WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth defects prevention

  1. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy during pregnancy, and giving your baby a healthy start in life will help you to have peace of mind. Before pregnancy » During pregnancy » To learn about CDC’s work to help prevent birth defects, visit our Research and Tracking page. Related Links Disability and Health ...

  2. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  3. A Prescription for the Prevention of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Harold C.

    1984-01-01

    Factors influencing birth defects include maternal age (teenagers and women over 32 are at risk), genetics, drug use, diet habits, and environmental hazards. The physical, social, and economic costs of birth defects are extreme. Prevention must involve efforts to change some of these factors. (Author/CS)

  4. Sex ratios among infants with birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Adrian M; Richardson, Sandra D; Browne, Marilyn L; Carmichael, Suzan L; Canfield, Mark A; VanZutphen, Alissa R; Anderka, Marlene T; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2015-05-01

    A small number of population-based studies have examined sex differences among infants with birth defects. This study presents estimates of sex ratio for both isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies, as well as by race/ethnicity. Male-female sex ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for 25,952 clinically reviewed case infants included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2009), a large population-based case-control study of birth defects. The highest elevations in sex ratios (i.e., male preponderance) among isolated non-cardiac defects were for craniosynostosis (2.12), cleft lip with cleft palate (2.01), and cleft lip without cleft palate (1.78); the lowest sex ratios (female preponderance) were for choanal atresia (0.45), cloacal exstrophy (0.46), and holoprosencephaly (0.64). Among isolated cardiac defects, the highest sex ratios were for aortic stenosis (2.88), coarctation of the aorta (2.51), and d-transposition of the great arteries (2.34); the lowest were multiple ventricular septal defects (0.52), truncus arteriosus (0.63), and heterotaxia with congenital heart defect (0.64). Differences were observed by race/ethnicity for some but not for most types of birth defects. The sex differences we observed for specific defects, between those with isolated versus multiple defects, as well as by race/ethnicity, demonstrate patterns that may suggest etiology and improve classification. PMID:25711982

  5. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  6. Birth defects, causal attributions, and ethnicity in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Royle, Marjorie; Scheuerle, Angela E; Carmichael, Suzan L; Moffitt, Karen; Ramadhani, Tunu

    2014-10-01

    In order to translate research findings into effective prevention strategies, it is important to understand people's beliefs about the causes of poor health outcomes. However, with the exception of knowledge and beliefs about folic acid supplementation, little is known regarding women's causal attributions women regarding birth defects. We employed Attribution Theory constructs to analyze open-text interview responses from 2,672 control mothers in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who gave birth in 1997-2005. Common themes included use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and medications during pregnancy. Stress and emotional upset were also suggested as possible causes of birth defects. Genetic- and heredity-related responses were more likely to be mentioned by Asian/Pacific Islander women compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic women were less likely to suggest several specific possible teratogens, such as paint, pesticides, or other chemicals, but were more likely to suggest events occurring during childbirth. Differences also emerged among ethnic groups for theoretical constructs, although most responses were categorized as controllable, changeable over time, and with an internal locus of causality. PMID:24682893

  7. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whet...

  8. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects.

  9. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, Andrew E

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg) might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 - 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 - 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects. PMID:15912190

  10. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  11. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D.; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2). Prevalence did not differ significantly across sites, over time, or by inclusion of pregnancy termination. Laterality defects were more common among preterm cases compared to term cases, and in children born to mothers who were non-white or younger than 20 years compared to white mothers or those age 25–29 years. The distribution of associated cardiac and extracardiac defects, excluding the expected heterotaxy anomalies, varied by type of laterality defect. Cases with heterotaxy were significantly more likely than those with SIT to have double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular canal defects, pulmonary stenosis, non-tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, totally and partially anomalous pulmonary venous return; also more likely to have orofacial clefts, esophageal atresia, bowel atresias, and omphalocele, though not reaching statistical significance. Relatively more common among cases with SIT were Dandy-Walker malformation, anotia/microtia, and limb deficiency. The similarity in the demographic characteristics of heterotaxy and SIT supports the hypothesis that they are part of a continuum of abnormal left-right axis patterning. These findings on laterality defects may help guide clinical care, future research, and prevention strategies. PMID:25099286

  12. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring of Participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J.; Romitti, Paul A.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shinde, Mayura U; Vuong, Ann M; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Griesenbeck, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. Objectives: We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. Methods: With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses o...

  13. Adding Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour May Prevent Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Adding Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour May Prevent Birth Defects Share Tweet ... mainstay of their regular diets—which often are corn masa-based.” This could be a reason why ...

  14. Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water in the National Birth Defects Prevention study

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Jennifer J.; Emch, Michael; Meyer, Robert E.; Langlois, Peter; Weyer, Peter; Mosley, Bridget; Olshan, Andrew F.; Band, Lawrence E.; Thomas J. Luben; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals might increase the risk of hypospadias by interrupting normal urethral development. Methods Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we considered the role of maternal exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide and potential endocrine disruptor, via drinking water in the ...

  15. Diabetes and Obesity-Related Genes and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lupo, Philip J.; Canfield, Mark A.; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A.J.; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M.; Waller, D. Kim; Olshan, Andrew F.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999–2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and...

  16. Preventive program of birth defects: incidence of anencephaly in Maracaibo, Venezuela. 1993-1996 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia, and specifically in the Eastern Coast of Lake Maracaibo, an oil exploitation area, has been declared high since the beginning of the 80's, coincident with the generalized use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for fetal evaluation. Through the Birth Defects Preventive Program, established at the Hospital Chiquinquira in Maracaibo, we have developed a fourfold strategy for the study of birth defects: i) analysis of more than 32,332 ultrasound evaluations within the Ultrasound Service, between 1993 and 1996, ii) a case-control malformation registry beginning in 1995, iii) a study of malformed stillbirths at the Pathology Service, observed after 4232 deliveries within this hospital, and iv) a registry of over 638 mothers with high risk pregnancy for fetal defects detected at the prenatal clinic and carried out at the Perinatal Medical Genetics Service. As a reference population we study 345 medical histories obtained from the Medical Genetics and Prenatal Diagnostic Service at Hospital Coromoto, and oil companies related medical facility. This approach has led us to conclude that the incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia is 0.75/1000, significantly similar to that expected for most populations

  17. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  18. Assessment of student pharmacists' knowledge concerning folic acid and prevention of birth defects demonstrates a need for further education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sean M

    2002-03-01

    Adequate periconceptional consumption of folic acid can prevent neural tube birth defects, and all women capable of becoming pregnant are recommended to consume 400 microg/d. Most women, however, are unaware of this recommendation and do not consume adequate amounts of folic acid. It is important, therefore, that healthcare professionals, such as pharmacists, be capable of educating women regarding folic acid. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding prevention of birth defects by folic acid among student (future) pharmacists in the final year of a professional degree program. Over a 3-y period (1998-2000), students (n = 98) enrolled in a PharmD program completed a survey consisting of five multiple-choice questions concerning folic acid and birth defects. Almost all students (93.9%) correctly identified folic acid as preventing birth defects. Of these students, many also knew that supplementation should begin before pregnancy (73.9%). Fewer, however, were able to correctly identify either the recommended level of intake (55.4%) or good sources of folic acid (57.6-65.2%). These results show that although student (future) pharmacists are aware of folic acid's ability to prevent birth defects, many lack the specific knowledge needed to effectively counsel women in future clinical practice.

  19. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  20. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  1. DESCRIPTIVE CASES STUDY OF CARE, SURVEILLANCE AND PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN RWANDAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ. Irakiza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “According to the World Health Statistics 2008, about 260 000 neonatal deaths worldwide are caused by Congenital anomalies. This fiure represents about 7% of all neonatal deaths”. In our study, birth accounted Defects for 14.9% out of 581 recruited infants with birth defects (87 cases. In this series, 52.9% were Female whereas 47.1% were male.13.8% were premature babies (≤37weeks, 74.7% aged <5 months and 11.5% were infants aged between 5 and 12 months. Polymalformative conditions were the most common Cause of death identifid in 21 cases (24%, gastrointestinal birth defects caused death in 15 cases (17%, nervous system in 14 (16%, Cardio-vascular birth defects in 10 cases (12%, Chromosomal abnormalities In 10 cases (12%, musculoskeletal defects in 10 cases (12%, congenital mass in 2 cases (2%, oral defects in 2 cases (2%, congenital skin defect in 1 case(1%, whereas congenital respiratory defect and genitourinary malformations in 1 case each (1%.Over 50% patients died in referral hospitals and 77% died after 24 hours of life.

  2. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  3. Diabetes and Obesity-Related Genes and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J.; Canfield, Mark A.; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A. J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Shaw, Gary M.; Waller, D. Kim; Olshan, Andrew F.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999–2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. PMID:23132673

  4. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. PMID:23132673

  5. Maternal occupation and the risk of major birth defects: a follow-up analysis from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao; Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Chapman, Bonnie R; Munsie, Jean-Pierre; Olshan, Andrew F; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2013-06-01

    This study further examined the association between selected maternal occupations and a variety of birth defects identified from prior analysis and explored the effect of work hours and number of jobs held and potential interaction between folic acid and occupation. Data from a population-based, multi-center case-control study was used. Analyses included 45 major defects and specific sub-occupations under five occupational groups: healthcare workers, cleaners, scientists, teachers and personal service workers. Both logistic regression and Bayesian models (to minimize type-1 errors) were used, adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by folic acid was also assessed. More than any other occupation, nine different defects were positively associated with maids or janitors [odds ratio (OR) range: 1.72-3.99]. Positive associations were also seen between the following maternal occupations and defects in their children (OR range: 1.35-3.48): chemists/conotruncal heart and neural tube defects (NTDs), engineers/conotruncal defects, preschool teachers/cataracts and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P), entertainers/athletes/gastroschisis, and nurses/hydrocephalus and left ventricular outflow tract heart defects. Non-preschool teachers had significantly lower odds of oral clefts and gastroschisis in their offspring (OR range: 0.53-0.76). There was a suggestion that maternal folic acid use modified the effects with occupations including lowering the risk of NTDs and CL/P. No consistent patterns were found between maternal work hours or multiple jobs by occupation and the risk of birth defects. Overall, mothers working as maids, janitors, biologists, chemists, engineers, nurses, entertainers, child care workers and preschool teachers had increased risks of several malformations and non-preschool teachers had a lower risk of some defects. Maternal folic acid use reduced the odds of NTDs and CL/P among those with certain occupations. This hypothesis

  6. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  7. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  8. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  9. Risk factors for non-syndromic holoprosencephaly in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric A; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Frías, Jaime L; Honein, Margaret A

    2010-02-15

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a complex structural brain anomaly that results from incomplete cleavage of the forebrain. The prevalence of HPE at birth is low, and risk factors have been difficult to identify. Using data from a large multi-state population-based case-control study, we examined risk factors for non-syndromic HPE. Data from maternal telephone interviews were available for 74 infants with HPE and 5871 controls born between 1997 and 2004. Several characteristics and exposures were examined, including pregnancy history, medical history, maternal diet and use of nutritional supplements, medications, tobacco, alcohol, and illegal substances. We used chi(2)-tests and logistic regression (excluding women with pre-existing diabetes) to examine associations with HPE. Except for diet (year before pregnancy) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (throughout pregnancy), most exposures were examined for the time period from the month before to the third month of pregnancy. HPE was found to be associated with pre-existing diabetes (chi(2) = 6.0; P = 0.01), aspirin use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-6.9], lower education level (aOR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1-5.6), and use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) (crude OR = 4.2; 95%CI 1.3-13.7). Consistent maternal folic acid use appeared to be protective (aOR = 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-1.0), but the association was of borderline statistical significance. While some of these findings support previous observations, other potential risk factors identified warrant further study. PMID:20104597

  10. Preventing Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    NERVIDUCT malformation caught the attention of the Chinese government in 1983 when professor Yan Renying, now director of the China Maternal and Infant Health Care Center, conducted an epidemiological survey of new-borns in Shunyi County, Beijing, and discovered that one-third of infant mortality in the area was caused by

  11. Study on the Secondary Prevention Strategy for Birth Defects%出生缺陷二级预防策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂荣; 肖绪武; 孙瑾; 刘启贵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the economic effectiveness of three strategies of the sec-ondary prevention for birth defects in order to provide the basis for the prevention decision on congenital disa-bilities .Methods:A decision tree model was used to make a decision analysis on the cost-effectiveness of the three strategies .Results :The birth defects detection rates of three strategies were 82 .82% ,98 .2% ,94 . 50% respectively .The cost of one birth defect detected of the third strategy was lowest .Conclusions :In-creasing an ultrasound screening for high-risk pregnant women is an economical and effective strategy to pre-vent birth defects .%目的:评价、比较出生缺陷的3种二级预防策略的经济学效果,为有效预防先天性残疾提供决策依据。方法:采用决策树模型,对3种策略的成本-效果进行比较。结果:3种策略的出生缺陷检出率分别为82.82%、98.2%、94.50%,策略3成本/效果比最低。结论:高危孕妇增加超声筛查是一种既经济又有效的预防策略。

  12. Public health approach to birth defects: the Argentine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Birth defects are a global problem, but their impact is particularly severe in low and middle income countries, where the conditions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation are more critical. The epidemiological transition in the infant mortality causes, and the concern of the community and the mass media about the teratogenic risk of environmental pollutants, has made health authorities aware of the importance of birth defects in Argentina. The objective of this paper is to outline those actions specifically taken in Argentina aimed at the prevention of birth defects at a national level. Firstly, we focus on birth defects in Argentina on a general basis, and then we present different laws and actions taken in terms of surveillance and public health programs, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Finally, we present the Teratology Information Service "Fetal Health Line", and the genetic services organization and health professionals training by the National Center of Medical Genetics and the National Program of Genetics Network. In conclusion, in the country, several programs focus on different approaches to the problem, and the challenge is to coordinate the teamwork between them. Finally, we list tips to address birth defects from the public health perspective. PMID:25564015

  13. CDC Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika Three babies born with defects, while three pregnancies ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the first reporting of Zika-related birth defects in the United States, federal ...

