth defects records in the CMR. Up to 92% of the CMR records have been geocoded with addresses exactly matched to the reference addresses on house number, street name, and city or zip code.

  16. 黄山市2006~2010年出生缺陷调查结果分析%The analysis of birth defects prevalence of Huangshan from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章世妹; 盛玮; 吉次秋; 胡红喜; 曾令芳; 冯建华; 汪丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological features of birth defects in Huangshan in order to determine the high - risk population and areas. Methods The birth defect condition was household surveyed among perinatal infants, including dead fetus stillbirths and therapeutic abortion ), and children aged 0 to 5 with their mothers underwent in - depth personal interviews and cluster sampling retrospective study on January f, 2006 to December 3f , 20f0 in 7 prefectures( counties ) covering f Of towns and 6 streets. The confirmation of the birth defects was based on clinical diagnosis. The categories were defined with National Birth Defect Monitoring Program. Results There were 981 birth defects diagnosed in 5 years. The incidence rate of birth defects was 158. 69 per 10000 infants. The incidence in male infants was 82. 82 per 10000 infants and 63. 57 per 10000 infants in female infants. The top birth defects were congenital heart disease, total cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenred hydrocephaly, urogenital abnormality and neural tube defects. Conclusion The current situation of birth defects among children aged 0 to 5 in Huangshan has been evaluated, which shows an upward trend year by year. The incidence is higher in country than that in city and higher in male infants than females, but the difference between them has no statistical significance. So the key point of the birth defect prevention should be put in country areas. The hygienic knowledge of pregnant woman should be enhanced, especially in the top 6 birth defects mentioned above. Additionally, we should explore the reason of the high incidence of birth defects in order to provide basis for further birth defect prevention.%目的 了解黄山市0~5岁儿童出生缺陷的发生率、种类及顺位,确定重点预防人群和区域.方法 采用个人访谈、整群回顾性调查的方法对黄山市三区四县101个乡镇和6个街道在2006年1月1日至2010年12月31日期间出生的围生

  17. 64例出生缺陷儿监测情况分析%Analysis of the outcome of 64 children born with birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香丽; 贾旭艳; 杨文方; 豆静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze various related factors of birth defects so as to provide evidence for early prevention and reduce the rate of birth defects by monitoring the information of birth defect infants delivered or delivered with induction in our hospital during five years from 2006 to 2010. Methods The data of birth defect infants delivered in the hospital during these five years was retrospectively analyzed. Results There were 8215 cases of induction delivery and childbirth, 64 cases of which were birth defect infants. The average rate of birth defects was 7. 8‰. The top five types in the 64 cases were spina bifida ( 15. 6% ), hydrocephalus ( 14. 0% ), cleft lip ( 10.9% ), abnormal fingers and toes ( 9. 4% ) and cleft lip with cleft palate ( 7. 8% ) in turn. Analysis results indicated that the time when pregnancy started was related to birth defects. When pregnancy started in January, June or May, the rate of birth defects was higher than that in other months (x2 =5. 107, P < 0. 05 ), and the birth defects accounted up 48. 4% of all. Among the defect infants, males were more than females. The infants whose mothers lived in countryside and had poor education had higher birth defect rate. Conclusion Enhancing education on prepotency especially to married women in poor areas, picking pregnancy time, administering folic acid reasonably before pregnancy, establishing and perfecting primary prevention system, strengthening training for type-B ultrasonic physicians and clinicians, or improving prenatal monitoring and diagnosing technology is beneficial to prophylaxis of birth defects.%目的 通过监测西安交通大学医学院第一附属医院2006~2010年住院引产及分娩的出生缺陷婴儿情况,分析引起出生缺陷的各类相关因素,为早期预防并进一步降低出生缺陷率提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2006~2010年西安交通大学医学院第一附属医院的出生缺陷儿病例.结果 5年内共引产及分娩8 215

  18. Combined effect of prenatal solvent exposure and GSTT1 or GSTM1 polymorphisms in the risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlantézec, Ronan; Chevrier, Cécile; Coiffec, Isabelle; Celebi, Catherine; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to solvents during pregnancy has long been suspected to increase the risk of congenital malformations. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes essential for the detoxification of various chemicals. Our objective here was to assess whether GST polymorphisms might modify the association between maternal solvent exposure and the risk of birth defects. A prospective cohort included 3421 pregnant women in Brittany, France (2002-2006). Occupational exposure to solvents was assessed from a job-exposure matrix. Congenital malformations were diagnosed among livebirths, stillbirths, and medical pregnancy terminations. Using a nested case-control design, 32 babies with major birth defects were compared to 348 normal births for babies' cord blood genotypes (at GSTT1 and GSTM1) and maternal occupational solvent exposure. Logistic models were used to adjust for potential confounders. The risk of major defects increased significantly in women with solvent exposure (20% of controls and 34% of cases). Frequencies of the null genotype of both the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes were similar among controls and cases. There was a significantly increased risk of birth defects in GSTM1 not-null cord-blood genotype in pregnancies exposed to solvents (odds ratio [OR], 1.0 for not-null, not-exposed; OR, 4.0 for not-null, exposed; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-11.2; OR, 1.6 for null, not-exposed; 95% CI, 0.6-3.9; OR, 1.0 for null, exposed; 95% CI, 0.2-4.7; p = 0.05). This nested case-control study suggests that the child's GSTM1 genotype modifies the risk of major birth defects among offspring of solvent-exposed women. Replication and additional investigations are necessary to confirm and elucidate these findings.

  19. Investigation and analysis of 0 ~14 years old children with birth defects in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区0~14岁儿童出生缺陷调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明福; 李川海; 杨皓; 付新云; 李家菊; 崔蓉; 张丹妍; 李安奇; 李练兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand Three Gorges Reservoir Area 7 counties 0 ~ 14 years old children's birth defects present situation,type,incidence,urban and rural children's birth defect occurrence,occurring at different positions of the situation,collect birth defects/genetic disease information data to prevent birth defects and provide the scientific basis.Methods:According to ICD-10 coding diseases listed design questionnaire,stratified cluster random sampling was used to the scene to carry out investigations on the 0 ~ 14 years old children suffering from birth defects.Results:There were 7 977 meals available questionnaire,including 24 types of birth defect with 158 people,and the incidence of birth defects was 19.81‰.The first 4 types of the study were cleft lip (73 cases,incidence 9.152‰) ; limb deformities (17 cases,incidence 2.137 ‰) ; hydrocephalus (14 cases,incidence 1.755‰) ; cardiac malformations (12 cases including 5 cases of boys and 7 cases of girls,incidence 1.504‰).There were 95 boys with the incidence of birth defects 22.37‰,63 girls with the incidence of birth defects 16.89 ‰.The boy's incidence of birth defects was obviously higher than that of girl (chi-square =204.44,P <0.005).There were 42 children with birth defects in 2 198 urban children (27.55%) and 116 children with birth defects in 5 779 rural children (72.45%).The urban children's birth defect rate was 19.11‰ and the countryside was 20.07‰.There was no statistical difference (chi-square =0.076,P =0.782) between them.Location was the first facial defects 86 cases (54.43%),the second for nerve defect 20 cases (12.66%),the third for limbs defect 17 cases (10.76%),the fourth for heart defects 12 cases (7.59%),the fifth for urogenital defect 6 patients (3.80%),other defects 17 cases (10.76%).There was significant difference (chi-square =34.11,P <0.01) between the first birth defects and other parts.Conclusion:Birth defects' monitoring area,monitoring time

  20. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: panorama atual Birth defects and health strategies in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando progressivamente, tendo passado da quinta para a segunda causa dos óbitos em menores de um ano entre 1980 e 2000, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Foram localizadas, no Brasil, direcionadas aos defeitos congênitos, ações governamentais e não-governamentais. Estas envolvem serviços de informação sobre agentes teratogênicos na gravidez e sobre doenças metabólicas geneticamente determinadas, monitorização de defeitos congênitos, programa de triagem neonatal e tratamento de algumas doenças genéticas, imunização contra rubéola, além da fortificação de farinhas com ácido fólico como ação preventiva de certos defeitos congênitos. Apesar da importância de tais iniciativas, é pouco provável que seja possível atender à questão dos defeitos congênitos de forma integrada. Para a efetivação de um sistema de atenção voltado aos defeitos congênitos, deverá ser formulada política específica, de âmbito nacional, com a participação ativa do Ministério da Saúde, utilizando, como espinha dorsal, os serviços de genética existentes. Só assim, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.Birth defects have increased progressively in Brazil, shifting from the fifth to the second cause of infant mortality from 1980 to 2000, thus highlighting the need for specific health policy strategies. Some governmental and nongovernmental actions related to birth defects in Brazil include information services on teratogenic agents and inborn errors of metabolism, monitoring of birth defects, neonatal screening and treatment of some genetic diseases, and rubella immunization. In addition, flour fortification with folic acid for prevention of certain birth defects has begun recently. Despite the importance of such initiatives, it is

  1. 2000~2009年围产儿出生缺陷相关因素调查分析%SURVEY AND ANALYSIS ON THE RELEVANCE FACTORS OF BIRTH DEFECT OF PERINATAL INFANTS DURING 2000-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡萍; 张新华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To acknowledge dynamic change on birth defect occurrence, to provide bases for making decision on drawing up and taking preventive measures. [Methods] According to the monitoring projects of birth defect in China, carried out the monitoring work. [Results) Occurrence rate of birth defect was U.90%o.Tne leading birth defects were neural tube defects, multi-fingers (toes), cleft lip with cleft palate, external ear malformation, other congenital malformation. [Conclusion J It should reinforce health education further, raise awareness of environmental protection and health care, pay attention to the period of gestation and parturition health care, genetic health, premarital health care, continuously improve the level of prenatal diagnosis to prevent and control the birth defects of the population.%[目的]了解出生缺陷发生的动态变化,为制定和采取预防措施提高决策依据.[方法]按照全国出生缺陷监测中心指定的监测方案进行规范地监测.[结果]出生缺陷发生率为11.90‰;出生缺陷前5位依次为神经管畸形、多指(趾)、唇裂合并腭裂、外耳畸形、其他先天畸形.[结论]进一步加强健康教育,提高环保意识和保健意识,做好孕产期保健、优生保健、婚前保健,不断提高产前诊断水平,防止和控制缺陷人口的出生.

  2. Advances in the Prevention of infection-Related Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Infection-related preterm birth (PTB) is more common at early gestational ages and is associated with major neonatal mortality and morbidity. Abnormal genital tract microflora in early pregnancy predicts late miscarriage and early PTB. Accordingly, it is logical to consider antibiotics...... metronidazole) or used antibiotics not recommended for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) or BV-related organisms; (b) used antibiotics too late in pregnancy to influence outcome (23-27 weeks); and (c) included women whose risk of PTB was not due to abnormal genital tract colonization and hence unlikely...... to respond to antibiotics. These risks included: (a) previous PTB of indeterminate etiology; (b) low weight/body mass index; or (c) detection of fetal fibronectin, ureaplasmas, Group B streptococcus or Trichomonas vaginalis). While individual studies have found benefit of antibiotic intervention...

  3. Defect Prevention and Detection in Software for Automated Test Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Bean

    2006-11-30

    Software for automated test equipment can be tedious and monotonous making it just as error-prone as other software. Active defect prevention and detection are also important for test applications. Incomplete or unclear requirements, a cryptic syntax used for some test applications—especially script-based test sets, variability in syntax or structure, and changing requirements are among the problems encountered in one tester. Such problems are common to all software but can be particularly problematic in test equipment software intended to test another product. Each of these issues increases the probability of error injection during test application development. This report describes a test application development tool designed to address these issues and others for a particular piece of test equipment. By addressing these problems in the development environment, the tool has powerful built-in defect prevention and detection capabilities. Regular expressions are widely used in the development tool as a means of formally defining test equipment requirements for the test application and verifying conformance to those requirements. A novel means of using regular expressions to perform range checking was developed. A reduction in rework and increased productivity are the results. These capabilities are described along with lessons learned and their applicability to other test equipment software. The test application development tool, or “application builder”, is known as the PT3800 AM Creation, Revision and Archiving Tool (PACRAT).

  4. 深圳市298031例围产儿出生缺陷监测流行病学特征%Epidemiological characteristic of birth defect of 298031 perinatal in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁蓉; 颜春荣; 龚林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the cause and risk factors of birth defect and to reduce birth defect through institute health care and disease prevents measures. Methods: The birth defect was measured in all perinatal, including live birth, stillbirth, induced abortion and neonatal death, in all Shenzhen hospital from 2008 to 2009 according to Shenzhen uniform surveillance scheme. Results: Among 289 031 births, the incidence of birth defect was 16. 52‰ (4 924/298 031), live deformity was 13. 84‰ (4 125/298 031) . The incidence of birth defect was 69.42‰ (3 418/4 924) in floating population . The incidence of birth defect was 20. 34‰ in lower knowledge level puerpera and 20.41%p in puerpera age > 35 group, which was much higher than other age groups, the difference was significant (P < 0.025) . The rate of birth defect in mature puerperal was 71.45% (3518/4924) . The incidence of birth defect in congenital heart disease and body check was 9.95‰ (2 967/298 031), which took 60.25% (2 967/4 924) in all kind of defect Defect birth liability took 83. 77% (4 125/4 924 ) . Conclusion: The rate of un - unitary body check is higher. The prenatal detection should be strengthen. It is key for prevent birth defect to popularization pregnant hearth care knowledge, develop hearth care service, elect right age to pregnancy.%目的:研究深圳市出生缺陷的发生状况及相关危险因素,为减少出生缺陷制定预防保健措施提供依据.方法:按深圳市统一的监测方案,对2008~ 2009年深圳市所有医院孕20周-产后7天分娩的围产儿(包括活产、死胎、死产、引产及产后7天内死亡)进行出生缺陷监测.结果:289 031例围产儿中出生缺陷发生率为16.52%(4 924/298 031),活产畸形率为13.84‰ (4 125/298 031),缺陷发生在流动人口中的比例为69.42%(3 418/4 924).产母文化程度低、年龄>35岁组发病率分别为20.34‰、20.41‰,高于其他年龄组,经检验P<0.025,差异有统计学意义.

  5. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Hutton, J; Mc Donnell, R; Bachir, N; Scallan, E; O'Leary, M; Hoey, J; Doyle, A; Delany, V; Sayers, G

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: pfolic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: pfolic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: pawareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  6. Analysis of influencing factors leading to major birth defects in six counties of Shanxi province%山西省六县(市)主要出生缺陷影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 王芳芳; 郭兴萍; 安焕晓; 王钰; 白云

    2012-01-01

    To explore the influencing factors of major birth defects.The children of 0 -3 years and their mother from six different districts were surveyed from November 2009 to December 2009.The incidence rate was 134.27/10 000 (493/36 716)in 6 counties. And the first five birth defects were as follows:congenital heart disease,neural tube defects,cheilopalatognathus,polydactylia and hypophrenia.The risks and protective factors of the first 5 birth defects were different.Anamnesis of birth defects and defective children from relatives,multiple pregnancy & birth and intake of antipyretic analgesics during pregnancy were the common risk factor for the first 5 birth defects.The key points for the prevention of birth defects are to reinforce the pre-pregnancy guidance,the screening and evaluation of risk factors and disease prevention during pregnancy.%为了解山西省主要出生缺陷发生率及其影响因素,于2009年11至12月对山西省6个县(市)0~3岁婴幼儿及母亲进行横断面和回顾性调查.六县(市)出生缺陷发生率为134.27/万(493/36 716);前5位出生缺陷排序为先天性心脏病、神经管畸形、唇腭裂、多指(趾)并指(趾)、智力低下,每种出生缺陷的危险因素和保护因素各有不同,其中亲属缺陷儿史、既往缺陷儿史、孕产次多、孕期服解热镇痛药为其共同危险因素.开展孕前指导、危险因素筛查和评估,孕期预防疾病是预防出生缺陷的关键.

  7. Sphingosine Kinase: A Novel Putative Target for the Prevention of Infection-Triggered Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhuti Vyas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing an exorbitant cost of $5.8 billion. Infection-associated premature rupture of membranes (PROM accounts for 40% of extremely preterm births (<28 weeks of gestation. Major research efforts are directed towards improving the understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm birth and ways to prevent or at least postpone delivery. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor that plays a significant role in infection-triggered preterm birth. Its involvement in a number of pathological mechanisms and its elevation in preterm delivered amniotic fluid samples implicate it in preterm birth. Sphingosine kinase (SphK is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. S1P acts as second messenger in a number of cell proliferation and survival pathways. SphK is found to play a key role in ET-1 mediated myometrial contraction. This review highlights SphK as a prospective target with great potential to prevent preterm birth.

  8. Cyclopia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopia is characterized by the presence of a single eye, with varying degrees of doubling of the intrinsic ocular structures, located in the middle of the face. It is the severest facial expression of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with cyclopia. Data originated in 20 Clearinghouse (ICBDSR) affiliated birth defect surveillance systems, reported according to a single pre-established protocol. A total of 257 infants with cyclopia were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 100,000 births (95%CI: 0.89–1.14), with only one program being out of range. Across sites, there was no correlation between cyclopia prevalence and number of births (r = 0.08; P=0.75) or proportion of elective termination of pregnancy (r= −0.01; P=0.97). The higher prevalence of cyclopia among older mothers (older than 34) was not statistically significant. The majority of cases were liveborn (122/200; 61%) and females predominated (male/total: 42%). A substantial proportion of cyclopias (31%) were caused by chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 13. Another 31% of the cases of cyclopias were associated with defects not typically related to HPE, with more hydrocephalus, heterotaxia defects, neural tube defects, and preaxial reduction defects than the chromosomal group, suggesting the presence of ciliopathies or other unrecognized syndromes. Cyclopia is a very rare defect without much variability in prevalence by geographic location. The heterogeneous etiology with a high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, and female predominance in HPE, were confirmed, but no effect of increased maternal age or association with twinning was observed. PMID:22006661

  9. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  10. Evaluation of an integrated services program to prevent subsequent pregnancy and birth among urban teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Loral; Letourneau, Kathryn; Berggren, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This article details the evaluation of a clinical services program for teen mothers in the District of Columbia. The program's primary objectives are to prevent unintended subsequent pregnancy and to promote contraceptive utilization. We calculated contraceptive utilization at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery, as well as occurrence of subsequent pregnancy and birth. Nearly seven in ten (69.5%) teen mothers used contraception at 24 months after delivery, and 57.1% of contraceptive users elected long-acting reversible contraception. In the 24-month follow-up period, 19.3% experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy and 8.0% experienced a subsequent birth. These results suggest that an integrated clinical services model may contribute to sustained contraceptive use and may prove beneficial in preventing subsequent teen pregnancy and birth.

  11. Low birth weight and zygosity status is associated with defective muscle glycogen and glycogen synthase regulation in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik;

    2007-01-01

    AND METHODS: We measured the activities of glycogen synthase (GS), GS kinase (GSK)3 alpha, GS phosphorylation, and glycogen levels in muscle biopsies obtained from 184 young and elderly twins before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. RESULTS: Elderly monozygotic twins had significantly lower...... fractional GS activity amidst higher glycogen and GS protein levels compared with dizygotic twins. In addition, we demonstrated strong nongenetic associations between birth weight and defect muscle glycogen metabolism in elderly--but not in younger--twins. Thus, for every 100 g increase in birth weight...... within pairs, GS fractional activity, GS protein level, and glycogen content was increased by 4.2, 8.7, and 4.5%, respectively, in elderly twins. Similarly, for every 100 g increase in birth weight, GSK3 alpha activity and GS phosphorylation at the sites 2, 2+2a, and 3a+3b were decreased by 3.1, 9.0, 10...

  12. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in women with multiple pregnancies: the AMPHIA trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers Hubertina CJ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15% of multiple pregnancies ends in a preterm delivery, which can lead to mortality and severe long term neonatal morbidity. At present, no generally accepted strategy for the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies exists. Prophylactic administration of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC has proven to be effective in the prevention of preterm birth in women with singleton pregnancies with a previous preterm delivery. At present, there are no data on the effectiveness of progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Methods/Design We aim to investigate the hypothesis that 17OHPC will reduce the incidence of the composite neonatal morbidity of neonates by reducing the early preterm birth rate in multiple pregnancies. Women with a multiple pregnancy at a gestational age between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation will be entered in a placebo-controlled, double blinded randomised study comparing weekly 250 mg 17OHPC intramuscular injections from 16–20 weeks up to 36 weeks of gestation versus placebo. At study entry, cervical length will be measured. The primary outcome is composite bad neonatal condition (perinatal death or severe morbidity. Secondary outcome measures are time to delivery, preterm birth rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal morbidity, maternal admission days for preterm labour and costs. We need to include 660 women to indicate a reduction in bad neonatal outcome from 15% to 8%. Analysis will be by intention to treat. We will also analyse whether the treatment effect is dependent on cervical length. Discussion This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not 17OHPC-treatment is an effective means of preventing bad neonatal outcome due to preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN40512715

  13. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  14. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During preg

  15. Severe birth defects in children perinatal exposed to HIV from a “real-world” setting: Infectious Diseases National Institute, Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tudor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The shift in epidemic trends in recent years in Romania shows new problems in regard of HIV vertical transmission, firstly in intravenous drug user's mothers co-infected with hepatitis viruses and with social problems, and secondly the children of young mothers with an old HIV infection and long antiretroviral therapy history. Materials and Methods: We studied all HIV perinatal exposed children routinely followed up in the Paediatric Department of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, since January 1st 2006 till December 31st 2012. The analyses consisted of describing the birth defects and association with certain risk factors: gender, mother's age at birth and exposure to antiretrovirals in the first trimester of pregnancy. Results: We analyzed 244 children born to HIV-infected mothers. The incidence of HIV infection was 16.39%. The rate of birth defects was 39.34% (96/244 cases. The most frequent findings were cardiac malformations (47/96, followed by musculoskeletal defects (24/96, neurologic defects (20/96, urogenital malformations (13/96, digestive tract defects (3/93, metabolic disorders (2/96 and genetic disorders (2/96. We found nine cases of severe congenital anomalies: complex heart defect, total congenital aganglionic megacolon, anal imperforation, Dandy-Walker syndrome, gangliosidosis, Niemann-Pick syndrome, Down syndrome, true hermaphroditism and cleft palate. Two children died during first year of life due to severe malformations. 9% of cases had associated malformations. The gender rate was in favour of males in group with birth defects (58/38 and with no birth defects (82/66. The median age at birth in mothers was 22 years, similar in both groups. The highest mean age at birth was in offspring's mothers with neurologic congenital defects 25, 15 years old, but is not statistically significant (p=0.1. In the studied period the highest number of birth defects were found in 2012, 37 children, compared with less

  16. Analysis of birth defect in Zhongshan city from 2008 to 2010%中山地区2008年-2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 万波; 李莉敏; 胡朝霞; 彭学鸣; 曾冠

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中山市出生缺陷的发生及分布情况,及时发现影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,协助指导制定相应的干预措施,做好今后出生缺陷监控工作提供科学依据.方法 对2008年-2010年中山市各医院分娩的孕满28周~产后7天内出生的所有围产儿(包括活产、死胎、死产)进行出生缺陷监测,并对其发生率、顺位及诊断依据进行分析.结果 三年内中山市出生缺陷发生率为260.05/万,排位前五位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、地中海贫血、总唇腭裂.中山市户籍人口和农村、流动人口的顺位和发生率有明显差异.结论 加强流动人口孕产妇的孕期保健管理,普及孕期产前筛查意识,提高出生缺陷产前筛查和产前诊断的准确性,早期发现,早期诊断,早期干预,预防性用药等可减少出生缺陷的发生%Objective: To understand the prevalence of birth defects in Zhongshan, to detect the suspicious factors of influencing birth defects, to divide to provide scientific basis for making countermeasures to prevent and control birth defects. Method; Connecting the all perinatal birth defects data, including fetal deaths, stillbirths, live births, which detected during the second pregnancy over 28 weeks to postnatal day 7, analyzing the incidence rate, the sequence and the basis diagnosis on of birth defects. Results: The incidence of birth defect is 260. 05 per ten thousand in recent three years. The first five birth defect were: congenital heart disease, combined or excessive fingers or toes ( polydactyly) , clubfoot, a- Mediterranean-anaemia, cleft lip and palate. The sequence and the incidence rate of birth defect were significant difference, between Registered population and floating population. Registered population and population in rural areas. Conclusion; In order to depress perinatal birth defect rate, we should pay more attention in not only to the work of education of the

  17. Computational systems analysis of developmental toxicity: design, development and implementation of a Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amar V; Knudsen, Kenneth B; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects and developmental disabilities remain an important public health issue worldwide. With the availability of genomic sequences from a growing number of human and model organisms and the rapid expansion of the public repositories holding large-scale gene expression datasets, a computational systems analysis of developmental toxicology can incorporate this vast digital information toward the realization of predictive models for complex disease. Here we describe the initial design, development and implementation of a Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM). The project was motivated by the need for a computational-bioinformatics infrastructure to manage vast digital information from functional genomics and for a new knowledge environment specifically engineered for the analysis of developmental processes and toxicities. Proof-of-concept tested BDSM using meta-analysis of gene expression data collected from different laboratories, technology platforms, and study models. The composite dataset incorporated 232 microarray comparisons of RNA samples by single or dual microarray platforms, cDNA or oligonucleotide based probes, and human or mouse sequence information. Preliminary results identified system-level features in the embryonic transcriptome as it reacted to various developmental-teratological stimuli. BDSM is open access through the worldwide web (http://systemsanalysis.louisville.edu/) and can be integrated with other bioinformatics tools and resources to advance the pace of discovery in birth defects research.

  18. The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugola, Fernanda R; Fernandes, Isabella R; Russo, Fabiele B; Freitas, Beatriz C; Dias, João L M; Guimarães, Katia P; Benazzato, Cecília; Almeida, Nathalia; Pignatari, Graciela C; Romero, Sarah; Polonio, Carolina M; Cunha, Isabela; Freitas, Carla L; Brandão, Wesley N; Rossato, Cristiano; Andrade, David G; Faria, Daniele de P; Garcez, Alexandre T; Buchpigel, Carlos A; Braconi, Carla T; Mendes, Erica; Sall, Amadou A; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Muotri, Alysson R; Beltrão-Braga, Patricia C B

    2016-05-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in Uganda following blood analyses of sentinel Rhesus monkeys. Until the twentieth century, the African and Asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. However, in 2007, vectored by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, ZIKV caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the Yap Island in Micronesia. Patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. From 2013 to 2015, the Asian lineage of the virus caused further massive outbreaks in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. In 2013, ZIKV reached Brazil, later spreading to other countries in South and Central America. In Brazil, the virus has been linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly and other severe neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Despite clinical evidence, direct experimental proof showing that the Brazilian ZIKV (ZIKV(BR)) strain causes birth defects remains absent. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV(BR) infects fetuses, causing intrauterine growth restriction, including signs of microcephaly, in mice. Moreover, the virus infects human cortical progenitor cells, leading to an increase in cell death. We also report that the infection of human brain organoids results in a reduction of proliferative zones and disrupted cortical layers. These results indicate that ZIKV(BR) crosses the placenta and causes microcephaly by targeting cortical progenitor cells, inducing cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, and impairing neurodevelopment. Our data reinforce the growing body of evidence linking the ZIKV(BR) outbreak to the alarming number of cases of congenital brain malformations. Our model can be used to determine the efficiency of therapeutic approaches to counteracting the harmful impact of ZIKV(BR) in human neurodevelopment.

  19. Economic burden of neural tube defects and impact of prevention with folic acid: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yunni; Lindemann, Marion; Colligs, Antje; Snowball, Claire

    2011-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common group of serious birth defects. Although folic acid has been shown to reduce effectively the risk of NTDs and measures have been taken to increase the awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid, the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized in most countries. To understand the economic burden of NTDs and the economic impact of preventing NTDs with folic acid, a systematic review was performed on relevant studies. A total of 14 cost of illness studies and 10 economic evaluations on prevention of NTDs with folic acid were identified. Consistent findings were reported across all of the cost of illness studies. The lifetime direct medical cost for patients with NTDs is significant, with the majority of cost being for inpatient care, for treatment at initial diagnosis in childhood, and for comorbidities in adult life. The lifetime indirect cost for patients with spina bifida is even greater due to increased morbidity and premature mortality. Caregiver time costs are also significant. The results from the economic evaluations demonstrate that folic acid fortification in food and preconception folic acid consumption are cost-effective ways to reduce the incidence and prevalence of NTDs. This review highlights the significant cost burden that NTDs pose to healthcare systems, various healthcare payers, and society and concludes that the benefits of prevention of NTDs with folic acid far outweigh the cost. Further intervention with folic acid is justified in countries where the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized.

  20. 上海市奉贤区2008-2010年出生缺陷监测%Monitoring analysis on birth defects in Fengxian District of Shanghai from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence , distribution and trend of birth defects in Fengxian District of Shanghai . [ Methods] The population-based surveillance data of birth defects from 28 gestational weeks to 42 days postpartum was retrospectively analyzed . [ Results] A total of 15 744 perineonates were monitored , in which 277 cases of birth defects were detected .From 2008 to 2010 , the rate of birth defect was 138.94 per 10 000,162.28 per 10 000 and 230.66 per 10 000, respectively, which indicated a rising trend of incidence .The main types of birth defects in turn were congenital heart disease , deformity of external ear , umbilical hernia , synpolydactyly , syndactyly , chilopalatognathus , hemangioma , hydrocephalus , and neural tube defect . [ Conclusion] The rise of birth defects in recent years should be taken seriously . The surveillance and the comprehensive prevention on birth defects should be strengthened .%[目的]了解上海市奉贤区出生缺陷发生情况、分布特征及变化趋势。[方法]采用回顾性分析2008—2010年奉贤区出生缺陷人群监测资料(孕28周至产后42 d)。[结果]监测围产儿总数15744例,缺陷数277例,出生缺陷率分别为138.94/万,162.28/万,230.66/万,3年发生率有上升趋势。主要缺陷种类顺位依次为先天性心脏病、外耳畸形、脐疝、多指(趾)、并指(趾)、唇腭裂、血管瘤、先天性脑积水、神经管缺陷。[结论]近年来出生缺陷率上升需得到重视,应继续加强监测工作,加强出生缺陷综合防控。

  1. 四川省双流县2010年~2014年围产儿出生缺陷监测分析%Analysis of birth defects surveillance data of perinatal babies from 2010 to 2014 in Shuangliu county, Sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珠屏; 王洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To understand the condition and causes of birth defects in Shuangliu county,thus provide the scientific basis for improving population quality and reducing birth defects.Methods:The birth defects surveillance data of perinatal babies from 2010 to 2014 in 3 hospitals on a county scale were arranged and analyzed.Results:From 2010 to 2014,The total incidence of birth defects was 9.71‰.The main birth defects types were,in order,congenital heart disease,polydactylism,microtia (including anotia),harelip,syndactylia,all the 5 types birth defects paid 53.23% of all.Among birth defects children,there had a higher ratio in male compared with female,also a higher ratio in town compared with rural area.The data also showed that the maternal ages which were less than 20 or be equal or greater than 35 had a higher ratio of birth defects.The birth defects were the leading cause of perinatal deaths.Conclusion:In order to reduce birth defects and improve population quality,we should carry out the work of birth defects surveillance and comprehensive interventionson a big scale,actively develop the "three-step-prevention" mode of birth defects.%目的 了解四川省双流县围产儿出生缺陷情况及影响因素,为提高人口素质、降低出生缺陷率提供科学依据.方法对2010年~2014年全县3家出生缺陷监测医院分娩的围产儿出生缺陷监测相关资料进行回顾性分析.结果双流县2010年~ 2014年围产儿出生缺陷发生率为9.71‰,是导致围产儿死亡的首要原因;主要出生缺陷依次为先天性心脏病、多指、小耳(包括无耳)、唇裂和并指,占全部缺陷类型的53.23%.结论 应大力开展国产儿出生缺陷监测与综合干预工作,积极开展三级预防工作,以减少出生缺陷的发生,提高人口素质.