  14. Agrichemicals in surface water and birth defects in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Winchester, Paul D; Huskins, Jordan; Ying, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate if live births conceived in months when surface water agrichemicals are highest are at greater risk for birth defects. Methods: Monthly concentrations during 1996–2002 of nitrates, atrazine and other pesticides were calculated using United States Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment data. Monthly United States birth defect rates were calculated for live births from 1996 to 2002 using United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention natality ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  16. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  17. 超声检查在出生缺陷预防中的应用%Ultrasonographic examination for prevention of fetal birth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keong WONG

    2009-01-01

    During pregnancy, a unique and dramatic sequence of events occurs, defining the most remarkable transformation of a single cell into a recognizable human being. Uhrasonographic examination is play a important role for prevention of fetal birth defect. For some years, there have been dramatic advances in ultrasound technology, including improved spatial and contrast resolution, three-dimensionaland four-dimenstional imaging, harmonic imaging, new and improved ultrasound sanning probes, and improved digital review workstations, to name a few. Likewise, our knowledge of normal fetal anatomy and pathology, and the pathophysiology of disease have increased substantially. The internet has made communication among researcheres earier. There have been many collaborative studies and refinements of the guidelines for the performance of the obstetric ultrasound examination. But there are still some differences in the approach to the obstetric ultrasound examination from one group to the others. Some issues such as what constitutes a basic ultrasound examination, what structure should be perform and interpret the examination, how safe is ultrasound, how should it be recorded and documented, how should it be reported,and how accurate rate of diagnosis fetal congenital malformation. In conclusion is that, the appeal of the ultrasound examination is that it is a noninvasive, safe procedure that has a high degree of patient acceptance and can yield a wealth of information. It is always a delight to examine the obstetric patient and reassure her about her pregnancy, when appropriate. However, there are times when an abnormality is strongly suspected but it may be equivoal or may not fit into a specific category. Under these circumstances, the best pathway for the sonologist to is to do a follow-up examination and seek consultation. If time does not allow a follow-up examination, then the sonologist should communicate to the referring physician and the patient that a definiitve

  18. Postmarketing analysis of medicines: methodology and value of the spanish case-control study and surveillance system in preventing birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, María Luisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many surveillance systems of congenital defects all over the world; several of them have developed specific approaches to generate and test selected hypotheses regarding human teratogens. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of them have a permanent and systematised programme for the study of the risk and safety of drugs. The aim of this article is to describe the research programme on the potential effects of drugs in pregnancy followed by the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC), which is a permanent ongoing case-control study and surveillance system. The programme to analyse drugs includes a continuous and systematic study on the potential effects of medicines used during pregnancy. This programme has several characteristics that make it different from other current systems: (i) the collection of numerous datapoints (up to 312 per infant) in a case-control design; (ii) the use of a versatile and specific coding of birth defects; (iii) a specific programme for the continuous analysis of the potential effects of each type of drugs used during pregnancy that has been developed specifically for the ECEMC methodology, including its dysmorphological coding system. The description of the ECEMC's approach to surveillance of the effects of drug use during pregnancy may help researches in this area, particularly those using data from birth defects registries. PMID:17408307

  19. Spatiotemporal Property Analysis of Birth Defects in Wuxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI-LEI WU; GONG CHEN; XIN-MING SONG; CHENG-FU LI; LEI ZHANG; LAN LIU; XIAO-YING ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the temporal trends and spatial patterns of birth defects occurring in Wuxi, a developed region of China. Methods Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the temporal trends of birth defect prevalence based on the birth defect rates over the past 16 years. Birth defect cases with detailed personal and family information were geo-coded and the relative risk in each village was calculated. General G statistic was used to test the spatial property with different scales. Results Wavelet analysis showed an increasing temporal trend of birth defects in this region. Clustering analysis revealed that changes continued in the spatial patterns with different scales. Conclusion Wuxi is confronted with severe challenges to reduce birth defect prevalence. The risk factors are stable and show no change with spatial scale but an increasing temporal trend. Interventions should be focused on villages with a higher prevalence of birth defects.

  20. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    2001-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  1. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range,glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinat Gabbay-Benziv; E Albert Reece; Fang Wang, Peixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age(18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3million American women have diabetes mellitus, andit has been estimated that this number will doubleby 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is asignificant public health problem that increases therisk for structural birth defects affecting both maternaland neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most commontypes of human structural birth defects associated withPGD are congenital heart defects and central nervoussystem defects. However, diabetes can induce birthdefects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rateof birth defects increases linearly with the degree ofmaternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor thatmediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal careand glycemic control are effective means to reducebirth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reducethe incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seenin the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal modelshave revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress,which activates cellular stress signalling leading todysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosisin the target organs, including the neural tube andembryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signalregulatingkinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in thedeveloping neural tube leading to neural tube defects(NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfoldedprotein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acidabrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces theformation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin,which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway orER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birthdefects. Gabbay-Benziv R et al . Birth defects in pregestational diabetes

  2. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  4. 已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的调查%Survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of preventing birth defects in married reproduction women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪己东; 翁彦云; 徐沛金; 戴黎玫; 武英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in community in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) for married women in reproductive age. Method A self-designed general information form and a questionnaire on KAP of married women′s preventing birth defects were used to investigate the KAP among 300 married nulliparous women. Result The average rate of cognitive knowledge of birth defects was 60.8%, the average rate of cognitive behaviors was 59.2%, and the average rate of cognitive attitude was 67.4%. Conclusion In order to reduce the rate of birth defects and improve the quality of births, we should implement three-level prevention education system, enrich the health education methods to enhance the knowledge, attitude and behavior of married women.%目的:了解已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为情况,为制订相关的护理对策提供依据。方法采用自行设计的一般资料调查表和预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为调查表对300名已婚育龄妇女进行调查。结果已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识平均认知率为60.8%,行为平均认知率为59.2%,态度平均认知率为67.4%。结论实施三级预防,采取多种形式的健康教育方法以提高已婚育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识、态度和行为水平,从而降低出生缺陷率,提高出生人口的素质。

  5. Understanding optimal nutrition among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico: employing formative research to lay the foundation for national birth defects prevention campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Lisa L Massi; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Valencia, Diana; Correa-Sierra, Elia; Kopfman, Jenifer E

    2007-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year and affected 404 pregnancies in Puerto Rico from 1996 to 2002. Consuming the B vitamin folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs 50%-70%, and recent efforts to reduce NTD rates have focused on increasing the number of childbearing-aged women who take a vitamin containing folic acid every day. As the first stage of formative research in campaign planning, two exploratory, qualitative studies were conducted in order to (a) understand the complexity of vitamin use among women in the United States and Puerto Rico and (b) serve as a foundation on which to develop national communication and education interventions. Also, this information shed light on theories that might be used to guide campaign development. Results indicated that campaign messages designed to increase folic acid use through multivitamin supplementation in the United States must address women's barriers to vitamin use (e.g., cost, time), increase women's perceived need for multivitamins (e.g., identify immediate, tangible results from taking a daily multivitamin), and address the relationship between daily food choices and the need for supplementation. Future campaign messages in Puerto Rico must focus on many of these same issues, in addition to increasing women's knowledge about when folic acid should be taken in relation to pregnancy and addressing women's perceptions that vitamins cause weight gain (an undesirable outcome for most participants). The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed in terms of their contribution to the development of a creative new approach to increase multivitamin consumption among women of childbearing age in the United States and Puerto Rico. PMID:18030639

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frassoldi Emanuela

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects are a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality in Italy, however little is known of the etiology of most defects. Improvements in diagnosis have revealed increasing numbers of clinically insignificant defects, while improvements in treatment have increased the survival of those with more serious and complex defects. For etiological studies, prevention, and management, it is important to have population-based monitoring which provides reliable data on the prevalence at birth of such defects. Methods We recently initiated population-based birth defect monitoring in the Provinces of Mantova, Sondrio and Varese of the Region of Lombardy, northern Italy, and report data for the first year of operation (1999. The registry uses all-electronic source files (hospital discharge files, death certificates, regional health files, and pathology reports and a proven case-generation methodology, which is described. The data were checked manually by consulting clinical records in hospitals. Completeness was checked against birth certificates by capture-recapture. Data on cases were coded according to the four-digit malformation codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9. We present data only on selected defects. Results We found 246 selected birth defects in 12,008 live births in 1999, 148 among boys and 98 among girls. Congenital heart defects (particularly septal defects were the most common (90.8/10,000, followed by defects of the genitourinary tract (34.1/10, 000 (particularly hypospadias in boys, digestive system (23.3/10,000 and central nervous system (14.9/10,000, orofacial clefts (10.8/10,000 and Down syndrome (8.3/10,000. Completeness was satisfactory: analysis of birth certificates resulted in the addition of two birth defect cases to the registry. Conclusion This is the first population-based analysis on selected major birth defects in the Region. The high birth prevalences for

  7. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  8. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi′an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Soc...

  9. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Min; Ping, Zhiguang; Zhang, Shuiping; He, Yuying; Dong, Rui; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi’an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003–2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Social ...

  10. The effect of health education on preventing birth defects in a community of Nanjing City%南京市社区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧云; 胡娅莉; 崔晓宁; 姚敬; 洪红

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价南京市鼓楼区预防出生缺陷健康教育的效果,为以社区为基础的出生缺陷一级预防提供科学依据.方法 选择2008年3月~2009年7月在南京市鼓楼区建围产期保健小卡的孕妇作为调查对象并进行出生缺陷相关知识宣传教育,采用问卷调查早孕人群干预前后出生缺陷知识、态度和行为的变化,分析其影响因素.结果 干预后早孕人群对预防出生缺陷相关知识的总得分(34.43±3.10)高于干预前(29.56±4.77) (t=58.50,P<0.001).干预后21道题目回答正确率均高于干预前,其中仅1道题干预前后正确率的差异无统计学意义(P=0.458).年龄、文化程度、职业和家庭人均月收入对干预效果都有明显的影响(均有P<0.05).年龄大者比年龄小者,本科及以上文化程度比初中及以下者,医护人员比工人,家庭人均月收入1 001 ~元、2 001~元、3 001~元、4 001~元、≥5 001元比≤1 000元者对知识的掌握明显增多.结论 利用健康教育的模式对早孕人群进行干预,能提高其预防出生缺陷的能力.应对文化程度偏低、家庭收入较少的育龄妇女进行预防出生缺陷知识的普及.%Objective To evaluate the effect of health education on preventing birth defects in Gulou District of Nanjing City, in order to provide scientific evidence for the first-level prevention of the birth defect based on community. Methods Health education was conducted among the pregnant women who build card of perinatal health during March 2008 to July 2009 in Gulou District of Nanjing City. The questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of birth defect prevention among the early pregnant women. The results were analyzed to find the changes of knowledge , attitude and practice of birth defect prevention before- and after- intervention, and to find the influencing factors of intervention effect. Results There was significant promotion (i = 58. 50

  11. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  12. Scientists to tackle birth defects, disabilities in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Beijing will host the Second International Conference on Birth Defects and Disabilities in the Developing World from September 11 to 14, with estimated 1,200 participants from dozens of countries, an official with the organizing committee said here Thursday.

  13. Maternal exposure to methotrexate and birth defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, April L; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 1997 and December 2009. Mothers of cases and controls were asked detailed questions concerning pregnancy history, demographic information, and exposures in a telephone interview. Approximately 0.06% (n = 16/27,623) of case and 0.04% (n = 4/10,113) of control mothers reported exposure to methotrexate between 3 months prior to conception through the end of pregnancy. Of the 16 case infants, 11 (68.8%) had a congenital heart defect (CHD). The observed CHDs included atrial septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, valvar pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. One case infant had microtia in addition to a VSD and another had VACTER association. Exposed cases without a CHD had one of the following birth defects: cleft palate, hypospadias, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or craniosynostosis. Based on a limited number of methotrexate-exposed mothers, our findings support recent case reports suggesting an association between early pregnancy exposure to methotrexate and CHDs. Because of the rarity of maternal periconceptional exposure to methotrexate, long-term, population-based case-control studies are needed to confirm these findings and better evaluate the association between methotrexate and birth defects.

  14. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  15. Birth defects registries in the genomics era: challenges and opportunities for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meow-Keong eThong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects or congenital anomalies are one of the major causes of disability in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. Increasingly there is a shift to genetic testing and genomics study of birth defects. However the translation from bench findings to bedside medicine has been muted. There is a need to address this imbalance where congenital anomalies remained the top aetiology for neonatal mortality in developing countries. To build capacity in low resource countries, there is a need for accurate collection and ascertainment of birth defects in developing countries. The systematic collection and analysis of data on major birth defects using birth defects registries (BDR are an integral part of all clinical genetic services. Healthcare planners in developing countries must be aware of the advantages and limitations of BDRs. Despite the advent of the genomics era, BDRs are essential to the planning and developing care and prevention services at local and national levels, particularly in low resource or developing countries.

  16. Can low birth weight be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S S

    1985-01-01

    In the US low birth weight is the major factor associated with the death of infants in the 1st 4 weeks of life. Over the 1st 1/2 of the century, infant mortality declined from about 100 to about 30 deaths/1000 live births. But most of this decline has been attributed to decreases in the rate of postneonatal mortality (deaths from 28 days to the 1st birthday). Declines in low-birth-weight rates have been concentrated among babies whose mothers are at lowest risk. Low-birth-weight infants who do survive face increased risk of a range of childhood illnesses and developmental problems. The problem of low birth weight is also important for economic reasons. More than US$1.5 billion is spent annually on neonatal intensive care services in the US. Teenage mothers, blacks, and women of low socioeconomic status are at high risk of having a baby of low birth weight. Pregnancy intervals of shorter than 6 months, a variety of chronic illnesses, multiple pregnancies, smoking, and failure to obtain, or delay in initiating, prenatal care also increase the risk that a woman will have a low-birth-weight baby. The Institute of Medicine committee has outlined an approach to the prevention of low birth weight that emphasizes 5 principal points: 1) pre-pregnancy identification of high risk women with more and improved counseling, health education, and family planning services; 2) increase the availability and quality of early prenatal care; 3) strengthen and expand the content of prenatal services; 4) mount a public information campaign aimed at preventing low-birth-weight; 5) research. If these measures are implemented, it has been estimated that US$41 million can be saved each year from the US$188 million the government spends annually for the care of low-birth-weight babies. The federal government must take a leadership role if these measures are to be successful. PMID:3842660

  17. Zika virus and birth defects: an obstetric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochukwu C. Okeke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that is relatively unknown, unstudied and under-diagnosed, but has potentials to spread to new geographical areas that favour survival of Aedes mosquitoes. It is associated with an alarming rise in babies with microcephaly that require much care and support with a lot of financial assistance. This is a review article on Zika virus and birth defects; a worrisome issue in today's obstetric and medical practices. Since Zika's discovery in Uganda, the virus was known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia with no or mild symptoms. It has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade with accelerated geographic spread of the virus in the last nine years. The risk of Zika virus to the fetus is poorly understood, difficult to quantify and problematic. The causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly was initially speculative, strongly suspected and scientifically unproven. However, on 13th April, 2016, it was concluded that Zika virus is the cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC authors reviewed and weighed evidences using established scientific criteria to conclude after a careful review of the report published in the New England Journal of Medicine. There is no prophylaxis, treatment or vaccine to protect against Zika virus infection. However, preventive personal measures are highly recommended to avoid mosquito bites. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2488-2496

  18. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  19. Playing the role of preventing and curing birth defects in the second grade general hospitals%发挥二级综合医院在防治出生缺陷中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张园园; 蔡慧兰; 吴晨

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对6个县市二级综合医院产前筛查等情况进行调查研究,探讨预防出生缺陷的新途径.方法 采取定性定量相结合的办法、访谈法、问卷调查法等.结果 二级综合医院开展遗传咨询、产前筛查、产前诊断、新生儿疾病筛查等方面工作做得不够,婚检和婚前保健工作存在薄弱环节.结论 我国出生缺陷总发生率呈上升趋势,加强二级综合医院妇产科建设,充分发挥其产前筛查、遗传咨询、产前诊断职能,有利于帮助解决出生缺陷这一突出的公共卫生问题.%Objective To investigate and study the conditions of prenatal screening and other items in the second grade general hospitals of six counties and cities, and to explore a new way to prevent birth defects. Methods A combination of qualitative and quantitative ways, interviews, questionnaires and other approaches were taken. Results Carrying out genetic counseling, prenatal screening & diagnosis, neonatal disease screening and other items were not good enough in the second grade general hospitals. Meanwhile, the antemarital physical examination and premarital health service had weaknesses. Conclusion The total incidence rate of birth defects in China increases in the ascendant trend. Therefore, it is vital to strengthen the construction of the department of obstetrics and gynecology in the second grade general hospitals, and the hospitals should fully display its functional role in prenatal screening, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis which can help resolve the prominent public health problem of birth defects.

  20. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  1. The Use of Health Education and Behavior Intervention Measures for Prevention of the Occurrence of Birth Defects%运用健康教育和行为干预措施预防出生缺陷的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦亚会

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate effective behavioral intervention and measures of health education on the prevention of birth defects,so as to provide effective and theoretical basis for its application.Method:Professional training was conducted on the pediatrician and the obstetrician gynecologist in Monitoring Hospital according to the monitoring program related to birth defects issued by China.Screening and statistical analysis was carried out according to the related criteria of the“Main Diagnosis Handbook of Congenital Malformation”.Result:28947 cases of perinatal babies in the present study were surveyed.There were a total of 573 cases with birth defects,the incidence was 19.8‰in all the perinatal babies.After health education and behavior intervention,perinatal defect rate was decreased to 16.4‰,and there were significant differences before and after the education and intervention(P<0.05).Conclusion:Analysis results demonstrate that strengthening health education and behavior intervention on pregnant woman can effectively reduce the incidence of birth defects,which has an important significance for improving the quality of the population,and thus it is necessary to pay attention to these measures.%目的:研究对预防出生缺陷而进行的有效的行为干预和健康教育措施,为其应用提供有效的理论依据。方法:根据国家颁发的相关出生缺陷监测方案对监测医院的儿科和妇产科的医生进行专业培训。并按《主要先天畸形诊断手册》相关标准进行筛查并统计分析。结果:本次研究中对28947例围产儿进行调查,共有573例有出生缺陷,发生率占所有围产儿的19.8‰;经健康教育和行为干预后,围产儿缺陷率降低至16.4‰(473例),前后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:经比较可见,加强对孕产妇的健康教育和行为干预能够有效的降低出生缺陷的发生,对于提高人口素质具有重要的意义,应值得重视。

  2. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent bites. Use a condom to prevent sexual transmission. 5 If you suspect, then connect: call your health care provider if you are at risk of infection. Trending Share your story Connect with other family ...

  3. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community......-wide consumption of lead-tainted rum by enslaved Africans. Skeletons excavated in 1997-1998 (n= 45) were examined for congenital anomalies, using clinical/experimental descriptions to differentially diagnose possible ARBD. Enamel lead data served as a proxy for developmental exposure to tainted rum in a subsample...

  4. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range, glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Reece, E. Albert; Wang, Fang; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age (18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3 million American women have diabetes mellitus, and it has been estimated that this number will double by 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is a significant public health problem that increases the risk for structural birth defects affecting both maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most common types of human structural birth defects associated with PGD are congenital heart defec...

  5. Birth defects after early pregnancy use of antithyroid drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen;

    2013-01-01

    OR of birth defects. MMI/CMZ and PTU were associated with urinary system malformation, and PTU with malformations in the face and neck region. Choanal atresia, esophageal atresia, omphalocele, omphalomesenteric duct anomalies, and aplasia cutis were common in MMI/CMZ-exposed children (combined, adjusted...

  6. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms...

  7. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  8. Birth defects in newborns and stillborns: an example of the Brazilian reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fett-Conte Agnes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study constitutes a clinical and genetic study of all newborn and stillborn infants with birth defects seen in a period of one year in a medical school hospital located in Brazil. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence, causes and consequences of the defects. Methods For all infants we carried out physical assessment, photographic records, analysis of medical records and collection of additional information with the family, besides the karyotypic analysis or molecular tests in indicated cases. Result The incidence of birth defects was 2.8%. Among them, the etiology was identified in 73.6% (ci95%: 64.4-81.6%. Etiology involving the participation of genetic factors single or associated with environmental factors was more frequent 94.5%, ci95%: 88.5-98.0% than those caused exclusively by environmental factors (alcohol in and gestational diabetes mellitus. The conclusive or presumed diagnosis was possible in 85% of the cases. Among them, the isolated congenital heart disease (9.5% and Down syndrome (9.5% were the most common, followed by gastroschisis (8.4%, neural tube defects (7.4% and clubfoot (5.3%. Maternal age, parental consanguinity, exposure to teratogenic agents and family susceptibility were some of the identified risk factors. The most common observed consequences were prolonged hospital stays and death. Conclusions The current incidence of birth defects among newborns and stillbirths of in our population is similar to those obtained by other studies performed in Brazil and in other underdeveloped countries. Birth defects are one of the major causes leading to lost years of potential life. The study of birth defects in underdeveloped countries should continue. The identification of incidence, risk factors and consequences are essential for planning preventive measures and effective treatments.

  9. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not know whether the amounts of pollution women are exposed to can affect their unborn babies. NBDPS researchers found that higher exposure to air pollutants related to car traffic, specifically nitrogen dioxide, was more common among mothers ...

  10. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  11. Correlation Between Birth Defects and Dietary Nutrition Status in a High Incidence Area of China1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO-YUAN ZHANG; QING-SHAN ZHANG; JIN ZHAO; YU-FU QIN; XIU-FENG YANG; GONG CHEN; JU-FEN LIU; XIN-MING SONG; XIAO-YING ZHENG; TING ZHANG; LIANG-MING LIN; FANG WANG; RUO-LEI XIN; XUE GU; YU-NA HE; DONG-MEI YU; PEI-ZHEN LI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between birth defects and dietary nutrient intake in a high risk area of China.Methods A dietary survey was performed and serum folic acid was measured in women whose pregnancy was affected by neural tube defects(NTDs)or unaffected by any birth defects(BDs)in Zhongyang and Jiaokou Counties in Shanxi Province of China.Results The local average censureption of foods including dark green vegetables,fluits,fat and meat,and nutrient intake(e.g.energy,protein,retinol,riboflavin,vitamin E,and selenium)were lower than the national average level.In women of childbearing age,these regions,the intake of nutrients was much lower than the recommended nutrient intake(9%-77%)The case-centrel dietary nutrition smdv of women whose pregnancy was affected bv BDs(including MTDs and congenital heart defects)demonstrated that,in early pregnancy,adequate nutrition(I.e.eating meat,fresh vegetables,fruit more than once a week)was a protective factor,while eating germinated potatoes was a risk factor.The geometrical mean(p5-p95)of serum folic acid in women with NTD birth defects was 9.6 nmol/L(3.6,23.03),which was significantly lower than that in normal women(14.03 nmol/L). Conclusion Wemen of childbearing age in the two counties of Shanxi Province,Chim,have a marked insufficient intake of some nutrients,especially folic acid,zinc,vitamins A and B12.This nutrient deficiency may be an important risk factor for the high prevalence of birth defects in these regions.Therefore,adequate dietary nutrition in early pregnancy can prevent BDs.

  12. Genetic link between renal birth defects and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Agustin, Jovenal T; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W; Pazour, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD. PMID:27002738

  13. Construction of HMI Network System for Individualized Maternity Intervention Service against Birth Defects in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-huai HU

    2007-01-01

    The paper expounds the community maternity service system against birth defects,from the viewpoint of individualized service in family planning. We have utilized modern information technology to develop health management information (HMI) network with individualized maternity, and to establish the community service system for intervention of birth defects. The service system applied the concept of modern health management information to implementing informational management for screening,treatment, following up, outcome monitoring, so as to provide a base for promotion of health, diagnosis, treatment as well as scientific research, with the prenatal screening of Down's syndrome as a model. The introduction to informational network during the processes of service has been carried out with regards to its composition, function and application, while introducing the effects of computerized case record individualized in prevention, management and research of Down's syndrome.

  14. Application Research of "3+1" Mode for Birth Defects Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Cheng-liang XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects and quality control measures based on the population,and to obtain the related information data for birth defects.Methods With the community population as the basis,adopting the unified monitoring scheme dominant by the leadership and administration of government,with districts(counties)as the monitoring sites,the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects was based on a complete monitoring team with the combination of villages/residents'committees,townships(towns),counties(districts)and the municipality.Demonstration research was carried out in the pilot districts/counties in Chongqing City.Results Birth defects population monitoring system based on population and family planning management and service network was established,and during 2005 and 2006,application research was carried out for the monitoring methods among birth deflects population in the pilot districts(counties),obtaining the relevant information in regional birth defects,with a monitoring coverage of over 99%.Conclusion Fully utilizing the birth management functions of Population and Family Planning System and the advantages of service networks,long term,dynamic birth defects monitoring system based on community population was established,with the integration of birth defects monitoring and regular reproductive health services,obtaining overall birth defects occurrence information in details,providing scientific basis for the government to formulate scientific,practical,economic and effective birth defects intervention policy,so as to improve the quality of the population.