  2. 0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey on 0-1 years old baby with birth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪少义; 何洁壁; 陈少娜; 吴翔; 蔡幸生; 黄伟鹏; 王榕生; 洪艳苹; 倪少英; 卢晓航

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defect in 0-1 years old baby in some regions of Jieyang, then to determine the focus groups for prevention. So that it can provide a foundation for birth defect prevention, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care. Methods Those babies, who were born in Jiedong County, Puning City and Rongcheng District from March 3, 2011 to May 2, 2012 were surveyed by general investigation. Birth defect based on clinical diagnosis, its entity and statistical standard referred to the regulations of International Centre on Birth Defects and Prematurity. Results 238 cases of birth defect babies were found out of 10 773 cases of monitored new babies. The top five diseases of baby birth defects were congenital heart disease, talipes equinovarus, polydactyly, cleft lip and palate and fetal-edematous-syndrome. Some babies had higher incidence of birth defects, such as baby boy, low birth weight baby, and those babies whose mother did not take folic acid, vitamin and trace elements during pregnancy and whose family members smoking and excessive drinking (P < 0.05). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects in 0-1 years old baby is 220.92 per ten thousand in some regions of Jieyang City. It is slightly higher than the national average, so it needs attention from each side. Strengthening propaganda and education, screening and preventing birth defects are matters of great urgency.%目的 了解揭阳部分地区0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的发病情况,确定预防的重点人群,为出生缺陷的预防和孕前、孕期保健提供依据.方法 采用普查的方式,对揭东县、普宁市、榕城区三地2011年3月3日~2012年5月2日出生的婴儿进行调查.出生缺陷以临床诊断为依据,病种及统计标准参照国际出生缺陷监测情报交换所的规定.结果 共监测10 773名婴儿,发现出生缺陷238例;婴儿出生缺陷排名前5位的疾病分别是先天性心脏病、马蹄内翻足、多指(趾)、唇(腭)裂

  3. Monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in ChangJi region from 2005 to 2013%2005至2013年昌吉州围产儿出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶; 陈永慧; 朱明福; 吐尔逊江·买买提明; 陈筱萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects and explore interventions, so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on the birth defects monitoring data of 99 150 cases from 2005 to 2013 in Changji region to analyze the incidence of birth defects in different year. Results During 2005-2013, the total incidence of perinatal birth defects was 73. 92/10 000, and it reached peak in 2010. Rising trend was found in 2005-2010, while decline trend was found in 2011 to 2013. The top five birth defects diseases accounted for 67. 37% of all defect types, and they were total cleft lip, more finger (toe), neural tube defects, congenital heart disease and equinus varus in turn. The incidence of birth defects was significantly different regarding nation, urban and rural area, gender, and maternal age (χ2 value was 37. 61, 61. 33, 51. 37 and 59. 46, respectively, all P<0. 05). Conclusion In ChangJi region the incidence of perinatal birth defects is relatively high from 2005 to 2013, which indicates that it is necessary to define the emphasis of prevention and conduct studies on etiology and population distribution of birth defects with high incidence so as to provide evidence for reducing birth defects.%目的:分析围产儿出生缺陷的监测结果,探讨出生缺陷干预措施,降低出生缺陷发生率。方法回顾性分析2005至2013年昌吉州辖区内13家医院99150例围产儿的出生缺陷监测资料,分析不同年份及不同出生缺陷发生的情况。结果2005至2013年昌吉州围产儿出生缺陷总发生率为73.92/万,2010年呈现高峰,2005至2010年成上升趋势,2011至2013年逐年下降。前五位出生缺陷病种占全部缺陷类型的67.37%,依次为总唇裂、多指(趾)、神经管缺陷、先天性心脏病、马蹄足内翻。出生缺陷的发生在民族、城乡、男女性别、孕妇年龄间均存在统计学差异(χ2值分别为37.61、61.33、51

  4. 出生缺陷影响因素的病例对照研究%Case-control study on influence factors of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修新红; 袁丽; 王晓明; 陈玉华; 万爱华; 傅平

    2011-01-01

    difference between which were significant (P <0. 01). The rate of bad moral irritation to the mother in pregnancy in birth defect group (11. 3%) was significantly higher than that in control group (1.4% , P<0.01). (5) There were 19 cases (2.9% , 19/648) with family heredity medical history in birth defect group, but there were none in the control group, the difference between which were significant (P<0. 01). There were 89 cases (13.7% , 89/648) with unusual birth history of their mothers in birth defect group, but there were 31 cases (4. 8% , 31/650) in control group, the difference between which were significant (P<0. 01). (6) Conditional Logistic Regression model was used for univalent and multivariate analysis. The results showed that main influence factors were identified as having important effect on birth defects, including mothers' exposure to harmful chemical factors (OR=13. 46) , disease (OR=3. 37) ,taking drugs (OR=2. 20) , exposure to bad moral irritation (OR=5. 44) , food-choosy (OR=1. 90) ,anemia (OR=1. 52) in gestational period, polyembryony (OR=4. 40) , father drinking (OR=1. 55) .While it was protective factors to supplement microelements such as the calcium iron and nutrient, etc. in pregnancy period (OR=0. 45). Conclusions First, the main birth defects were congenital heart disease, total harelip (cleft lip; cleft lip with palate) , polydactyly, neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus and limb reduction defect in turn. Second, the main influence factors identified as having important effect on birth defects were mothers' exposure to harmful chemical factors, ill, taking drugs, exposure to bad moral irritation, food-choosy, anemia in gestational period, polyembryony, father drinking. But it is protective factors to supplement microelements such as the calcium iron and nutrient, etc. in pregnancy period. Finally, it is the important part to prevent the birth defects by reducing and controlling dangerous factors in pregnancy period.%目的 探讨出

  5. Cloacal Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Histo

  6. Birth defects in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital during 2006 -2010%2006年-2010年烟台毓璜顶医院围产儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲鑫; 刘志芬; 李蕾; 徐爱群; 柳红杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the situation, influencing factors, diagnosis of the birth defects in our hospital, so as to provide evidences for periconceptional care. Methods; 301 birth defects in a total of 22211 births were monitored from 2006 to 2010, the birth defect rate was 13. 55% (301/22211). The top 5 common birth defects were Cadiovascular disease, total cleft in lip and palate , synpolydactyly, anephrogenesis or Polycystic kidney and Genital malformation. There was significant difference in birth defect rate between puerperal at city and countryside (x2 = 24. 34, P < 0. 01). There was no significant difference in birth defect rate between puerperal at different age, with different educational status, or different gender of fetus, But, the birth defect rate were higher in the age below 25 and exceed 35 groups than the other group, and the birth defect rate decrease when the educational status of puerperal increase. 48. 17% (145/301 ) cases were confirmed in prenatal diagnosis, and the main method was Ultrasonic Diagnosis. Conclusions: The key to reduce the birth defect rate is the primary prevention. We should improve the quality of antenatal examination and prenatal diagnosis technology, reduce birth defects, and improve the population quality of newborn.%目的 探讨我院围产儿出生缺陷发生状况、影响因素及确诊手段,为探索开展围孕期保健提供依据.方法 对2006年- 2010年5年间在我院住院分娩出生围产儿的监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2006年- 2010年我院共出生22211例围产儿,出生缺陷共301例,出生缺陷发生率为13.55‰(301/22211).出生缺陷率位居前五位的分别为先天性心血管疾病、唇腭裂、多指与并指(趾)、单肾缺如及多囊肾、生殖器畸形.产妇城乡间出生缺陷发生率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=24.34,P<0.01).不同年龄、文化程度及胎儿性别比较,差异无统计学意义,但年龄<25岁及≥35岁的产妇其出生缺陷率

  7. 2001-2010年住院出生缺陷476例临床分析%Clinical analysis of birth defects in 476 cases of hospitalized children from 2001 to 2010.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝轲; 任榕娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compile the prevalence and factors of birth defects on hospitalized children of Pediatrics in our hospital from 2001 to 2010 and provide some examples for reducing birth defects. Methods Data of birth defects of all hospitalized children from January 1, 2001 to December 31,2010 were reviewed. Types of birth defects and prenatal exposure to risk factors were retrospectively analyzed. Results The prevalence rate of birth defects on hospitalized children over the past 10 years was 16.41 per 1000.The risk factors influencing the incidence of birth defects were the age of parturient under 20 and over 35 , preterm birth (birth less than 37 weeks after conception) ,sick in early pregnancy .taking medicine in early pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, current family history of congenital defect, but the prevalence rates were no significance between urban and suburb and between male and female.Congenital heart diseases were the most common types of birth defects. Conclusion The surveillance and intervention program of birth defects and tertiary preventions shall be performed to decrease preference of birth defects on perinatal fetuses.%目的 统计住院患儿出生缺陷的发生情况及影响因素,为有效预防出生缺陷提供借鉴.方法 收集2001-01-01-2010-12-31南京军区福州总医院儿科住院患儿29015例中发生出生缺陷的病例资料,对患儿出生缺陷构成状况、孕妇多种相关暴露因素进行回顾性分析.结果 10年间南京军区福州总医院儿科住院患儿出生缺陷发生率为16.41‰(476/29015).近4年(2007-2010年)与前6年(2001-2006年)出生缺陷发生率相比(25.24‰对8.83‰),呈明显增高且呈逐年增加趋势,差异有统计学意义(x2=26.30,P<0.05).产妇年龄<20岁和> 35岁、早产(胎龄<37周)、孕早期患病、孕早期用药、有自然流产史、有家族史为出生缺陷发生的危险因素,而城乡、不同性别间出生缺陷发生

  8. Research Progress on Environment Factors Leading to Birth Defects%导致出生缺陷的环境因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晶

    2012-01-01

    Birth defects is the structural or functional abnormalities already existed before birth (which can be found in a lifetime years before or after birth) ,and its causes including genetic, environmental and both of joint action. Environmental factors have become threats to humanity even in the reproduction of the species. Nowadays .birth defects has become one of the hot topics. This review focuses on recent environmental factors on the impact of birth defects,and focus on the ultrasound and psychological factors associated with birth defects.%出生缺陷(birth defects)是指出生前已经存在(在出生前或出生后数年内可以发现)的结构或功能异常,其产生原因包括遗传、环境以及两者的共同作用.环境问题已经变成威胁人类生存甚至繁衍的一个重要问题.出生缺陷也已成为当今世界关注的热点课题之一.综述近年有关环境因素对出生缺陷影响的研究,并重点探讨超声波及心理因素与出生缺陷的相关性.

  9. Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

  10. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: the Danish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2008-06-01

    Evidence from controlled trials suggests that ingestion of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day in the periconceptional period is effective in preventing neural tube defects (NTD). For this reason, most countries recommend that women planning pregnancy take folic acid supplements in the periconceptional period, and some countries even fortify stable foods with folic acid. Denmark exemplifies a country with a relatively conservative attitude with respect to taking action in these matters. In 1999, a national information campaign was launched that recommended women planning pregnancy take 0.4 mg of folic acid periconceptionally, but with the moderation that women who eat a healthy diet do not need to take folic acid supplement. The campaign was repeated during 2001. The results of the latter campaign were evaluated by using data from a national survey among pregnant women conducted simultaneously with the campaign by the Danish National Birth Cohort. An increase in the proportion of folic acid users took place concomitantly with the launching of the information events, but the increase was limited. Among women who did not plan their pregnancy, a small proportion had taken folic acid supplements periconceptionally, and this proportion did not change concomitantly with the campaign. Young age and low education were factors associated with low likelihood of taking folic acid. It seems that different and more efficient actions are needed if a more substantial proportion of Danish women and their fetuses are going to benefit from the knowledge that folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period can prevent NTD.

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Perinatal Birth Defects in a City of Zhe Jiang Province during 2000-2010%浙江省兰溪市2000-2010年围产儿出生缺陷及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兰英

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the Zhejiang city of birth defects and dynamics in the basic situation, seek to influence the city's main reason for birth defects and prevention strategies. Methods: Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Obstetrics city 2000-2010 Statistical analysis of birth defects. Results: 9458 cases of perinatal birth defects occurred in 216 patients, the total incidence of birth defects 28.86‰; birth defects. child mortality rate 3.62 ‰.The top five birth defects are cleft lip and palate, neural tube development defects. no brain child, congemtal heart disease, umbilical hemia; the incidence of birth defects is proportional to matemal age, 36 years old pregnant women are high risk factors ofbirth defects occur;The incidence of birth defects in rural areas than urban . Conclusions: Prenatal screening of pregnant women of childbearing age, pregnant women of childbearing age in rural areas and knowledge of universal care, prenatal and postnatal care ofwomen during pregnancy bearing age to create a favorable social and cultural environment of birth, in health policy and health insurance system to give moderate tiltreduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:分析浙江省兰溪市围产儿出生缺陷的基本情况及动态变化,探索影响该市围产儿出生缺陷的主要原因和预防策略.方法:对2000-2010年兰溪市妇幼保健院产科出生缺陷资料进行统计分析.结果:9458例围产儿中发生出生缺陷216例,总出生缺陷发生率28.86‰;出生缺陷儿死亡率3.62‰.出生缺陷前五位的是唇腭裂、神经管发育畸形、无脑儿、先天性心脏病、脐疝;出生缺陷发生率与孕产妇年龄成正比,36岁以上孕妇是发生出生缺陷的高危因素;农村出生缺陷的发生率高于城市.结论:加强育龄孕妇产前筛查、农村育龄妇女孕期护理和相关知识的普及,降低围产儿的出生缺陷发生率.

  12. Surveillance of birth defect in Xiangshan peninsula in Zhejiang province, 2005-2009%2005-2009年浙江省象山半岛地区出生缺陷监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴美飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To further understand the incidence of birth defects in Xiangshan and facilitate the implementation of birth defect intervention project. Methods The analysis was conducted on the surveillance data off birth defect detected during pregnancy and 7 days after birth from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009 in Xiangshan. Results Totally 24 863 infants were born during this period, the incidence of birth defect was 147. 61/lakh; 170 dead fetuses were detected, 65. 88% of which were caused by fetus defect. The fetus defect detected before and after 28 weeks of gestation accounted for 11. 99% and 88. 01% respectively. The first 5 birth defects were congenital deformity in circulatory system, congenital deformity in musculoskeletal system, congenital deformity of eye, ear, face and neck, congenital deformity in nervous system as well as cleft lip and cleft palate. Conclusion The overall incidence of birth defect increased in Xiangshan during this period. The incidence of fetus defect in dead fetuses was significantly higher than birth defect in live fetuses. The proportion of fetus defect detected before 28 gestation weeks increased by years. It is essential to conduct tertiary prevention of birth defect.%目的 进一步了解象山县出生缺陷发生情况,以利于实施出生缺陷干预工程.方法 监测2005年1月1日至2009年12月31日所有产妇分娩的胎儿在孕期和产后7 d内发现的出生缺陷的相关情况,统一上报,并进行调查、分析.结果 2005-2009年共出生24 863名胎儿,出生缺陷发生率为147.61/万;发生死胎170例,其中缺陷儿死胎占65.88%;孕28周后发现的出生缺陷占88.01%,孕28周前发现的占11.99%;按系统分类排在前5位的分别为循环系统先天性畸形,肌肉骨骼系统先天性畸形和变形,眼、耳、面和颈部先天性畸形,神经系统先天性畸形,唇裂和腭裂.结论 5年出生缺陷发生率总体呈逐年上升趋势,死胎出生缺陷发生率

  13. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  14. Analysis on the status of birth defects of Derinatal infants between 2001 and 2010 inZhoushan IslandsZheiiana Province%舟山群岛2001年~2010年围产儿出生缺陷资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐君球

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解舟山群岛10年间围产儿出生缺陷发生情况及变化趋势,探寻和分析出生缺陷发生因素.方法 采用纵向比较方法对舟山群岛出生缺陷资料进行分析.结果 出生缺陷发生率14.43‰,本地和流动经检验无差异,出生缺陷前10位顺位以先天性心脏病、唇腭裂、副耳等为主.结论 建立健全出生缺陷三级预防机制,多措施降低出生缺陷发生率.%Objective: To understand the status and trend of birth defects and explore and analyze the occurred factors of birth defects among ten years in Zhoushan Islands of Zhejiang Province. Methods: Longitudinal comparison method was used to analyze the data of birth defects in Zhoushan Islands. Results: The incidence of birth defects was 14. 43%e, there was no significant difference in the incidence of birth defects between local and mobile; the first ten diseases of birth defects were congenital heart disease, cleft lip with palate and vice ear and so on. Conclusion: The relevant departments should establish the mechanism of tertiary prevention of birth defects and make various measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.

  15. Diverse ability of maternal immune stimulation to reduce birth defects in mice exposed to teratogens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubec, T C; Prater, M R; Mallela, M K; Gogal, R M; Guo, T L; Holladay, S D

    2012-06-01

    Stimulating the maternal immune system before or during pregnancy can dramatically improve morphologic outcome in mice that have been exposed to teratogens. For example, maternal immune stimulation in mice reduced craniofacial and palate defects, heart defects, digit and limb defects, tail malformations and neural tube defects caused by diverse teratogens that included chemical agents, hyperthermia, X-rays and diabetes mellitus. Several different procedures of immune stimulation were effective and included footpad injection with Freund's Complete Adjuvant, intraperitoneal (IP) injection with inert particles or attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, intrauterine injection with allogenic or xenogenic lymphocytes, or intravascular, intrauterine or IP injection with immunomodulatory cytokines. Limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which such immune stimulation reduces fetal dysmorphogenesis; however, cytokines of maternal origin have been suggested as effector molecules that act on the placenta or fetus to improve development. These collective data raise novel questions about the possibility of unrecognized maternal immune system regulatory activity in normal fetal development. This manuscript reviews the literature showing maternal immune protection against morphologic birth defects. Potential operating mechanisms are discussed, and the possibility is considered that a suppressed maternal immune system may negatively impact fetal development.

  16. 闽东地区出生缺陷发展趋势及影响因素研究%Trends and affecting factors of birth defects in Mindong district, Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小远; 宋玮婷; 李华; 张凤珍; 林涛; 陈锋萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 10 years trends of birth defects and explore potential affecting factors for the control of the diseases in future. Methods The 2001-2010 surveillance data of birth defects were collected from all hospitals in Ningde, Fujian. A special designed database was developed for the data collection. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. Results Birth defect rate increased from 0. 55% to 1. 1% in 10 years (2001-2010). However, birth defects greater than 28 weeks pregnancy decreased in the same period of time. The most occurred birth defects were congenital heart diseases, cleft lip with and without cleft palate. Ear deformity increased gradually, while congenital hy-drocephalus decreased. In general, birth defects occurred more frequently in male babies than in female babies. Birth defects were associated with the age of mothers. High rates of birth defects were seen in the age groups of mothers between 20 and 25 years as well as over 35 years. Down syndrome and congenital heart diseases increased with the age of mothers. Conclusion Birth defect prevention and medical care in early pregnancy, prenatal screening and diagnosis are essential to decrease birth defects.%目的 为掌握闽东地区的出生缺陷发生的消长情况及影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,为制定干预措施提供依据,进行本研究.方法 按监测方案要求收集2001-2010年宁德市出生缺陷医院监测资料,按要求质量控制,统一统计标准录入SPSS软件建立数据库,进行统计分析.结果 2001-2010年宁德市总出生缺陷发生率呈现上升趋势,≥28周重大出生缺陷发生率呈现下降趋势;主要出生缺陷顺位变化:先天性心脏病升至第一位,总唇裂降至二、三位,外耳其他畸形排序渐升;总唇裂、小耳、先心、马蹄内翻足增高趋势,而先天性脑积水呈下降趋势;男性高于女性;孕母各年龄组之间差异显著,以20~岁组和35~岁组发生率为高;随年

  17. 2000~2010年围产儿出生缺陷监测与分析%Monitoring and analysis on birth defects of perinatal infants from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳兰; 孙丽洲; 田静

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the high risk factors of birth defects in the area by retrospectively analyzing growth and decline of birth defects in the hospital, timely find out suspicious malformation - inducing factors, and provide a basis for carrying out prevention, early diagnosis, and intervention of birth defects. Methods: According to the monitoring project of birth defect in China, the data of parturient women and perinatal infants born in the hospital from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: From 2000 to 2010, a total of 27 838 perinatal infants were monitored, 311 perinatal infants were found with birth defects, the incidence rate was 11. 17%c. The main types of birth defects were polydactyly, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, multi - malformation, digestive tract malformation, hypospa-dias, and hydrocephalus; the incidence rate of birth defects in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls; the risk of birth defects among perinatal infants born by parturient women ≥ 35 years old increased significantly, especially among perinatal infants born by parturient women < 20 years old. Conclusion: Enhancing prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis and raising prenatal detection rate of birth defects can reduce incidence rate of birth defects.%目的:通过回顾分析该院出生缺陷的消长情况,了解该地区出生缺陷的高危高发因素,及时发现可疑的致畸因素,为开展出生缺陷的预防、早期诊断和干预提供依据.方法:依照《中国出生缺陷监测方案》,对2000 ~ 2010年在该院分娩的产妇及其围产儿的资料进行统计分析.结果:11年间共监测围产儿27838例,缺陷儿311例,发生率为11.17‰;主要出生缺陷为指(趾)畸形、先天性心脏病、总唇裂、复合畸形、消化道畸形、尿道下裂、脑积水;男婴出生缺陷发生率较女婴显著增加;产母年龄≥35岁,尤其是产母年龄< 20岁时出生缺陷发生率的危险

  18. Zika Babies May Look Normal At Birth, Display Brain Defects Later: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162159.html Zika Babies May Look Normal at Birth, Display Brain ... 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to the Zika virus in the womb can look normal at ...

  19. Relationship between knowledge of birth defects and culture, economy%出生缺陷知识与文化和经济的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文英; 张玲; 张绍强

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解孕妇对预防出生缺陷的知识、态度、行为情况,为进一步完善婚前保健、孕前保健及围产期保健服务提出合理化建议,提高出生人口素质.方法:采用分层抽样和随机抽样的方法,抽取深圳市龙岗区三个街道的90例孕期妇女作为调查对象,利用自行设计的调查表,进行面对面问卷调查,了解孕期妇女出生缺陷的知信行(KAP)情况.结果:文化层次高的孕妇,夫妇双方婚前医学检查率明显高于文化水平低者,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.771 7,P<0.05);文化程度越高的孕妇对孕期保健、预防出生缺陷知识掌握得越多.对孕期“保持良好心情”的知晓率以月收入4000~7000元组最高(95.00%),月收入7 000元以上组的知晓率最低(61.54%);在孕期“注意少接触农药/油漆”及“注意少接触猫狗等”行为方面也有不同,家庭人均月收入越高的孕妇对上述行为的重视程度越高.结论:文化程度与家庭经济状况是孕期妇女掌握出生缺陷相关知识的影响因素.%Objective; To understand the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of pregnant women to prevention of birth defects , put forward reasonable suggestions for further perfecting premarital health care, prenatal health care, and perinatal heath care services, improve the quality of birth population. Methods: Stratified random sampling method was used to select 90 pregnant women from three streets of Longgang district as respondents, a self - designed questionnaire was adopted to survey the respondents face - to - face, KAP conditions of the pregnant women to birth defects were understood. Results: The rate of premarital examination in couples with the pregnant women having high educational level was statistically significantly higher than that in couples with the pregnant women having low educational level (x2 = 6. 771 7, P <0. 05) ; the higher the educational level of pregnant women was, the higher the

  20. Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage at Home Birth in Afghanistan: Program Expansion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Nasratullah; Zainullah, Partamin; Kim, Young‐Mi; Tappis, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has a maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death. Two‐thirds of births occur at home. A pilot program conducted from 2005 to 2007 demonstrated the effectiveness of using community health workers for advance distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women for self‐administration immediately following birth to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. The Ministry of Public Health requested an expansion of the pilot to study implementation on a larger scale before adopting the intervention as national policy. The purpose of this before‐and‐after study was to determine the effectiveness of advance distribution of misoprostol for self‐administration across 20 districts in Afghanistan and identify any adverse events that occurred during expansion. Methods Cross‐sectional household surveys were conducted pre‐ (n = 408) and postintervention (n = 408) to assess the effect of the program on uterotonic use among women who had recently given birth. Maternal death audits and verbal autopsies were conducted to investigate peripartum maternal deaths that occurred during implementation in the 20 districts. Results Uterotonic use among women in the sample increased from 50.3% preintervention to 74.3% postintervention. Because of a large‐scale investment in Afghanistan in training and deployment of community midwives, it was assumed that all women who gave birth in facilities received a uterotonic. A significant difference in uterotonic use at home births was observed among women who lived farthest from a health facility (> 90 minutes self‐reported travel time) compared to women who lived closer (88.5% vs 38.9%; P maternal deaths were identified among those women who used misoprostol. Discussion The results of this study build on the findings of the pilot program and provide evidence on the effectiveness, primarily measured by uterotonic use, of an expansion of advance distribution of

  1. 珠海市2011~2013年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on Monitoring Data of Birth Defects in Zhuhai City from 2011 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝伟红; 戚小兵; 伍平; 黄斯娜; 于春荣; 郭胜男

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemic trends and distribution characteristics of birth defects in Zhuhai city from 2011 to 2013 ,and analyze the main relevant factors ,which could provide basic information for making prevention measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.Methods The data of perinatal birth defects from all monitoring institutions in Zhuhai city from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results The incidence of birth defects was 16.23‰ in Zhuhai city from 2011 to 2013 with an increasing trend. The top five types of birth defects were heart disease ,polydactyly ,syndactylia ,talipes equinova‐rus ,and cleft lip with cleft palate. The prevalence rate of birth defects was significantly higher in urban and among boys(both P<0.01).The incidence of birth defects was relatively high for puerperas over 35 years(22.81‰)and those younger than 20 years old(17.21‰). The proportion of the live birth defects and the prenatal diagnosis was 83.88% and 18.76% ,respective‐ly.Clinical diagnosis and ultrasound were the main diagnostic methods.Conclusion A well‐planned monitor system ,tertiary prevention strategy and comprehensive interventional measures are sensible ways to lower the incidence of birth defects.%目的:了解珠海市2011~2013年围产儿出生缺陷的流行趋势及分布特点,并对出生缺陷的主要相关因素进行分析,为制订出生缺陷的预防措施提供依据。方法对珠海市2011~2013年所有监测机构的围产儿出生缺陷资料进行回顾性分析。结果珠海市2011~2013年间围产儿出生缺陷发生率为16.23‰,有逐年上升趋势( P<0.01);前5位出生缺陷类型依次为先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、并指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、唇裂合并腭裂;男性围产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于女性围产儿的发生率(P<0.01);城镇人口的出生缺陷发生率明显高于乡村(P<0.01)。产妇年龄大于35岁和小于20岁年龄组

  2. 龙岗区2004~2009年出生缺陷监测资料分析%Analysis on monitoring data of birth defects in Longgang district from 2004 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍强; 张玲; 邹丹玲; 陈文英; 夏洪波

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解近几年深圳市龙岗区围产儿出生缺陷发生率及变化趋势,为降低出生缺陷发生率、提高出生人口素质提供依据.方法:对2004~2009年出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果:2004~2009年龙岗区围产儿出生缺陷发生率为13.05‰,流动人口出生缺陷发生率高于常住人口;男性围产儿出生缺陷发生率为14.15‰,女性发生率为11.50‰,男性出生缺陷发生率比女性发生率高;常见出生缺陷类型为先天性心脏病、多指(趾)及总唇裂;出生缺陷中的死胎、死产导致死亡构成比呈下降趋势(x2=38.19,P <0.0001),新生儿存活构成比则呈上升趋势(x2=36.65,P<0.0001).结论:积极开展三级预防,采取综合干预措施,降低出生缺陷的发生率.%Objective: To understand the incidence and change trend of perinatal birth defects in Longgang district of Shenzhen cit-y in recent years, provide a basis for reducing the incidence of birth defects and improving the quality of birth population. Methods: The monitoring data of birth defects in Longgang district from 2004 to 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results; From 2004 to 2009, the incidence of birth defects in Longgang district was 13. 05%o, the prevalence of birth defects of floating population was higher than that of permanent resident population; the incidences of birth defects of male perinatal infants and female perinatal infants were 14. 15%o and 11. 50%e, respectively , the incidence of birth defects of male perinatal infants was higher than that of female perinatal infants; the common types of birth defects included congenital heart disease, polydactyly, cleft lip or/and cleft palate. The proportion of perinatal death induced by fetal death and stillbirth showed a decreasing trend (x2 =38. 19, P <0. 000 1 ) , the proportion of survival neonates showed a increasing trend (x2 = 36. 65, P <0. 000 1) . Conclusion; Carrying out tertiary prevention actively and adopting

  3. Investigation on birth defects of the newborn from 2006 to 2010 in Huangshan City, Anhui Province%2006~2010年安徽黄山市新生儿出生缺陷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怡; 章世妹; 胡红喜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the birth defects of children aged 0—5 who were born during the 11th Five-Year Plan (from 2006 to 2010), and explore the risk factors of birth defects in the region. Methods The children aged 0~5 were screened in Huangshan City, and the children diagnosed with birth defects by screen or clinical examination were chosen as investigation objects, and the epidemiological factors were investigated and analyzed. Results A total of 61842 children were screened, and 981 of which were cases with birth defects, the incidence of birth defects was 158.63/ten thousand. The top 5 were congenital heart disease, limb malformations, total cleft lip and palate, cerebral atrophy and congenital hydrocephalus, respectively. The incidence of birth defects was significant different in maternal ages and birth regions. Conclusion The distribution characteristics of birth defects in this region indicates that the birth defects are closely related to the age of the pregnant women , the education conditions and the infection during pregnancy as well . The protection in the early pregnancy will play a significant role to prevent the birth defects.%目的 了解黄山市"十一五"期间(2006~2010 年)出生的0~5 岁新生儿出生缺陷的现况,探讨黄山地区人群出生缺陷的危险因素.方法 采用流行病学筛查方法,以黄山地区的0~5 岁儿童为筛查对象,对筛查出的具有明确诊断或经临床体检诊断出的出生缺陷儿作为调查对象,对人群出生缺陷流行因素进行调查分析.结果 共调查61842 人,筛查出生缺陷儿981 例,出生缺陷发生率为158.63/万.排在前5 位的是先天性心脏病、肢体畸形、总唇腭裂、脑萎缩和先天性脑积水.对比不同生育年龄产母、不同出生地区出生缺陷率,差异均有统计学意义.结论 本次结果 显示孕妇的年龄、文化程度、以及孕期感染等与新生儿出生缺陷有关.孕早期保护对于预防新生儿出生缺陷

  4. 孝感市2007~2011年围产儿出生缺陷流行病学调查%Study on perinatal birth defects from 2007 to 2011 in Xiaogan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱越; 陆敏; 杨树杰; 刘景丽; 付汉东; 彭红华; 李君; 罗红英; 余小艳

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To master the epidemiology of birth defect in Xiaogan City,analysis the dynamic trends and try to find out the main factors that may affect birth defects so as to develop effective preventive measures to improve the quality of newborn births.METHODS All the perinatal birth defects monitoring data of year 2007-2011 that in all the midwifery unit of Xiaogan were collected by child birth defects registration card and analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS Five-year birth defects incidence was 4.26‰ and the rates among the 5 years had no statistic difference (P> 0.05).The common birth defects in the top five were multi-finger polydactyly (0.61‰),external ear malformation (0.47‰),cleft lip with cleft palate (0.45‰),cleft lip (0.39‰) and congenital heart disease (0.32‰).Prenatal diagnosis rate was 21.08%,of which B-ultrasound diagnosis was 14.46%.Age of the maternal was a factor to birth defects that when the mother was older than 35 or younger than 20 the incidence of birth defects was obviously higher than other age group.Male birth defects rate were higher than females.The defects rate in countries was higher than that in towns.There was a positive relationship between the maternal education level or lower household income and rate of perinatal birth defects.CONCLUSION The main birth defects in Xiaogan of the last five years are the surface defects and the high risk factor of the birth defects are mother age,education level,economic level and place of residence.The rural areas are the focus to make prevention.So we should strengthen promotion of marriage and pregnancy health and improve prenatal diagnostic techniques so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects effectively.%目的 掌握孝感市围产儿出生缺陷的流行病学特征,分析主要出生缺陷的高危因素,制定有效的预防措施,提高出生人口的素质.方法 采用《出生缺陷儿登记卡》收集孝感市所有助产技术单位2007~2011年围产儿出生

  5. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  6. Clinical Analysis in 265 Perinatals Birth Defects%265例出生缺陷儿的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红霞

    2012-01-01

      Objective To characterize the distribution patterns of birth defects in Huai-rou First Hospital 2006-2011. Methods Birth defects surveillance data in the period of January 2002 to December 2004 were analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rate of birth defects was 207.97/10,000 births. The first 5 common birth defects were hyperdactylism and ankylodactylia, accessory auricle,congenital heart disease,total cleft lip and palate,pigmented mole. chromosomal abnormalities,and neural tube defects. Conclusion To disease the prevalence rate of birth defects and elevate the disposition of the birth population, we should put the emphasis to preservation(the third-level prevention).%  目的 分析我院住院分娩围生儿的出生缺陷发生情况、变化趋势,为进一步预防出生缺陷的发生提供依据.方法 对2006至2011年在怀柔区第一医院住院分娩的围生儿出生缺陷监测资料进行分析.结果 6年共监测围生儿12742例,发现缺陷儿265例,平均出生缺陷发生率为207.97/万,前5位分别是多指(趾)及并指(趾)36例,副耳34例,先天性心脏病33例,唇裂合并腭裂23例,色素痣13例.结论 减少出生缺陷的工作重点在预防,应加强优生知识的宣传,提高产前检查质量及产前诊断技术,做好三级预防工作,以期降低围生儿出生缺陷的出生率,提高出生人口素质.