  15. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hadithi Tariq S; Al-Diwan Jawad K; Saleh Abubakir M; Shabila Nazar P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects dat...

  17. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  18. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...

  19. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J.; Brender, Jean D.; Romitti, Paul A.; Kantamneni, Jiji R.; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A.; Vuong, Ann M.; Langlois, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997–2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers’ overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS. PMID:25473985

  20. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Xie

    Full Text Available To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014.The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI and crude odds ratio (ORs were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural with BDs.From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants, showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20, in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19, and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24. The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD, Other malformation of external ear (OMEE, Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK, and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65-4.11 and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30-2.84, respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31-0.65 and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.38, respectively.The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs.

  1. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  2. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Stock, Sarah; Groenwold, Rolf H H;

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential...... benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix) or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death....

  3. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed an exploratory analysis of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Data on births were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) in Texas. Air pollution concentrations were previously determined by combining modeled air pollution concentrations with air monitoring data. The analysis generated hypotheses for future, confirmatory studies; although many of the observed associations were null. The hypotheses are provided by an observed association between O3 and craniosynostosis and inverse associations between PM2.5 and septal and obstructive heart defects in the TBDR. Associations with PM2.5 for septal heart defects and ventricular outflow tract obstructions were null using the NBDPS. Both the TBDR and the NBPDS had inverse associations between O3 and septal heart defects. Further research to confirm the observed associations is warranted. - Highlights: • Air pollution concentrations combined modeled air data and air monitoring data. • No associations were observed between the majority of birth defects and PM2.5 and O3. • Estimated associations between PM2.5 and certain heart defects varied by dataset. • Results were suggestive of an inverse association between O3 and septal heart defects. • Higher O3 concentrations may be associated with increased odds of craniosynostosis. - Although most observed associations between ozone and fine particulate matter concentrations and birth defects were null, some were present and warrant further consideration

  4. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  5. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers. PMID:26906339

  6. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  7. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  8. Urban and rural difference and educational difference of cognition degree of birth defect prevention in uygur autonomous region%维吾尔族聚居区出生缺陷预防认知度的城乡区别及文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the relationship of geography and education and cognition degree of birth defect prevention in Uygur Autonomous Region investigated in Urumqi, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang from January 2006 to July 2013. Methods Statistics of 322 children with birth defects from January 2006 to July 2013 in Urumqi, Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang were summarized. And it was received combined analysis with geography and education of pregnant women to explore the relationship of geography and education and cognition degree of birth defect prevention. Results The awareness rates of unban pregnant women with the high education of at least college about pregnancy folic acid intake, dietary intake of iodine, avoiding environmental pollution, avoiding rubella virus, avoiding the use of teratogenic drugs, genetic defects, avoiding consanguineous marriage, the best eugenic age, pets feeding before and during pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis, avoid smoking and secondhand smoke, the significance of alpha-fetoprotein test and pregnancy tome after taking contraceptive drugs were significantly higher than those of rural pregnant women with the education of at most college (P<0.05). Conclusion Cognition degree of birth defect prevention has certain educational and geographic difference and it is also related to special geographic environment of Urumqi. Prevent birth defects has a certain degree of education and regional differences, and also with the county special geographical environment.%目的:总结新疆维吾尔自治区乌鲁木齐市2006年1月~2013年7月调查维吾尔族聚居区生长地域和文化程度与出生缺陷预防认知度之间的关系。方法总结新疆维吾尔自治区乌鲁木齐市2006年1月~2013年7月322例出生缺陷儿数据,并将其与孕妇地域和文化程度进行结合分析,统计地域和文化程度与出生缺陷预防认知度之间的关系。结果大学专科及以上文化及城镇孕

  9. 北京61272例新生儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis of the birth defects among 61 272 live born infants in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛; 刘晓红; 王粉燕; 赵心亮; 张羲; 张运平

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the birth defect condition in Haidian district of Beijing city, 61 272 live-born infants who were delivered in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from 2003 to the March of 2009 are analyzed. Methods: Data was collected from the hospital' s medical records and from the birth defect surveillance. Results: Among the newborns studied, 1 076 were found having birth defect (17.56‰). The most common birth defects are congenital heart defect, followed by dysmorphosis of external ear, polydactyly, hypospadia, cleft lip and palate. In addition, three birth defects that are not included in the birth defect surveillance list were enorchia, renal agenesis and giant hemangioma. The birth defect rates of preterm and small for gestational age infants are significantly higher than it of the term infants. The birth defect patterns for these two types of abnormal infants are distinct. Conclusion: We have determined the pattern of birth defects in Beijing, which may help in policy-making regarding the prevention and intervention of birth defects.

  10. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  11. Defect Prevention Based on 5 Dimensions of Defect Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Kumaresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Discovering the unexpected is more important than confirming the known [7]. In software development,the “unexpected” one relates to defects. These defects when unattended would cause failure to the productand risk to the users. The increasing dependency of society on software and the crucial consequences that afailure can cause requires the need to find out the defects at the origin itself. Based on the lessons learntfrom the earlier set of projects, a defect framework highlighting the 5 Dimensions (Ds of defect origin isproposed in this work. The defect framework is based on analyzing the defects that had emerged fromvarious stages of software development like Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Timeline (defectsdue to lack of time during development. This study is not limited to just identifying the origin of defects atvarious phases of software development but also finds out the reasons for such defects, and defectpreventive (DP measures are proposed for each type of defect. This work can help practitioners chooseeffective defect avoidance measures.In addition to arriving at defect framework, this work also proposes a defect injection metric based onseverity of the defect rather than just defect count, which gives the number of adjusted defects produced bya project at various phases. The defect injection metric value, once calculated, serves as a yardstick tomake a comparison in the improvements made in the software process development between similar set ofprojects

  12. Heart Birth Defects Dropped After Folic Acid Was Added to Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160673.html Heart Birth Defects Dropped After Folic Acid Was Added to Food Canadian study found that ... Aug. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The introduction of folic acid-fortified foods in Canada was associated with a ...

  13. Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158906.html Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study ... prescribed for a range of health problems, including epilepsy, fibromyalgia and anxiety. The new study findings should ...

  14. Birth defects following maternal exposure to ergotamine, beta blockers, and caffeine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, H E; Goldstein, D A

    1988-01-01

    Ergotamine exposure during pregnancy has been suggested to cause birth defects which have a vascular disruptive aetiology. The present case provides additional support for the possible adverse fetal effects of exposure to ergotamine, caffeine, and propranolol during the first four months of pregnancy. At birth the infant showed evidence of early arrested cerebral maturation and paraplegia. The nature of these defects suggests a primary vascular disruptive aetiology. We hypothesise that ergota...

  15. The Association of Maternal Lifestyle with Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Leilei; Kang, Yijun; Cheng, Yue; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The main objective was to investigate the burden of birth defects among alive infants and explore the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on the burden of birth defects in Northwest China. Methods A stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to study infants born during 2010–2013 (and their mothers) in Shaanxi province of Northwest China. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire, and medical records from the local hospitals were us...

  16. Parental Reactions to an Infant with a Birth Defect: A Study of Five Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, Dorian

    Five families whose first born infant experienced a birth anomaly were followed for two years through a combination of home and laboratory visits. Findings suggested that the birth of an infant with a defect was experienced by the parents as a narcissistic injury and a series of narcissistic insults that affect the parents' self esteem, interfere…

  17. The influence of the post-Chernobyl fallout on birth defects and abortion rates in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, M C; Berghold, A; Schoell, W; Hofer, P; Schaffer, M

    1992-10-01

    Researchers analyzed data on 66,743 births which occurred between 1985-1989 in the Styria region in southern Austria to determine whether radioactive fallout from the meltdown of the nuclear reaction at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, USSR in may 1986 affected the birth defect and abortion rates in this area of Austria. There were 1695 birth defect cases. Of the birth defects which occurred during embryogenesis, most occurred 14-49 days postconception (group 2; n=630). The researchers did not note a short-term effect of the fallout in group 2 or the other groups (relative risk= 0.75, 0.73 for group 1, and 0.93 for group 2). Baseline birth defect rates (per 1000 births) for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2.5, 8.5, and 1,8 respectively. The only sizable increase occurred in group 2 at years 2 and 3 (10.6 and 10.3, respectively). More reported minor congenital defect cases accounted for this increase due to the newly established data base in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Graz. Thus the increase was an artifact and not a true increase. Abortion rates varied from 10% to 14% and did not increase significantly after Chernobyl. Counseling frequency at abortion clinics fluctuated greatly (117-205) both before and after Chernobyl and the changes were not significant. These results indicated that the low dosage of radiation did not have a detectable biologic effect in terms of birth defects and abortions. The researchers addressed the difficulties with measuring teratologic potential of low dose radiation. They also highlighted the need for accurate categorizing of birth defects, adequate baseline data, and very reliable registries. Future research on possible environmental disasters which affect Austria can use these data as baseline data. PMID:1415387

  18. Utilizing new evidence in the prevention of recurrent preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Lim; A. Goossens; A.C. Ravelli; K. Boer; H.W. Bruinse; B.W.J. Mol

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Treatments that have proven to be effective in large randomized controlled trials are implemented in clinical practice at varying rates. We measured to what extent new and established strategies were applied to prevent recurrent preterm birth in the Netherlands. Methods: In two academic h

  19. Folic acid sensitive birth defects in association with intrauterine exposure to folic acid antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.M.; Walle, H.E.K.de; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2005-01-01

    Since the protective effect of folic acid (FA) on birth defects is well known, it is reasonable to assume intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists increases the risk on these defects. We have therefore performed case-control analyses to investigate the risk of intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists,

  20. 海口市孕产妇预防出生缺陷知识、态度、行为及服务利用现况调查%Prevalence survey on knowledge, attitude, behavior, and service utilization of birth defects prevention among the pregnant women in Haikou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英; 陈冰; 王波; 陈永莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study knowledge,attitude,behavior,and service utilization of birth defects prevention among the pregnant women in Haikou,provide scientific reference for constructing appropriate regional prevention mode of birth defects.Methods:Stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used to conduct a questionnaire survey among 2 996 pregnant women from December 2013 to December 2014 in Haikou city.Results:Most of the pregnant women took a positive attitude on birth defects,67.69% of the pregnant women took folic acid before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy; 52.20% of the pregnant women received premarital examination,the main reason for not receiving premarital medical examination was not necessary to check; 45.49% of the pregnant women received examination before pregnancy,the main reason for not receiving examination before pregnancy was an unplanned pregnancy; 30.11% of the pregnant women received eugenic knowledge related training,23.80% of the pregnant women received genetic counseling; 99.60% of the pregnant women received prenatal examination and 36.82% of the pregnant women received prenatal examination for the first time on the eighth gestational week and before the eighth gestational week ; the majority of pregnant women received prenatal examination for the first time over the sensitive period of fetal malformations.Conclusion:The health resources are concentrated in urban areas,the rural women have relatively few opportunities for maternal counseling and pre-pregnancy examination; to expand health service areas of the health department,the allocation of resources and capacity building should be strengthened,the consciousness and behavior of prevention of birth defects should be improved,the utilization of health services about birth defects prevention should be improved,which is a key point of prevention work for birth defects in Haikou.%目的:研究海口市孕产妇预防出生缺陷知识、态度

  1. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Folic acid fortification via several basic food sources has shown to be a successful public health intervention for Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  2. The risk of birth defects in dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Shigeki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Watanabe, Takashi; Izumi, Akio; Honma, Yoko; Yada, Yukari; Shibahara, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART; intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI], in vitro fertilization [IVF], gamete-intrafallopian tube transfer [GIFT]) have a higher risk of birth defects compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally. We reviewed the medical records of 406 mothers with dichorionic twin pregnancies, who received continuous antenatal care from or = 24 weeks of gestation in our institute. Birth defects were diagnosed at the time of hospital discharge according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Occurrence of birth defects was compared between twins conceived by ART and those conceived naturally using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 51 of 812 infants (51/812 = 6.2%) had birth defects. The incidence of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was significantly higher than that of naturally conceived twins with an odds ratio of 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1, 22.5), 3.7 (95% CI 1.2, 12.0), and 4.3 (95% CI 1.4, 14.3) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. The higher frequency of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was still significant after adjusting for higher maternal age in the ART group, with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.7 (95% CI 2.1, 21.9), 3.6 (95% CI 1.1, 11.5), and 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11.8) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. Dichorionic twins conceived by ART, compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally, had a much higher risk for birth defects diagnosed at hospital discharge. PMID:15193165

  3. Congenital malformations in Ecuadorian children: urgent need to create a National Registry of Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio González-Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fabricio González-Andrade1, Ramiro López-Pulles21Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital, Quito, Ecuador; 2Science and Technology Process of the Ministry of Public Health, Biomedical Center of the Central University and Regional Autonomic University of the Audes, Quito, Ecuador Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, EcuadorAim: This study sets out (a to estimate the prevalence of admissions by birth defects, using the official database of hospitals of Ecuador; and (b to set the basis for a new National Register of Birth Defects in Ecuador that works as a program for the clinical and epidemiological investigation of risk factors in the etiology of congenital anomalies in Ecuadorian hospitals, using a case-control methodological approach. This is the first report in their class.Methods: The data used in this study are derived from the National Register of Hospital Admission/Discharges of the Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos; data of the Ministry of Public Health were also used. Ecuador does not have an official Medical Birth Registry or a Congenital Malformations Registry.Results: A total of 51,375 discharges by congenital malformations were registered in a 7-year period. Of these, 16,679 admissions were of children aged less than 1 year of age, with a birth prevalence rate (BPR of 72.33/10,000 births. 77% of the congenital defects registered comprise the 50 most common birth defects observed in this age group. Cleft lip was the most prevalent birth defect in children less than 1 year of age and the second most common defect in children 1 to 5 years of age. Unilateral cleft lip shows a BPR of 4.57/10,000 births; cardiac birth defects as a group have a BPR of 4.2; hydrocephalus a BPR of 3.77; and Down’s syndrome a BPR of 3.70. Undescended testicle was the most prevalent birth defect in children between 1 to 5 years. 9384 children under 1 year of age were male (55.9% and 7053 were female (42.1%. BPR in males was 40.45 and in

  4. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  5. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hadithi Tariq S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects data from Al-Ramadi Maternity and Paediatric Hospital in Al-Anbar Governorate in Iraq from1st July 2000 through 30th June 2002. In addition to depleted uranium other war-related environmental factors have been studied and linked directly or indirectly with the increasing prevalence of birth defects. However, the reviewed studies and the available research evidence do not provide a clear increase in birth defects and a clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium although the country has been facing several environmental challenges since 1980.

  6. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithi, Tariq S; Al-Diwan, Jawad K; Saleh, Abubakir M; Shabila, Nazar P

    2012-01-01

    An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects data from Al-Ramadi Maternity and Paediatric Hospital in Al-Anbar Governorate in Iraq from1st July 2000 through 30th June 2002. In addition to depleted uranium other war-related environmental factors have been studied and linked directly or indirectly with the increasing prevalence of birth defects. However, the reviewed studies and the available research evidence do not provide a clear increase in birth defects and a clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium although the country has been facing several environmental challenges since 1980. PMID:22839108

  7. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  8. The Relationship between Drug-and Chemical-exposure and Birth Defects during Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启芳; 张忠恕; 方可娟; 丁亦诺; 顾江; 王仁礼; 杨跃英; 李海放; 蒋秀蓉; 薛寿征

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was conductedin 36 hospitals of the urban and suburban areas of Shanghai about the relationships between birth defects and drug use and chemieal exposures during pregnancy in the period of July 1987-December 1990. The case group was composed of 1.609 subjects, and the control group 3,218 cases. On statistical analysis, it was found that a correlation existed between birth defects and the intake of APC and diazepam, and the exposure to pesticides, organic soh, ents, benzene, synthetic resin and physical factors (noises) on the part of the mother, and the exposure to harmful chemicals and physical factors and the smoking of 20 or more cigarettes a day on the part of the father. It is also found that the familial hereditary history of the parents and muhigravidio,, malnutrition, common colds, hepatitis and diarrhea during pregnancy may also be related to the birth defects.

  9. [Interconnection between assisted reproductive technologies, pregnancy complications and risk of birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar', V V

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to investigate the relationship between pregnancy complications, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The study was conducted on 1331 couples with complicated reproductive history. It is found that miscarriage and other complications of pregnancy depend rather on the etiopathogenesis of infertility than on the technique of ART. The highest frequency of complications of pregnancy was diagnosed in women with endocrine disorders. In case of congenital malformations in the fetus the frequency of birth defects was 3.6% after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 1.8% in case of spontaneous pregnancy. It was found an increased risk of birth defects in singleton boys conceived by IVF.

  10. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/104. There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ2=39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ2=15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  11. Pragmatic prevention of preterm birth and evidence based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, Udo B

    2016-07-01

    Effective prevention of preterm birth is one of the unsolved problems in modern medicine. In the Thuringia campaign 2000 based on a simple screening with intravaginal pH self-measurements, adequate medical diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial therapy of genital infection, the rate of newborns methods, do we really have to wait even more decades to come for a prospectively randomized double-blinded almost impracticable study to convince the latest skeptical scientist that we have plenty of evidence-based means to reduce the incidence of premature birth, now, by decreasing infectious morbidity in pregnancy and by the same action childbed fever as well? Insisting scholastically on nothing but the 100 % pure evidence sometimes can hamper innovations and potential benefit. Would a similar caution ever had allowed us for instance to introduce handwashing according to Semmelweis? Good news, the Government of the State of Thuringia has decided this year to reestablish a pH selfcare screening programme. PMID:27146862

  12. 南宁市江南区孕妇出生缺陷预防知识态度行为调查%Investigation on attitude and behavior of pregnant women on birth defect prevention knowledge in Jiangnan District of Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾江辉; 李建民; 梁秀云; 卢庆; 潘革; 梁少林; 杨兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解南宁市江南区孕妇对出生缺陷相关知识的知晓情况、获得途径和态度行为,为出生缺陷干预工作的服务方式和途径拓展思路。方法对2014年6~12月到该院产科初次建立围生期保健手册的孕妇进行问卷调查。结果共收回问卷1408份,其中有效问卷1362份,有效应答率96.73%。调查结果显示,孕妇对预防出生缺陷相关知识知晓率为2.94%~98.24%。除5项外(共计20项),其他项的知晓率均随着文化程度的增高而提高( P<0.05)。对预防出生缺陷相关知识获得途径主要是网络、手机(62.70%)和书刊、报纸(57.64%)。婚前医学检查率为96.77%,孕前医学检查率为33.26%,产前医学检查率为96.99%,计划妊娠率为61.82%。结论孕妇普遍知晓预防出生缺陷的基本知识,但不全面,大多数孕妇对优生有积极的态度和行为。依托网络和手机平台可扩大孕妇健康教育的广度和深度,提供更便捷、更有效的途径服务于大众。%Objective To understand the awareness situation ,acquiring route ,attitude and behaviors of birth defect related knowledge among the pregnant women in Jiangnan District of Nanning City in order to expand the thinking for the service mode and route of birth defect intervention work .Methods A questionnaire survey was per‐formed among the pregnant women with establishment of the perinatal health care manual in the obstetric department of the hospital from June to December 2014 .Results 1 408 questionnaires were recovered ,in which 1362 question‐naires were valid with the effective response rate of 96 .73% .The survey results indicated the awareness rate towards the birth defect prevention related knowledge ranged 2 .94% -96 .73% .Except for 5 items(sum to 20 items) ,the awareness rates of other items were increased with their education level (P<0 .05) .The acquiring routes of preven

  13. Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects : the role of polymorphisms of placental transporter proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daud, Aizati N. A.; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Bakker, Marian K.; Wang, Hao; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Plosch, Torsten; Wilffert, Bob

    2014-01-01

    One of the ongoing issues in perinatal medicine is the risk of birth defects associated with maternal drug use. The teratogenic effect of a drug depends, apart from other factors, on the exposition of the fetus to the drug. Transporter proteins are known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics of dru

  14. Timing of Zika Infection in Pregnancy May Be Key to Birth Defect Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159383.html Timing of Zika Infection in Pregnancy May Be Key to Birth Defect Risk Colombian ... federal policy. More Health News on: Infections and Pregnancy Zika Virus Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  15. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161034.html H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect ... Swedish researchers report that the vaccine against the H1N1 "swine flu" strain of influenza doesn't seem ...

  16. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS: T...

  17. Practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland: a national survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, V

    2011-03-01

    Preterm birth can result in adverse outcomes for the neonate and\\/or his\\/her family. The accurate prediction and prevention of preterm birth is paramount. This study describes and critically analyses practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland.

  18. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortification in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Orioli, Iêda M; da Graça Dutra, Maria; Nazer-Herrera, Julio; Rivera, Nelson; Ojeda, María Elena; Canessa, Aurora; Wettig, Elisabeth; Fontannaz, Ana María; Mellado, Cecília; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2005-06-01

    To verify whether the decreasing neural tube defects birth prevalence rates in Chile are due to folic acid fortification or to pre-existing decreasing trends, we performed a population survey using a network of Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC, Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) maternity hospitals in Chile, between the years 1982 and 2002. Within each maternity hospital, birth prevalence rates of spina bifida and anencephaly were calculated from two pre-fortification periods (1982-1989 and 1990-2000), and from one fortified period (2001-2002). There was no historical trend for spina bifida birth prevalence rates before folic acid fortification, and there was a 51% (minimum 27%, maximum 66%) decrease in the birth prevalence rates of this anomaly in the fortified period. The relative risks of spina bifida were homogeneous among hospitals in the two period comparisons. There was no historical trend for the birth prevalence of anencephaly comparing the two pre-fortified periods, but the relative risks were heterogeneous among hospitals in this comparison. There was a 42% (minimum 10%, maximum 63%) decrease in the birth prevalence rate of anencephaly in the fortified period as compared with the immediately pre-fortified period, with homogeneous relative risks among hospitals. Within the methodological constraints of this study we conclude that the birth prevalence rates for both spina bifida and anencephaly decreased as a result of folic acid fortification, without interference of decreasing secular trends.

  19. Advances in prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis for birth defect%出生缺陷产前筛查及产前诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清明; 周瑾

    2011-01-01

    出生缺陷已成为世界婴儿死亡、儿童和成人残疾的主要原因之一,是目前全世界关注的一个重大公共卫生问题.出生缺陷由遗传因素、环境致畸因素或两者共同作用所致.我国是出生缺陷高发国家,通过早期诊断、早期干预可以避免至少70%出生缺陷.出生缺陷干预是一个系统工程,产前筛查和产前诊断是胎儿出生缺陷干预的有效手段,是出生缺陷干预二级预防中的重要组成部分.%Birth defects has been one of main causes of infant mortality, children and adult disability, and are becoming main public heath problem worldwide. Birth defects are associated with environmental factors, genetic factors or interactions of the genetic factors and environmental factors. It is high rates of birth defects in China, at least 70% of the birth defects can be avoided of early diagnosis is determined and early interventions are performed. Intervention of birth defects is a system process, prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis are effective interventions, and they are the key components of the secondary prevention in birth defects control.

  20. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  1. Preventing neural tube defects in Europe : A missed opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, A; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; Armstrong, N; Haeusler, M; Berghold, A; Gillerot, Y; Baguette, A; Gjerga, R; Barisic, [No Value; Christiansen, M; Goujard, J; Steinbicker, [No Value; Rosch, C; McDonnell, R; Scarano, G; Calzolari, E; Neville, A; Cocchi, G; Bianca, S; Gatt, M; De Walle, H; Braz, P; Latos-Bielenska, A; Gener, B; Portillor, [No Value; Addor, MC; Abramsky, L; Ritvanen, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Daltveit, AK; Aneren, G; Olars, B; Edwards, G

    2005-01-01

    Each year, more than 4500 pregnancies in the European Union are affected by neural tube defects (NTD). Unambiguous evidence of the effectiveness of peri conceptional folic acid in preventing the majority of neural tube defects has been available since 1991. We report on trends in the total prevalenc

  2. Monitoring and analysis of perinatal birth defect%围产儿出生缺陷的监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海丽; 陈源鸿; 王丽平; 蔡娟; 温新创

    2012-01-01

    Objective Analysis of epidemiology and influencing factors of perinatal birth defects from 2002 to 2010. Method The defect rate of perinatal birth and influencing factors were analyzed based on the birth defect surveillance data and the birth information from Nanshan Hospital, Guangdong Medical College. Results The birth defect rate was 15.88‰ over the period of nine years,and it was significantly increased since 2007.The death rate of defect birth accounted for 24.88% of the total perinatal death. The top birth defects were congenital heart disease, multi-fingered and jointed fingered, total cleft lip and palate, fetal edema syndrome, and neural tube malformations, accounted for 52.55% of total birth defects. The birth defect was related to residence origin of the parents, gender and number of the neonates, season of the birth, as well as pregnant times, delivery times, age and education levels of the pregnant women. Conclusion The control of birth defect is critical.Further investigations on the etiology of birth defect are needed to provide effective prevention and control strategies.Extensive health education and guidance on marriage and pregnancy, prenatal and post natal cares,and physical examination on neonates are the effective ways to reduce the rate of birth defects and increase the quality of population.%目的 分析2002-2010年围产儿出生缺陷流行病学特征及影响因素.方法 以2002-2010年广东医学院附属南山医院分娩信息及出生缺陷的监测资料为基础,对缺陷率及影响因素进行分析.结果 9年间出生缺陷率为15.88%,2007年后缺陷率明显增高;缺陷儿死亡占围产儿死亡的24.88%;前五位出生缺陷依次为先天性心脏病、多指+并指、总唇腭裂、胎儿水肿综合征、神经管畸形,共占畸形总数的52.55%;出生缺陷发生与户籍、性别、季节、胎数及产妇年龄、文化程度、孕次、产次有关.结论 出生缺陷防控形势严峻,应深入