  7. Investigation of scum type growing defects on attenuated PSM and its prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihwan; Kim, Yongho; Lee, Dongwook; Jung, Hoyong; Kim, Snagpyo; Yim, Donggyu

    2015-10-01

    The abnormal growing defect (we called this defect 'scum haze defect') in the photomask which is generated during the wafer lithography process is very important issue on semiconductor industry. Because wafer yield loss could be caused by the mask CD variation and the transmittance loss due to the growing defects on the photomask, many studies have been done about the mechanism and the solution of the general type growing defects such as haze and Cr migration so far, However we still need to clarify some abnormal types of the growing defects such as scum haze defect. In this paper, we investigated the generation mechanism and prevention techniques of the scum haze defect on the attenuated phase shift mask. This defect composed of CrOx is caused by the increase of the accumulated exposure energy on photomask. This phenomenon is remarkably similar to the Cr migration on binary mask. But, the apparent difference is that this scum type defect is observed on the attenuated phase shift mask which mainly consists of MoSiON film, and it is difficult to control this defect because of its irregular generation characteristic. Additionally, this defect is not generally removed through the conventional wet cleaning process but it only could be removed by a kind of plasma treatment. In this study, the difference of generation mechanism between the scum haze defect and the general haze was discussed, and the optimal process for controlling scum haze defect in the mask manufacturing was described.

  8. The prevention of neural tube defects by folic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Hitzeroth

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects, in particular spina bifida and anencephaly, are serious and relatively common congenital abnormalities worldwide. They also occur in South Africa and affect all population groups to varying degrees. The overall incidence in South Africa is approximately 1-2 per 1000 newborns. Higher incidences, up to 6 per 1000 newborns have been recorded in certain parts, especially in some rural areas of the country. In total as many as 1500 newborns could be affected by a neural tube defect each year. The precise aetiology of neural tube defects is still unknown.

  9. Analysis of peripregnancy health care effects on birth defects%围孕期保健对出生缺陷的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘葵; 吕海荣

    2014-01-01

    significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:By strengthening the antenatal care, reduce and control risk factors, could prevent and reduce the birth defects, improve the birth quality.

  10. The Nexus of Prematurity, Birth Defects, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Role for Plac1-Regulated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Michael E.; Fuentes, Juan; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Jackman, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of birth defects and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among infants born prematurely suggesting they share common biological determinants. The identification of key regulatory pathways contributing to this nexus is essential to ongoing efforts to develop effective intervention strategies. Plac1 is a paternally imprinted and X-linked gene that conforms to this paradigm. Examination of a mutant mouse model has confirmed that Plac1 is essential for normal placental development and function. Moreover, it is expressed throughout the developing embryo indicating that it also has broad relevance to embryogenesis. Most notably, its absence in the developing embryo is associated with abnormal brain development and an increased risk of lethal, postnatal hydrocephalus identifying it as a novel, X-linked determinant of brain development. The essential and non-redundant roles of Plac1 in placental and neurological development represent a novel regulatory paradigm for embryonic growth and pregnancy maintenance. Regulatory pathways influenced, in part, by Plac1 are likely to contribute to the observed nexus of IUGR, prematurity, and birth defects. PMID:24600606

  11. Analysis of birth defects monitoring data from 2009 to 2013 in Liuzhou City%柳州地区2009至2013年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 农铮; 邱萍; 覃海研; 关海滨; 刘成娟; 张玉; 林墨菊

    2014-01-01

    relatively high level in Liuzhou City .Therefore, some targeted measures to strengthen primary and secondary prevention , enhance propaganda on healthy birth and child development , and increase antenatal check should be taken to reduce the incidence of birth defects and improve the quality of birth population .

  12. 肇庆市2001-2010年围产儿出生缺陷监测资料分析%Data analysis of perinatal and infants with birth defects from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志玮; 刘楚芹; 梁云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the incidence of birth defects and its variation in four hospitals of Zhaoqing, and to investigate the risk factors that causing birth defects, in order to provide references for formulating intervention measures. Methods According to the requirements of "Monitoring planning of birth defects in hospitals of Guangdong province", four hospitals in Zhaoqing were chosen for this investigation, and statistical analysis methods were used to analyze the birth defects data from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing. Results 63 476 perinatal and infants were observed from 2001 to 2010, and 1 043 infants were found to have birth defects, and the incidence was 162.9 per ten thousand. There was an upward trend in general, and the incidence in 2010 was significantly higher than that in 2001 (χ2=21.635,P<0.001). The top three types of birth defects were congenital heart disease, fetal edema syndrome, and polydactyly malformation. Incidence of birth defect was associated with the sex, maternal age, and fetus number. Conclusion Birth defects have a great impact on the quality of the population, and the third class preventive measure should be continually strengthened to reduce the birth defects.%目的 了解肇庆市4家监测医院出生缺陷儿的发生率及其变化情况,研究出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定出生缺陷干预措施提供依据.方法 按照《广东省出生缺陷医院监测方案》的要求,以市内4家医院作为监测医院,对肇庆市2001-2010年的出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2001-2010年共监测围产儿63476名,其中出生缺陷儿1 034名,发生率为162.90/万,总体呈上升趋势,2010年的发生率比2001年高,差异有统计学意义(x2=21.635,P<0.001).前3位出生缺陷类型依次为先天性心脏病、胎儿水肿综合征、多指(趾)畸形.出生缺陷发生率与围产儿性别、孕母年龄、胎数有关.结论 出生缺陷严重影响出生人口的素质,应继续加强三

  13. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  14. Effective Defect Prevention Approach in Software Process for Achieving Better Quality Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Suma, V

    2010-01-01

    Defect prevention is the most vital but habitually neglected facet of software quality assurance in any project. If functional at all stages of software development, it can condense the time, overheads and wherewithal entailed to engineer a high quality product. The key challenge of an IT industry is to engineer a software product with minimum post deployment defects. This effort is an analysis based on data obtained for five selected projects from leading software companies of varying software production competence. The main aim of this paper is to provide information on various methods and practices supporting defect detection and prevention leading to thriving software generation. The defect prevention technique unearths 99% of defects. Inspection is found to be an essential technique in generating ideal software generation in factories through enhanced methodologies of abetted and unaided inspection schedules. On an average 13 % to 15% of inspection and 25% - 30% of testing out of whole project effort tim...

  15. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-08

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs.

  16. 重庆市涪陵区311例围生儿出生缺陷分析%Birth defects analysis of 311 perinatal infants at Fuling district in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明会; 薛莹; 李红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status and change tendency of birth defects in the region to provide ref-erence for formulating reasonable prevention measures against birth defect. Methods A total of 311 monitoring data of birth de-fect from the hospitals including Fuling Central Hospital ,Puling Women and Children Health Care Hospital and Puling People′s Hospital from October 1,2010 to September 30,2013 at Fuling district in Chongqing were analyzed retrospectively,understanding the occurrence of birth defect,defect rate change trend as well as the related factors and birth defects (defects gender,age,residence and education level of lying-in women,etc.). Results Birth defect rate from the three monitoring organs of this region was de-creased annually. The occurrence of birth defects in 2013,accoutning for 1.846%(120/6 501),was significantly lower than that 2.046%(88/4 301) in 2011,whose difference had statistically significance(P0.05). The incidence of birth defect of the women aged less than 20 years old or over 35 years old were both higher than that of the women aged 20-35 years old. The lying-in women graduated from junior middle school or below had a higher occurrence in birth defect,and the difference had statistical significance(P<0.05). The prenatal diagnosis of birth defects,with the diagnostic rate of 21.54%(63/311) only,gave priority of ultrasonic diagnosis and chromo-some examination . Conclusion Paying attention to the occurrence of relevant factors of birth defect and improving the prenatal diagnosis of birth defects rate may effectively reduce the incidence of birth defect.%目的:探讨重庆市涪陵区出生缺陷儿的现状和变化趋势,为制订适合当地出生缺陷防治措施提供参考。方法选取该地区涪陵中心医院、涪陵区妇幼保健院、涪陵区人民医院3家监测机构2010年10月1日至2013年9月30日分娩的311例出生缺陷儿监测资料进行回顾性分析,了解出生缺陷发生率的

  17. Research Progress of Factors Related to Birth Defect and Interventional Measures%出生缺陷相关因素的研究进展及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝轲

    2011-01-01

    Birth defect prevails worldwide as a heavy burden to the state, society and the family, and affects the quality of population and development of social civilization.It is a basic national policy to control and improve the quality of the population, whereas birth defect is an important factor which affects the quality of the population.In this paper,hereditary factors,environmental factors,drug factors,psychological factors of birth defect are described.The surveillance,tertiary prevention,government intervention,establishment of early warning systems and other research progress of interventional measures of birth defect are discussed,in aiming to improve the quality of the population and protect the population health.%出生缺陷在全世界占有相当高的比例,给国家、社会和家庭带来了沉重负担,影响到人口素质及社会文明的发展.控制人口数量,提高人口素质是我国的一项基本国策,而出生缺陷则是严重影响人口素质的一个重要因素.现从遗传因素、环境因素、药物因素、心理因素等方面阐述出生缺陷的相关因素,并从出生缺陷监测、三级预防、政府政策干预以及建立出生缺陷预警系统等方面探讨出生缺陷干预措施的研究进展,为提高人口素质,保护人群健康提供基础.

  18. What Every Chemist Should Know About Teratogens--Chemicals that Cause Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyler, Roger E.; Meyers, Vera Kolb

    1982-01-01

    Teratogens are agents which act during pregnancy producing physical/functional defects in the embryo, fetus, or offspring. Discusses teratogenic hazards in the workplace and academic environment, classes of teratogenic compounds, precautions for interpreting Teratogen List from Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), and how…

  19. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  20. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons’ components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20–25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers’ contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect.

  1. 昌吉州2005至2010年486例出生缺陷分析%Analysis of birth defects of 486 cases in 2005-2010 in Changji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筱萍; 李冬梅; 马彦华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of birth defects and related factors in Changji so as to provide some basis for working out preventive measures for birth defects. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the data of 486 cases of birth defects collected from each hospital in Changji from 2005 to 2010. Results The incidence of birth defects increased year by year from 2005 to 2010, and it increased in 2010 ( 10. 67‰ ) by 5. 61% compared with that in 2005 ( 5. 06 ‰). The incidence of birth defects when pregnant women were over 35 years and over 40 years was 8. 28% ‰ and 10. 67‰ respectively. The sequence of birth defects was neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenital hydrocephalus, congenital heart disease and talipes equinovarus in order. Conclusion The advanced ages and rural areas are the focus of prevention work. Strengthening propaganda on prenatal and postnatal care, enhancing system management during pregnancy, taking low-dose folic acid tablets before pregnancy and at early pregnancy and improving prenatal diagnostic technique are the effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 了解昌吉州出生缺陷发生情况及相关因素,为制订预防出生缺陷的措施提供依据.方法 收集昌吉州辖区内各家医院2005至2010年间出生的486例缺陷儿的资料,进行回顾性分析.结果 2005至2010年出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升趋势,2005年(5.06‰)与2010年(10.67‰)相比上升了5.61‰;年龄大于35、40岁以上妊娠者缺陷发生率分别为8.28‰、10.67‰;出生缺陷的顺位依次为神经管畸形、唇腭裂、多指趾、先天性脑积水、先心病、马蹄内翻.结论 高龄孕妇、农村地区是出生缺陷工作预防的重点,加强优生优育宣传,加强孕期系统管理,在孕前、孕早期服用小剂量叶酸片,提高产前诊断技术,是降低出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.

  2. Defect Prevention Approaches In Medium Scale It Enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Suma, V

    2010-01-01

    The software industry is successful, if it can draw the complete attention of the customers towards it. This is achievable if the organization can produce a high quality product. To identify a product to be of high quality, it should be free of defects, should be capable of producing expected results. It should be delivered in an estimated cost, time and be maintainable with minimum effort.

  3. Analysis of monitoring results of birth defects in Leshan city during 2006-2010%乐山市2006~2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the trend and risk factors of birth defects of 2006 - 2010 Leshan City. METHODS According to the require of the Sichuan birth monitoring program, 23 healthcare organizations were monitored in Leshan City and the results were collected and reported. RESULTS Total incidence rate of birth defects was 9.8 1‰ and the rate of perinatal birth defect in last five years declined significantly. The rate of birth defects of parturient aged from 20 to 35 was significantly higher. There was no significant difference of birth defects between male and female babies. In Leshan City, multi-finger/toe, small ear/no ear, external ear deformities, cleft lip and cleft palate, cleft lip and urethra hypospadias were most common defects; The rate of prenatal diagnosis was 12.26%. The incidence of birth defects associated with inheritance and pre-pregnancy or prenatal monitoring. CONCLUSION Health education, prevention and monitoring of pregnant women should be strengthened in Leshan to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 分析乐山市2006~2010年出生缺陷发生趋势及其高危因素,制定干预措施,降低出生缺陷发生率.方法 按照《四川省出生缺陷监测方案》要求,对乐山市23所医疗保健机构出生缺陷进行监测,由县妇幼保健院收集汇总上报.结果 出生缺陷总发生率9.81%,5年来围产儿出生缺陷发生率历经波峰后稳步下降,差异有统计学意义;孕产妇20岁及35岁年龄组,出生缺陷率明显增高;男性与女性出生缺陷发生率差异无统计学意义;乐山市出生缺陷前6位是多指/趾、小耳/无耳、外耳其他畸形、唇裂并腭裂、唇裂、尿道下裂;产前诊断率12.26%;出生缺陷发生与遗传及孕前产前监测有一定关联.结论 进一步加强育龄妇女及其家庭健康教育促进,增强“三级预防”体系功能,重视婚前孕前检查与产前筛查(诊断)工作,做到早预防、早诊断、早处置,以降低

  4. Analysis of birth defects supervision in obstetrical hospitals in Beijing Haidian District%北京市海淀区产科医院出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赋真; 张雪峰; 周钰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defects in hospitals in Haidian District during recent years so as to provide management clue for supervision in the future. Methods From October 1 of 2006 to September 30 of 2010, fetus and newborns between 13 gestational weeks and 7d after delivery were supervised for birth defects in hospitals of Haidian district, and the supervision results were analyzed in terms of rate and cis position. Results There were 3 776 defected cases including 2 861 cases in perinatal period ( the incidence rate of birth defects in perinatal period was 17. 98‰ ) and 906 cases induced to abortion in second trimester. In floating population the incidence rate of birth defects showed a rising trend in perinatal period during these years( x2 =52. 250, P = 0. 000 ). The first five highest rates of birth defects were congenital heart disease, deformity of external ear, multi finger ( toe ), merged finger ( toe ) and hypospadias in order. The trend of neural tube defects rate was stable and the incidence of cleft lip dropped obviously. But the incidence of Trisomy 21 rose gradually, and there was no significant difference (x2 =6. 906, P =0. 075 ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects is 17. 98‰ in hospitals of Haidian district, and the trend of birth defects rate is rising during 2006-2010 year especially in floating population. The primary prevention of folic acid supplement should be strengthened.%目的 了解近年来北京市海淀区医院出生缺陷的发生情况,为今后监测工作的管理重点提供依据.方法 对2006年10月1日至2010年9月30日期间北京市海淀区产科医院孕13周~产后7天的胎儿及新生儿进行出生缺陷监测,并对监测结果进行率及顺位等分析.结果 ①监测到出生缺陷儿3 776例,其中围产期2 861例(围产期出生缺陷儿发生率为17.98‰),中孕引产906例;②2006至2010年,外地户籍围产期出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升的趋势(χ2

  5. Final results from the Betaseron (interferon β-1b) Pregnancy Registry: a prospective observational study of birth defects and pregnancy-related adverse events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P K; Sinclair, S M; Scheuerle, A E; Thorp, J M; Albano, J D; Rametta, M J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Women with multiple sclerosis are often diagnosed and treated during their reproductive years. Limited data are available on the safety of treatment during pregnancy. The Betaseron Pregnancy Registry prospectively monitored women exposed to interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b) during pregnancy to estimate the rates of birth defects, spontaneous abortions (SABs) and other negative outcomes in this population. Design From 2006 to 2011, this observational registry enrolled women exposed prior to conception or during pregnancy (but prior to or without abnormalities on prenatal screening). Follow-up continued from enrolment through the 4-month paediatric visit. Setting Patients in the USA who met these criteria were enrolled in the registry. Results The registry enrolled 99 pregnant women; 3 were lost to follow-up. The earliest exposure to IFNβ-1b occurred during the first trimester for 95 pregnancies and in the third trimester for 1 pregnancy. There were 99 birth outcomes (3 twins), including 86 (86.9%) live births, 11 (11.1%) SABs and 2 (2%) stillbirths. Birth defects were reported in five (5.1%) cases. Rates of birth defects and SAB were not significantly different from population comparators. No developmental concerns were identified at the 4-month paediatric visit. Conclusions The small sample size limits the ability to draw definitive conclusions; however, there was no pattern to suggest increased negative outcomes with IFNβ-1b. Clinical trials registration number NCT00317564. PMID:24821713

  6. 产前超声诊断胎儿出生缺陷的临床分析%The Clinical Study on the Diagnosis of Fetal Birth Defect by Prenatal Ultrasound Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马澜竹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究产前超声诊断对胎儿出生缺陷的临床分析。方法选取2012年4月~2013年12月在我院就诊的627例孕妇进行产前的超声诊断,观察超声检查的图像。结果产前超声诊断的符合率为95.12%,漏诊率为4.9%,符合率较高,准确率高,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论产前的超声诊断能够准确检查出胎儿的出生缺陷问题,提高优生优育,为胎儿出生缺陷干预重要有效的方法。%Objective Clinical study on the diagnosis of fetal birth defect by prenatal ultrasound examination is to be investigated. Methods Chose 627 pregnant women who were received and treated in hospital from April 2012 to December 2013 and get them tested by prenatal ultrasound examination. And then make an observation on ultrasound image. Results The accuracy of prenatal ultrasound examination was up to 95.12%,and misdiagnosis probability was 4.9%; the prenatal diagnosis was of high accuracy and its outcome had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Prenatal ultrasound examination is of high accuracy in diagnosis of fetal birth defect which is beneficial to improve sound birth and superior nurture; it is a quite effective way to prevent from fetal birth defect.

  7. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system m

  8. RELIANCE ON GEOCODED MATERNAL RESIDENCE: IMPACT ON A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF AIR QUALITY AND BIRTH DEFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Unbiased geocoding of maternal residence is critical to the success of an ongoing population-based case-control study of exposure to five criteria air pollutants and the risk of selected birth defects in seven Texas counties between 1997 and 2000. The geocoded res...

  9. Birth Defects Among Children Born to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Protocols 219 and 219C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogly, Susan B.; Abzug, Mark J.; Watts, D. Heather; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Williams, Paige L.; Oleske, James; Conway, Daniel; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Spiegel, Hans; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Some studies have detected associations between in utero antiretroviral therapy (ARV) exposure and birth defects but evidence is inconclusive. Methods: A total of 2202 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219 and 219 C p

  10. 梧州地区1529例出生缺陷儿监测分析%A monitoring analysis in 1529 birth-defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国栋; 陈永予

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To comprehend birth-defect condition and disposition in wuzhou city; to provid evidence and strategy that obviate and interfere birth-defect; Methods: we collect data of birth-defect of wuzhou city in 2001 ~2006 year. Result: we find 1529 birth-defect in six year. average birth-defect rate is 17.41‰; birth-defect: Schridde syndrome (3. 17‰) , cheilognathus and cleft palat (1.61‰), eqninovarus (1.51‰), hyperdactylia (1.46‰), limb shortening (1.31‰), ankylodactylia (1.21‰), congenital hydrocephalus (1.01‰), cbeilognathus (0.91‰), anencephaly (0. 55%0), hypospadia (0.40‰). Conclusions: birth-defect rate of wuzhou city is decrease year by year in 2001 ~ 2006 year; it is emphasis that health information, medical examination of before marriage,, antepartum Screen, antenatal diagnosis were pervasion.%目的 了解梧州市出生缺陷发生情况及分布特征,为出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据和对策.方法 收集梧州市2001~2006年出生缺陷资料,对资料进行分析.结果 6年间共发现出生缺陷儿1529例,平均出生缺陷率为17.41‰,2006年前10位出生缺陷为:胎儿水肿综合征(3.17‰),唇裂合并腭裂(1.61‰),马蹄内翻足(1.51‰),多指(1.46‰),肢体短缩(1.31‰),并指(1.21‰),先天性脑积水(1.01‰),唇裂(0.91%O),无脑畸形(0.55‰),尿道下裂(0.40‰).结论 梧州市2001~2006年出生缺陷发生率呈逐年下降趋势,因此应继续加强卫生知识宣教和婚前医学检查、产前筛查及产前诊断,以预防和减少出生缺陷的发生.

  11. Related factors of birth defects%保定地区出生缺陷相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余瑞欣; 侯雯莅; 王建

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To 80 261 cases of perinatal analysis of 889 cases of defective children, most of unknown causes, of which 183 cases had a number of reasons, through the analysis to understand the defects caused by a common cause of children. Methods; The case study method, one by one asked about the history. Results: A number of reasons, such as high fever, contact with a number of chemical raw materials, indiscriminate use of drugs during pregnancy, social factors are all caused by defects. Conclusion; The prevention of pregnancy cold, away from toxic substances, rational drug use and change the bad ideas in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of defects in children.%目的 通过80 261例围产儿分析,缺陷儿889例,大部分不明原因,其中183例有一些明确原因,通过对这些因素分析,了解引起缺陷儿的常见原因.方法 采用个案调查方法,逐一询问病史.结果 一些原因如高烧、接触一些化工原料、孕期乱用药物、社会因素等都是引起缺陷的原因.结论 预防孕期感冒、远离有毒物质、合理用药,改变不良观念从而有效预防缺陷儿的发生.

  12. 306例出生缺陷患儿追踪结局分析%Analysis of the outcome of 306 children born with birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 彭振耀; 刘凯波; 潘迎

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解活产出生缺陷患儿的结局.方法 对306例2007年7月~2008年9月分娩且家长均居住在北京市海淀区的306例活产出生缺陷患儿,分娩6~8个月时通过电话调查方式询问出生缺陷惠儿家长.结果 306例出生缺陷种类主要为先天性心脏病、多指/趾、除小耳和无耳的外耳畸形、睾丸未降、尿道下裂,占调查总数的75.16%o出生缺陷患儿分娩后6~8个月时的追踪结局主要包括:死亡15例(占4.90%),到医院复诊过至少1次的208例(占67.97%),未到医院复查的76例(占27.13%),家长拒绝承认孩子有出生缺陷的7例(占2.29%).结论 先天性心脏病仍然是影响婴儿死亡和健康的最主要的出生缺陷;应提高出生缺陷的筛查、诊断水平,明确出生缺陷诊断标准;加强医生与出生缺陷患儿家长的沟通.%Objective: To describe the outcome of children born with birth defects. Methods: Between July 2007 and September 2008, 306 live bom cases of birth defects were diagnosed and registered by the Beijing Birth Defects Monitoring network-a hospital based birth defects registry system. Their parents were called to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 6 - 8 months. Results: The major birth defects types were congenital heart defects, polydactyly, congenital malformations of ear excluding absence of ear, undescended testicle, hypospadias, the total proportions of all was 75. 16%. The proportions of all live born infants with birth defects , died at the end of the 6-8 months, having been to the hospital once at least, not having been to the hospital, not acknowledging the fact of infants' birth defects were 4. 90% , 67. 97% , 27. 13% , and 2. 29% respectively. Conclusions; Congenital heart disease make an important contribution to infant mortality and health. The level of screening and diagnosis of birth defects should be improved. The relationship of physician and parents of children bom with birth defects should

  13. Aurora B prevents chromosome arm separation defects by promoting telomere dispersion and disjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Céline; Serrurier, Céline; Gauthier, Tiphaine; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of centromeres and telomeres at mitosis is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent the formation of aneuploid cells, a phenotype frequently observed in cancer. Mitotic instability arises from chromosome segregation defects, giving rise to chromatin bridges at anaphase. Most of these defects are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of mitosis in a wide range of organisms. Here, we describe a new role for Aurora B in telomer...

  14. 陕西省2006-2010年出生缺陷医院监测结果分析%Analvsis of monitoring results for birth defects in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盘; 周晓娟; 甘露; 杨杨

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of birth defects in Shaanxi province, then to provide scientific evidences for the key of future work. [Methods] All perinatal infants aged from 28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth in 25 monitoring hospitals in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010 were monitored for birth defects. The data were entered by Excel 2003 and analyzed by SPSS 13. 0 software. [Results] The incidence of birth defects in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010 was 117. 8 per 10 000. There was an annual ascending tendency in incidence of birth defects(x2 =16. 81 ,P<0. 01). The first five main birth defects were total cleft lip,neural tube defects,congenital heart diseases,polydactyly, congenital hydrocephalus, respectively. The incidence of congenital heart diseases showed a year by year ascending trend(x2 =8. 58,Pbirth defects in rural areas was significantly higher than that in urban area(x2 =70. 72,P<0. 01). Single defects took up 83. 5%. There were 52. 2% cases diagnosed by ultrasound and 45. 9% cases diagnosed by clinical. The Prenatal diagnosis rate was 48. 1%. The perinatal mortality rate was 8. 3%o and showed a year by year descending trend(x2 =6. 91 ,P<0. 01). During the five years,the mortality among defective perinatal infants was significantly higher than that among non-defective perinatal infants, and the incidence of birth defects among dead perinatal infants was also significantly higher than the incidence of other cause of death. [Conclusions] The incidence of birth defect in Shaanxi province from 2006 to 2010 is lower than the nationwide contemporary level. Much attention should be paid to reduce the incidence of birth defects in rural areas, carr,y out the preventive work of neural tube defect and improve the prenatal diagnosis ability of all monitoring hospitals.%[目的]了解陕西省出生缺陷的发生水平及分布特征,为今后工

  15. A STUDY ON PREVAL E NCE OF BIRTH DEFECTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS IN FAKHRUDHIN ALI AH MED MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Congenital anomalies or Birth Defects are a global problem. It is the most common cause of disability in developed and developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the overall prevalence of clinically detectable congenital anomalies in newborns along with the different forms of congenital anomalies and associated risk factors if any over a period of one year. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: I t’s an observational analytical cross sectional type of study. Seven thousand seven hundred and ninety eight babies born during the period from 1 st Nov, 2013 to 31 st Oct, 2014 were analyzed. Details of cases were recorded after parent’s interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. RESULTS: In our study, we have found that out of the total no. of 7798 babies born during the said period, the total number of congenital anomalies found were 53 0.7%. Cleft lip and palate was the most common anomaly followed by clubfoot. System wise, congenital anomaly of the musculoskeletal system was the highest (45.3%. A male preponderance is seen with M:F = 4:3. Maximum number of anomalies was found in the 20 - 25 y rs of age group. Moreover, anomalies were found more in primi gravida. Various risk factors were associated in 9 numbers of cases out of 53. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of congenital anomaly was found to be 0.7% and therefore awareness about preventable risk f actors should be created and early prenatal diagnosis and management of anomalies is recommended.