  3. Characteristics of rural birth defects and intervention strategies%农村出生缺陷特征及干预对策临床研究分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 杨妹; 陈娟文; 吴秋婵; 林怡

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨我市农村出生缺陷的临床特征,为临床制订干预措施提供科学依据。方法:对我市农村出生缺陷的发生率和特征进行临床分析,与城市出生缺陷进行比较。结果:我市农村出生缺陷发生率为73.51/万,城乡出生缺陷发生率有显著差异,农村出生缺陷发生率比城市高近一倍,(P均<0.005),农村出生缺陷前三位依次为消化系统畸形、四肢畸形和神经系统畸形,分别占出生缺陷的28.39%、24.15%和11.86%。结论:我市农村出生缺陷发生率还处于较高水平,而且神经系统出生缺陷比较突出,主要原因是农村育龄妇女对口服叶酸预防出生缺陷等措施不理解、不接受,思想认识还未真正提高;基层围产保健水平低。我市农村人口占80%以上,因此,在制定出生缺陷干预对策时,应将重点放在影响人力资源与人民生活质量的病种和农村上。%Goal To investigate the clinical characteristics of birth defects in our city, and to provide scientific basis for clinical intervention. Methods the incidence and characteristics of birth defects in rural areas were analyzed, and compared with the urban birth defects. Finally The city rural birth defect rate 73.51/, urban and rural birth defect rate has the remarkable difference, rural incidence of birth defects rate nearly one times higher than that of urban, respectively (P<0.005). The rural birth defects in the former three followed by digestive system malformations, limb deformities and nervous system malformation, respectively, accounting for birth defects of 28.39%and 24.15%and 11.86%. Discussion our city rural birth defects incidence is still at a higher level and nervous system of birth defects is more outstanding, main reason is rural women of childbearing age oral folic acid to prevent birth defects and other measures do not understand, do not accept and ideas have not really improve;primary Wai care

  4. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  5. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection

  6. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic Acid fortification - United States, 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; Mai, Cara T; Mulinare, Joe; Isenburg, Jennifer; Flood, Timothy J; Ethen, Mary; Frohnert, Barbara; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-01-16

    In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs are major birth defects of the brain and spine that occur early in pregnancy as a result of improper closure of the embryonic neural tube, which can lead to death or varying degrees of disability. The two most common NTDs are anencephaly and spina bifida. Beginning in 1998, the United States mandated fortification of enriched cereal grain products with 140 µg of folic acid per 100 g. Immediately after mandatory fortification, the birth prevalence of NTD cases declined. Fortification was estimated to avert approximately 1,000 NTD-affected pregnancies annually. To provide updated estimates of the birth prevalence of NTDs in the period after introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification (i.e., the post-fortification period), data from 19 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States, covering the years 1999-2011, were examined. After the initial decrease, NTD birth prevalence during the post-fortification period has remained relatively stable. The number of births occurring annually without NTDs that would otherwise have been affected is approximately 1,326 (95% confidence interval = 1,122-1,531). Mandatory folic acid fortification remains an effective public health intervention. There remain opportunities for prevention among women with lower folic acid intakes, especially among Hispanic women, to further reduce the prevalence of NTDs in the United States. PMID:25590678

  7. Pharmacogenetics of drug-induced birth defects: the role of polymorphisms of placental transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Aizati N A; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Bakker, Marian K; Wang, Hao; de Walle, Hermien E K; Plösch, Torsten; Wilffert, Bob

    2014-05-01

    One of the ongoing issues in perinatal medicine is the risk of birth defects associated with maternal drug use. The teratogenic effect of a drug depends, apart from other factors, on the exposition of the fetus to the drug. Transporter proteins are known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics of drugs and have an effect on drug level and fetal drug exposure. This condition may subsequently alter the risk of teratogenicity, which occurs in a dose-dependent manner. This review focuses on the clinically important polymorphisms of transporter proteins and their effects on the mRNA and protein expression in placental tissue. We also propose a novel approach on how the different genotypes of the polymorphism can be translated into phenotypes to facilitate genetic association studies. The last section looks into the recent studies exploring the association between P-glycoprotein polymorphisms and the risk of fetal birth defects associated with medication use during pregnancy.

  8. A Study of Handling Cytotoxic Drugs and Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Female Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Shirangi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of occupational exposure to handling cytotoxic drugs at work with risk of birth defects among a cohort of female veterinarians. This study is a follow up survey of 321 female participants (633 pregnancies who participated in the Health Risks of Australian Veterinarian project. Data on pregnancies and exposure during each pregnancy was obtained by self-administered mailed questionnaire. Female veterinarians handling cytotoxic drugs during their pregnancy had a two-fold increased risk of birth defects in their offspring (RR = 2.08, 95% CI (1.05–4.15. Results were consistent in subgroup analysis of those who graduated during the period of 1961 to 1980 (RR = 5.04, 95% CI (1.81, 14.03 and in those working specifically in small and large animal practice. There was no increased risk in the subgroup that graduated after 1980. Women with unplanned pregnancies were more likely to handle cytotoxic drugs on a daily basis (RR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.00–3.48 and had a higher increased risk of birth defects than those who planned their pregnancies in recent graduates and in those who worked specifically in small animal practice (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.18–5.42. This study suggests that the adverse effects of handling cytotoxic drugs in pregnant women may include an increased risk of birth defects. Pregnancy intention status is an important health behavior and should be considered in prenatal programs.

  9. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  10. Methodological Approaches to Evaluate Teratogenic Risk Using Birth Defect Registries: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, Fernando A.; López Camelo, Jorge S.; Gili, Juan A.; Leoncini, Emmanuele; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Different approaches have been used in case-control studies to estimate maternal exposure to medications and the risk of birth defects. However, the performance of these approaches and how they affect the odds ratio (OR) estimates have not been evaluated using birth-defect surveillance programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope and limitations of three case-control approaches to assess the teratogenic risk of birth defects in mothers exposed to antiepileptic medications, insulin, or acetaminophen. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 110,814 non-malformed newborns and 58,514 live newborns with birth defects registered by the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Anomalies (ECLAMC) between 1967 and 2008. Four controls were randomly selected for each case in the same hospital and period, and three different control groups were used: non-malformed newborns (HEALTHY), malformed newborns (SICK), and a subgroup of SICK, only-exposed cases (OECA). Associations were evaluated using OR and Pearson's chi-square (P<0.01). There were no concordance correlations between the HEALTHY and OECA designs, and the average OR differences ranged from 3.0 to 11.5 for the three evaluated medicines. The overestimations observed for HEALTHY design were increased as higher OR values were given, with a high and statistically significant correlation between the difference and the mean. On the contrary, the concordance correlations obtained between the SICK and OECA designs were quite good, with no significant differences in the average risks. Conclusions The HEALTHY design estimates the true population OR, but shows a high rate of false-positive results presumably caused by differential misclassification bias. This bias decreases with the increase of the proportion of exposed controls. SICK and OECA odds ratios cannot be considered a direct estimate of the true population OR except under certain conditions. However, the SICK and OECA designs could

  11. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle

  12. 10年围产儿出生缺陷调查研究%Investigation and analysis of perinatal birth defects during 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管淑彩; 李敏; 刘青

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨出生缺陷的状况及其影响因素,为降低出生缺陷干预措施的制定提供依据.方法 回顾性监测分析我院2001年1月至2010年12月10年间分娩的围产儿出生缺陷状况.结果 10年监测17 365例围产儿,其中出生缺陷儿205例,平均出生缺陷发生率为11.81‰,总体出生缺陷的年度发生率间无显著性差异(χ2=4.303,P=0.890>0.05),但2006年至2010年与2001年至2005年相比,神经管畸形的构成比明显下降(17.09%vs29.55%,χ2=4.474,P=0.034 0.05 ). But compared with the period of 2001-2005, the constituent ratio of neural tube defect at the period of 2006-2010 decreased significantly ( 17.09% vs 29. 55% ,χ2 = 4. 474,P = 0.034 <0.05,OR =0. 492 ). The first 5 types of birth defect were neural tube defect, polysyndactyly, cheilopalatognathus, urinary tract defect and congenital cardiopathy in turn, and the incidence rates of them were 2. 66 , 2.49 , 1. 22 , 1. 10 and 0. 98 , respectively. The sum of incidence of the first three types occupied 52. 69% of overall birth defect rate. The age of puerperants (x = 14. 946,P =0.000 <0. 05,OR = 1.712 ) and the gender of perinatal infants (χ2 = 6.488 ,P = 0. 011 <0. 05, OR = 1.440 ) were closely related with birth defect. There were 52. 20% of birth defect diagnosed before birth, and B-ultrasound was the main method for diagnosing ( 57. 07% ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defect in the area needs to be cut down, especially the types of neural tube defects, polysyndactyly and cheilopalatognathus. Low-dose of folic acid has significant effect in preventing neural tube defects.

  13. Birth Defects in Gaza: Prevalence, Types, Familiarity and Correlation with Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Al Shawwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of registration at birth, and of incidence of major structural birth defects (BD obtained in Gaza at Al Shifa Hospital, where 28% of total births in Gaza Strip occur. Doctors registered 4,027 deliveries, with a protocol comprehensive of clinical, demographic, kin and environmental questions. Prevalence of BD is 14/1,000, without association with intermarriage or gender of the child. Prevalence of late miscarriages and still births are respectively 23.3/1,000 and 7.4/1,000, and of premature births 19.6/1,000. Couples with a BD child have about 10 times higher frequency of recurrence of a BD in their progeny than those with normal children, but none of their 694 siblings and only 10/1,000 of their 1,423 progeny had BD, similar to the frequency in general population. These data suggest occurrence of novel genetic and epigenetic events in determination of BD. Children with BD were born with higher frequency (p < 0 001 in families where one or both parents were under “white phosphorus” attack, that in the general population. Bombing of the family home and removal of the rubble were also frequently reported by couples with BD occurrence. These data suggests a causative/favoring role of acute exposure of parents to the weapons-associated contaminants, and/or of their chronic exposure from their persistence in the environment on the embryonic development of their children.

  14. Association between prenatal exposure to antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: an analysis of the French perinatal cohort study (ANRS CO1/CO11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Sibiude

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0

  15. 出生缺陷影响因素的病例对照研究%Case-control study on influence factors of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修新红; 袁丽; 王晓明; 陈玉华; 万爱华; 傅平

    2011-01-01

    difference between which were significant (P <0. 01). The rate of bad moral irritation to the mother in pregnancy in birth defect group (11. 3%) was significantly higher than that in control group (1.4% , P<0.01). (5) There were 19 cases (2.9% , 19/648) with family heredity medical history in birth defect group, but there were none in the control group, the difference between which were significant (P<0. 01). There were 89 cases (13.7% , 89/648) with unusual birth history of their mothers in birth defect group, but there were 31 cases (4. 8% , 31/650) in control group, the difference between which were significant (P<0. 01). (6) Conditional Logistic Regression model was used for univalent and multivariate analysis. The results showed that main influence factors were identified as having important effect on birth defects, including mothers' exposure to harmful chemical factors (OR=13. 46) , disease (OR=3. 37) ,taking drugs (OR=2. 20) , exposure to bad moral irritation (OR=5. 44) , food-choosy (OR=1. 90) ,anemia (OR=1. 52) in gestational period, polyembryony (OR=4. 40) , father drinking (OR=1. 55) .While it was protective factors to supplement microelements such as the calcium iron and nutrient, etc. in pregnancy period (OR=0. 45). Conclusions First, the main birth defects were congenital heart disease, total harelip (cleft lip; cleft lip with palate) , polydactyly, neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus and limb reduction defect in turn. Second, the main influence factors identified as having important effect on birth defects were mothers' exposure to harmful chemical factors, ill, taking drugs, exposure to bad moral irritation, food-choosy, anemia in gestational period, polyembryony, father drinking. But it is protective factors to supplement microelements such as the calcium iron and nutrient, etc. in pregnancy period. Finally, it is the important part to prevent the birth defects by reducing and controlling dangerous factors in pregnancy period.%目的 探讨出

  16. Birth prevalence for congenital limb defects in the northern Netherlands : a 30-year population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasluian, Ecaterina; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Essen, Anthonie J; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reported birth prevalences of congenital limb defects (CLD) vary between countries: from 13/10,000 in Finland for the period 1964-1977 to 30.4/10,000 births in Scotland from 1964-1968. Epidemiological studies permit the timely detection of trends in CLD and of associations with other bir

  17. Use of occlusive wrap to prevent hypothermia in premature infants immediately after birth

    OpenAIRE

    邱靜雯; Yau, Ching-man

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia at birth is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Unfortunately, infants are prone to hypothermia immediately after birth. A large proportion of preterm infants, especially those of gestational age at less than 30 weeks, experience different levels of hypothermia. A frequently used possible preventive measure is the application of an occlusive wrap immediately after birth. However, no systematic review on this preventive measure supports its translat...

  18. Study on Birth Defect Intervention and Standardization Mode%出生缺陷干预及规范化模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文强; 幸惠云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study and explore the intervention of birth defects on the effect of themarried couples, in order to reduce the birth rate of birth defects, improve the comprehensive quality of the birth population reference.Method: 12 000 married couples in our region from June 2011 to May 2014 were selected as the research objects, and they were given birth defect intervention on its three. The first level intervention was to prevent the birth of children with birth defects, secondary interventions was to reduce the incidence of birth defects, three intervention was to treat children of birth defects. Interventions focus was on primary intervention to prevent birth defects in children born.District,town,village three level of division of labor,cooperation, for marriedcouples of childbearing age premarital examination,free eugenics propaganda and education,pre pregnancy virus and genetic disease detection, pre pregnancy and early pregnancytaking free pregnancy B ultrasound examination,Fu Shi Fu,regular follow-up.Result:Premarital education to carry out rate,pre-marital medical examination rate,pregnancy B-examination and regular follow-up of the number of persons in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013,2012 and 2011(P<0.05).Early pregnancy rates of four viruses tested positive for the virus (rubella virus,herpes virus, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus), a genetic disease before pregnancy rate (thalassemia,G6PD deficiency) in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013, 2012 and 2011(P<0.05).And the number of women in early pregnancy taking Forceval was significantly higher than that of 2013,2012 and 2011.The birth defect rate in 2014 was significantly lower than that in 2013,2012,2011(P<0.05), the intensity was positively correlated with the level of intervention.Conclusion:For married women of childbearing age of birth defect intervention, especially the level of intervention, to the birth of children with birth defects play a preventive role

  19. 出生缺陷干预及规范化模式的研究%Study on Birth Defect Intervention and Standardization Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文强; 幸惠云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study and explore the intervention of birth defects on the effect of themarried couples, in order to reduce the birth rate of birth defects, improve the comprehensive quality of the birth population reference.Method: 12 000 married couples in our region from June 2011 to May 2014 were selected as the research objects, and they were given birth defect intervention on its three. The first level intervention was to prevent the birth of children with birth defects, secondary interventions was to reduce the incidence of birth defects, three intervention was to treat children of birth defects. Interventions focus was on primary intervention to prevent birth defects in children born.District,town,village three level of division of labor,cooperation, for marriedcouples of childbearing age premarital examination,free eugenics propaganda and education,pre pregnancy virus and genetic disease detection, pre pregnancy and early pregnancytaking free pregnancy B ultrasound examination,Fu Shi Fu,regular follow-up.Result:Premarital education to carry out rate,pre-marital medical examination rate,pregnancy B-examination and regular follow-up of the number of persons in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013,2012 and 2011(P<0.05).Early pregnancy rates of four viruses tested positive for the virus (rubella virus,herpes virus, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus), a genetic disease before pregnancy rate (thalassemia,G6PD deficiency) in 2014 were significantly higher than those of 2013, 2012 and 2011(P<0.05).And the number of women in early pregnancy taking Forceval was significantly higher than that of 2013,2012 and 2011.The birth defect rate in 2014 was significantly lower than that in 2013,2012,2011(P<0.05), the intensity was positively correlated with the level of intervention.Conclusion:For married women of childbearing age of birth defect intervention, especially the level of intervention, to the birth of children with birth defects play a preventive role

  20. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  1. Multivitamins, Folic Acid and Birth Defects: Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviors of Hispanic Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background: Consumption of folic acid prior to conception can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a recommendation that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 [mu]g of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for a NTD-affected…

  2. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  3. [Folic acid: Primary prevention of neural tube defects. Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas Centeno, M J; Miguélez Lago, C

    2016-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations of the nervous system, they have a multifactorial etiology, are caused by exposure to chemical, physical or biological toxic agents, factors deficiency, diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, genetic alterations and unknown causes. Some of these factors are associated with malnutrition by interfering with the folic acid metabolic pathway, the vitamin responsible for neural tube closure. Its deficit produce anomalies that can cause abortions, stillbirths or newborn serious injuries that cause disability, impaired quality of life and require expensive treatments to try to alleviate in some way the alterations produced in the embryo. Folic acid deficiency is considered the ultimate cause of the production of neural tube defects, it is clear the reduction in the incidence of Espina Bifida after administration of folic acid before conception, this leads us to want to further study the action of folic acid and its application in the primary prevention of neural tube defects. More than 40 countries have made the fortification of flour with folate, achieving encouraging data of decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects. This paper attempts to make a literature review, which clarify the current situation and future of the prevention of neural tube defects.

  4. Defect Prevention Approaches in Medium Scale it Enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    V, Suma

    2010-01-01

    The software industry is successful, if it can draw the complete attention of the customers towards it. This is achievable if the organization can produce a high quality product. To identify a product to be of high quality, it should be free of defects, should be capable of producing expected results. It should be delivered in an estimated cost, time and be maintainable with minimum effort. Defect Prevention is the most critical but often neglected component of the software quality assurance in any project. If applied at all stages of software development, it can reduce the time, cost and resources required to engineer a high quality product.

  5. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  6. 奉贤区13266例围产儿出生缺陷分析%Analysis on 13 266 perinatal infants with birth defects in Fengxian district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾维红

    2011-01-01

    defects and the perinatal infants without birth defects (x2 = 1 345.85, P < 0. 001 ); prenatal diagnosis and therapeutic abortion could reduce the incidence of birth defects in liveborn infants, and change the rank order of birth defects. Conclusion: The occurrence of birth defects is related to maternal age, but it is independent of gender, the time of conception and census register; the mortality of infants with birth defects is one of the main reasons of perinatal mortality; tertiary prevention is one of the main measures to reduce the occurrence of birth defects and perinatal morality.

  7. Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Yan; Phung, Mai T.; Shaw, Chad A.; Pham, Kim; Neil, Sarah E.; Patel, Ankita; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lee Kang, Sung-Hae; Lalani, Seema; Chinault, A. Craig; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. RESULTS Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates. CONCLUSIONS Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances

  8. Systematic review of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Andersson, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A Cochrane review in 2006 concluded that further knowledge is required before recommendation can be made with regard to progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the preventive effect of progesterone on preterm birth in singleton pregnancies....... SEARCH STRATEGY: A search in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was performed using the keywords: pregnancy, progesterone, preterm birth/preterm delivery, preterm labor, controlled trial, and randomized controlled trial. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies on singleton pregnancies. DATA COLLECTION...... AND ANALYSIS: A meta-analysis was performed on randomized trials including singleton pregnancies with previous preterm birth. MAIN RESULTS: Two new randomized controlled trials of women with previous preterm birth were added to the four analyzed in the Cochrane review, and the meta-analysis of all six studies...

  9. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m2. Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  10. Analysis of the Monitoring Results of Birth Defect in Hospitals Between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha%长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖月娥; 朱琳; 周红女; 周燕飞; 李杏秀; 王卫东; 徐扬; 林蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the monitoring results of birth defect in hospital between 2001 and 2010 in Changsha in order to provide the basis for formulating the policy to reduce the birth defect rate of hospitals by health administrative department .[Methods] The statistical data from 13 birth defect monitoring hospitals of Changsha were analyzed .All the 13 hospital were accorded with birth defect definition and diagnostic standard in Chinese birth defect monitoring program and Chinese birth defect monitoring manual .All birth defect children were examined and registered by the trained physicians .The classification and statistical analysis were taken .[Results] In the past 10 years ,there were 173527 perinatal children born in 13 birth defect surveillance hospitals . Among them ,3856 children were birth defects .The total incidence rate was 222 .16/10000 .The incidence rate of birth defect during 10 years was increased obviously .The top 5 birth defects were congenital heart disease ,outer ear and other malformations ,cleft lip complicated with cleft palate ,multi-finger(toe) and congenital hydroceph-alus .Except the constituent ratio of congenital heart disease was increased ,the constituent ratio of 4 other birth defects had the declining trend .[Conclusion] The strategical change of the prevention mode of birth defect should be implemented so as to reduce the birth defect .%[目的]通过分析长沙市2001~2010年医院出生缺陷监测结果数据,为上级医疗行政部门制定降低医院出生缺陷率的政策提供依据。[方法]参照长沙市13所出生缺陷监测医院的统计数据。13所医院均按照《中国出生缺陷监测方案》及《中国出生缺陷监测手册》中有关出生缺陷的定义特征和诊断标准,经专职医生临床体检和相关检查确诊并分类统计。[结果]10年中13所出生缺陷监测医院总出生围生儿为173527例,出生缺陷3856例,总发生率为222.16/万,10年间出生缺

  11. 武汉市出生缺陷相关因素分析%Analysis on the related factors of birth defect in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 杨蓉; 刘明珠; 刘艳; 胡荣华; 杜玉开

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the current situation of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010, explore the related effect factors of birth defect, provide a basis for further study. Methods; The data of birth defect were collected from 11 obstetrical institutions in Wuhan, 933 infants with birth defect were selected as case group, 933 lying - in women who gave birth to normal neonates from 2008 to 2010 were selected from Wuhan MCH information system as control group, the related data were obtained according to report cards of birth defect and MCH information system, then statistical analysis was performed. Results; The incidence of birth defect in Wuhan city from 2008 to 2010 was 17.77% , the incidence of birth defect in remote urban area was significantly higher than that in central urban area ( P <0.01); the incidence of birth defect among the lying - in women less than 25 years, equal to and more than 35 years were significantly higher than that among the lying - in women aged 25 ~35 years old (P <0.01) ; 11 factors, such as gravida, fetal gender, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy, were used as independent variables for logistic regression analysis, the result showed that permanent address during pregnancy, being ill during the first trimester of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion history were included into the modeL Living in remote urban area, viral infection and hyperemesis gravidarum during the first trimester of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion history ( more than two times) increased the risk of birth defect. Conclusion; Primary prevention of birth defect should be paid more attention to, large - scale case - control study based on population should be carried out, and the epidemiological factors of birth defect should be understood, in order to a-dopt corresponding interventional measures and reduce the occurrence of birth defect.%目的:了解2008~2010年武汉市出生缺陷发生的情况,弄清对出生缺陷发生有影响的相关

  12. Analysis of the Influencing Factors on 170 Cases of Birth Defects in a Hospital, Guizhou%贵州省某医院170例新生儿出生缺陷的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims of understanding the change of incidence of birth defects and its influencing factors, to provide the basis for birth defects prevention and intervention. Methods: Collected 170 cases of birth defects from the birth defects monitoring data in2003 - 2011 ,the chi-square test were used for analysis of the change of incidence of birth defects and its influencing factors. Results: The incidence of thebirth defects was 142.6 per million, the prenatal diagnosis rate is 17.65%, abnormal factors accounted for 41.12%; The first five rows of the birth defects are the Outer ear other deformities, multi-fingered, neural tube defects, clubfoot varus and limb shortening; Child born defective has a high incidence with mother below 20. Conclusion: Strengthening preconception care, prenatal care, prenatal screening and early pregnancy and pregnancy folic acid specification can be taken to prevent and reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:探讨新生儿出生缺陷的影响因素,为新生儿出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据.方法:基于贵州省某医院2003 -2011年出生缺陷的监测数据,运用卡方检验分析170例新生儿出生缺陷的特征变化及其影响因素.结果:该院出生缺陷检出率为142.6/万,产前诊断率为17.65%,异常因素占41.12%;出生缺陷前5位分别为外耳其它畸形、多指、神经管缺陷、马蹄足内翻和肢体短缩;母亲年龄<20岁缺陷儿发生率较高.结论:加强孕前保健、孕期保健、产前筛查和孕前与孕早期叶酸规范服用,是当前预防和减少出生缺陷发生的主要工作.