  16. Analysis on monitoring results of 554 cases with birth defects%554例出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩练

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the prevalence, change trend and related factors of birth defects in liuyang city, provide a basis for making intervening measures. Methods; According to the requirements of brochure of birth defect monitoring of Chinese, the fetuses and infants whose mothers lived in 37 villages, towns and streets (including natives or those who had lived in Liuyang city for more than one year) were monitored from October first, 2006, the monitoring time was from 28 gestational weeks to 42 days after birth. Results; The incidence of birth defects was 108.70 per ten thousand, the incidence of birth defects in rural areas was 114. 28 per ten thousand, which was significantly higher than that in urban areas (64. 58 per ten thousand) (X2 = 11. 68, P < 0.01) . The mortality of perinatal infants was 7.93%0, the mortality of perinatal infants with birth defects was 3. 55%0, accounting for 44. 80% , birth defect was a main cause of perinatal death. The top five birth defects were accessory auricle, polydactyly, congenital heart disease, cleft lip with or without cleft palate and talipes equinovarus. Conclusion: Health education should be carried out widely among the population of childbearing age, supplement of folic acid should be popularized, health care before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy should be enhanced, the factors inducing birth defects should be avoided, consultation about prepotency, prenatal examination and prenatal diagnosis should be conducted, all the a-bove - mentioned measures are effective to reduce the occurrence of birth defects.%目的:了解浏阳市出生缺陷的发生状况、变化趋势及相关因素,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法:按照《中国人群出生缺陷监测手册》要求,从2006年10月1日起对居住在浏阳市37个乡、镇、街道产妇(包括本地户口及非本地户口在浏阳市居住1年以上的产妇)的胎婴儿进行人群监测,监测期限为孕满28周~产后42天

  17. Prevention of visual field defects after macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinane, A B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND\\/AIM: The pathogenesis of visual field loss associated with macular hole surgery is uncertain but a number of explanations have been proposed, the most convincing of which is the effect of peeling of the posterior hyaloid, causing either direct damage to the nerve fibre layer or to its blood supply at the optic nerve head. The purpose of this preliminary prospective study was to determine the incidence of visual field defects following macular hole surgery in cases in which peeling of the posterior hyaloid was confined only to the area of the macula. METHODS: 102 consecutive eyes that had macular hole surgery had preoperative and postoperative visual field examination using a Humphrey\\'s perimeter. A comparison was made between two groups: I, those treated with vitrectomy with complete posterior cortical vitreous peeling; and II, those treated with a vitrectomy with peeling of the posterior hyaloid in the area of the macula but without attempting a complete posterior vitreous detachment. Specifically, no attempt was made to separate the posterior hyaloid from the optic nerve head. Eyes with stage II or III macular holes were operated. Autologous platelet concentrate and non-expansile gas tamponade was used. Patients were postured prone for 1 week. RESULTS: In group I, 22% of patients were found to have visual field defects. In group II, it was possible to separate the posterior hyaloid from the macula without stripping it from the optic nerve head and in these eyes no pattern of postoperative visual field loss emerged. There were no significant vision threatening complications in this group. The difference in the incidence of visual field loss between group I and group II was significant (p=0.02). The anatomical and visual success rates were comparable between both groups. CONCLUSION: The results from this preliminary study suggest that the complication of visual field loss after macular surgery may be reduced if peeling of the posterior hyaloid is

  18. Analysis of the report of perinatal birth defects monitoring in fengtai district of beijing from 2006 to 2010%北京市丰台区2006-2010年出生缺陷监测数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 张静; 房春玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: By understanding the incidence of perinatal birth defect in Fengtai district of Beijing, in order to explore the influencing factors and develop interventions to reduce the incidence of birth defect. Methods; The data of perinatal birth defects from 2006 to 2010 were gathered from monitoring hospitals in Fengtai district. Results: The incidence of birth defect in Fengtai district was 110.5/10000 and there was a upward trend during 5 years. The perinatal birth defects stood on the first 3 rank of incidence list followed by Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of auricle, Congenital heart defects. There were certain correlation among birth defects, the mother's residence geography, gestational age, birth weight, gestational age of birth. Conclusion: It is valuable to reduce the incidence by a well - planned birth defects monitoring and preventive health care program.%目的 分析丰台区出生缺陷的发生情况及相关因素,探索降低出生缺陷发生的干预措施.方法 对2006~2010年北京市丰台区出生缺陷监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2006~2010年出生缺陷总发生率为110.5/万,各年的出生缺陷发生率呈上升趋势;按照出生缺陷病种分类,位于前3位的为多指(趾)、外耳畸形、先天性心脏病;男婴与女婴出生缺陷发生率比较具有显著性差异;母亲户籍、分娩年龄、婴儿出生体重、孕周等是出生缺陷发生的影响因素.结论 做好出生缺陷监测工作,加强出生缺陷三级预防,是降低出生缺陷发生的必要措施.

  19. Risk factors of birth defects in China:a Meta analysis%我国出生缺陷影响因素的M eta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万素馨; 罗亚玲; 周天津

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the main risk factors related to birth defects to provide the scientific basis for making the best prevention policy and implementing the effective interventions .Methods Totally 21 domestic research articles on the risk fac‐tors of birth defects were comprehensively analyzed by the meta analysis method ,including accumulated 6 112 patients and 15 741 control cases .The articles were screened preliminarily according to inclusion and exclusion standard ,and then the fixed and random effects model were selected according to the homogeneity test .The merged results were performed the chi‐square test .Results The main merged results OR values of single‐factor‐analysis were as follows:the family history of birth defects 36 .22 ,early pregnant in‐fectious disease 5 .62 ,early pregnancy exposure to chemicals 4 .19 ,paternal smoking 3 .89 ,contact sedatives during pregnancy 3 .19 , pregnancy complication 2 .94 ,high protein food during pregnancy 0 .37 ;the main merged results OR values of multiple‐factor‐analy‐sis were as follows :early pregnancy infectious disease 7 .65 ,poor prenatal mental state 5 .44 ,early pregnancy fever 4 .70 ,early preg‐nancy exposure to toxic chemical 3 .90 ,history of abortion 3 .59 ,supplement of multivitamin during pregnancy 0 .45 .Conclusion The main risk factors of birth defects in our country are family history of birth defects ,early pregnancy infectious disease ,early pregnancy exposure to chemicals ,paternal smoking and pregnancy complication;the protective factors are eating more high protein food during pregnancy ,supplement of multivitamin during pregnancy and taking folic acid during pregnancy .%目的:探讨影响我国出生缺陷发生的主要危险因素,为制定最佳预防控制决策、实行有效的干预措施提供科学依据。方法利用M eta分析方法综合分析国内关于出生缺陷发病危险因素的研究文献21篇,累计病例6112例,对照15741例。据纳

  20. [Neural tube defects and folic acid: a historical overview of a highly successful preventive intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Adriana Ordoñez; Suarez-Obando, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This article gives a broad overview of part of the historical evolution of medical knowledge about neural tube defects (NTD) and the discovery of vitamin B9 or folic acid, as well as some relevant research events that, over the course of several centuries, defined the relationships between the understanding of central nervous system embryology, the discovery of the vitamin, the correlation between folic acid and cell proliferation and lastly the development of preventive measures for this type of defects. This narrative allows us to examine historically relevant concepts underlying clinical actions with a populational impact that prevent NTDs via folic acid consumption prior to conception.

  1. Invited Commentary: Preventing Neural Tube Defects and More via Food Fortification?

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, James L.; Carter, Tonia C.

    2008-01-01

    Many neural tube defects can be prevented if women take folic acid around the time of conception. However, the majority of women do not take folic acid at the critical time, so the US government required that food be fortified with folic acid effective January 1, 1998. Whether the amount being added was sufficient to prevent all folate-related neural tube defects has been hotly debated. Mosley et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2008;169(1):9–17) found no evidence that folic acid supplement use or dietar...

  2. Analysis of influencing factors of birth defect based on health education%基于健康教育的出生缺陷影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月芬; 李佳樾

    2012-01-01

    Teratogenic factors are closely related with living environment and human production and life, but are ignored easily. Therefore, the key link of reducing birth defect is to highlight public awareness effectively. This article indicated potential high-risk teratogenic factors in people' s life from the point of view of physics and chemistry so as to strengthen the concept of mass prevention and treatment and improve the effectiveness of preventing birth defects.%致畸因子与生存环境息息相关,其与人类生产生活密不可分,但却易被忽视.因此,降低出生缺陷至关重要的环节是有效地提高防范意识.该文从物理、化学等角度指出人们生活中潜在的高危致畸因素,强化群防群治理念,提高防范出生缺陷的效力.

  3. 出生缺陷儿母亲心理健康状况调查研究%An investigation on psychological status of maternal of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄广文; 杜其云; 刘智昱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the psychological status of mother of birth defects so as to explore effective intervention strategy. Methods 595 maternal of birth defects and 1 249 maternal of no birth defects were included in the case-control study. General data questionnaire and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were filled out by mother with or without birth defects. Results Scores of Somatization, Obsessive Symptom, Personal relations, Depression, Anxiety, Hostility, Terror, Paranoid ideal, Psychoticism of SCL-90 factors of mother of birth defects were significantly higher than that of mother without birth defects (both P0.05), scores of Terror factor among different age of mother of birth defects was significantly different (P0.05). Conclusions The psychological status of mother of birth defects are at low-level, we should pay more attention to interview with mother of birth defects.%目的 探讨出生缺陷儿母亲心理健康状况,为制定干预措施提供依据.方法 采用一般情况调查问卷及症状自评量表(SCL-90)对595例出生缺陷儿母亲及1 249例出生正常儿母亲进行调查评定.结果 SCL-90的9个因子中,出生缺陷儿母亲躯体化、强迫症状、人际关系、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、精神病性因子分均明显高于出生正常儿母亲(均有P<0.01).出生缺陷儿母亲不同受教育程度之间SCL-90因子分比较差异均有统计学意义(均有P<0.05);不同职业之间SCL-90因子分比较,差异无统计学意义(均有P>0.05);不同年龄段之间SCL-90恐怖因子分比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).城镇与农村出生缺陷儿母亲SCL-90因子分比较,差异无统计学意义(均有P>0.05).结论 出生缺陷儿母亲心理健康水平低,应加强出生缺陷儿母亲心理干预.

  4. Phocomelia: a worldwide descriptive epidemiologic study in a large series of cases from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D; Canfield, Mark A; Castilla, Eduardo E; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2011-11-15

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes.

  5. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  6. 武汉地区1137例独生子女病残儿出生缺陷病种分析%Analize the disease of birth defect in 1137 cases of the one-child in wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占丽娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过近l0年来武汉市独生子女病残儿鉴定出生缺陷情况分析,探讨减少出生缺陷疾病再发生的防治措施.方法 武汉市辖区中申请病残儿鉴定的独生子女,资料进行审查和分析,经现场体检及相关的辅助检查,专家对疾病作出鉴定结论并进行归类.结果 诊断为出生缺陷441例,占38.78%.其中遗传性疾病34种346例(78.45%),非遗传性疾病27种95例(21.06%),以神经系统为主.结论 出生缺陷涉及病种多,病因复杂,应根据不同原因引起的出生缺陷,寻找对应的防治措施.%Objective: To discuss the preventive treatment of reducing the birth defect by analizing the information of the disablement child of the one-child in the recent ten years. Methods: Analize and reviewed the information of the disablement child of the one-child , and classified them by the medical examination and the relevant supplementary examination. Results: There were 441 cases of birth defects in the 1137 cases of the one-child, which were accounts for 38. 78%. In those the hereditary diseases were 346 caess (78.45% ), which the diseases species were 34. And inhereditary diseases were 27, which mained in the nervous system. Conclusion: The diseases species is many as the causes is complicated in birth defects. Looking for the preventive and treat measures should according to different causes of birth defects,

  7. Rational Reflections about Euthanasia of Newborn with Birth Defect%对缺陷新生儿安乐死问题的理性思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is semi-open and hidden euthanasia of newborn with birth defects. Due to great family burden, social tolerance and the incomplete relevant legislation of birth defect, this phenomenon has existed for a long time. In order to avoid abuse, disordered and protect the interests of non-serious defects newborn, this article suggests that it should develop regulations as an important component of the birth defect intervention legislation.%分析目前我国存在着的半公开的、隐蔽的缺陷新生儿安乐死行为,因家庭负担、社会宽容态度和相关法律不完善致使该现象长期存在.当务之急是制定缺陷新生儿处置法规并将其作为整个出生缺陷干预立法的重要组成部分,以此来避免缺陷新生儿安乐死行为的滥用和无序,保障成千上万非严重缺陷新生儿的生命权益.

  8. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  9. A rapid evolution mechanism may contribute to changes in sex ratio, multiple birth incidence, frequency of auto-immune disease and frequency of birth defects in Clomid conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K

    1990-01-01

    Under conditions favourable to the horizontal transmission of genetic material, a clomiphene isomer is hypothesized to encourage an alternate ovulatory route, with consequence for the sex ratio, multiple birth incidence, incidence of auto-immune disease, and frequency of malformations.

  10. 三峡库区1386例出生缺陷鉴定结果分析%Analysis on the results of birth defects identification in 1386 cases in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明福; 李川海; 杨皓; 付新云; 李家菊; 崔蓉; 李练兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide a scientific basis for pregestational eugenics, genetic counseling, prevention, and reducing the recurrent risk of birth defects by understanding and grasping the current situations of birth defects and genetics, types, pathogenesis, and areal distribution in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Methods: The research objects received physical examination on the spot, assistant examination was performed; birth defects of the cases were identified and diagnosed definitely. Results; A total of 5 462 cases were identified, 75 kinds of birth defects were diagnosed definitely in 1 386 cases, the incidence of birth defects was 25. 38%. Among the cases with birth defects, 378 cases were found with monogenic inheritable diseases (38 kinds) , accounting for 27. 27% ; 146 cases were found with autosomal dominant inheritable diseases (18 kinds) , accounting for 10." 53% ; 130 cases were found with autosomal recessive dominant inheritable diseases (14 kinds) , accounting for 9. 38% ; 44 cases were found with X-linked dominant inheritable diseases (3 kinds) , accounting for 3. 17% ; 58 cases were found with X — linked recessive inheritable diseases (3 kinds) , accounting for 4. 18%. A total of 20 kinds of poly-genic inheritable diseases were diagnosed in 856 cases, accounting for 61. 76% of the total incidence. A total of 87 cases were found with chromosomal inheritance diseases (4 kinds) , accounting for 6. 28% of the total incidence. A total of 65 cases with other birth defects were found, accounting for 4. 69% of the total incidence. Conclusion: Many types of diseases were involved into birth defects in Three Gorges Reservoir Area; in order to prevent birth defects and reduce the incidences of birth defects, pregestational eugenics and health education, genetic counseling should be carried out actively, pregestational examination, prenatal screening and diagnosis should be strengthened.%目的:通过了解和掌握重庆所属三峡库区区县的出生缺陷

  11. Impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on HIV prevention practices among traditional birth attendants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-02-10

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.

  12. 开封市出生缺陷影响因素病例对照研究%Case-control study on influencing factors of perinatal birth defects in Kaifeng city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 潘新娟; 余增丽

    2013-01-01

    ) environment pollution sources near residence (OR= 10. 23) were the risk factors of birth defects. [Conclusion] The habit of smoking and drinking,the history of mother exposure to teratogenic factors,medication during pregnancy,exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy,environment pollution sources near residence are the main risk factors of birth defects. Primary prevention to the causes is important to reduce birth defects.

  13. Analysis of perinatal birth defects monitoring results in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008%甘肃省2001年~2008年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀琴; 郭瑛泉; 张玲; 廖丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the trend of birth defects incidence, species and changes in Gansu province, in order to provide evidence for preventive measure.Methods: According to Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Program and Maternal and child health surveillance program in Gansu Province, to monitor perinatal birth in 43 hospitals in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008.Results:( 1 ) In 8 years, the birth defects average incidence is 11.043 per thousand, its trend began go up in 2004, but there is no statistical difference between every years.(2) And the birth defects average incidence no statistical difference between boys and girls ( P >0.05 ); The pregnant motheres age distribution characterized with "two side high and middle low", the lowest incidence (5.9 -9.7 per thousand ) is at 25 - 29 years age group, higher in country than in city ( P < 0.05 ).( 3 ) In 8 years, most common birth defects were neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip, talipes equinovarus, limb shorten, polydactyly and congenital heart disease.Neural tube defects and congenital hydrocephalus were always in first there birth defects in Gansu province.Conclusion: Neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip are high incidence in all birth defects, which are result of genetic or environmental factors, or interaction of both.Prevention is preior to therapy.Aiming at high detection rate of birth defects, to establish effective administrative intervention and medical care meature.%目的 探讨甘肃省出生缺陷的发生率、种类及变化趋势,为预防措施的制定提供依据.方法 按<中国出生缺陷监测方案>及<甘肃省妇幼卫生监测方案>,对甘肃省2001年~2008年间在43家监测医院住院分娩的围产儿进行监测.结果 (1)8年间的出生缺陷发生率平均为110.43/万,2004年起有明显上升趋势,各年份间出生缺陷发生率无显著的统计学差异.(2)胎儿性别间出生缺陷发生率

  14. 2008-2010年围产期出生缺陷分析%2008-2010 years perinatal birth defect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景丽丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective: in order to know the QingShanOu incidence of birth defects, this paper discusses the related factors birth defects happen for formulating and take measures to provide the basis. Methods: according to the national birth defects monitoring scheme, at the request of (2008-2010) on October 1, 2007-October 31, 2010 QingShanOu 5 home delivery hospital inpatient delivery at full and thoughtful within 7 days after perinatal infants dead for monitoring. Results: three years were monitoring perinatal infants dead 11 850 cases, birth defects in 104 cases, de- fect rate of 8.8%, which was born in 2008 to 3.6 per 2009, defects in 10.1%~, in 2010 to 13.2 per thousand. Birth defects increasing year by year, the top five birth defects is as follows: (1) the outer ear malformation; (2) by and means; Cleft palate (3); (4) foot deformity; (5) head facial deformity. Mother from air pollution in the area close to significantly higher than the far from air pollution area, mother of low degree of culture birth defects son is obviously higher than that of the culture degree is high. The occurrence of the birth defects and gender no phase relationship. Conclusion: to widely develop health education, general knowledge level of eugenic and superior nurture, strengthen the examination before marriage, prenatal care and prenatal diagnosis work.%目的:了解青山区出生缺陷发生率,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定和采取预防干预措施提供依据。方法:按照全国出生缺陷监测方案的要求,对(2008-2010年)2007年10月1日-2010年10月31日青山区5家分娩医院住院分娩的孕满28周到产后7天内围产儿进行监测。结果:3年共监测围产儿11850例,出生缺陷儿104例,缺陷发生率为8.8%,其中2008年出生缺陷率为3.6%。、2009年为10.1%。、2010年为13.2%。。出生缺陷呈逐年上升趋势,前5位出生缺陷依次为:①外耳畸

  15. 2007-2014年潍坊市寒亭区围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in Hanting District of Weifang city from 2007 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 张毅; 郭文星; 王立洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in Hanting District of Weifang city,put forward suggestions for prevention of birth defects in the region.Methods The monitoring data of perinatal birth defects from January 1 st,2007 to December 31st,2014 were researched,SPSS software was used for statistical analysis.Results From 2007 to 2014,there were 29 142 perinatal infants in the region,113 infants were diagnosed as birth defects,the average incidence rate of birth defects was 3.88‰.The top five types of birth defects were polydactylism,total cleft lip and palate,congenital heart disease,deformity,and hydrocephalus.Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects in Hanting District of Weifang city in recent years showed a decreasing trend,corresponding intervention measures should be taken according to the change of rank of birth defects.%目的 分析潍坊市寒亭区出生缺陷的监测结果,有针对性地对该地区出生缺陷的预防提出建议.方法 研究2007年1月1日-2014年12月31日所有妊娠从28周到产后7d的围产儿的出生缺陷监测资料,用SPSS软件对围产儿出生缺陷医院监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2007-2014年该地区共有围产儿29 142例,出生缺陷113例,出生缺陷的平均发生率为3.88‰,前5位出生缺陷类型依次为多指(趾),总唇腭裂,先天性心脏病,总畸形和脑积水.结论 潍坊市寒亭区近几年出生缺陷的发生率总体呈下降趋势,应针对出生缺陷顺位统计的变化采取有针对性的干预措施.

  16. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  17. Sirenomelia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORIOLI, IÊDA M.; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; ARTEAGA-VAZQUEZ, JAZMIN; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BOTTO, LORENZO D.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; CORREA, ADOLFO; CSAKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LÓPEZ-CAMELO, JORGE S.; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.

    2015-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and were reported according to a single pre-established protocol. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally. A total of 249 cases with sirenomelia were identified among 25,290,172 births, for a prevalence of 0.98 per 100,000, with higher prevalence in the Mexican registry. An increase of sirenomelia prevalence with maternal age less than 20 years was statistically significant. The proportion of twinning was 9%, higher than the 1% expected. Sex was ambiguous in 47% of cases, and no different from expectation in the rest. The proportion of cases born alive, premature, and weighting less than 2,500 g were 47%, 71.2%, and 88.2%, respectively. Half of the cases with sirenomelia also presented with genital, large bowel, and urinary defects. About 10–15% of the cases had lower spinal column defects, single or anomalous umbilical artery, upper limb, cardiac, and central nervous system defects. There was a greater than expected association of sirenomelia with other very rare defects such as bladder exstrophy, cyclopia/holoprosencephaly, and acardia-acephalus. The application of the new biological network analysis approach, including molecular results, to these associated very rare diseases is suggested for future studies. PMID:22002878

  18. Monitoring analysis of birth defects from 2009 to 2010 in Guangzhou%广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹兴文; 王平; 杨丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷发生率、发生类型、转归及影响因素.方法 收集并分析广州市全部148家医院在2009至2010年期间分娩儿出生缺陷监测资料.结果 共监测352 084例围产儿,发生出生缺陷5 724例,出生缺陷发生率162.6/万,前五位缺陷类型依次是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇腭裂、马蹄内翻足和外耳其他畸形.男性围产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于女性(177.74/万 vs 144.66/万,P<0.05),早产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于足月儿(756.40/万 vs 122.19/万,P<0.05),孕母年龄越大,发生出生缺陷的风险越高(P<0.05).严重出生缺陷的治疗性引产率超过60%.结论 广州市出生缺陷发生率偏高,应重视对男婴、早产儿的先天畸形检查,加强对高龄孕妇的管理.提高产前确诊率和致死性畸形的治疗性引产率.%Objective To explore the incidence, type, outcomes and influencing factors of birth defects in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2010. Methods The data of birth defects during this period from all of 148 hospitals in Guangzhou was collected and analyzed. Results Among 352 084 perinatal infants monitored, 5724 cases were detected with birth defects with incidence of 162. 6 per ten thousand. The first five birth defects were congenital heart disease, polydactylia, total cheiloschisis/palatoschisis, congenital talipes equino varus and deformity of external ear in order. The incidence of birth defects in boys was higher than that in girls (177. 74/ten thousand vs 144. 66/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ), and it was higher in premature infants than term infants ( 756. 40/ten thousand vs 122. 19/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ). The older the pregnant women were, the greater the risk of birth defects was. The rate of therapeutic termination of severe birth defects was more than 60%. Conclusion The incidence of birth defects is slightly high in Guangzhou. Attention should be paid to malformation examination on male infants and

  19. Consequences of gestational malaria on birth weight: finding the best timeframe for intermittent preventive treatment administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich-Tram Huynh

    Full Text Available To investigate the consequences of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp timing on birth weight, we pooled data from two studies conducted in Benin between 2005 and 2010: a prospective cohort of 1037 pregnant women and a randomised trial comparing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to mefloquine in 1601 women. A total of 1439 women (752 in the cohort and 687 in the SP arm of the randomised trial who delivered live singletons were analysed. We showed that an early intake of the first SP dose (4 months of gestation was associated with a lower risk of LBW compared to a late intake (6-7 months of gestation (aOR = 0.5 p = 0.01. We also found a borderline increased risk of placental infection when the first SP dose was administered early in pregnancy (aOR = 1.7 p = 0.1. This study is the first to investigate the timing of SP administration during pregnancy. We clearly demonstrated that women who had an early intake of the first SP dose were less at risk of LBW compared to those who had a late intake. Pregnant women should be encouraged to attend antenatal visits early to get their first SP dose and a third dose of SP could be recommended to cover the whole duration of pregnancy and to avoid late infections of the placenta.

  20. Adjunctive Therapies to Cerclage for the Prevention of Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. DeFranco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough summary of published studies that have assessed the efficacy of adjunctive therapies used in addition to cervical cerclage as a preventive measure for preterm birth. We limited our paper to patients treated with cerclage plus an additional prophylactic therapy compared to a reference group of women with cerclage alone. The specific adjunctive therapies included in this systematic review are progesterone, reinforcing or second cerclage placement, tocolytics, antibiotics, bedrest, and pessary. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases without date criteria with restriction to English language and human studies and performed additional bibliographic review of selected articles and identified 305 total studies for review. Of those, only 12 studies compared the use of an adjunctive therapy with cerclage to a reference group of cerclage alone. None of the 12 were prospective randomized clinical trials. No comparative studies were identified addressing the issues of antibiotics, bedrest, or pessary as adjunctive treatments to cerclage. None of the 12 studies included in this paper demonstrated a clear benefit of any adjunctive therapy used in addition to cerclage over and above cerclage used alone; however, few studies with small numbers limited the strength of the conclusions.

  1. Optimal serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age for prevention of neural tube defects: World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Amy M; Crider, Krista S; Rogers, Lisa M; Cannon, Michael J; Berry, R J

    2015-04-24

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that occur during the first month of pregnancy when the neural tube fails to close completely. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have shown that adequate daily consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy considerably reduces the risk for NTDs. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily for NTD prevention. Furthermore, fortification of staple foods (e.g., wheat flour) with folic acid has decreased folate-sensitive NTD prevalence in multiple settings and is a highly cost-effective intervention.

  2. Analysis of the trend in prevalence of birth defects in Guangxi from 2001 to 2010%2001-2010年广西壮族自治区围生儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾萼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of birth defects and its variation from 2001 to 2010 in Guangxi.Methods According to national birth defect monitoring program,all perinatal infants in the birth defects monitoring hospitals in Guangxi from 2001 to 2010 were investigated and statistically analyzed for prevalenee of birth defects( per ten thousand),incidence rates of major birth defects,category and correlating factors.Results In recent 10 years,540 449 perinatal infants were monitored.And 10 897 cases of birth defects were identified with a prevalence rate of 201.63 per ten thousand.The main deformities were fetal edema syndrome,polydactyly,congenital heart disease,cleft lip and external ear malformation.The prevalence of birth defects among boys in the period of 2001-2010was significantly higher than that among girls and that in rural areas was significantly higher than that in the urban areas,and the differences were significant ( x2 =43.71,4.04 respectively,both P < 0.05 ).The prevalence rate of birth defects in 35 ~ age group was the highest and it was significantly higher than that in the < 20 age group,~ 25 age group,25 age group and 30 ~ age group ( x2 =9.17,41.33,58.77,29.10 respectively,all P < 0.05 ).There was an ascending tendencyin prevalence rate of birth defects in the period of 2001 and 2005,and there was a descending tendency in the period of 2005 and 2010.Conclusion Strengthening tertiary prevention measures,and improving skills of the medical wokers for prenatal diagnosis were effective measures to reduce the prevalence of birth defects.%目的 分析广西壮族自治区2001-2010年围生儿出生缺陷特征及变化趋势.方法 按照国家出生缺陷监测方案,对2001-2010年广西壮族自治区围生儿出生缺陷监测医院的围生儿进行出生缺陷监测,统计分析出生缺陷的发生率、类别和相关因素.结果 10年共监测围生儿540 449例,其中出生缺陷儿10 897例,发生率为201.63/万.出

  3. Rapid-prenatal diagnosis through fluorescence in situ hybridization for preventing aneuploidy related birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Fauzdar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Rapid FISH is a reliable and prompt method for detecting numerical chromosomal aberrations and has now been implemented as a routine diagnostic procedure for detection of fetal aneuploidy in India.

  4. 2003-2010年南宁市婚前保健与出生缺陷发生状况分析%Premarital Health Care and Birth Defects Situation in Nanning,2003-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 龚祖康; 覃颛; 李芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the pre - marital medical examination ( PME) and birth defects situation in Nanning, improve the quality of the newbom population, and provide the theoretical evidence for formulating birth defect preventive measure scientifically. Methods The PME and birth defects situation in Nanning from 2003 to 2010 was analyzed. Results The PME rate in 2002 was 70. 66%. From 2003 to 2010, totally 1 087 060 people registrated marriage, 167 931 people had accepted PME, the average rate of PME was 15.45% ;during 2004 - 2008 the PME rate maintains between 2% to 3. 37%. Free PME was conducted since June,2009, with the PME rate of 14. 73% , and by 2010, the PME rate reached 65. 70% . The detected prevalence rate was 15. 70% . There were totaUy 10 437 birth defects during 2003 - 2010, the incidence rate was 16. 24 ‰, in which fetal edema syndrome ( thalassemia children) ranked frist Birth defects rate in 2002 was 14.73‰, and in 2010 was 18. 72‰. Conclusion The PME rate in Nanning during 2003 - 2008 was low, which increased after implementation of free PME. PME has the positive sense to reduce the birth defects rate.%目的 分析南宁市婚前医学检查(婚检)与出生缺陷发生状况,提高出生人口素质,为科学制定出生缺陷预防措施提供理论依据.方法 对2003-2010年南宁市婚检与出生缺陷发生状况进行分析.结果 2002年婚检率为70.66%.2003-2010年南宁市结婚登记人数1087 060人,婚检人数167 931人,平均婚检率15.45%;2004-2008年婚检率持续在2%~3.37%,2009-06起实施免费婚检,婚检率14.73%,2010年婚检率达65.70%.检出患病率15.70%.2003-2010年出生缺陷儿共10 437人,发生率16.24 ‰,胎儿水肿综合症(地贫儿)排列出生缺陷第1位,2002年出生缺陷为14.73‰,2010年出生缺陷率18.72‰.结论 2003-2008年南宁市婚检率较低,免费婚检后高婚检率上升,婚检对降低出生缺陷有积极意义.

  5. Effect of closure of the mesenteric defect during laparoscopic gastric bypass and prevention of internal hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Danshøj; Naver, Lars; Jess, Per

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of closing the mesenteric defects during gastric bypass to avoid internal herniation (IH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is performed as a single-centre, randomised, controlled, blinded trial. Patients are randomly...... is the incidence of IH. CONCLUSION: This study will be the first Danish, randomised, controlled study comparing conventional LRYGB with and without closure of the mesenteric defects. The results will contribute to evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of IH. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  6. Birth defects in Shandong, China, 2007-2010%山东省2007-2010年人群出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凤荣; 张蓬; 范媛媛; 陈志欣; 郝宝珍

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解山东省人群出生缺陷发生情况,为今后监测工作的管理重点和制定出生缺陷预防措施提供依据.方法 对2007——2010年山东省人群出生缺陷监测的数据进行率及顺位等分析.应用Visual FoxPro 6.0建立数据库,采用SPSS 15.0软件进行数据分析.结果 2007——2010年人群出生缺陷发生率分别为107.44/万、82.86/万、141.29/万和124.64/万,年度间人群出生缺陷发生率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);人群出生缺陷发生率顺位从高到低依次为先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇裂、脑积水、神经管缺陷、肢体短缩等.结论 山东省人群出生缺陷发生率在逐年上升,男性高于女性;出生缺陷先天性心脏病居首位,有逐年上升趋势.%Objective To analyze the occurrence of birth defects based on clinical outcomes of new born babies in Shandong province and provide scientific basis for early diagnosis and intervention. Methods The records of birth defects were collected for the year of 2007-2010. Visual FoxPro6. 0 was applied to set up a database and SPSS15. 0 was used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence rates of birth defects were 107. 44, 82. 86, 141. 29 and 124. 64 per ten thousand newborns for the year of 2007-2010, repectively. The highest prevalence rate of birth defect was congenital heart disease (41. 06/10 000), followed by polydactyly (11. 41/10 0000), total cleftlip (11. 26/10 000), hydro-cephalus (8. 41/10 000) , neural tube defects (6. 84/10 000), limb reduction (3. 99/10 000) , and etc. There was higher frequency of birth defects in male babies (125. 68/10 000) than in female babies (98. 63/10 000). Conclusion Congenital heart disease is the most important birth defect. Maternal exam should include birth defect screening.

  7. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quad screen tests the levels of 4 proteins AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), hCG, estriol, and inhibin-A. Generally, ... of the proteins for which an amniocentesis tests. AFP AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein, a protein the ...

  8. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help relax muscle spasms, including: Diazepam (Valium®), baclofen (Lioresal®), dantrolene (Dantrium®) and tizanidine (Zanaflex®). Your child takes these by mouth. Baclofen, a medicine that your child gets through a ...

  9. Research Progress on Progestins Treatment for the Prevention of Spontaneous Preterm Birth%孕激素在自发性早产防治中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别亚男

    2012-01-01

    在中国,妊娠满28周至不足37周间分娩称为早产,分为自发性早产和治疗性早产两种.早产是导致新生儿致病及死亡的主要原因,即使存活亦常有神经智力发育缺陷.目前动物实验、体外实验及大样本随机对照试验证明,孕激素治疗(包括孕酮及人工合成孕激素)能减少早产风险.孕酮通过维持子宫静止状态和抑制宫颈成熟预防早产,维持妊娠.综述孕激素在自发性早产高危患者中的防治作用及其使用安全性.%Preterm birth is defined as birth between 28 and 37 completed weeks of gestation in China, and classified as either indicated preterm birth or spontaneous preterm birth. Preterm birth causes the major determinant of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and the long -term results of preterm birth often lead to neural and mental developmental defects. There is experimental support from animal and in vitro studies, and also empirical evidence from large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, that treatment with progestins (includes natural progesterone and its analogues) may reduce the risk of preterm birth. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by maintaining uterine quiescence and inhibiting cervical riping. This article reviews the use of progestins in women with high-risk factors for the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth and the safety of progestins supplementation in pregnancy.

  10. Surveillance of birth defects: Brazil and the US Vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas: Brasil e Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of birth defects in the society have substantially increased over the last decades in countries where the reduction of infant mortality by other causes has occurred. Birth defects surveillance represents an important source of information for planning X health policies and resource allocation. In this article, we discuss the potential utilizations, methodology options, limitations, and policy issues related to birth defects surveillance. Also, the birth defects surveillance programs from US and Brazil are described and compared as an illustration of the development of surveillance systems in two countries with clearly dissimilar health systems and resource allocation for birth defects programs. Finally, we propose measures for the improvement of the existing systems in both countries focusing at the utilization of preexisting resources.O impacto das anomalias congênitas na sociedade vem aumentando substancialmente nas últimas décadas nos países onde ocorreu a diminuição da mortalidade infantil por outras causas. A vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas representa uma importante fonte de informação para o planejamento de políticas de saúde e alocação de recursos. Neste artigo, os potenciais usos, opções de metodologia, limitações e questões de políticas de saúde relacionadas à vigilância epidemiológica em anomalias congênitas são abordados. Além disso, os programas dos Estados Unidos e Brasil são descritos e comparados para ilustrar sistemas em dois países com sistemas de saúde e alocação de recursos para as anomalias congênitas claramente diferentes. Finalmente, apresentamos propostas de medidas para melhorar os sistemas existentes em ambos os países, focalizando na utilização de recursos pré-existentes.

  11. Effect of cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin on repairing large segmental bone defects and preventing infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪波; 陈安民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of repairing long segmental bone defects and preventing infection with cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin (C-BMG). Methods: C-BMG was made from putting cefazolin into BMG by vacuum absorption and lyophilization techniques. The sustaining period of effective drug concentration in vitro and in vivo was detected. The time of inhibiting bacteria, and the drug concentration in local tissues ( bone and muscle) and plasma after implantation of C-BMG were examined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The effective inhibition time to staphylococcus aureus of C-BMG was 22 days in vitro; while 14 days in vivo. The cefazolin concentration in local tissues was higher in early stage, and later it kept a stable and low drug release. C-BMG showed an excellent ability to repair segmental long bone defects.Conclusions: C-BMG can gradually release cefazolin with effective drug concentration and has excellent ability to repair segmental bone defects. It can be used to repair segmental long bone defects and prevent infection after operation.

  12. Case-control study on physiological related factors on birth defects%生理相关因素对出生缺陷影响的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香丽; 雷方良; 屈鹏飞; 李姗姗; 党少农

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the physiological related factors of birth defects .Methods A hospital based 1:2 matched case-control study was conducted among 147 cases of birth defects diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi ’ an Jiaotong University during the period of April 2009 to December 2013.Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were carried out to analyze the general condition, history of fertility, abnormal symptoms and disease during pregnancy .Results Univariate analysis results showed that advanced maternal age, frequent pregnancy, frequent spontaneous abortion, severe morning sickness, sickness history before and during pregnancy were the risk factors of birth defects .Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that severe morning sickness ( OR=2.197,95%CI:1.634-2.954), sickness before pregnancy (OR=2.089,95%CI:1.037-4.206) and during pregnancy (OR=1.562,95%CI:1.021-2.390 ) were the risk factors of birth defects .Conclusion Prenatal and perinatal health education should be strengthened .Great importance should be attached to prevent severe morning sickness and to carry out education and thorough treatment .The couples before marriage and pregnancy should be advocated to have physical examinations .Pregnancy care instruction should be provided aiming at different physical conditions of pregnant women , so as to effectively reduce the occurrence of birth defects and improve the birth quality .%目的:探讨出生缺陷的生理相关危险因素。方法收集2009年4月至2013年12月在西安交通大学第一附属医院诊断为出生缺陷的患儿147例,以医院为基础的1:2匹配病例对照研究,对产妇的一般情况、既往生育史、孕期异常状况及患病情况等资料,使用单因素分析和多因素条件Logistic回归进行比较分析。结果经单因素分析显示,高龄产妇、怀孕次数多、自然流产次数多、早孕反应严重、孕前和孕期有疾病史均为出生缺

  13. Study of incidence and influencing factors of birth defect among perinatal infants in Tianhe District, Guangzhou%广州市天河区出生缺陷相关因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绚; 赵晓骁; 陈温容

    2014-01-01

    .839, P =0.002 ) , mother congenital history ( OR =2.124, 95%CI:1.243 ~3.629, P =0.006), history of pregnancy birth defects children (OR=3.893,95%CI:2.319~6.535,P<0.001) were risk factors for birth defects;regular intake of quality protein during pregnancy ( OR=0.874,95%CI:0.768~0.994, P=0.040) was a protective factor for birth defects .Conclusion:Reduction and control of major risk factors during pregnancy is an important part of the prevention of birth defects .

  14. Primary prevention of neural tube defects: data from the portuguese national registry of congenital anomalies (RENAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Braz, Paula; Machado, Ausenda; Matias Dias, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Portugal folic acid supplementation is recommended to start at least 2-3 months before conception for primary prevention of Neural Tube Defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate, within gestations with at least one congenital anomaly, possible association between maternal socio-demographic factors and the use of folic acid. Methods: Using data from the Portuguese national registry of congenital anomalies, for the 2004-2013 period, the association between folic acid use dur...

  15. 新疆多民族地区出生缺陷分析%Analysis of birth defects in Xinjiang multi-ethnic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱若筠; 刘红; 钟南; 王瑞; 邹红云; 何江; 余伍忠

    2011-01-01

    背景:新疆是一个多民族聚居的省区,地理位置不同,经济条件、气候环境等差异较大.目的:了解新疆不同民族出生缺陷发生发展趋势、病种及民族和地区差异.方法:根据新疆特殊的民族、地理条件及经济状况,按随机分层整群抽样方法,确定13个县(市)作为监测点,使用填报和.出生缺陷的诊断采用ICD10诊断标准.对2005-01/2008-12 4年间出生缺陷发生率进行统计,并分析出生缺陷的病种及其在各民族、地区的分布情况.结果与结论:新疆地区出生缺陷的平均发生率为97.43/万,4年间出生缺陷发生率表现为2006年较上一年度显著降低后,随之又逐年上升.出生缺陷发生率农村高于城市,男性多于女性,天山以南地区高于天山以北、以东及乌鲁木齐地区.在新疆的主要民族中,出生缺陷发生率以锡伯族和维吾尔族最高,满族和哈萨克族次之,汉族最低.4年间满族、蒙古族、回族出生缺陷发生率逐年下降,维吾尔族、汉族和哈萨克族有较小波动;但锡伯族却经历了一次大起大落的变化.出生缺陷病种前5位依次为神经管畸形、总唇裂、无脑畸形、先天性脑积水、唇裂合并腭裂.从分析结果可以看出新疆地区出生缺陷的发生存在民族和地理差异.%BACKGROUND: Xinjiang is a multi-ethnic region with significant differences in local geographical position, economic development and climatic environment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence and development tendency of birth defects, disease categories and disparity among different ethnic groups and regions in Xinjiang.METHODS: A stratified cluster random sampling observation was performed in 13 counties (cities) according to the status of ethnical distribution and local economics of Xinjiang. Quarter Report Sheet on Babies and The defect babies register card were filled as the scheme of Chinese birth defect monitoring, and ICD10 diagnostic code was adopted in

  16. Role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects: physicians yet unaware!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Kumhar, G Das; Harit, D; Faridi, M M A

    2010-09-01

    Folic acid supplementation is important in the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD). The study was conducted to assess the awareness amongst physicians regarding the role of Folic Acid (FA) in the prevention of NTD. Physicians were interviewed regarding the awareness of FA dose, timing of supplementation and knowledge about its role in prevention of neural tube defects using a semistructured questionnaire. Among 202 physicians interviewed (48 pediatricians, 54 obstetricians, 100 recently qualified medical graduates) overall awareness about FA was present in 92.07%, similar in three groups (P > 0.05). Only 47.52% were aware of preconception administration, 61.38% about dose of supplementation and 11.88% about recurrence rate of NTD. Only 15 (7.4%) knew all these. Regarding the etiology of NTDs only 26.7% said both FA and genetic factors are involved. Though majority were aware that folic acid has a role in prevention of NTDs, their knowledge about timing and dose of supplementation was lacking. Hence attempts should be made to increase the awareness regarding prevention of NTD's by FA supplementation at a proper time.

  17. 2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷监测情况%Monitoring and analysis on birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng district of Beijing 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚喆萍; 薄新生; 纪晋文

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷发生特点,为干预措施提供科学依据.方法 对2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区的人群出生缺陷监测结果进行分析.结果 2009、2010年德胜社区出生缺陷发生率分别为25.91%、22.58%,出生缺陷发生顺位前3位的分别是先天性心脏病(52.50%)、外耳其他畸形(15.00%)、并指(趾)(10.00%),出生缺陷发生与孕周、孕妇年龄有关(P<0.05),出生缺陷的诊断手段主要为B超和临床.结论 要关注高龄孕妇围生期保健,做好孕产妇系统管理,规范产前检查和预防,降低出生缺陷发生率.%[Objective]To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing, provide the scientific basis for intervention measures. [Methods] The monitoring results of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing during 2009-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The incidence rate of birth defects in Desheng community in 2009 and 2010 was 25. 91‰ and 22. 58‰ respectively. The top three birth defects were congenital heart disease (52.50% ), congenital external ear malformations (15.00% ) and syndactyly (10.00% ). The birth defects were related to gesta-tional age and maternal age (P <0. 05). The main diagnostic methods of birth defects were B-ultrasound and clinical diagnosis. [Conclusion] It is necessary to pay attention to perinatal health care among senile gravida, carry out the system management among pregnant women, and improve the prenatal examination and prevention, in order to reduce the incidence rate of birth defects.

  18. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  19. 2010年常州市围产儿出生缺陷及城市功能区出生缺陷状况%Birth defects of perinatal infants in Changzhou city in 2010 and birth defects in different functional areas of the city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪金剑; 周华; 蒋健

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the birth defects in Changzhou city in 2010 and the birth defects in different functional areas of the city, explore the related factors of occurrence of birth defects in Changzhou city. Methods: The perinatal infants with birth defects who were bom in obstetric department of all the hospitals in Changzhou city in 2010 were collected, and the city was divided into central urban area, industrial area, and agricultural area according to the functions of the city, the birth defects of perinatal infants were compared among different functional areas. Results: There were 39 399 perinatal infants in 2010, the incidence of birth defects was 5.10‰, the incidence of birth defects and the top three birth defects were in accord with those from 2007 to 2009, the mean incidence of birth defects in Changzhou city was 5.10‰, and the incidences of birth defects in industrial area, central urban area, and agricultural area were 9.13‰, 4.60‰, and 3. 24‰, respectively, the incidence of birth defects in industrial area was significantly higher than the mean level in Changzhou city. Among the perinatal infants with birth defects, the indexes including floating population, gestational smoking or passive smoking, drinking during pregnancy, engaging in high risk works were higher than those of normal control group; the rate of medical examination before marriage and the regular examination rate during gestational period were lower than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Premarital check - up and pregestational health care should be enhanced, the management of reproductive health of the floating population should be improved, and the prenatal examination rate of birth defects should be strengthened, the measures above - mentioned can be conducted to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:了解常州市2010年出生缺陷发生情况以及城市功能区出生缺陷状况,探讨常州市出生缺陷发生的相关因素.方法:收集2010

  20. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Educational Needs in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Boschma-Wynn, Rachel V.; Dewane, Sarah L.; Edwards, Alexandra; Robinson, Rebecca Volino

    2011-01-01

    As many as 4.5 live births per 1000 are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), preventable birth defects with life-long consequences. Prevention of FASDs is gaining in importance, and recruitment of diverse disciplines in delivering prevention to women of childbearing age is essential. This needs assessment explored to what extent…

  1. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  2. 中枢神经系统出生缺陷相关因素的调查%Investigation on the Correlation Factors of Birth Defects of Central Nervous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙熙德; 丁华新; 舒仁和

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the correlation factors of birth defects of central nervous system(CNS) in the area of Dongting Lake, and to provide the references for establishing intervention measures to prevent birth defects of CNS. [Methods] Among 89147 pregnant women who had been pregnant for at least 28 weeks and delivered after 7 days during the period from January 1997 to December 2006, mothers of 115 children patients who were confirmed to suffer from congenital malformation of CNS were collected as the case group. According to 1:2 matched, mothers of 230 normal newborns with the same condition were chosen as comparison group. Then, questionnaire investigation and match research were conducted. [Results] Family history of congenital malformation, father touching chemicals, fathers' drinking index, fever caused by cold, touching pesticide during pregnancy, smoking passively were main dangerous factors of birth defects of CNS, with OR value of 14.50, 10.10, 5.00, 4.53, 3.89 and 1.76, respectively. Education level, B-ultrasound in the middle of pregnancy and taking folic acid were protection factors, with βj value of -0.48, -2.36 and -2.51, respectively and OR value less than 1. The difference between scores of questionnaire of knowledge of birth defects obtained by patient case group and comparison group had statistical significance (P0.05). [Conclusion]Doing pre-marriage health education and pregnancy health care, and medically monitoring high risk population are keys to further reduce birth defects of CNS.%[目的]探讨中枢神经系统(CNS)出生缺陷的相关因素,为制定预防CNS出生缺陷干预措施提供参考依据.[方法]收集1997年1月至2006年12月期间孕满28周至产后7d的孕产妇89147例,其中确诊为CNS先天畸形患儿115例的母亲为病例组,按1:2配对,选取同等条件的230例正常新生儿的母亲为对照组,进行问卷调查、配对研究.[结果]先天畸形家族史、父接触化学物品、父饮酒指数、

  3. Understanding the causes and prevention of neural tube defects: Insights from the splotch mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Massa, Valentina; Copp, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    Splotch mutant mice develop neural tube defects (NTDs), comprising exencephaly and/or spina bifida, as well as neural crest-related defects and abnormalities of limb musculature. Defects in splotch mice result from mutations in Pax3, and some human NTDs may also result from mutations in the human PAX3 gene. Pax3 encodes a transcription factor whose function may influence expression of multiple downstream genes associated with a variety of cellular properties (including apoptosis, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation), that could be important for neural tube closure. The frequency of NTDs varies between mutant alleles and is also influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. Notably, splotch provides a model for folic acid-preventable NTDs, and conversely, dietary folate deficiency exacerbates NTDs. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of splotch NTDs, as well as the mechanisms by which the frequency of defects is influenced by genetic and environmental factors (such as sub-optimal folate status), may provide insight into the causation of these severe congenital malformations in humans.

  4. 出生缺陷影响因素的meta分析%A meta -analysis of risk factors of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺亚琴; 郑玉华; 王晓成; 梅志强

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore risk factors related to perinatal birth defects in order to provide evidence for birth defects prevention. Methods; Twelve papers were analyzed by a meta - analysis method. The cumulative cases and controls were 3 771 and 31 549, respectively. Results; The pooled odds ratio ( OR) values of single - factor - analysis were as follows; family genetic history (5.11), abnormal child - bearing history (2.94) , consanguineous marriage (7. 69) , the number of pregnancy (4. 67) , parity (1.77) , gestational age (0.71) , domestic contamination (2.22) , exposure to harmful substances (4. 37) , catching a cold during pregnancy (2.18) , fever during pregnancy (10.25), drug use (2.98) , pet contacting during pregnancy (3.12) , paternal smoking (2.32) and drinking(1. 90) , dietary intake of fresh vegetables(0. 59) and fruits ( 0.67). The pooled odds ratio ( OR) values of multiple - factor analysis were as follows: family genetic history (2.61), abnormal child - bearing history (2.87), drug use (5. 11), exposure to harmful substances (4.76), paternal smoking (1. 53 ). Conclusion; The risk factors of birth defects are family genetic history and abnormal child - bearing history, consanguineous marriage, the number of pregnancy, parity, and domestic contamination, exposure to harmful substances, catching a cold and fever during pregnancy, drug use, pet contacting during pregnancy, and paternal smoking and drinking. The protective factors are the gestational age and dietary intake of fresh vegetables and fruits.%目的:探讨出生缺陷发生的影响因素,为开展防治工作提供依据.方法:利用meta分析方法研究国内12篇关于出生缺陷发生影响因素的文献.累计病例3 771例,对照31 549例.结果:单因素分析中各因素及其合并比值比(OR)分别为:家族遗传史(5.11)、生育畸形史(2.94)、近亲结婚(7.69)、胎数(4.67)、产次(1.77)、胎龄(0.71)、家庭附近有污染(2.22)、孕期暴露于有害物质(4.37)

  5. 江西省铅山地区出生缺陷监测结果分析及干预措施探讨%Analysis on birth defects monitoring result and discussion on its interventions in Yanshan county of Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余愔; 陈祖林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Birth defects situation in Yanshan County of Jiangxi Province were analyzed to provide the scientific basis for establishing interventions against birth defects. Methods: The monitoring database collected by Yanshan Medical and Health Service and Family Planning Service Station about 20 150 cases of perinatal fetus born from January 2004 to December 2009 in this area were analyzed by adopting epidemiological method based on population through three - stage network of women and children. Results: There were 20 150 cases of live births, 183 cases of perinatal fetus with birth defects and birth defects rate was 9. 08‰. The top sequent 5 birth defects are congenital; heart disease, congenital hydrocephalus, polydactylism, congenital deafness and cheilopalatognathus sequent. Conclusion: Birth defects rate can be reduced by strengthening pre - pregnancy monitoring and health education for maternal with prevention first to improve antenatal diagnosis technology and perform termination of pregnancy timely.%目的 分析江西省铅山县出生缺陷的发生情况,为本地区制定出生缺陷预防措施提供科学依据.方法 利用妇幼三级网络,采用以人群为基础的流行病学调查方法搜集出生缺陷资料,对2004年1月~2009年12月全县医疗保健单位和县计生服务站在该地区出生的围产儿共20 150例监测数据库资料进行分析.结果 活产儿20 150例,围产儿出生缺陷183例,出生缺陷发生率为9.08%.其前5顺位是先天性心脏病心(先心)、先天性脑积水、多指(趾)、先天性耳聋、唇腭裂.结论 加强孕前监测和孕产妇的孕前健康教育,预防为主,提高产前诊断技术,适时终止妊娠,可有效降低出生缺陷的发生率.

  6. Folic acid and the prevention of neural tube defects: A survey of awareness among Latina women of childbearing age residing in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Menotti, Elaine; Scherer, Holly K; Dickinson, Jennifer; Larson, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce the risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). To inform southeast Michigan Latina women of childbearing age about the benefits of food and supplemental sources of the micronutrient in the prevention of NTDs, Spanish-English bilingual health educators carried out 20 education events in supermarkets and community organizations serving Latina women. One hundred and sixty Latina women ages 19 to 50 years indicated their current folic acid awareness and stated their future intentions regarding folic acid. Of 160 women surveyed, 114 (71%) had heard of folic acid, 84 (74%) knew that folic acid prevents birth defects, 63 (55%) knew the critical time to take folic acid, and 76 (67%) identified at least one source of folic acid. After participating in the education events, 136 women (85%) reported planning to eat more folate and/or folic acid-rich foods. Although general folic acid awareness is fairly high, health promotion efforts must be coordinated at community locations serving Latina women to share folic acid's specific protective effects in the prevention of NTDs, the critical timing of intake, and its food and supplement sources.

  7. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  8. Ten Tips to Prevent Infections During Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-14

    This podcast gives 10 tips for preventing infections during pregnancy.  Created: 12/14/2007 by National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 1/10/2008.

  9. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  10. Avaliação das declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre defeitos congênitos Evaluation of the birth certificates as source of information on birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia Geremias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos congênitos (DC em uma coorte de nascidos vivos (NV vinculando-se os bancos de dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM e do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo para avaliar as declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre DC. A população de estudo é uma coorte de NV hospitalares do 1º semestre de 2006 de mães residentes e ocorridos no Município de São Paulo no período de 01/01/2006 a 30/06/2006, obtida por meio da vinculação dos bancos de dados das declarações de nascido vivo e óbitos neonatais provenientes da coorte. RESULTADOS: Os DC mais prevalentes segundo o SINASC foram: malformações congênitas (MC e deformidades do aparelho osteomuscular (44,7%, MC do sistema nervoso (10,0% e anomalias cromossômicas (8,6%. Após a vinculação, houve uma recuperação de 80,0% de indivíduos portadores de DC do aparelho circulatório, 73,3% de DC do aparelho respiratório e 62,5% de DC do aparelho digestivo. O SINASC fez 55,2% das notificações de DC e o SIM notificou 44,8%, mostrando-se importante para a recuperação de informações de DC. Segundo o SINASC, a taxa de prevalência de DC na coorte foi de 75,4%00 NV; com os dados vinculados com o SIM, essa taxa passou para 86,2%00 NV. CONCLUSÕES: A complementação de dados obtida pela vinculação SIM/SINASC fornece um perfil mais real da prevalência de DC do que aquele registrado pelo SINASC, que identifica os DC mais visíveis, enquanto o SIM identifica os mais letais, mostrando a importância do uso conjunto das duas fontes de dados.OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of birth defects in a live birth cohort, linking the live birth information system (SINASC and the mortality information system (SIM databases. METHODS: Descriptive study to assess linked databases of hospital live births (LB and neonatal deaths of resident mothers that occurred in the city of S

  11. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya;

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC...... and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim...... of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l...

  12. The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eCoppedè

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost 15 years ago it was hypothesized that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism could lead to aberrant methylation of peri-centromeric regions of chromosome 21, favoring its abnormal segregation during maternal meiosis. Subsequently, more than 50 small case-control studies investigated whether or not maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes could be risk factors for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS, yielding conflicting and inconclusive results. However, recent meta-analyses of those studies suggest that at least three of those polymorphisms, namely MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G, and RFC1 80G>A, are likely to act as maternal risk factors for the birth of a child with trisomy 21, revealing also complex gene-nutrient interactions. A large-cohort study also revealed that lack of maternal folic acid supplementation at peri-conception resulted in increased risk for a DS birth due to errors occurred at maternal meiosis II in the aging oocyte, and it was shown that the methylation status of chromosome 21 peri-centromeric regions could favor recombination errors during meiosis leading to its malsegregation. In this regard, two recent case-control studies revealed association of maternal polymorphisms or haplotypes of the DNMT3B gene, coding for an enzyme required for the regulation of DNA methylation at centromeric and peri-centromeric regions of human chromosomes, with risk of having a birth with DS. Furthermore, congenital heart defects (CHD are found in almost a half of DS births, and increasing evidence points to a possible contribution of lack of folic acid supplementation at peri-conception, maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes, and resulting epigenetic modifications of several genes, at the basis of their occurrence. This review summarizes available case-control studies and literature meta-analyses in order to provide a critical and up to date overview of what we currently know in this

  13. 广西高发出生缺陷发生的影响因素分析%Influencing factors of high-incidence birth defects in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘湘红; 曾萼; 丘小霞; 刘伟; 陈玉柱

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨广西高发出生缺陷发生的影响因素,为制定出生缺陷的干预措施提供依据. 方法 采用成组病例对照的研究方法,对广西7个市3 175例出生缺陷围产儿(包括先天性心脏病、唇腭裂、先天性脑积水、神经管缺陷、尿道下裂等)和3 179例正常围产儿的父母进行问卷调查,并对可能影响高发出生缺陷发生的相关因素进行单因素及多因素logistic回归分析. 结果 多因素logistic回归分析结果显示:父亲年龄及吸烟程度、叶酸指数与高发出生缺陷相关(P<0.05). 高发出生缺陷发生的危险因素包括孕早期未接受过优生检测、母亲孕早期患病、母亲怀孕前患病、母亲孕早期用药、母亲怀孕前后接触过猫狗等宠物、母亲有特殊食品嗜好(P均<0.05). 结论 母亲孕早期未接受优生检测、孕前/早期患病、孕早期用药、怀孕前后有宠物接触史以及母亲有特殊食品嗜好是广西地区高发出生缺陷发生的危险因素,在广西可从孕前与孕期保健、生活环境因素等多方面进行出生缺陷干预.%Objective To explore the influencing factors of high-incidence birth defects in Guangxi so as to provide the basis for formulating the intervention measures of birth defects.Methods A group case-control study was conducted, in which a questionnaire survey was carried out among parents of 3 175 perinatal infant with birth defects(including congenital heart disease,cleft lip and cleft palate,congenital hydrocephalus,neural tube defects and hypospadias) and 3 179 normal perinatal infants from 7 cities in Guangxi. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the related influencing factors of high-incidence birth defects. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age,severity of smoking and folacin index of fathers correlated with high-incidence birth defects(P<0.05).The risk factors for the occurrence of high

  14. Monitoring of birth defects in Xixiang County in the period of 2008-2012%西乡县2008至2012年出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠玲; 薛丽君

    2013-01-01

    , polydactyly , congenital heart disease , neural tube defects and congenital anal atresia in order.Conclusion The intervention of birth defects should be based on prevention .Strengthening health education , prenatal and postnatal care knowledge and the guidance on premarital , pregnancy and prenatal care and carrying out comprehensive prenatal screening , prenatal diagnosis and neonatal disease screening should be done , so as to achieve early detection , early treatment and achieve the purpose of improving the quality of population and life .These are the fundamental ways to reduce birth defects .

  15. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuit Ewoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death. Methods/design We propose an individual participant data meta-analysis of high quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of progestogen treatment in women with a twin pregnancy. The primary outcome will be adverse perinatal outcome (a composite measure of perinatal mortality and significant neonatal morbidity. Missing data will be imputed within each original study, before data of the individual studies are pooled. The effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or vaginal progesterone treatment in women with twin pregnancies will be estimated by means of a random effects log-binomial model. Analyses will be adjusted for variables used in stratified randomization as appropriate. Pre-specified subgroup analysis will be performed to explore the effect of progestogen treatment in high-risk groups. Discussion Combining individual patient data from different randomized trials has potential to provide valuable, clinically useful information regarding the benefits and potential harms of progestogens in women with twin pregnancy overall and in relevant subgroups.

  16. 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素分析%Analysis of status and influence factors of women of childbearing age be-ing aware of birth defects knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王民

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素,以便有针对性地开展出生缺陷预防工作,降低出生缺陷发生率. 方法 随机抽取青龙满族自治县2014年1月~2015年7月符合生育政策、计划怀孕并参加免费孕前优生健康检查的1200名育龄妇女,使用自行设计的统一调查问卷,进行预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况自填式问卷调查. 结果 育龄妇女获取预防出生缺陷知识的途径形式单一,依次为书籍杂志、医院、网络等,预防出生缺陷知识的总知晓率仅为68%;影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素为年龄、文化水平、职业、经济条件等.其中20~32岁年龄段的人群高于33~39岁;大专及以上文化程度的人群高于其他文化长度的人群; 有固定工作的人群高于无固定工作的人群; 经济收入较高的人群高于经济收入较低的人群(P<0.01). 结论 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓率较低,应引起有关部门重视,应根据影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素,认真开展多种渠道的健康教育宣传,提高育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识的知晓率,有效降低出生缺陷发生的风险.%Objective To know the status and influence factors of women of childbearing age being aware of birth de-fect knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County to carry out targetedly the prevention work of birth defect and reduce the incidence rate of birth defect. Methods 1200 women of childbearing age who had met the requirement for pregnancy and were planning to have a baby and had participated in the free pre-pregnancy health examination for eu-genics from January 2014 to July 2015 were randomly selected.Self-designed and self-administrated unified question-naire was adopted to investigate the status of awareness of birth defect prevention knowledge. Results Women of child-bearing age got to

  17. Conjoined Twins : A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Luna-Munoz, Leonora; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Dutra, Maria da Graca; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Metneki, Julia; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Rissman, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin

    2011-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was

  18. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...

  19. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Rodrigues, C.H.; Verkerk, M.A.; Berg, P.P. van den; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  20. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children : what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M.A.; van den Berg, P.P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  1. Analysis of risk factors of birth defects in Shaanxi Province%陕西省出生缺陷的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杨; 曾令霞; 颜虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors influencing birth defects in Shaanxi Province and then provide scientific evidence for intervention strategies. Methods Stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted.Totally 124 towns were sampled from 12 counties of 9 cities in Shaanxi Province. Household survey was carried out among 13 273 women who were residents and had conceived from October 2007 to July 2009, and all of these women had 28 weeks' gestational age. We collected 7 531 complete questionnaires finished for the progestational and pregnant period. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the risk factors by using SPSS13.0software. Results The results of logistic regression showed that the risk factors for birth defects were by turns the birth defects history of patrilineal family (OR = 14. 283), poor mental state (OR = 10. 835), abnormal pregnancy and reproductive history (OR = 8. 264), mothers living in rural areas ( OR = 5. 067), the history of alcohol intake in pregnancy (OR = 4. 598), mother's age higher than 35 years (OR = 3. 696), exposure to agricultural chemicals during pregnancy (OR=3. 507), drinking strong tea during pregnancy (OR = 1. 993), taking folic acid during pregnancy (OR=0. 549) and higher family income per capita (OR = 0. 422), which were the protective factors of birth defects. Conclusion We should strengthen publicity in scientific knowledge of pre-natal and post-natal care,increase self-care consciousness of women of childbearing age, improve their living environment and change the unhealthy lifestyle. These strategies play a very important role in reducing the prevalence rate of birth defects in Shaanxi Province.%目的 探讨陕西省出生缺陷发生的影响因素,为采取有针对性的干预措施提供依据.方法 应用分层随机整群抽样方法,抽取陕西省9市12个区县共124个乡镇.对终止妊娠日期发生在2007年10月至2009年7月间且孕满28周的13273名妇女进行入户调查.要求

  2. 成都市某区六年来新生儿出生缺陷分析%The Analysis of Birth Defects of Newborns During the Past Six Years in a District of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅; 周礼英; 吴怀勇; 张志华; 张倩; 李青林; 汪渝; 杜彪; 王园

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered, gave birth or had induced la-bor in our district during 2007 and 2013. For our sample,we investigated on subjects who had newborns with defects,or stillbirths. We summarized the factors on puerperae to have newborns with defects. We also summarized the examination methods and the de-velopment of newborn defects. We investigated newborns’ defects and the dynamic changes so that we can have a theoretical basis in preventing newborn defects. Methods We included puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered,gave birth or had induced labor in our district during 2007 and 2013. All subjects were founded by using the registration information from pediatrics, obstetrics and health divisions. Puerperae with birth defects information were included. They were divided into two groups accord-ing to their due dates. We did retrospective survey on both groups,studied their medical records,and made records about puerperae who gave birth to defected newborns or had stillbirths. We used χ2test with collected data on both groups. Results During recent years,maternal health awareness might have increased. Puerperae in Group B were significantly better than puerperae in Group A in terms of premarital medical examinations,periodic medical examinations during pregnancy,and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Birth defects screening methods relied mainly on Down’s screening and fetal ultrasound examination. Birth defects were still mainly focused on eye,ear,face,or neck malformation,cryptorchidism,limbs,fingers or toes deformity. Conclusion During the past three years, chromosome abnormalities were found more frequently. It might suggest that there was a correlation with high-risk contacts.%目的:对成都市某区2007年至2013年在我区建卡、分娩或引产孕产妇,调查其中具有缺陷新生儿及死胎的产妇相关信息,总结近年来出生缺陷的产妇因素、检

  3. The effect of providing skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care in preventing stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawn Joy E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the global burden of 2.6 million stillbirths, around 1.2 million occur during labour i.e. are intrapartum deaths. In low-/middle-income countries, a significant proportion of women give birth at home, usually in the absence of a skilled birth attendant. This review discusses the impact of skilled birth attendance (SBA and the provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC on stillbirths and perinatal mortality. Methods A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Database and the WHO regional libraries. Data of all eligible studies were extracted into a standardized Excel sheet containing variables such as participants’ characteristics, sample size, location, setting, blinding, allocation concealment, intervention and control details and limitations. We undertook a meta-analysis of the impact of SBA on stillbirths. Given the paucity of data from randomized trials or robust quasi-experimental designs, we undertook an expert Delphi consultation to determine impact estimates of provision of Basic and Comprehensive EOC on reducing stillbirths if there would be universal coverage (99%. Results The literature search yielded 871 hits. A total of 21 studies were selected for data abstraction. Our meta-analysis on community-based skilled birth attendance based on two before-after studies showed a 23% significant reduction in stillbirths (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69 – 0.85. The overall quality grade of available evidence for this intervention on stillbirths was ‘moderate’. The Delphi process supported the estimated reduction in stillbirths by skilled attendance and experts further suggested that the provision of Basic EOC had the potential to avert intrapartum stillbirths by 45% and with provision of Comprehensive EOC this could be reduced by 75%. These estimates are conservative, consistent with historical trends in maternal and perinatal mortality from both developed and developing countries, and are

  4. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  5. Maternal Creatine Supplementation during Pregnancy Prevents Long-Term Changes in Diaphragm Muscle Structure and Function after Birth Asphyxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenic A LaRosa

    Full Text Available Using a model of birth asphyxia, we previously reported significant structural and functional deficits in the diaphragm muscle in spiny mice, deficits that are prevented by supplementing the maternal diet with 5% creatine from mid-pregnancy. The long-term effects of this exposure are unknown. Pregnant spiny mice were fed control or 5% creatine-supplemented diet for the second half of pregnancy, and fetuses were delivered by caesarean section with or without 7.5 min of in-utero asphyxia. Surviving pups were raised by a cross-foster dam until 33±2 days of age when they were euthanized to obtain the diaphragm muscle for ex-vivo study of twitch tension and muscle fatigue, and for structural and enzymatic analyses. Functional analysis of the diaphragm revealed no differences in single twitch contractile parameters between any groups. However, muscle fatigue, induced by stimulation of diaphragm strips with a train of pulses (330 ms train/sec, 40 Hz for 300 sec, was significantly greater for asphyxia pups compared with controls (p<0.05, and this did not occur in diaphragms of creatine + asphyxia pups. Birth asphyxia resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of glycolytic, fast-twitch fibres and a reduction in oxidative capacity of Type I and IIb fibres in male offspring, as well as reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fibre types (Type I, IIa, IIb/d in both males and females at 33 days of age. None of these changes were observed in creatine + asphyxia animals. Thus, the changes in diaphragm fatigue and structure induced by birth asphyxia persist long-term but are prevented by maternal creatine supplementation.

  6. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  7. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  8. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  9. The Role of Immunonutrients in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l-citrulline. Based on current research evidence, probiotics are the most documented effective method to prevent NEC, while others still require further investigation in animal studies and clinical randomized controlled trials.

  10. Low concentrations of HIV-1 DNA at birth delays diagnosis, complicating identification of infants for antiretroviral therapy to potentially prevent the establishment of viral reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Caroline; Dross, Sandra; Beck, Ingrid A; Micek, Mark A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2014-04-01

    Among infants exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), detection of viral infection at birth was increased by 39% (95% confidence interval, 19%-47%) by increasing DNA input from dried blood spots into polymerase chain reaction. Infants with low concentrations of HIV-1 at birth may be the best target population to evaluate whether immediate antiretroviral therapy can prevent long-term infection.

  11. Prevention of late blowing defect by reuterin produced in cheese by a Lactobacillus reuteri adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Gaya, Pilar; Garde, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    In this study, reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572 was added to cheese as an adjunct culture together with 50 or 100 mM glycerol (required for reuterin production), with the aim of controlling Clostridium tyrobutyricum CECT 4011 growth and preventing the late blowing defect (LBD) of cheese caused by this strain. L. reuteri survived cheese manufacture and produced reuterin in situ, detected at 6 and 24 h. However, the produced reuterin was enough to inhibit the growth of Clostridium, showing undetectable spore counts from day 30 onward and, therefore, to prevent cheese LBD during ripening (60 d, 14 °C). The acidification of these cheeses was not affected, although from day 14 they showed significantly lower lactococci counts than cheese made only with the starter (control cheese). Cheeses with LBD showed lower levels of lactic acid than control cheese and the formation of propionic and butyric acids, but cheeses with reuterin showed the same organic acids profile than control cheese. The cheese made with L. reuteri and 100 mM glycerol showed a light pink colour, not observed in the cheese made with L. reuteri and 50 mM glycerol. These results demonstrated a potent anti-clostridial activity of reuterin produced in an actual food product like cheese, and proved to be a novel approach to prevent LBD of cheese.

  12. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  13. Risk factors for birth defects:A community-based child survey%社区儿童的出生缺陷影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 赵丽萍; 商颖; 蔡建华; 周维谨; 车焱

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解以社区为基础的出生缺陷发生水平和有关影响因素,为出生缺陷的预防和孕期保健提供依据.方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法,从我国东、中、西部地区9个中等发达省份中各抽取1个国家人口计生委信息采集抽样县,每个县抽取2个乡镇,再从中各抽取2~4个居委(村),调查其中所有已婚育龄妇女≤9岁子女的出生缺陷发生及相关信息,通过单因素分析和多元logistic回归分析,探讨出生缺陷的影响因素.结果:调查对象共3958例,出生缺陷发生率为1.80%.单因素卡方检验发现母亲产龄、文化程度、流产史、孕期微量营养素补充、产检机构与出生缺陷发生有关(P <0.05).多元logistic回归分析显示,产龄16~20岁(OR=2.53,95 % CI:1.25~5.10)、有人工流产史(OR=3.32,95% CI:1.69~6.51)、吸烟(OR=3.34,95 % CI:1.04~10.75)、孕期未补充微量元素(OR=1.84,95%CI:1.07~3.16)、在乡镇及以下机构产前检查(OR=1.70,95% CI:1.06~2.74)的母亲生育出生缺陷儿的危险较高.结论:出生缺陷预防干预应重点关注既往有人工流产史、低龄、吸烟孕妇对象,重视基层产前检查机构服务能力建设,提供优质孕期监测与营养保健咨询服务.%Objective; To explore the prevalence and risk factors for birth defects ( BD) among children in 9 provinces of China. Methods; By using stratified, random cluster sampling methods, 17 townships and 36 rural villages and urban neighbourhood were sampled from 9 provinces of China. All married women aged between 20 - 49 years old were investigated and a questionnaire survey on birth defects of their children under 9 year - old was conducted. Chi - square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between BD and maternal risk factors. Results: There were 3 958 respondents, and the prevalence of BD was 1.80%. Results of chi - square tests indicated that maternal age

  14. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Gibbs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planar cell polarity (PCP is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj in Prickle1 (Pk1, a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development.

  15. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Brian C; Damerla, Rama Rao; Vladar, Eszter K; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Wan, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C; Zahid, Maliha; Yagi, Hisato; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L; Suyama, Kaye L; Axelrod, Jeffrey D; Lo, Cecilia W

    2016-02-16

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj) in Prickle1 (Pk1), a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development.

  16. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the burn-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  17. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ling; Xie Huasheng; Huang Danzhong; Li Hankun; Tan Rui; Zhou Jingyi

    2008-01-01

    The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the bum-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  18. Prevention of dental anomalies in children by prosthetics defects hard tooth tissues and dentitions: the need to possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetenkov D.Ye.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of restore the function and anatomy of the tooth and replacement of defects of dentition by prosthesis in children under the removable bite as a method of prevention of dentoalveolar anomalies. Identified the need for prosthetic treatment of children and the willingness of dentists as primary health care professional to address the problems identified. A clinical analysis of complex treatment of defects in the teeth with fixed restorations

  19. Prevention of dental anomalies in children by prosthetics defects hard tooth tissues and dentitions: the need to possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Suetenkov D.Ye.; Pudovkina Е.А.; Venatovskaya N.V.; Proshin A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the possibility of restore the function and anatomy of the tooth and replacement of defects of dentition by prosthesis in children under the removable bite as a method of prevention of dentoalveolar anomalies. Identified the need for prosthetic treatment of children and the willingness of dentists as primary health care professional to address the problems identified. A clinical analysis of complex treatment of defects in the teeth with fixed restorations

  20. Aurora B prevents chromosome arm separation defects by promoting telomere dispersion and disjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Céline; Serrurier, Céline; Gauthier, Tiphaine; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2015-03-16

    The segregation of centromeres and telomeres at mitosis is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent the formation of aneuploid cells, a phenotype frequently observed in cancer. Mitotic instability arises from chromosome segregation defects, giving rise to chromatin bridges at anaphase. Most of these defects are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of mitosis in a wide range of organisms. Here, we describe a new role for Aurora B in telomere dispersion and disjunction during fission yeast mitosis. Telomere dispersion initiates in metaphase, whereas disjunction takes place in anaphase. Dispersion is promoted by the dissociation of Swi6/HP1 and cohesin Rad21 from telomeres, whereas disjunction occurs at anaphase after the phosphorylation of condensin subunit Cnd2. Strikingly, we demonstrate that deletion of Ccq1, a telomeric shelterin component, rescued cell death after Aurora inhibition by promoting the loading of condensin on chromosome arms. Our findings reveal an essential role for telomeres in chromosome arm segregation.

  1. [Folic acid and prevention of neural tube closure defects: the question is not solved yet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Dupont, C; Darmaun, D; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Putet, G; Rieu, D; Rigo, J; Turck, D

    2008-07-01

    Between 1981 and 1996, several interventional studies proved the efficacy of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube closure defects (NTCD), first in women at risk (with a previous case of NTCD) and also in women of the general population in age to become pregnant. The poor observance of this supplementation led several countries (USA, Canada, Chile...) to decide mandatory folic acid fortification of cereals, which permitted a 30% (USA) to 46% (Canada) reduction in the incidence of NTCD. Moreover, this benefit was accompanied by a diminished incidence of several other malformations and of stroke and coronary accidents in elderly people. However, several papers drew attention to an increased risk of colorectal and breast cancer in relation with high blood folate levels and the use of folic acid supplements. A controlled interventional study showed a higher rate of recurrence of colic adenomas and a higher percentage of advanced adenomas in subjects receiving 1mg/day of folic acid. A recent study demonstrated an abrupt reversal of the downward trend in colorectal cancer 1 year after the beginning of cereal folic acid fortification in the USA and Canada. Two studies also reported impaired cognitive functions in elder persons with defective vitamin B(12) status. Taken in aggregate, these studies question the wisdom of a nationwide, mandatory, folic acid fortification of cereals. As of today, despite their limited preventive efficacy, a safe approach is to keep our current French recommendations and to increase the awareness of all caregivers, so as to improve the observance of these recommendations.

  2. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  3. Tobacco smoking and its consequences on reproductive health: the impact of a lifestyle choices including cigarette smoke exposure on fertility and birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Travis; Mazela, Jan; Merritt, Allen

    2013-01-01

    There are several life style choices which may impact fertility and thus national birth rate. Epidemiological cohort studies indicates that modification of life style habits, among them nicotine consumption can influence reproductive health. Influence of tobacco smoking on reproductive health has to be analyzed within the context of the influence of body mass index, caffeine and alcohol consumption, exercise, maternal and paternal age, and stress. Approximately 27% Polish women and 23% Americans smoke cigarettes during their reproductive years. Cohort studies directly showed the relationship between nicotine consumption and decrease in fertility among smoking women. Besides there is evidence that smoking leads to higher rate of congenital heart defects, limbs abnormalities, central nervous malformations among infants born to smoking mothers. Finally, the relationship between smoking and decreased fertility should be of great concern since Polish fertility rate has dropped from 1989 till 2007 year from 2,1 to 1,27 respectively. Programs focused on improvement in national birth rate should focus also on decrease smoking rates among women.

  4. 宁夏育龄妇女出生缺陷知识和态度及行为的影响因素调查分析%Influencing Factors for Birth Defects-related Knowledge,Attitude and Behavior among Women of Reproductive Age in ;Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继宏; 胡卫东; 靳利梅; 刘兰; 赵燚; 吴海鹰

    2014-01-01

    defects - related knowledge,attitude and behavior among women of reproductive age. Health education is needed to prevent birth defects among target population according to local conditions.%背景宁夏出生缺陷检出率呈上升趋势,育龄妇女出生缺陷知识、态度和行为对出生缺陷有影响。目的通过分析宁夏育龄妇女出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的影响因素,为确定生育健康教育重点内容和途径提供依据。方法2008年12月—2009年1月采用分层整群随机抽样方法,调查宁夏5个行政市22个县(区)2007年1—12月出生的所有婴儿出生缺陷情况,抽查育龄妇女出生缺陷知识、态度、行为得分,采用多因素Logistic回归分析其影响因素。结果共调查了10928户人家,婴幼儿10792名,有明确出生缺陷疾病名称者139名,出生缺陷检出率为128.7/万。抽查育龄妇女5383名,育龄妇女出生缺陷知识得分为(16.0±6.1)分、态度得分为(11.2±2.1)分、行为得分为(10.7±2.4)分,知识得分与态度得分呈正相关( r=0.194,P<0.05),知识得分与行为得分呈正相关( r=0.581,P<0.05);态度得分与行为得分呈正相关(r=0.436,P<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,在知识方面,民族、人均月收入和文化程度是其主要影响因素( P<0.05);在态度方面,民族、人均月收入、文化程度是其主要影响因素(P<0.05);在行为方面,民族、人均月收入、文化程度和生育情况是其主要影响因素(P<0.05)。结论宁夏地区回族育龄妇女出生缺陷知识和行为较汉族差,人均月收入和文化程度是影响育龄妇女出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的主要因素,因此应因地制宜对重点人群进行预防出生缺陷的健康教育。

  5. Meta-analysis on major risk factors of birth defects in China%国内出生缺陷危险因素的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婵娟; 杜晓玲; 李巧(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

      目的综合探讨国内出生缺陷发生的危险因素。方法利用 Meta 分析方法综合分析国内2000~2011年间发表的22篇关于出生缺陷发病危险因素的病例对照研究文献,累计病例5238例,对照10571例。结果多因素分析合并比值比(OR)及其95%可信区间(95%CI)分别为:先天畸形家族史3.81(2.48~5.86);孕期感冒发烧3.64(2.16~6.11);孕期病毒感染2.82(2.09~3.82);妊娠合并症3.3(2.59~4.21);孕早期用药4.79(3.14~7.31);孕期服用激素类药物5.39(3.20~9.08);孕期服用镇静止吐药5.22(3.45~7.92);孕期接触有害化学物质3.73(2.87~4.86)等。结论影响国内出生缺陷发生的主要危险因素为先天畸形家族史、孕期感冒发烧、孕期病毒感染、妊娠合并症、孕早期用药、孕期服用激素类药物等。%  Objective To explore the major risk factors of the incidence of birth defects in China. Methods The results of the risk factors of birth defects in 24 epidemiological studies from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed by meta-analysis method. The cumulative cases and controls were 5238 and 10571, respectively. Results The pooled odds ratio(OR) values and 95%CI of various-factor-analysis were as folows: family history of congenital defect was 3.81 (2.48 ~ 5.86); having a fever during pregnancy was 3.64(2.16 ~ 6.11);virus infection during pregnancy was 2.82(2.09 ~ 3.82); complications in pregnancy was 3.3(2.59 ~ 4.21); medicine use in early pregnancy was 4.79(3.14 ~ 7.31);hormone drugs use in early pregnancy was 5.39(3.20 ~ 9.08);sedative and antiemetic drugs use in early pregnancy was 5.22(3.45 ~ 7.92); exposure to damage chemicals in pregnancy was 3.73(2.87 ~ 4.86), et al. Conclusion The major factors influencing the incidence of birth defects in China were family history of congenital defect, had a fever during pregnancy, virus infection during pregnancy, complications in pregnancy

  6. [Artifactual defect of inferior myocardium on 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial SPECT: characteristic findings and preventive method on phantom study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Terada, S; Kanaya, S; Kashikura, K; Momose, M; Hosoda, S; Kusakabe, K

    1994-04-01

    Discordance between planar and SPECT image of inferior myocardial defect on 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) was occasionally observed in the clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the existence of artifactual myocardial defect on MIBG SPECT image. Phantom study was performed in various kinds of situation using triple gamma camera. Artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was significantly observed in the case of increased liver/heart uptake ratio more than 2:1. Artifactual defect was markedly observed in the 180 degrees than that in the 360 degrees SPECT acquisition. To avoid artifactual defect during SPECT acquisition, liver phantom was moved down to the foot direction (vanishing liver position). In this phantom position, artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was not observed on reconstructed myocardial SPECT image. The vanishing liver position was also applicable to human study. Human body was inclined to right side at an angle of 15 degrees, artifactual defect could be avoided. Further study is needed to analyze the cause of this artifactual defect and to conform the preventive method with vanishing liver position in the routine myocardial SPECT examination.

  7. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  8. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  9. Analysis of health care status and demands of children of birth defects%出生缺陷患儿保健状况及保健需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 丁辉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To acknowledge the health care status and demands of children born with birth defects.[Methods]Between July 2007 and September 2008, 453 live born cases of birth defects were diagnosed and registered by the Beijing Birth Defects Monitoring network-a hospital based birth defects registry system.Their parents were called to assess their survival status from birth up to the age of 6~8 months.[Results]The proportions of 315 live born infants with birth defects inhabited in Beijing, Expanded Program of Immunization, and physical examination were 94.00%,93.40% respectively.The proportions of having been to the hospital once at least, not having been to the hospital, not acknowledging the fact of infants' birth defects were 70.70%, 27.10%, and 2.20% respectively.[Conclusions]The medical services were not enough for the demands of children born with birth defects.To establish registry system of children born with birth defects, to accomplish the net of diagnosis, therapy and transport of children born with birth defect will provide more services to the children born with birth defects.%[目的]了解出生缺陷患儿保健状况及其家长对相关儿童保健的需求.[方法]对2007年7月-2008年9月分娩且家长均居住在北京市海淀区的453例活产出生缺陷患儿,分娩6~8个月时通过电话调查方式询问出生缺陷患儿家长.[结果]315例在北京市生活的儿童接受计划免疫接种率94.00%、体检率93.40%;70.70%"到医院复诊过至少1次",27.10%"未到医院复查",2.20%"家长否认孩子有出生缺陷".[结论]目前的医疗保健机构不能满足出生缺陷患儿医疗保健需求;建立有效的出生缺陷患儿信息登记系统对于患儿信息的长期随访至关重要;完善出生缺陷患儿诊断、治疗、转诊网络,为患儿提供更好的后续服务.

  10. The APPLe study: a randomized, community-based, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin for the prevention of preterm birth, with meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in both high- and low-income countries. The causes of preterm labour are multiple but infection is important. We have previously described an unusually high incidence of preterm birth (20% in an ultrasound-dated, rural, pregnant population in Southern Malawi with high burdens of infective morbidity. We have now studied the impact of routine prophylaxis with azithromycin as directly observed, single-dose therapy at two gestational windows to try to decrease the incidence of preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomized 2,297 pregnant women attending three rural and one peri-urban health centres in Southern Malawi to a placebo-controlled trial of oral azithromycin (1 g given at 16-24 and 28-32 wk gestation. Gestational age was determined by ultrasound before 24 wk. Women and their infants were followed up until 6 wk post delivery. The primary outcome was incidence of preterm delivery, defined as 6,200 pregnancies shows no effect on preterm birth (relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.22. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no support for the use of antibiotics as routine prophylaxis to prevent preterm birth in high risk populations; prevention of preterm birth requires alternative strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84023116

  11. Assessing the Risk of Birth Defects Associated with Exposure to Fixed-Dose Combined Antituberculous Agents during Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Awodele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (≤0.05 low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (≤0.05 elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents

  12. Assessing the risk of birth defects associated with exposure to fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Patrick, E B; Oluwatoyin Agbaje, Esther; Oremosu, A A; Gbotolorun, S C

    2012-01-01

    Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg) orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day) orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (P ≤ 0.05) low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents significantly

  13. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anke J M; Rodrigues, Catarina H C M L; Verkerk, Marian A; van den Berg, Paul P; Dekkers, Wim J M

    2010-08-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately and timely to current and possible future ethical issues, a prospective and anticipatory ethical analysis is essential. To obtain a first survey of ethical issues that might arise during the different phases of the project, the Delphi method was used. The professionals directly involved in the EuroSTEC project were questioned about their views on possible ethical issues. The first round yielded 27 ethical issues, which the respondents were asked to prioritize in the second round. For the fundamental research phase, issues deemed most important were privacy and informed consent of the tissue donor. For the animal experimentation phase, three issues were mentioned (in order of decreasing priority): the suffering of animals, the use of animals as means to an end, and the limited adequacy of the animal models. Issues that were deemed most important during the clinical (trial) phase pertained to the problem of weighing risks and benefits for the fetus/child and the pregnant woman.

  14. 180例出生缺陷儿危险因素分析%Analysis of risk factors of birth defect in 180 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季静敏; 鲁巧珍; 何萍; 黄璧琨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors of birth defect ( BD ). Methods With case-control method 180 cases with birth defect and 180 normal newborns were selected through the medical history review. The differences in maternal age, maternal occupation, first check gestational age, medical history at early stage of pregnancy, antenatal examination times, drug use at pregnant period, pregnancy complications, history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery, family history of congenital defects, history of exposing to toxic and harmful substances, paternal age, paternal occupation and etc. Between them were analyzed. Results Univariate analysis revealed that five factors were different between case group and control group: the average age of mother ( t = 3. 255, P = 0. 001 ), the average age of father( t= 2.047, P = 0.041 ), maternal occupation(χ2= 11. 016, P =0. 026 ), history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery (χ2 =5. 767, P = 0.016), and family history of congenital defects (χ2 = 4. 405 , P = 0.044 ). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that maternal occupation ( education ) was protective factor. Conclusion BD is caused by complicated factors, including age of parents, maternal occupation, history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery and family history of congenital defects.%目的 分析引起出生缺陷儿的危险因素.方法 用病例对照的研究方法,比较分析180例出生缺陷儿(其中133例活产缺陷儿、47例引产缺陷儿)与180例出生正常儿的母亲年龄、母亲职业、初次孕检孕周、孕早期疾病史、产前检查次数、妊娠期用药、妊娠合并症并发症、异常孕产史、缺陷家族史、接触有毒有害物史、父亲年龄、父亲职业等因素的差异.结果 单因素分析显示以下5个因素在病例组和正常组之间存在显著性差异:母亲平均年龄(t=3.255,P=0.001)、父亲平均年龄(t=2.047,P=0.041)、母亲职业(χ2=11.016,P=0.026)、异常孕产史(χ2=5.767,P=0.016)

  15. 早产对脑性瘫痪儿童乳牙釉质发育的影响%The developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小波; 张笋; 吴卫红; 吴志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究早产因素对脑瘫儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的影响.方法 选择135名脑瘫患儿,与62名正常儿童对比,进行乳牙釉质发育缺陷状况的统计调查.同时比较脑瘫儿童中早产与乳牙釉质发育缺陷发生的关系.结果 脑瘫儿童组中早产儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的患病率明显高于足月组,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 早产的脑瘫儿童更容易发生乳牙釉质发育缺陷.%Objective To investigate the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth. Methods One hundred and thirty-five children with cerebral palsy were examined for the clinical manifestation of the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition. The relationship between the defects and cerebral palsied children's birth conditions were assessed. Results The prevalence of enamel defects in cerebral palsied children born premarurely was significantly higher than that in those with full term birth. Conclusion Enamel defects in the primary dentition are more likely to happen in cerebral palsied children with premature birth than those with full term birth.

  16. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children : the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Smit, Henriette A.; Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were an

  17. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  18. Awareness of folic acid for neural tube defect prevention among Israeli women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, S; Lahat, E; Elizov, T; Greenberg, R; Arieli, S; Afriat, R; Berkovitch, M

    1999-07-01

    The failure of neural tube closure during early embryogenesis results in a range of neural tube defects (NTD), the most common of which is spina bifida. The role of folic acid in reducing the rate of NTD has been well-established. Three recent cases of infants with NTD inspired this investigative study into the level of awareness and knowledge of folic acid and its function in the prevention of NTD among Israeli women. Of 920 women interviewed, only 51 (5.5%) had heard of folic acid, and 27 (2.8%) were reported to have taken it. The source of information and the motivation for self-medication were also explored with regard to socioeconomic and health profile. Awareness of folic acid was significant among women aged 17-29 years (P = 0.005) and those aged 30-39 years (P = 0.009), and among semireligious and nonreligious women (P = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively). Among women who were aware of folic acid, only nonreligious women tended to take it. No correlation was found between folic acid intake and age, religiosity, nationality, number of pregnancies, and health status among women who were aware of folic acid intake. The poor level of awareness, evident in our study, demands that the medical community broadcast the benefit of folic acid. Furthermore, government health initiatives, such as the addition of folic acid to flour preparations, may effectively ensure its appropriate daily intake. These improved education and prevention programs may forcibly reduce the rate of NTD-affected pregnancies.

  19. Relationship of Birth Defects with Electromagnetic Radiation and Food Chain%出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏花莉; 夏红卫; 韦红卫; 黄卫民; 孔琳; 黄琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of birth defects with electromagnetic radiation and food chain.Methods One hundred and ninety-five mothers who had infants with birth defects were selected as study group ,and 195 mothers who had healthy infants were selected as control group .An investigation was conducted on the aspects of living environment ,the frequency of using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven or microwave oven , and diet habit during pregnant period .The levels of estrogen ,gestagen and testosterone in maternal blood were detected after delivery .Results The mothers in the study group living near the electric transformer ,TV tower or communication transmission tower were more than those in the control group (all P<0.05),the frequencies of mothers′eating artificial feeding fowl,livestock or fish during pregnant period of study group were higher those of control group (all P<0.05). The frequencies of mothers′using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven ,microwave oven or watching TV during pregnant period of study group were higher than those of control group (all P<0.05).Conclusion Electromagnetic radiation and eating artificial feeding fowl ,livestock and fish might have influence on birth defects .%目的:探讨出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链的关系。方法选择195例出生缺陷患儿母亲作为研究组,195例健康儿母亲为对照组,对两组孕期居住环境及使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉频率和饮食习惯等进行调查,并检测分娩时母血雌激素、孕酮、睾酮水平。结果研究组居住靠近变压器、电视塔、通讯转播塔比例高于对照组(P均<0.05),孕期食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼等的频率高于对照组(P均<0.05);研究组孕期使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉、观看电视的频率高于对照组( P均<0.05)。结论电磁辐射和食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼类

  20. Preventing low birth weight, child abuse, and school failure: the need for comprehensive, community-wide approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, R W

    1992-02-01

    Based on numerous examples from this country and abroad, we now have a reasonable idea of how we can reduce substantially the incidence of low-weight births, child abuse, adolescent pregnancy, school failure, and school dropout. The most effective long-term strategy appears to be the development of a comprehensive, coordinated, community-wide approach focused on preventing low- and medium-risk families from becoming high-risk as well as providing intensive services to those who already have reached a high-risk status. The best results can be obtained when all levels of government and the private sector work together. In this partnership, the best outcomes appear to result when the state and federal governments, private corporations, or both provide technical assistance, additional funding as needed, and help in setting program standards, and when the community maintains local control over establishing priorities and implementation strategies. However, to reach these goals and to maintain program support over the long time periods needed to show positive results (4 to 8 years), it is necessary to become skilled in social marketing techniques to turn program need into demand and to develop a strong local and statewide advocacy group to facilitate passage of needed legislation and prevent funding cutbacks. Pediatricians can modify their practices to make them more supportive to families and can work with other community leaders to bring about the changes in attitudes and about the changes in attitudes and funding priorities at the state and community levels that will be necessary to develop more effective preventive programs.

  1. 湖南省2009-2011年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on Monitoring Results of Perinatal Birth Defects in Hunan from 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱华; 杜其云

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析围产儿出生缺陷监测结果,探讨出生缺陷干预措施,降低出生缺陷发生率. 方法 对2009-2011年围产儿出生缺陷医院监测资料用SPSS软件进行统计分析. 结果 监测293 053例围产儿中,出生缺陷发生数5 766例,出生缺陷发生率为196.76/万,3年出生缺陷率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).前5位出生缺陷依次为:先天性心脏病、外耳其他畸形、多指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、唇裂合并腭裂.出生缺陷发生城市高于农村、孕母分娩无明显的季节分布、大于35岁组母亲出生缺陷发生率明显高于其他年龄组、男婴高于女婴. 结论 加强孕前、孕早期保健宣传,开展产前筛查、产前诊断和新生儿疾病筛查工作,避免和减少出生缺陷发生,提高出生人口素质.%Objective To analyze the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects and explore the interventions so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects. Methods SPSS software was used to analyze the monitoring data about birth defects among hospitals in Hunan from 2009 to 2011. Results A total of 293,053 perinatal infants were monitored. Birth defects occurred in 5,766 perinatal infants, and the incidence rate of birth defects was 196.76/10,000. There were statistically significant differences in the incidence rate of birth defects among the three years (P 35 years was significantly higher than those of other age groups. More male infants were involved than the female. Conclusions It is necessary to enhance health care propaganda before getting pregnant and during the early stages of pregnancy and popularize prenatal screening, prenatal diagnosis, and neonatal screening so as to avoid and reduce abnormal infants and improve the quality of births.

  2. Case-control study on influencing factors of perinatal birth defects%围产儿出生缺陷影响因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 张海鲲; 李忠良; 翟庆峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探寻围产儿出生缺陷的影响因素,为出生缺陷干预提供科学依据.方法 按照1:1配对的原则选取出生缺陷围产儿和健康围产儿各807例,用单因素与多因素Logistic回归分析筛选出生缺陷的主要影响因素.结果 婚前参加体检,经常食用鱼虾肉蛋类、牛奶豆类食物等为出生缺陷的保护性因素;父母近亲结婚、家庭附近有污染、孕育期用药、孕育期接触有害物质、有生育畸形儿史、母亲吸烟饮酒为出生缺陷的危险因素.结论 出生缺陷干预可从控制环境有害因素、加强孕期营养保健、指导孕期合理用药、减少吸烟饮酒等不良行为生活方式、提倡婚前体检等方面综合入手.%Objective; To explore the influencing factors of perinatal birth defect. Methods; According to the birth date and sex matching principle, selected 807 perinatal birth defects infants and 807 normal infants. The influencing factors of perinatal birth defect were filtered with the Logistic regression analysis. Results: Regular intake of fish, shrimp, meat, eggs, milk, and beans during pregnancy , participating in pre-marital medical examination were the protective factors of birth defects. Consanguineous marriage, environment pollution sources near residence, suffering from chronic diseases before or during pregnancy, maternal exposure to occupational risk factors before or during pregnancy, abnormal reproductive history, and the habit of drinking and smoking were the risk factors of birth defects. Conclusion; To reduce infant birth defect incidence and improve national body diathesis, we must protect from environment risk factors, enhance pregnant nutrition, quit smoking and drinking, and advocate the premarital examination.

  3. Orally administered melatonin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fu

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, including fetal demise, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR, neural tube defects (NTDs and preterm delivery in rodent animals. Previous studies demonstrated that melatonin protected against LPS-induced fetal demise, IUGR and preterm delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on LPS-induced NTDs. All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (25 µg/kg daily from gestational day (GD8 to GD12. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with melatonin (MT, 50 mg/kg before each LPS injection. A five-day LPS injection resulted in 27.5% of fetuses with anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Additional experiment showed that maternal LPS exposure significantly down-regulated placental proton-coupled folate transporter (pcft and disturbed folate transport from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Interestingly, melatonin significantly attenuated LPS-induced down-regulation of placental pcft. Moreover, melatonin markedly improved the transport of folate from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Correspondingly, orally administered melatonin reduced the incidence of LPS-induced anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Taken together, these results suggest that orally administered melatonin prevents LPS-induced NTDs through alleviating LPS-induced disturbance of folate transport from maternal circulation through the placenta into the fetus.

  4. Melatonin prevents neural tube defects in the offspring of diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangming; Guo, Yuji; Yuan, Qiuhuan; Pan, Yan; Wang, Liyan; Liu, Qian; Wang, Fuwu; Wang, Jingjing; Hao, Aijun

    2015-11-01

    Melatonin, an endogenous neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, has a variety of physiological functions and neuroprotective effects. However, its protective role on the neural tube defects (NTDs) was not very clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on the incidence of NTDs (including anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida) of offspring from diabetic pregnant mice as well as its underlying mechanisms. Pregnant mice were given 10 mg/kg melatonin by daily i.p. injection from embryonic day (E) 0.5 until being killed on E11.5. Here, we showed that melatonin decreased the NTDs (especially exencephaly) rate of embryos exposed to maternal diabetes. Melatonin stimulated proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) under hyperglycemic condition through the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, as a direct free radical scavenger, melatonin decreased apoptosis of NSCs exposed to hyperglycemia. In the light of these findings, it suggests that melatonin supplementation may play an important role in the prevention of neural malformations in diabetic pregnancy.

  5. Mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento en menores de 5 años de edad en México de 1998 a 2006 Birth defects mortality in five-year-old minors of age, Mexico, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdés-Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento (DAN entre 1998 y 2006. Seleccionar los municipios con alta mortalidad en OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to birth defects from 1998-2006. To select municipalities with high mortality among children under 5 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of information was mortality records from vital statistics collected by SSA/INEGI. We used the 2005 Municipal Geostatistical Framework by INEGI and SIGEPI for the spatial analysis. The selection criteria were municipalities with 80% and over of deaths due to birth defects. RESULTS: Deaths diminished 8% during 1998-2006 and rates decreased 20%. A total of 42.57% - 48% of deaths are due to circulatory system defects and 13.69% - 19.39% are due to the nervous system; the former rose 4% and the latter fell 32%. Eighty percent or more occur in children under 5 years and the rate in this group fell 8.63%. A total of 1 025 (41.82% municipalities are priorities, 104 (10.14% are high and 102 (9.95% are very high priorities, where 66% of deaths occur among children under 5 years old. DISCUSSION: The interventions to decrease mortality due to birth defects should be directed towards one-year-old children (75% and towards 8.4% of the municipalities that are a very high priority, since they represent 66% of the deaths.

  6. 广东省深圳市龙岗区孕期妇女出生缺陷相关知信行调查%Survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices about birth defects among pregnant women in Longgang District of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍强; 廖瑞容; 张玲; 陈文英; 夏洪波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine knowledge, attitude and practice about birth defects among pregnant women, and provide reasonable suggestions to improve perinatal health services and health education. Methods Stratified. Random sampling method was used to select 86 of pregnant women from three streets of Longgang District, Shenzhen City as participants in this study. Results There were 91. 86% of pregnant women had heard of birth defect before pregnancy. 80. 77% of them women said they supported the policy of distributing folic acid free by government 50% of respondents conducted premarital medical examination. In higher education level group, the participation rate in premarital medical examination of couples was significantly higher than that with low literacy. Moreover, pregnant women with higher literacy would pay more attention to prenatal care, prevention of birth defects and folic acid knowledge. The pregnant women with higher per capita monthly income of family would have higher degree of attention to you should get rid of contacting with pesticides/paint and reduce the opportunities of touching cats and dogs. The sources of knowledge about prevention birth defects before pregnancy were mainly from doctors and communication materials, with the proportion of 30.23% and 29.07% , respectively. Conclusion The findings showed that the level of general knowledge about birth defect and folic acid was relatively high among pregnant women in Longgang District. Literacy and per capita monthly income of family are influencing factors on knowledge about birth defects among pregnant women.%目的 了解广东省深圳市龙岗区孕期妇女对预防出生缺陷的知信行情况,为进一步完善围产期保健服务及健康教育工作提供合理化建议.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,抽取86名孕期妇女进行面对面问卷调查.结果 91.86%的孕期妇女在怀孕前听说过出生缺陷,80.77%的孕期妇女对政府免费发放

  7. 杭州市余杭区人群基础出生缺陷普查及高危因素研究%Prevalence of birth defects and related risk factors among children age 0 - 3 years old in Yuhang District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王撬撬; 周任婧; 陈琴芳; 刘小芹; 袁伟; 王波

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To know about the prevalence of birth defects in Yuhang District of Hangzhou City and to explore the risk factors related to birth defects. Methods; A total of 21 713 children aged 0-3 years old were investigated in Yuhang District. A case - control study was used to determine potential risk factors. Results: A total of 365 children with birth defects were found. Low income, poor health during pregnancy, strenuous work for women three months before pregnancy and taking medicine during pregnancy could increase the risk of birth defects. Moreover, experience of second - smoking exposure for pregnant women, spouses'poor health status and elder age (above 35 years old) also contributed to birth defects. Conclusion; It is necessary to prevent birth defects by improving the knowledge about health care among pregnant women and providing primary prevention strategy.%目的:获得余杭区出生缺陷基本信息,寻找出生缺陷高危因素,为出生缺陷病因学研究及防治措施提供可靠依据.方法:对2007年6月1日~2010年5月31日分娩(孕周≥28周),在余杭区进行出生申报的21 713名0~3岁婴幼儿进行出生缺陷信息收集.根据基线调查结果,采用1:2病例对照研究方法,收集出生缺陷组及对照组孕母人口学特征、孕前及妊娠期精神情况、药物暴露史等信息.结果:共筛查出生缺陷儿365名.出生缺陷高危因素分析发现,家庭收入低、母亲健康状况差、孕前3个月工作强度高、精神压力大和妊娠期间服用药物等因素是余杭地区出生缺陷发生的高危因素.此外,孕妇妊娠期存在被动吸烟情况、配偶健康状况差及生育年龄>35岁也会增加出生缺陷发生危险.结论:进一步加强优生优育宣教,提高育龄妇女自我保健意识,深化出生缺陷一级预防干预策略,以降低出生缺陷发生风险.

  8. [Folic acid use by pregnant women in Israel for preventing neural tube defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Z; Aran, A; Friedman, O; Beni-Adani, L; Constantini, S

    2000-12-01

    Spina bifida and anencephaly are the most common, serious malformations in neural tube defects (NTD). Randomized trials in the last 2 decades have demonstrated that folic acid, 0.4 mg/d, reduces the incidence of NTD by more than 50%. We investigated the use of folic acid and multivitamins containing folic acid in childbearing women. Of 221 women interviewed, 67 (30%) regularly took pills containing 0.4 mg folic acid. Women with higher educational levels were more likely to take multivitamins with folic acid than were the less educated (p = 0.05). Of the women who took folic acid, only 5 (7.5%) used separate folic acid tablets, before and during their pregnancy. The rest used multivitamins containing folic acid. The 5 women who took folic acid separately were college-educated and nonreligious, and they took multivitamins in addition (p > 0.05). Of the women interviewed, 58 (26.2%) were Bedouin of the Negev. 24 (41.4%) of them took pills containing folic acid on a regular basis. This percentage is higher than that in the Jewish women in the study who took folic acid for prevention of NTD (17%; p = 0.038). Most of the women took folic acid after the first trimester. Only a minority took daily periconceptional folic acid. Multivitamins containing 0.4 mg of folic acid were more popular than folic acid tablets alone. This study emphasizes the need for continuing efforts to increase consumption of folic acid and awareness of its benefits among women of childbearing age.

  9. BQ-123 prevents LPS-induced preterm birth in mice via the induction of uterine and placental IL-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Nicole S., E-mail: Nicole.olgun02@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY, 11439 (United States); Women and Children' s Research Laboratory, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Hanna, Nazeeh, E-mail: Nhanna@winthrop.org [Women and Children' s Research Laboratory, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Reznik, Sandra E., E-mail: Rezniks@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY, 11439 (United States); Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women' s Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as any delivery occurring prior to the completion of 37 weeks' gestation, currently accounts for 11–12% of all births in the United States. Maternal genito-urinary infections account for up to 40% of all PTBS and induce a pro-inflammatory state in the host. The potent vasoconstrictor Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known to be upregulated in the setting of infection, and elicits its effect by binding to the ET{sub A} receptor. We have previously shown that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor with BQ-123 is capable of preventing LPS-induced PTB in mice. We hypothesize that the administration of BQ-123 post LPS exposure will dismantle a positive feedback loop observed with pro-inflammatory cytokines upstream of ET-1. On GD 15.5, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were injected with PBS, LPS, BQ-123, or LPS + BQ-123. Changes at both the level of transcription and translation were observed in uterus and placenta in the ET-1 axis and in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines over the course of 12 h. We discovered that BQ-123, when administered 10 h post LPS, is capable of increasing production of uterine and placental Interleukin-10, causing a shift away from the pro-inflammatory state. We also observed that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor decreased IL-1β and TNFα in the placenta while also decreasing transcription of ET-1 in the uterus. Our results reinforce the role of ET-1 at the maternal fetal interface and highlight the potential benefit of ET{sub A} receptor blockade via the suppression of ET-1, and induction of a Th2 cytokine dominant state. - Highlights: • The pro-inflammatory response to LPS in the uterus and placenta is ET-1 dependent. • ET{sub A} blockade triggers up-regulation of IL-10 in uterus and placenta. • A positive feedback loop drives ET-1 expression in gestational tissue.

  10. Prevalence of birth defects in the Tongzhou District of Beijing between 2006 and 2012%2006 ~ 2012年北京市通州区出生缺陷患病率的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁静茹; 金蕾; 肖利华; 靳蕾

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解北京市通州区2006~2012年出生缺陷患病率的变化趋势和流行特征,为出生缺陷预防提供参考依据。方法依据2006~2012年北京市通州区出生缺陷监测系统资料,对出生缺陷的患病率及变化趋势等进行统计学分析,同时计算出生缺陷产前检出比例。结果7年间共监测到活产儿92340例,出生缺陷儿1165例,患病率为12.62‰,呈上升趋势(χ2=6.77,P<0.01)。户籍人口的出生缺陷患病率(11.55‰)低于流动人口(13.27‰),前者无趋势性变化,后者呈上升趋势(χ2=25.02,P<0.01)。出生缺陷患病率前5位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、唇腭裂、神经管缺陷、外耳畸形。先天性心脏病和“其他”类别的出生缺陷患病率呈上升趋势,而神经管缺陷患病率呈下降趋势。先天性心脏病产前检出比例逐年上升(χ2=14.80, P<0.01)。结论2006~2012年北京通州区出生缺陷患病率呈上升趋势,主要与流动人口出生缺陷率上升,监测出生缺陷类型不断扩展以及先天性心脏病诊断水平提高有关。%Objective To study the dynamic prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of birth defects distribution in the Tongzhou District of Beijing between 2006 and 2012. Methods Data collected from the birth defects surveillance system in the Tongzhou District of Beijing between 2006 and 2012 were used. The prevalence and trends of birth defects were analyzed, also the proportion of birth defects in prenatal diagnosis was calculated. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 1 165 cases of birth defects were identiifed among 92 340 births, with a prevalence of 12.62‰. The prevalence of birth defects showed an increased trend during the seven years (χ2=6.77, P<0.01). The prevalence in the lfowing population (13.27‰) was higher than that in the permanent residents (11.55‰), and the former showed an upward trend during the seven years (χ2

  11. Use of Family History Information for Neural Tube Defect Prevention: Integration into State-Based Recurrence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Ehrhardt, Joan; Ruttenber, Margaret F.; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) can increase the risk of a pregnancy affected by an NTD. Periconceptional folic acid use decreases this risk. Purpose: Our objective was to determine whether second-degree relatives of NTD-affected children showed differences in folic acid use compared with the general population and to provide them…

  12. Correlation analysis of 1206 cases of birth defects in prenatal screening and diagnosis%1206例出生缺陷产前筛查及产前诊断的相关情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东海

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To know the prenatal screening and diagnosis for maternal and infant health care sector, to provide reference for establishing corresponding prevention countermeasures. METHODS Selected a total of 1 206 infants with birth defect during the years of 2008-2011 in our hospital, retrospectively analyzed the prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis results of birth defects, comparatively analyzed the ratio in different regions without prenatal screening. RESULTS The positive cases in antenatal screening accounted for 33.4% (403/1 206), positive in prenatal diagnosis accounted for 28.8% (347/ 1 206) , without prenatal screening accounted for 9.8% (118/1 206). Interim malformations induced accounted for 25.2% (304/1 206). The first 5 causes of prenatal diagnosis of defect were as follows: neural tube defects, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, chromosomal abnormalities and strephenopodia. The first 5 causes of defect was total 295 cases, proportion of 85.1%, which were as follows; 364 cases with congenital heart disease (53.1%) , ear deformity in 79 cases (11.5%) , cleft lip in 75 cases (10.9%), cryptorchidism in 62 cases (9.1%) , polydactyly in 49 patients (7.2%). The constituent ratio that without prenatal screening (1.4%) in towns was significant lower than in countries (15.4%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In order to reduce the incidence of birth defects, it should strengthen exploration on limbs and features of five sense organs in prenatal screening and diagnosis, can not only concern about the value of screening, and ignore the importance of antenatal diagnosis.%目的 为了解本地区产前筛查及产前诊断状况,给妇婴保健部门制定相应的预防对策提供参考.方法 选择2008 ~2011年期间某院分娩的出生缺陷儿,共计1206例,回顾分析出出生缺陷儿产前筛查与产前诊断结果,对照分析不同区域未进行产前筛查者构成比.结果 产前筛查阳性者占33.4% (403/1206),产前诊断阳性者占28.8

  13. Trends in neural tube defect prevalence, folic acid fortification, and vitamin supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Richard S; Mulinare, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    In this review, the authors analyze international trends in rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) during the past three decades. Population-based data sources include the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program and other US birth defects surveillance programs in the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems, and US and Canadian vital records. To analyze trends in vitamin consumption, we review data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and international surveys of multivitamin use. We discuss the role of factors associated with historic and continuing declines in NTD rates in most countries. These factors include the introduction and increased utilization of prenatal diagnosis, recommendations for multivitamin use in women of childbearing age, and population-wide increases in blood folate levels that have occurred since food fortification was mandated. We also discuss research needs for further NTD prevention. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  14. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases. The potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB) propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC) confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  15. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  16. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  17. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  18. Systematic analysis of influencing factors of birth defects in China during 2001-2011%2001-2011年我国出生缺陷影响因素的系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉娟; 任培丽; 王来; 王蘅; 李春伟; 叶珊珊; 邢秀伟

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective]To investigate the influencing factors to birth defects in Chinese population during 2001-2011, and provide scientific evidence for birth defects prevention. [ Methods ] Meta-analysis was adopted to systematically evaluate 24 papers published during 2001 -2011 about the influencing factors of birth defects in China. [ Results] The pooled OR values and 95% Cl were as follows; prenatal common cold and fever 2. 00 ( 1. 46-2. 73 ) ; exposure to toxic chemical materials in pregnancy 2.02(1.51-2.71); pollution sources in apartment 1. 86(1. 26-2. 73) ; exposure to pesticides in pregnancy 1.80(1.08-2.99); taking antibiotic and other medicine in pregnancy 1. 65 (1. 37-1. 98) ; spontaneous abortion history 1. 64 (1. 13-2. 38) ; bearing malformation child history 1. 61 (1. 30-2. 01) ; paternal exposure to toxic chemical materials 1. 51 (1. 08-2. 11) ; infections of TORCH in pregnancy 1.44 (1. 10-1. 88 ); parity≥2, 1. 41 ( 1. 00-2. 01 ) ; negative life events stimulus in pregnancy 1.11(1.04-1.19). [ Conclusion] The factors influencing the incidence of birth defects are prenatal common cold and fever in pregnancy, exposure to toxic chemical materials in pregnancy, taking antibiotic and other medicine in pregnancy, negative life events stimulus in pregnancy, exposure to pesticides in pregnancy, paternal exposure to toxic chemical materials, spontaneous abortion history, bearing malformation child history, parity≥2, pollution sources in living place, infections of TORCH in pregnancy and so on.%目的 探讨我国2001-2011年间出生缺陷的影响因素,为下一步的预防提供科学依据.方法 利用Meta分析的方法系统评价2001-2011年间公开发表的有关我国出生缺陷影响因素的24篇文献.结果 出生缺陷影响因素的合并比值比(OR值)及95% CI分别为孕期感冒发热2.00(1.46 ~2.73),孕期接触有害化学物质2.02(1.51 ~2.71),居住地有污染源1.86(1.26 ~2.73),孕期接触农药史1.80(1.08 ~2.99),

  19. The early use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics in susceptible women for the prevention of preterm birth of infectious etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    /meta-analyses have been conducted but none has simultaneously addressed the optimal choice of agent, patient and timing of intervention. We conclude that inappropriate antibiotics used in inappropriate women at inappropriately late gestations do not reduce preterm birth. Conversely, a focused systematic review....../meta-analysis, which targeted the use of clindamycin before 22 weeks gestation, in women with objective evidence of abnormal genital tract flora, demonstrated that clindamycin produced a significant decrease in late miscarriage and preterm birth.......INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in high-income countries. The etiology of preterm birth is multifactorial but there is overwhelming evidence to implicate infection as a major cause. Abnormal genital tract flora in early pregnancy is predictive...

  20. Risk Factors for Birth Defects:A Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis of a Case-Control Study in Guang-dong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志瑾; 穆荔

    1999-01-01

    In order to study risk factors and their association with birth defects,data were collected from 329 cases and 329 controls in 38 hospitals in Guangdong Province of China in 1988.Information was obtained from the same questionnaire(23 risk factors listed)of cases and controls.We used a multivariate logistic model,which described variables significantly increased risk of birth defects.The risk factors included maternal educa-tional levels,medicine taken during pregnancy and antenatal care.It was suggested to strengthen antenatal care was the main preventive measure against birth defects.

  1. Developing effective campaign messages to prevent neural tube defects: a qualitative assessment of women's reactions to advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi Lindsey, Lisa L; Silk, Kami J; Von Friederichs-Fitzwater, Marlene M; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Boster, Franklin J

    2009-03-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year, can be reduced by 50-70% with daily periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid. Two studies were designed to assess college women's reactions to and perceptions of potential campaign advertising concepts derived from preproduction formative research to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. Study one assessed draft advertising concepts in eight focus groups (N = 71) composed of college-enrolled women in four cities geographically dispersed across the United States. Based on study one results, the concepts were revised and reassessed in study two with a different sample (eight focus groups; N = 73) of college women in the same four cities. Results indicated that participants generally responded favorably to concepts in each of the two studies, and provided insight into individual concepts to increase their overall appeal and effectiveness. The specific findings and implications of these results are discussed.

  2. Tube Defects in Women of Childbearing Age in the Supplementary Folic Acid to Prevent Fetal Neural%育龄妇女增补叶酸预防胎儿神经管缺陷分析干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芸; 张林; 马丽琴; 高琪

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects is the main reason of perinatal death, save work disability, neural tube defects is largely preventable, showed that the intervention of 240000 women, in the neural tube defects in multiple areas in North China, women who take folic acid supplements 0.4 mil igrams in before and after pregnancy, can occur greatly reduced the rate of neural tube defects; pregnant women should actively carry out prenatal screening, early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment. In an ef ort to reduce the occurrence of neural tube defects, but also ef orts to reduce neural tube birth defects, this is to improve the quality of the population, have very important significance.%神经管缺陷一直是我国围产儿死亡、存活儿致残的主要原因,神经管缺陷大部分是可以预防的,24万名妇女的人群干预实验表明,在神经管缺陷多发的北方地区,妇女在妊娠前后服用0.4mg的叶酸增补剂,可以使神经管缺陷发生率大大降低;孕产妇要积极进行产前的检查,早发现、早诊断以及早治疗。在努力降低神经管缺陷发生的同时,还要努力地减少神经管缺陷儿出生,这对于提高人口素质,具有十分重要的意义。

  3. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or without cleft palate Limb deficiency Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Hypospadias Asian, Non-Hispanic Spina bifida without anencephaly ... Gastroschisis Omphalocele Black, Non-Hispanic Encephalocele Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Aortic valve stenosis Cleft lip with or without ...

  4. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all alcohol while you are pregnant. How can recreational drug use affect my pregnancy? Use of illegal drugs ( ... herpes, syphilis, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]). Toxoplasmosis: ...

  5. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition and are done on cells obtained through amniocentesis , chorionic villus sampling , or, rarely, fetal blood sampling. ... and, in smaller amounts, in the mother’s blood. Amniocentesis: A procedure in which a needle is used ...

  6. Monitoring and analysis of the Population Birth Defects in Tianjin Downtown from 2008 to 2010%天津市区2008~2010年人群出生缺陷监测资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝娟

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the population birth defects prevalence and potential affecting factors in Tianjin downtown from 2008 to 2010. METHODS The data of fetus and infants in Tianjin city from 2008 to 2010 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 1 062 cases with birth defect were collected from 65 990 births, with an overall prevalence rate of 160.93/104 births. The rates in male and female births were 172.34/104 births and 146.65/104 births, and there was significant difference between the two groups (r = 6.902, P< 0.01). Compared with 20-29 years old, the rate was 189.61/104 births in an age ≥30 years group, especially, the rate was 482.76/104 births in an age ≥40 years group (χ2 = 18.849, P < 0.001). There was significant difference in premature delivery and low birth weight babies (χ2 = 404.491, P< 0.001; χ2 = 381.164, P < 0.001). The rate was 3 505.98 per 10 000 births in fetal death and stillbirth, early neonatal death and death with in 7-42 days. The rate was 25.91 times of live-births (χ2 = 3 663.76, P< 0.01). Birth defect risk factors included male births, elderly puerperal, premature delivery babies and babies with low birth weight. CONCLUSION Annual prevalence rate of birth defect in Tianjin presented an increasing trend. The improvement ability in diagnosis and monitoring should be partly accounted for it. Birth defects were more likely to occur in elderly puerpera's babies, premature and low birth weight babies. The babies were mortality in high and poor prognosis.%目的 了解2008~2010年天津市区人群出生缺陷的发生情况及其影响因素.方法 对2008~2010年居住在天津市市内6区的产妇所分娩的胎婴儿资料进行分析.结果 共收集围产儿65 990例,出生缺陷儿1 062例,发生率为160.93/万.男、女性胎婴儿出生缺陷发生率分别为172.34/万和146.65/万,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.902,P<0.01);与20~29岁相比,产妇年龄在30岁以上,尤其是40岁以上时,胎婴

  7. Research on the influence factors of birth defect in Zhongshan City%中山市出生缺陷发生的相关影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊付兴; 王丹; 史妙丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查分析中山市出生缺陷的相关影响因素,为出生缺陷一级干预提供决策支持。方法选择2014年1月至2016年1月中山市105例出生缺陷儿作为缺陷组,同期选择105例无出生缺陷的新生儿作为对照组。对两组父母的“国家免费孕前优生健康检查项目”档案中疾病史、用药史、孕育史、家族史、饮食营养、生活习惯、环境毒害物接触、社会心理因素以及孕前的各种医学检验结果进行分析。结果两组父母文化程度、在孕产史、用药史、饮食营养、生活习惯、生活环境、疾病史、家族遗传病史等因素比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。家庭经济收入低、孕期营养状况差、早孕期自然流产、死胎死产、曾用避孕药、被动吸烟、接解放射线是出生缺陷的危险因素。结论新生儿出生缺陷的危险因素较多,临床医生需加强宣传,指导女性进行婚前、孕前检查,养成良好的生活习惯,从而减少新生儿出生缺陷的发生。%Objective To investigate and analyze the related influence factors of birth defect in Zhongshan City,Providing decision support for the first -level intervention.Methods 105 children with birth defect in Zhongshan City from January of 2014 to January of 2016 were selected as defect group,and 105 children without birth defect were selected as control group.The disease history,medication history,birth history,family history,diet,living habits,environmental poisonexposure,social psy-chological factors and pre -pregnancy medical testing results from "national free pre pregnancy health check"archives were ana-lyzed.Results The differences in the degree of education,history of gestation,history of pharmacy,diet nutrition,living hab-it,diseases history,history of family genetic disease and some other factors of parents between two goups were statistically signifi-cant (P <0.05).The low family income,bad nutriture at

  8. Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry: Annual Report on Birth Defects Among Infants Born to U.S. Military Families, January 1, 2000 Through December 31, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    745.4 Ventricular septal defect 745.5 Atrial septal defect 745.6 Endocardial cushion defects 746.01-746.02 Pulmonary valve...left heart syndrome 747.0 Patent ductus arteriosus 747.1 Coarctation of aorta 747.3 Anomalies of pulmonary artery Resp Respiratory...Biliary atresia Male Male Reproductive 752.6 Hypospadias, epispadias Urinary Urinary 753.0 Renal agenesis /dysgenesis 753.2/753.6 Obstructive

  9. Analysis on birth defect surveillance in south Xicheng District, Beijing%北京市西城南区围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽霞; 王淼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the birth defect of south Xicheng District, Beijing from 2008 to 2010, and observe the feature of the birth defect incidence. Methods Statistics and analysis of birth defect infants from 6 hospitals of south Xicheng district in Beijing were performed, 293 perinatal infants and 88 infants (induction of labour in second trimester) were found. Results The incidence of birth defect of south Xicheng district in Beijing from 2008 to 2010 was 14.51‰. There were 20190 perinatal infants, and 132 of them were dead. The mortality was 6.54‰. 25 of them were infants with birth defects. The percentage was 18. 98%. The incidence of birth defect in these 293 cases, from high to low, in turn were: congenital heart disease (3.37‰) , polysyndactyly (2.82‰) , deformity of external ear (1.04‰), syndactyly (0. 74‰) , anorectal atresia (0.45‰) , cleft lip(0.35‰) , microtia(0.35‰). Conclusion As the incidence rate of congenital heart disease and other defects were quite high, intensify health care in perinatal period should be promoted, and the level of antenatal diagnosis should be enhanced.%目的 分析北京市西城南区2008-2010年出生缺陷监测结果,了解本地区出生缺陷发生情况.方法 对2008-2010年北京市西城南区6家助产机构产科孕满28周至出生后7d的出生缺陷儿293例,以及因出生缺陷进行中期引产的胎儿88例进行出生缺陷结果分析.结果 2008-2010年北京市西城南区围产儿出生缺陷发生率为14.51‰;20190名围产儿中共132例围产儿死亡,死亡率为6.54‰,其中出生缺陷25例,占围产儿死亡的18.98%;293例出生缺陷发生率由高到低依次为先天性心脏病(3.37‰)、多指(趾)(2.82‰)、外耳其他畸形(1.04‰)、并指(0.74‰)、直肠肛门闭锁或狭窄(0.45‰)、唇裂(0.35‰)、小耳(0.35‰).结论 进一步提高产前诊断水平,增强围孕保健措施.

  10. 0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的流行病学调查%Research on the epidemiology of birth defect for infants aged 0~1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德卫; 骆艳; 贺赞群; 刘树青

    2016-01-01

    目的::研究可对0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷产生影响的流行病学调查.方法:随机选取5394例我市2014.4-2015.4出生的婴儿,所有婴儿在进行研究调查时均为0~1岁,对婴儿一般资料进行收集,将有出生缺陷的婴儿设为 A组,将无出生缺陷的婴儿设为 B组,采用 Logistic回归分析探讨对婴儿出生缺陷的影响因素.结果:所有本文选取的5394例婴儿中,在出生后立即检查出出生缺陷的婴儿有117例,在随后的调查以及随访工作中发现出生缺陷的9例,共126例(A组),占比为2.34%,另B组无出生缺陷的婴儿为5268例(97.66%).A、B两组婴儿在性别、体重、孕母孕期服用叶酸、维生素、微量元素情况、家庭成员吸烟酗酒情况方面存在较大差异(P<0.05).将上诉有差异资料带入 Logistic回归方程中计算,结果发现,出生性别、体重、孕母孕期服用叶酸、维生素、微量元素情况、家庭成员吸烟酗酒情况均是婴儿出生缺陷的影响因素.结论孕妇孕期服用适量维生素、叶酸以及微量元素,对体重过低的新生儿进行焊钳检查,对孕妇进行孕期营养摄入的相关健康宣教,以上这些措施均可有效改善新生儿缺陷.%Objective:To conduct the epidemiology research of birth defect for infants aged 0~1.Method:5394 infants (aged 0~1)delivered from A-pril 2014 to April 2015 in our city were selected.The general data was collected.The infants with birth defect were selected as Group A;the infants without birth defect were selected as Group B.Through the Logistic regression equation,the influence factors of birth defects were analyzed.Result:For 5394 infants,there were 117 cases with birth defects;during the follow-up visits,there were 9 additional cases with birth defects.There were 126 cases with birth defects in total (Group A)(2.34%);Group B had 5268 cases without birth defects (97.66%).The infant’s gender and weight

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  12. Folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects: awareness among laywomen and healthcare providers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Inoue, Hiromi; Watanabe, Junichiro; Tada, Katsuhiko; Yoshimoto, Nobuko

    2009-09-01

    It is known that neural tube defects are folic acid preventable congenital anomalies. We investigated to what extent this information was disseminated among laywomen and healthcare providers. Questionnaire studies were conducted twice, in 2002 and 2007, for four groups of laywomen and seven groups of healthcare providers in Japan regarding awareness, folic acid supplements and healthy diets. Awareness among laywomen was less than 20%, except for families who had experience with spina bifida in 2002, and 5 years later only pregnant women showed a significant increase in awareness. Awareness among healthcare providers varied from 12 to 76%, depending on their profession, and this proportion increased in five of the seven groups in 2007. The majority of laywomen obtained their information from mass media, while the majority of healthcare providers received information through media for professionals. Laywomen who used folate supplements and healthcare providers who recommended them were initially fewer than 25 and 37%, respectively. Five years later, however, pregnant women who used folic acid supplements increased from 9.1 to 43.1%. As awareness among non-pregnant laywomen and some healthcare providers is considerably low, information should be presented repeatedly to these groups. The difficulty in getting women to consume folic acid supplements is an argument for the government to require folic acid fortification of grains so that the prevention of neural tube defects can be maximized.

  13. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: características do atendimento e propostas para formulação de políticas públicas em genética clínica Birth defects in Brazil and health care: proposals for public policies in clinical genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2006-12-01

    developed. The main goal of such a policy should be the organization of a functional integrated genetics network, in addition to rational use of resources and enhanced coverage. In order to formalize a national laboratory network, sample shipping and billing mechanisms must be created. Birth defect prevention, education for the medical community and general population, and solid epidemiological data collection are strongly recommended as complementary measures. If such recommendations are implemented, it could be possible to organize a network for management of birth defects in Brazil that is regionalized, hierarchical, functional, and democratic as well.

  14. 妊娠合并症与妊娠期接触化学毒物对出生缺陷影响的系统评价%Effect of pregnancy complications and gestational exposure to toxic chemical on birth defect:a systematic ;evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳书华; 万素馨

    2016-01-01

    exposure to toxic chemical was a risk factor of birth defects.Conclusion Pregnancy complications and gestational exposure to toxic chemical are risk factors of birth defects,this targeted provides reference to birth defects prevention.

  15. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W;

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese........ Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...

  16. 宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷补漏调查%Investigation on the mend Leakage on the birth defects in Yichang between 2008 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小葵

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in Yichang city between 2008 and 2010. METHODS We investigated the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in midwifery agency of Yichang city on the basis of the National monitoring project of health of mothers and children. RESULTS The leakage rate was 7.49%, and the mistaking rate was 1.26% in the tables and cards. The two rates decreased year by year. CONCLUSION The fundamental guarantee of improving the quality of monitoring in the birth defects was the strengthening of management and supervision , and the raising responsibility of medical staff.%目的 了解宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况.方法 根据《全国妇幼卫生监测方案》对出生缺陷监测质量的要求,对城区各助产机构出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况进行调查.结果 2008~2010年宜昌市城区医院出生缺陷漏报率平均达7.49%;表、卡填写差错率平均达1.26%.漏报率和差错率都有逐年下降趋势.结论 加强管理,坚持督导,提高医务人员责任心,是提高出生缺陷监测质量的根本保证.

  17. Analysis of the Monitoring Results of Perinatal Birth Defects and Related Risk Factors%围产儿出生缺陷及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余灵辉; 李海燕; 曹登成

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the occurrence of birth defects in perinatal infants and to analyze the related risk factors .[Methods]From March 2011 to March 2015 ,110 cases of perinatal birth defect that occurred in our hos‐pital were selected as the observation group .According to 1:3 matching principle ,330 cases of normal newborn at the same time were regarded as the controls .Clinical data of birth defects were retrospectively analyzed ,and the possible factors associated with birth defects were evaluated by Logistic univariate and multivariate analysis .[Results]Com‐pared with the control group ,the proportion of high education ,high per capita income level ,and urban residence were lower in the observation group;the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0 .05 ) .Univariate analysis showed that smoking or alcohol drinking ,fever ,complications of pregnancy ,medication ,parity (counts of pregnancy and delivery) ,physical labor during pregnancy ,violence and chemical or X‐ray exposure ,adverse pregnancy history , and history of mental illness are risk factors for birth defects ,while pregnancy and premarital examinations ,good nu‐tritional condition ,and the use of folic acid are protective factors .Multivariate analysis also showed that the use of pregnancy and premarital tests were protective factors for birth defects ,while pregnancy complications ,exposure to chemicals or x‐ray ,and smoking or drinking alcohol were independent risk factors of birth defects and were statistical‐ly significant ( P <0 0.5) .[Conclusion]Birth defect is attributed to many factors .By means of advocating call for pre‐marital examination , pregnancy check‐up , reducing exposure to chemicals and other harmful substances in the periconceptional period and the occurrence of pregnancy complications ,the occurrence of birth defects can be reduced .%【目的】探讨围产儿出生缺陷的发生情况并分析与其相关的危险因素。【方法】选取2011

  18. Prevention of valproic acid-induced neural tube defects by sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2015-08-15

    This study was undertaken to test the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC), a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced teratogenesis. On gestation day (GD) 8, ICR (CD-1) mice were treated by gastric intubation with SC at 0 (vehicle), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg. One hour later, animals received a teratogenic dose of VPA (600mg/kg) or vehicle. Developmental endpoints were evaluated near the end of gestation. Twenty-eighth percent of fetuses exposed to VPA had neural tube defects (exencephaly). Pretreatment with SC at 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg significantly reduced the rate of VPA-induced exencephaly to 15.9%, 13.7%, and 10.0%, respectively. Axial skeletal defects were observed in 75.8% of VPA-exposed fetuses. Pre-treatment with SC at 10mg/kg, but not at lower doses, significantly decreased the rate of skeletally affected fetuses to 61.6%. These results show that SC, which prolongs nitric oxide (NO) signaling action protects from VPA-induced teratogenesis.

  19. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  20. Remaining visual field and preserved subjective visual functioning prevent mental distress in patients with visual field defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin eGall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with visual field defects after visual pathway lesion may experience reduced vision-related quality of life (vrQoL. It has not been clarified how vrQoL impairments contribute to vision-related mental distress.Methods: 108 subjects with visual field defects caused by optic neuropathies (age M=57.6; SD=13.7 years answered the National Eye Institute Visual-Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ for vrQoL and the SF-12 Short Form Health Survey for health-related quality of life (hrQoL. A ten item composite of NEI-VFQ visual functioning and five items of mental health symptoms due to vision problems were subjected to Rasch analysis. The test battery comprised static and High Resolution Perimetry (HRP. Regression and path analysis were used to investigate associations between QoL, mental distress and perimetry results.Results: A higher level of visual functioning was associated with monocular impairment and a larger remaining visual field compared to binocular impairment. Subjective visual functioning but not visual field parameters predicted mental health symptoms due to vision problems which was the only variable associated with the SF-12 mental component score. The SF-12 physical component score was less strongly associated with mental health symptoms due to vision problems. Here, reaction time in HRP and mean threshold in perimetry were additional significant variables. Path analysis revealed a significant path of remaining visual field via visual functioning on mental health. Conclusions: Subjective consequences of visual impairments in everyday life impact mental health rather than objective visual function loss as measured by perimetry. Since a higher extent of vrQoL was related to lower levels of mental distress, the maintenance of vrQoL could reduce and prevent mental distress due to vision problems. Patients with persisting visual field defects may benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation and supportive therapies.

  1. Usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa model for preventing palate bone alterations in rabbits with a mucoperiostial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Valadés-Gámez, Ricardo; Garzón, Ingrid; Liceras-Liceras, Esther; España-López, Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martin-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María-Ángeles; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria-Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández-Valadés, Ricardo

    2016-02-19

    The use of mucoperiostial flaps during cleft palate surgery is associated with altered palatal bone growth and development. We analyzed the potential usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa in an in vivo model of cleft palate. First, a 4 mm palate defect was created in one side of the palate oral mucosa of 3 week-old New Zealand rabbits, and a complete autologous bioengineered oral mucosa (BOM) or acellular fibrin-agarose scaffold (AS) was implanted. No material was implanted in the negative controls (NC), and positive controls were not subjected to palatal defect (PC). Animals were allowed to grow for 6 months and the results were analyzed morphologically (palate mucosa and bone size) and histologically. Results show that palatal mucosa and bone growth and development were significantly altered in NC and AS animals, whereas BOM animals had similar results to PC and the bioengineered oral mucosa was properly integrated in the host palate. The amount and compaction of collagen fibers was similar between BOM and PC, and both groups of animals had comparable contents of proteoglycans and glycoproteins at the palate bone. No differences were found for decorin, osteocalcin and BMP2. The use of bioengineered oral mucosa substitutes is able to improve palate growth and maturation by preventing the alterations found in animals with denuded palate bone. These results support the potential clinical usefulness of BOM substitutes for the treatment of patients with cleft palate and other conditions in which palate mucosa grafts are necessary with consequent bone denudation.

  2. A biodegradable antibiotic-impregnated scaffold to prevent osteomyelitis in a contaminated in vivo bone defect model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS McLaren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Open fractures are at risk of serious infection and, if infected, require several surgical interventions and courses of systemic antibiotics. We investigated a new injectable formulation that simultaneously hardens in vivo to form a porous scaffold for bone repair and delivers antibiotics at high concentrations to the local site of infection. Duration of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using the serial plate transfer test. Ultimate compressive strength and porosity of the material was measured with and without antibiotics. The material was evaluated in vivo in an ovine medial femoral condyle defect model contaminated with S. aureus. Sheep were sacrificed at either 2 or 13 weeks and the defect and surrounding bone assessed using micro-computed tomography and histology. Antimicrobial activity in vitro persisted for 19-21 days. Sheep with antibiotic-free material and bacteria became infected, while those with antibiotic-containing material and bacteria did not. Similarly, new bone growth was seen in uninoculated animals with plain polymer, and in those with antibiotic polymer with bacteria, but not in sheep with plain polymer and bacteria. The antibiotic-impregnated scaffolds were effective in preventing S. aureus infections whilst supporting bone growth and repair. If translated into clinical practice, this approach might reduce the need for systemic antibiotics.

  3. 热锻件常见缺陷及防止方法%Hot Forging Common Defects and Prevention Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹伟; 孙福勋

    2012-01-01

    The forging quality affects directly the performance of parts and service life. The paper analyses the reason of the heating control of oxidation, improper may cause the decarburization, excessive heat or burn, internal crack, heating distributed defects, of forging process prone to filling discontent, and fold, crack defects ,points out the reasons and puts forward the concrete prevention and solutions, and has important guiding role of ensure product quality and control forgings.%锻件质量的优劣直接影响着零件的性能及使用寿命。本文对加热控制不当可能导致的氧化、脱碳、过热或过烧、内部裂纹、加热不均匀等缺陷,对锻造过程容易出现的充填不满、折叠、裂纹等缺陷进行了研究分析,指出了产生的原因,提出了具体的预防、解决方案,对保证和控制锻件产品质量具有重要的指导作用。

  4. Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Congenital heart defects are the most common types of birth defects. ...

  5. C5a receptor signaling prevents folate deficiency-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Kerina J; Coulthard, Liam G; Jeanes, Angela; Lisgo, Steven; Simmons, David G; Callaway, Leonie K; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Finnell, Richard H; Woodruff, Trent M; Taylor, Stephen M

    2013-04-01

    The complement system is involved in a range of diverse developmental processes, including cell survival, growth, differentiation, and regeneration. However, little is known about the role of complement in embryogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for the canonical complement 5a receptor (C5aR) in the development of the mammalian neural tube under conditions of maternal dietary folic acid deficiency. Specifically, we found C5aR and C5 to be expressed throughout the period of neurulation in wild-type mice and localized the expression to the cephalic regions of the developing neural tube. C5aR was also found to be expressed in the neuroepithelium of early human embryos. Ablation of the C5ar1 gene or the administration of a specific C5aR peptide antagonist to folic acid-deficient pregnant mice resulted in a high prevalence of severe anterior neural tube defect-associated congenital malformations. These findings provide a new and compelling insight into the role of the complement system during mammalian embryonic development.

  6. Pharmacoeconomic impact of use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimaguila MAVT

    2013-04-01

    initiation of L. reuteri as a probiotic for prevention of NEC in neonates with birth weight ≤ 1000 g is a cost-effective strategy during their stay in neonatal intensive care. Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis, probiotic, extremely low birth weight, Lactobacillus reuteri, pharmacoeconomics

  7. Identifying associations between maternal medication use and birth defects using a case-population approach : an exploratory study on signal detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Linda; Zetstra-van der Woude, Priscilla A.; Bos, H. Jens; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Bakker, Marian K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of many drugs on the unborn child are unknown. In a case-population design, drug exposure of cases is compared with that of a source population; this kind of study can be useful for generating signals. Objective To see whether a comparison of drug use rates from the birth defe

  8. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  9. Especially for Teens: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the same time each day. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. There are many types of birth control pills. ... arm or buttock every 3 months. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. What is the implant? The implant is a ...

  10. Rare birth defects associated with Morgagni hernia and segmental aplasia of uterine horn in bitch: Case reportDefeitos congênitos raros em cadela – relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Santana de Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects, deformities or abnormalities are terms used to describe developmental defects present at birth, most of which are rare in bitches. We report the case of a six-month old mongrel bitch corpse, which, when subjected to an anatomotopographic study revealed the presence of rare birth defects as Morgagni hernia and segmental aplasia of the right uterine horn with its attachment to the transverses muscle of abdominis. In association with HM, we observed the presence of dextrocardia and a defect of the abdominal wall supraumbilical characteristic of incompletely Pentalogy of Cantrell’s, syndrome so far described only in humans. In association with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn, we observed the ipsilateral presence of the renal hypoplasia and ureteral agenesis. The diagnosis of those abnormalities was based on anatomical findings and confirmed histologically. Despite the rarity and complexity of the abnormalities first described in bitches, the literature suggested that the prognosis may be favorable to the life of the animal. However, early diagnosis is essential to avoid the potential complications of those diseasesDefeitos congênitos, deformidades ou anormalidades são termos usados para descrever defeitos no desenvolvimento presentes ao nascimento. A maioria destes, como a aplasia segmentar uterina, é de ocorrência rara em cadelas. Relata-se o caso de um cadáver de cadela, sem raça definida, de seis meses de idade, que ao ser submetido ao estudo anatomotopográfico revelou a presença de aplasia segmentar uterina (ASU associada à hérnia de Morgagni (HM, agenesia ureteral (AU e hipoplasia renal direita (HR. Além destas anormalidades, foi observada a presença de dextrocardia e de um defeito da parede abdominal supraumbilical, que caracterizam a forma incompleta da pentalogia de Cantrell, só descrita em humanos. O diagnóstico destas anormalidades foi baseado nos achados anatômicos e confirmado histologicamente. A

  11. Artifactual defect of inferior myocardium on [sup 123]I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial SPECT; Characteristic findings and preventive method on phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Terada, Shinichiro; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kashikura, Kenichi; Momose, Mitsuru; Hosoda, Saichi; Kusakabe, Kiyoko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Discordance between planar and SPECT image of inferior myocardial defect on [sup 123]I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) was occasionally observed in the clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the existence of artifactual myocardial defect on MIBG SPECT image. Phantom study was performed in various kinds of situation using triple gamma camera. Artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was significantly observed in the case of increased liver/heart uptake ratio more than 2:1. Artifactual defect was markedly observed in the 180 degree than that in the 360 degree SPECT acquisition. To avoid artifactual defect during SPECT acquisition, liver phantom was moved down to the foot direction (vanishing liver position). In this phantom position, artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was not observed on reconstructed myocardial SPECT image. The vanishing liver position was also applicable to human study. Human body was inclined to right side at an angle of 15 degree, artifactual defect could be avoided. Further study is needed to analyze the cause of this artifactual defect and to conform the preventive method with vanishing liver position in the routine myocardial SPECT examination. (author).

  12. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  13. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  14. Supplemental vitamin A prevents the acute radiation-induced defect in wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, S.M.; Gruber, C.A.; Rettura, G.; Gruber, D.K.; Demetriou, A.A.; Seifter, E.

    1984-10-01

    Acute radiation injury leads to thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal ulceration, and impaired wound healing. The authors hypothesized that supplemental vitamin A would mitigate these adverse effects in rats exposed to acute whole-body radiation. To test their hypothesis, dorsal skin incisions and subcutaneous implantation of polyvinyl alcohol sponges were performed in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats at varying times following sham radiation or varying doses of whole-body radiation (175-850 rad). In each experiment, the control diet (which contains about 18,000 IU vit. A/kg chow (3 X the NRC RDA for normal rats)) was supplemented with 150,000 IU vit. A/kg diet beginning at, before, or after sham radiation and wounding or radiation and wounding. The supplemental vitamin A prevented the impaired wound healing and lessened the weight loss, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, decrease in splenic weight, and gastric ulceration of the radiated (750-850 rad) wounded rats. This was true whether the supplemental vitamin A was begun before (2 or 4 days) or after (1-2 hours to 4 days) radiation and wounding; the supplemental vitamin A was more effective when started before or up to 2 days after radiation and wounding. The authors believe that prevention of the impaired wound healing following radiation by supplemental vitamin A is due to its enhancing the early inflammatory reaction to wounding, including increasing the number of monocytes and macrophages at the wound site; possible effect on modulating collagenase activity; effect on epithelial cell (and possible mesenchymal cell) differentiation; stimulation of immune responsiveness; and lessening of the adverse effects of radiation.

  15. Folic acid and prevention of neural tube defects in 2000 improved awareness--low peri-conceptional uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleary, M; Donnell, R M; Johnson, H

    2001-06-01

    Eight years have passed since recommendations were made by the Irish Department of Health on the importance of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD). There is currently no mandatory fortification of foodstuffs with folic acid in Ireland, with reliance placed on campaigns promoting increased dietary folate intake and supplements. We assessed knowledge and use of folic acid among 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin maternity hospitals in the year 2000 using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Qualitative information was obtained through means of a focus group. Ninety two percent of respondents had heard of folic acid and 67% knew it could prevent NTD. Thirty per cent were advised to take it peri-conceptionally but overall only 18% did so; 39% of women had planned their pregnancy. The focus group indicated that folic acid was not 'visible' enough and that fortification of food was more realistic. This study shows that improved folic acid awareness has not been accompanied by corresponding peri-conceptional uptake in 2000. Folic acid promotional campaigns should be continuous and targeted. Mandatory food fortification should be strongly considered.

  16. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  17. 北京平谷区三年出生缺陷产前超声筛查分析%Prenatal Ultrasound Screening Analysis for the Birth Defects within 3 Years in Pinggu District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大平

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ultrasonography in prenatal screening for birth defects diagnosis,understanding of the region the incidence of birth defects,in order to reduce the occurrence of congenital malformation.Methods In 2007,2008,my area,2009 (statistical time for every year from October 1st to next September 30th) delivery within seven days after the diagnosis of birth defects and ultrasound examination results were analyzed.Results In three years the region a total of 162 infants with birth defects,a total of 60 cases of prenatal ultrasound screening detected fetal malformation,and confirmed after birth ultrasound diagnosis correctly,ultrasound screening for the detection rate for 37 %.Missed diagnosis of malformations mainly for cardiac malformation in 45 cases,means (toe) abnormalities in 26 cases,lip,palate 8 cases.Conclusions Ultrasound examination can be detected in the vast majority of congenital fetal malformations,at present this area for gastroschisis,anencephaly and other obvious fetal malformation high detection rate,on minor malformations such as finger (toe) abnormalities in three years has never been detected,on fetal cardiac abnormalities by ultrasonography technology needs to be further improved.%目的 探讨超声产前筛查对出生缺陷的诊断价值,了解本地区出生缺陷的发生动态,为减少先天畸形的发生提供依据.方法 将平谷区2007-2009年(统计时间为每年10月1日至次年9月30日)分娩后7d内诊断的出生缺陷儿与超声检查结果,进行对比分析.结果 3年全区共分娩畸形儿162例,产前超声共筛查出60例畸形胎儿,且出生后证实超声诊断正确,超声筛查的检出率为37%.漏诊心脏畸形45例,指(趾)异常26例,唇、腭裂8例等.结论 超声检查可以检出绝大多数的胎儿先天畸形,目前平谷区对腹裂、无脑儿等明显的胎儿畸形检出率高,对微小畸形如指(趾)异常3年从未检出过,对胎儿心脏异常的超声检查技术有待进一步提高.

  18. Birth Defects in Infants Born in 1998-2004 to Men and Women Serving in the US Military During the 1990-1991 Gulf War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    exposure data and in-theater medical care were linked to birth data to investigate the potential for long-term teratogenicity of specific exposures...the National Personnel Records Center database. Furthermore, few data were available regarding other possible teratogens , such as depleted uranium...Arfsten et al., 2001), or known teratogens , such as smoking (Werler et al., 2005), alcohol consumption (Larkby and Day, 1997), and pesticide expo- sure

  19. Effect analysis of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan%中山地区重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施的实施对降低唐氏综合征出生率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 江陵; 吴剑波; 陈昂; 陈咏莲; 李莉敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analysize the effect of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan, 2010 -2011. Methods; Prenatal screening of Down's syndrome has been free in residents since January 1, 2010. The Surveillance and Intervention were carried out at the same time. Data of the surveillance were analyzed, 2008 -2011 , comparing the difference of the incidences. Results; After the surveillance and intervention, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome increased significantly. The rate of live births with Down's syndrome decreased in 2010 -2011 (1. 63 -0. 64/ten thousand) compared with 2008 and 2009 (3. 5-3. 78/ten thousand). Conclusion; The Surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on were effective on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan.%目的 分析2010年-2011年中山地区对重大出生缺陷采取的监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面的实际效果.方法 2010年1月1日始中山市对户籍人口实施免费产前筛查唐氏综合征,并进行监控和干预措施,通过2008年-2011年中山市出生缺陷监测网监测唐氏综合征儿数据,比较唐氏综合征出生率的差异.结果 实施重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施后,唐氏综合征的产前诊断率显著提高,唐氏综合征出生率2010年-2011年(1.63-0.64/万)较2008年-2009年(3.5-3.78/万)有明显下降(P =0.001).结论 2010年-2011年中山市对重大出生缺陷采取监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面起到很好的效果.

  20. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a community-based delivery system and its effect on parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, Ib; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of a community-based delivery system of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on access, parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight as primary outcome measures. METHODS.......0001). At both health units and the community-based approaches, IPT increased mean hemoglobin by 6.7% (panemia from 5.7% to 3.1% (p.... This intervention was acceptable to 89.6% of the women at the community-based approaches intending to use IPT in the future, while 48.1% of them had recommended it to other women. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based approaches increased access and adherence to IPT with an effect on anemia, severe anemia, parasitemia...

  1. Estudo de prevalência de defeitos congênitos no Vale do Paraíba Paulista Prevalence study of birth defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Otaviano Pinto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de anomalias congênitas no Vale do Paraíba Paulista em 2002 e 2003. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados constantes na Declaração de Nascido Vivo (DNV, cujas informações estavam no portal da Secretaria da Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. As malformações foram descritas de acordo com o capítulo XVII do Código Internacional de Doenças (CID 10, referente a variáveis maternas e do recém-nascido. A variável desfecho (dependente foi a presença de anomalia congênita; as demais informações das mães e do recém-nascido constantes na DNV (variáveis independentes foram analisadas para estimar as associações entre elas e a variável desfecho. Utilizou-se o programa Epi-Info 6.04d para análise estatística e o teste do qui-quadrado, do qui-quadrado de tendência linear e o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 41.838 dados com informações constantes nas DNVs, sendo identificados 618 (1,5% sem preenchimento do campo correspondente à anomalia congênita e 317 (0,76% nascidos com anomalia congênita. Houve associação positiva de anomalias congênitas com menor duração da gestação, maior número de filhos mortos, tipo de parto, baixo peso ao nascer e menor escore de Apgar. Os sistemas mais afetados foram o osteomuscular e o nervoso. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de malformações foi menor que a encontrada em outros estudos, possivelmente por sub-registro de informação.OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of birth defects in the Vale do Paraíba Paulista, São Paulo - Brazil, during the years of 2002 and 2003. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on Birth Certificates available in the São Paulo Health Secretary site. The abnormalities were described according to chapter XVII of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10 for variables related to mothers and infants born alive at birth. The dependent variable was the presence of abnormalities

  2. Regulation of Budding Yeast CENP-A levels Prevents Misincorporation at Promoter Nucleosomes and Transcriptional Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Hildebrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The exclusive localization of the histone H3 variant CENP-A to centromeres is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis helps to ensure that CENP-A does not mislocalize to euchromatin, which can lead to genomic instability. Consistent with this, overexpression of the budding yeast CENP-A(Cse4 is lethal in cells lacking Psh1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CENP-A(Cse4 for degradation. To identify additional mechanisms that prevent CENP-A(Cse4 misincorporation and lethality, we analyzed the genome-wide mislocalization pattern of overexpressed CENP-A(Cse4 in the presence and absence of Psh1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing. We found that ectopic CENP-A(Cse4 is enriched at promoters that contain histone H2A.Z(Htz1 nucleosomes, but that H2A.Z(Htz1 is not required for CENP-A(Cse4 mislocalization. Instead, the INO80 complex, which removes H2A.Z(Htz1 from nucleosomes, promotes the ectopic deposition of CENP-A(Cse4. Transcriptional profiling revealed gene expression changes in the psh1Δ cells overexpressing CENP-A(Cse4. The down-regulated genes are enriched for CENP-A(Cse4 mislocalization to promoters, while the up-regulated genes correlate with those that are also transcriptionally up-regulated in an htz1Δ strain. Together, these data show that regulating centromeric nucleosome localization is not only critical for maintaining centromere function, but also for ensuring accurate promoter function and transcriptional regulation.

  3. Regulation of Budding Yeast CENP-A levels Prevents Misincorporation at Promoter Nucleosomes and Transcriptional Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Erica M; Biggins, Sue

    2016-03-01

    The exclusive localization of the histone H3 variant CENP-A to centromeres is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis helps to ensure that CENP-A does not mislocalize to euchromatin, which can lead to genomic instability. Consistent with this, overexpression of the budding yeast CENP-A(Cse4) is lethal in cells lacking Psh1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CENP-A(Cse4) for degradation. To identify additional mechanisms that prevent CENP-A(Cse4) misincorporation and lethality, we analyzed the genome-wide mislocalization pattern of overexpressed CENP-A(Cse4) in the presence and absence of Psh1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing. We found that ectopic CENP-A(Cse4) is enriched at promoters that contain histone H2A.Z(Htz1) nucleosomes, but that H2A.Z(Htz1) is not required for CENP-A(Cse4) mislocalization. Instead, the INO80 complex, which removes H2A.Z(Htz1) from nucleosomes, promotes the ectopic deposition of CENP-A(Cse4). Transcriptional profiling revealed gene expression changes in the psh1Δ cells overexpressing CENP-A(Cse4). The down-regulated genes are enriched for CENP-A(Cse4) mislocalization to promoters, while the up-regulated genes correlate with those that are also transcriptionally up-regulated in an htz1Δ strain. Together, these data show that regulating centromeric nucleosome localization is not only critical for maintaining centromere function, but also for ensuring accurate promoter function and transcriptional regulation.

  4. 筒纱常见疵点成因及预防%Prevention and Reasons of Cheese Yarn Frequent Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈航; 杨绪美

    2012-01-01

    总结络筒过程中乱纱、夹回丝、小辫子纱、双纱纱疵的产生原因及解决措施.分析了细纱管纱脱圈、大吸嘴与筒纱距离、张力盒作用不良、结头动作频繁、筒纱与槽筒接触不良对筒纱乱纱纱疵的影响,并介绍了预防筒纱夹回丝、小辫子纱、双纱纱疵的技术要点.认为做好细纱管纱成形工作和张力盒、捻接器等部件的检修工作可以有效降低乱纱纱疵的发生;合理设置络筒工艺和做好各部清洁工作才能更好的减少筒纱各类纱疵的发生.%Measures and reasons of several frequent defects in winding process were summarized. Cheese yam raveling factors were analyzed, such as bobbin yarn slough-off,gauge between large nozzle and cheese yam,tension box work worse,splicing frequently, poor contact between cheese yam and groove drum. Technology key points of preventing cheese yam thread waste, itink, winder doubling were introduced, It is considered that tavelings can he reduced by dealing bobbin yarn forming,examining & repairing tension box and splicer. Winding processing should be adapted rationally, cleaning should be done well to reduce all types of cheese yam defects.

  5. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya

    2015-01-01

    of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l...

  6. Bladder Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siffel, Csaba; Correa, Adolfo; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We us

  7. Experience of reasons and intervention measures of 7 cases of birth defects of multi finger(toe)%出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例原因分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呙明蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨出生缺陷多指(趾)儿的原因及干预措施。方法:2009年10月-2013年9月收治出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例,针对其发生率、孕周、胎儿性别、孕妇的年龄、文化程度、孕早期情况、出生缺陷、转归等7个方面进行统计及分析。结果:发生率:出生缺陷儿的发生率70.63‰,围产儿的死亡率32.60‰;多指(趾)儿发生率26.92%,围产儿存活率100%。孕周:37周1例,38周3例,39周2例,40周1例,7例均为足月产。胎儿性别:男4例,女3例,性别没有差异。孕妇年龄:26岁1例,27岁1例,28岁2例,29岁2例,30岁1例,孕妇年龄没有差别。文化程度:小学1例,初中3例,大专3例。孕早期情况:感冒1例,发热1例,无异常5例。畸形部位:多指5例,多趾1例,右足并趾1例。转归:活产7例,均为活产。结论;对7例出生缺陷儿的原因分析,加强对优生优育的宣教,避免不良生活习惯,避免孕早期病毒感染和孕期的保健,提高生存质量的重要措施。%Objective:To explore the reasons and intervention measures of birth defects of multi finger(toe).Methods:7 cases with birth defects of multi finger(toe) were selected from October 2009 to September 2013.We analyzed the incidence,gestational weeks,fetus gender,maternal age,culture degree,early pregnancy,birth defects and prognosis.Results:The incidence rate of birth defects in children was 70.63‰,and perinatal mortality was 32.60‰.Multi finger(toe) rate was 26.92%,and the perinatal survival rate was 100%.Gestational age:1 case was 37 weeks,3 cases were 38 weeks,2 cases were 39 weeks,1 case were 40 weeks,7 cases were all full-term birth.The sex of the fetus:4 cases were male,3 cases were female,there was no gender differences.Age of pregnant women:1 case was 26 years old,1 case was 27 years old,2 cases were 28 years old,2 cases were 29 years old,1 case was 30 years old,there was no difference in

  8. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zsuzsanna Suba National Institute of Oncology, Surgical and Molecular Tumor Pathology Centre, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. Keywords: cancer prevention, infertility, insulin resistance, menopause

  9. Participation of traditional birth attendants in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in two rural districts in Zimbabwe: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelsmann Barbara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT is among the key HIV prevention strategies in Zimbabwe. A decrease in use of antenatal care (ANC services with an increase in home deliveries is affecting the coverage of PMTCT interventions in a context of accelerated economic crisis. The main objective was to evaluate acceptability and feasibility of reinforcing the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs in family and child health services through their participation in PMTCT programmes in Zimbabwe. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was undertaken using multistage cluster sampling in two rural districts through interviews and focus group discussions among women who delivered at home with a TBA, those who had an institutional delivery and TBAs. Results 45% of TBAs interviewed knew the principles of PMTCT and 8% delivered a woman with known HIV-positive status in previous year. Of the complete package of PMTCT services, more than 75% of TBAs agreed to participate in most activities with the exception of performing a blood test (17%, accompanying new-borns to closest health centre to receive medication (15% and assisting health centres in documentation of the link ANC-PMTCT services (18%. Women who delivered at home were less likely to have received more than one ANC service or have had contact with a health centre compared to women who delivered in a health centre (91.0% vs 72.6%; P Conclusion Although the long-term goal of ANC service delivery in Zimbabwe remains the provision of skilled delivery attendance, PMTCT programmes will benefit from complementary approaches to prevent missed opportunities. TBAs are willing to expand their scope of work regarding activities related to PMTCT. There is a need to reinforce their knowledge on MTCT prevention measures and better integrate them into the health system.

  10. Awareness of folic acid for prevention of neural tube defects in a community with high prevalence of consanguineous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lutfi; Karim, Igbaria A; Jawdat, Abu Moch; Fausi, Mawasi; Merlob, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations and can be fatal. Intake of 0.4 mg folic in the periconceptional period reduces the risk of NTD by 50-70%. Consanguinity in the Arab population in Israel is a prevalent custom. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness regarding folic acid and its effect in the prevention of NTD among Arab Israeli women of childbearing age. We conducted a cross-sectional study. Of the 653 women (18-45 years) who were randomly selected for interview while visiting their family physician or well-baby clinic, 624 women completed the questionnaire. Fifty-three percent (n = 333) of the respondents had heard of folic acid; 14% (n = 89) were familiar with the protective effect of NTD and 3% (n = 18) had taken folic acid in the first months of pregnancy whereas none of them had used it in the preconception period. Highly educated women, women with one or two children, paramedics, and women of high socioeconomic status were more knowledgeable about the protective effects of folic acid (P awareness of this population to the protective effect of folic acid. Daily supplementation and fertification of food with folic acid should be considered as the best way to improve the balance of folic acid in women of childbearing age of this special population (high prevalence of consanguinity).

  11. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the