  13. 黄山市2006~2010年出生缺陷调查结果分析%The analysis of birth defects prevalence of Huangshan from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章世妹; 盛玮; 吉次秋; 胡红喜; 曾令芳; 冯建华; 汪丽霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological features of birth defects in Huangshan in order to determine the high - risk population and areas. Methods The birth defect condition was household surveyed among perinatal infants, including dead fetus stillbirths and therapeutic abortion ), and children aged 0 to 5 with their mothers underwent in - depth personal interviews and cluster sampling retrospective study on January f, 2006 to December 3f , 20f0 in 7 prefectures( counties ) covering f Of towns and 6 streets. The confirmation of the birth defects was based on clinical diagnosis. The categories were defined with National Birth Defect Monitoring Program. Results There were 981 birth defects diagnosed in 5 years. The incidence rate of birth defects was 158. 69 per 10000 infants. The incidence in male infants was 82. 82 per 10000 infants and 63. 57 per 10000 infants in female infants. The top birth defects were congenital heart disease, total cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenred hydrocephaly, urogenital abnormality and neural tube defects. Conclusion The current situation of birth defects among children aged 0 to 5 in Huangshan has been evaluated, which shows an upward trend year by year. The incidence is higher in country than that in city and higher in male infants than females, but the difference between them has no statistical significance. So the key point of the birth defect prevention should be put in country areas. The hygienic knowledge of pregnant woman should be enhanced, especially in the top 6 birth defects mentioned above. Additionally, we should explore the reason of the high incidence of birth defects in order to provide basis for further birth defect prevention.%目的 了解黄山市0~5岁儿童出生缺陷的发生率、种类及顺位,确定重点预防人群和区域.方法 采用个人访谈、整群回顾性调查的方法对黄山市三区四县101个乡镇和6个街道在2006年1月1日至2010年12月31日期间出生的围生

  14. Dynamic complexities in a seasonal prevention epidemic model with birth pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shujing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510405 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); E-mail: gaosjmath@tom.com; Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); E-mail: lschen@mail.math.ac.cn; Sun Lihua [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2005-11-01

    In most of population dynamics, increases in population due to birth are assumed to be time-dependent, but many species reproduce only during a single period of the year. In this paper, we propose an epidemic model with density-dependent birth pulses and seasonal prevention. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by stroboscopic map, we obtain the local or global stability, numerical simulation shows there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations, leading to chaotic dynamics, which implies that the dynamical behaviors of the epidemic model with birth pulses and seasonal prevention are very complex, including small amplitude oscillations, large-amplitude multi-annual cycles and chaos. This suggests that birth pulse, in effect, provides a natural period or cyclicity that may lead a period-doubling route to chaos.

  15. Dynamic complexities in a seasonal prevention epidemic model with birth pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most of population dynamics, increases in population due to birth are assumed to be time-dependent, but many species reproduce only during a single period of the year. In this paper, we propose an epidemic model with density-dependent birth pulses and seasonal prevention. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by stroboscopic map, we obtain the local or global stability, numerical simulation shows there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations, leading to chaotic dynamics, which implies that the dynamical behaviors of the epidemic model with birth pulses and seasonal prevention are very complex, including small amplitude oscillations, large-amplitude multi-annual cycles and chaos. This suggests that birth pulse, in effect, provides a natural period or cyclicity that may lead a period-doubling route to chaos

  16. Born Toon Soon: Care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Sohni V; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; Howson, Christopher P; Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Providing care to adolescent girls and women before and between pregnancies improves their own health and wellbeing, as well as pregnancy and newborn outcomes, and can also reduce the rates of preterm birth. This paper has reviewed the evidence based interventions and services for preventing preterm births; reported the findings from research priority exercise; and prescribed actions for taking this call further. Certain factors in the preconception period have been shown to increase the risk...

  17. Investigation and analysis of 0 ~14 years old children with birth defects in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区0~14岁儿童出生缺陷调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明福; 李川海; 杨皓; 付新云; 李家菊; 崔蓉; 张丹妍; 李安奇; 李练兵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand Three Gorges Reservoir Area 7 counties 0 ~ 14 years old children's birth defects present situation,type,incidence,urban and rural children's birth defect occurrence,occurring at different positions of the situation,collect birth defects/genetic disease information data to prevent birth defects and provide the scientific basis.Methods:According to ICD-10 coding diseases listed design questionnaire,stratified cluster random sampling was used to the scene to carry out investigations on the 0 ~ 14 years old children suffering from birth defects.Results:There were 7 977 meals available questionnaire,including 24 types of birth defect with 158 people,and the incidence of birth defects was 19.81‰.The first 4 types of the study were cleft lip (73 cases,incidence 9.152‰) ; limb deformities (17 cases,incidence 2.137 ‰) ; hydrocephalus (14 cases,incidence 1.755‰) ; cardiac malformations (12 cases including 5 cases of boys and 7 cases of girls,incidence 1.504‰).There were 95 boys with the incidence of birth defects 22.37‰,63 girls with the incidence of birth defects 16.89 ‰.The boy's incidence of birth defects was obviously higher than that of girl (chi-square =204.44,P <0.005).There were 42 children with birth defects in 2 198 urban children (27.55%) and 116 children with birth defects in 5 779 rural children (72.45%).The urban children's birth defect rate was 19.11‰ and the countryside was 20.07‰.There was no statistical difference (chi-square =0.076,P =0.782) between them.Location was the first facial defects 86 cases (54.43%),the second for nerve defect 20 cases (12.66%),the third for limbs defect 17 cases (10.76%),the fourth for heart defects 12 cases (7.59%),the fifth for urogenital defect 6 patients (3.80%),other defects 17 cases (10.76%).There was significant difference (chi-square =34.11,P <0.01) between the first birth defects and other parts.Conclusion:Birth defects' monitoring area,monitoring time

  18. Atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil: panorama atual Birth defects and health strategies in Brazil: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O impacto dos defeitos congênitos no Brasil vem aumentando progressivamente, tendo passado da quinta para a segunda causa dos óbitos em menores de um ano entre 1980 e 2000, apontando para a necessidade de estratégias específicas na política de saúde. Foram localizadas, no Brasil, direcionadas aos defeitos congênitos, ações governamentais e não-governamentais. Estas envolvem serviços de informação sobre agentes teratogênicos na gravidez e sobre doenças metabólicas geneticamente determinadas, monitorização de defeitos congênitos, programa de triagem neonatal e tratamento de algumas doenças genéticas, imunização contra rubéola, além da fortificação de farinhas com ácido fólico como ação preventiva de certos defeitos congênitos. Apesar da importância de tais iniciativas, é pouco provável que seja possível atender à questão dos defeitos congênitos de forma integrada. Para a efetivação de um sistema de atenção voltado aos defeitos congênitos, deverá ser formulada política específica, de âmbito nacional, com a participação ativa do Ministério da Saúde, utilizando, como espinha dorsal, os serviços de genética existentes. Só assim, será possível a estruturação de uma rede regionalizada, hierarquizada e funcional voltada à atenção aos defeitos congênitos no Brasil.Birth defects have increased progressively in Brazil, shifting from the fifth to the second cause of infant mortality from 1980 to 2000, thus highlighting the need for specific health policy strategies. Some governmental and nongovernmental actions related to birth defects in Brazil include information services on teratogenic agents and inborn errors of metabolism, monitoring of birth defects, neonatal screening and treatment of some genetic diseases, and rubella immunization. In addition, flour fortification with folic acid for prevention of certain birth defects has begun recently. Despite the importance of such initiatives, it is

  19. Defect Prevention and Detection in Software for Automated Test Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Bean

    2006-11-30

    Software for automated test equipment can be tedious and monotonous making it just as error-prone as other software. Active defect prevention and detection are also important for test applications. Incomplete or unclear requirements, a cryptic syntax used for some test applications—especially script-based test sets, variability in syntax or structure, and changing requirements are among the problems encountered in one tester. Such problems are common to all software but can be particularly problematic in test equipment software intended to test another product. Each of these issues increases the probability of error injection during test application development. This report describes a test application development tool designed to address these issues and others for a particular piece of test equipment. By addressing these problems in the development environment, the tool has powerful built-in defect prevention and detection capabilities. Regular expressions are widely used in the development tool as a means of formally defining test equipment requirements for the test application and verifying conformance to those requirements. A novel means of using regular expressions to perform range checking was developed. A reduction in rework and increased productivity are the results. These capabilities are described along with lessons learned and their applicability to other test equipment software. The test application development tool, or “application builder”, is known as the PT3800 AM Creation, Revision and Archiving Tool (PACRAT).

  20. Spontaneous abortions and birth defects related to tap and bottled water use, San Jose, California, 1980-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrensch, M; Swan, S H; Lipscomb, J; Epstein, D M; Neutra, R R; Fenster, L

    1992-03-01

    We recently studied pregnancies occurring during 1980-1985 in four study areas in Santa Clara County, California. Two of the areas were exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water during 1980 and 1981, and two were unexposed. There was an overall excess of spontaneous abortions among women who reported any tapwater consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy compared with those who reported no tapwater consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 4.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-9.1)], regardless of exposure to the contaminated water. The odds ratio for spontaneous abortion for women reporting any vs no tapwater was 6.9 (95% CI = 2.7-17.7) after adjustment for numerous potential confounders using multiple logistic regression analyses. The elevated odds ratio of spontaneous abortion was seen among tapwater drinkers who used no filters or softener-type filters but not among women who reported use of active filters. Spontaneous abortion rates were reduced in women who reported any vs no bottled water consumption (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.16-0.43). Among women who reported no tapwater consumption, no birth defects occurred among 263 live births; in comparison, among women who reported tapwater consumption, 4% of 908 live births had defects (P = 0.0001). We observed no relation between birth defects and bottled water use. PMID:1576232

  1. Spontaneous abortions and birth defects related to tap and bottled water use, San Jose, California, 1980-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrensch, M.; Swan, S.H.; Lipscomb, J.; Epstein, D.M.; Neutra, R.R.; Fenster, L. (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1992-03-01

    We recently studied pregnancies occurring during 1980-1985 in four study areas in Santa Clara County, California. Two of the areas were exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water during 1980 and 1981, and two were unexposed. There was an overall excess of spontaneous abortions among women who reported any tapwater consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy compared with those who reported no tapwater consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-9.1), regardless of exposure to the contaminated water. The odds ratio for spontaneous abortion for women reporting any vs no tapwater was 6.9 (95% CI = 2.7-17.7) after adjustment for numerous potential confounders using multiple logistic regression analyses. The elevated odds ratio of spontaneous abortion was seen among tapwater drinkers who used no filters or softener-type filters but not among women who reported use of active filters. Spontaneous abortion rates were reduced in women who reported any vs no bottled water consumption (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.16-0.43). Among women who reported no tapwater consumption, no birth defects occurred among 263 live births; in comparison, among women who reported tapwater consumption, 4% of 908 live births had defects (P = 0.0001). We observed no relation between birth defects and bottled water use.

  2. 深圳市298031例围产儿出生缺陷监测流行病学特征%Epidemiological characteristic of birth defect of 298031 perinatal in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁蓉; 颜春荣; 龚林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the cause and risk factors of birth defect and to reduce birth defect through institute health care and disease prevents measures. Methods: The birth defect was measured in all perinatal, including live birth, stillbirth, induced abortion and neonatal death, in all Shenzhen hospital from 2008 to 2009 according to Shenzhen uniform surveillance scheme. Results: Among 289 031 births, the incidence of birth defect was 16. 52‰ (4 924/298 031), live deformity was 13. 84‰ (4 125/298 031) . The incidence of birth defect was 69.42‰ (3 418/4 924) in floating population . The incidence of birth defect was 20. 34‰ in lower knowledge level puerpera and 20.41%p in puerpera age > 35 group, which was much higher than other age groups, the difference was significant (P < 0.025) . The rate of birth defect in mature puerperal was 71.45% (3518/4924) . The incidence of birth defect in congenital heart disease and body check was 9.95‰ (2 967/298 031), which took 60.25% (2 967/4 924) in all kind of defect Defect birth liability took 83. 77% (4 125/4 924 ) . Conclusion: The rate of un - unitary body check is higher. The prenatal detection should be strengthen. It is key for prevent birth defect to popularization pregnant hearth care knowledge, develop hearth care service, elect right age to pregnancy.%目的:研究深圳市出生缺陷的发生状况及相关危险因素,为减少出生缺陷制定预防保健措施提供依据.方法:按深圳市统一的监测方案,对2008~ 2009年深圳市所有医院孕20周-产后7天分娩的围产儿(包括活产、死胎、死产、引产及产后7天内死亡)进行出生缺陷监测.结果:289 031例围产儿中出生缺陷发生率为16.52%(4 924/298 031),活产畸形率为13.84‰ (4 125/298 031),缺陷发生在流动人口中的比例为69.42%(3 418/4 924).产母文化程度低、年龄>35岁组发病率分别为20.34‰、20.41‰,高于其他年龄组,经检验P<0.025,差异有统计学意义.

  3. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Hutton, J; Mc Donnell, R; Bachir, N; Scallan, E; O'Leary, M; Hoey, J; Doyle, A; Delany, V; Sayers, G

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: pfolic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: pfolic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: pawareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  4. Sphingosine kinase: a novel putative target for the prevention of infection-triggered preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Vibhuti; Ashby, Charles R; Reznik, Sandra E

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing an exorbitant cost of $5.8 billion. Infection-associated premature rupture of membranes (PROM) accounts for 40% of extremely preterm births (birth and ways to prevent or at least postpone delivery. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor that plays a significant role in infection-triggered preterm birth. Its involvement in a number of pathological mechanisms and its elevation in preterm delivered amniotic fluid samples implicate it in preterm birth. Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P acts as second messenger in a number of cell proliferation and survival pathways. SphK is found to play a key role in ET-1 mediated myometrial contraction. This review highlights SphK as a prospective target with great potential to prevent preterm birth. PMID:23818902

  5. Sphingosine Kinase: A Novel Putative Target for the Prevention of Infection-Triggered Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhuti Vyas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing an exorbitant cost of $5.8 billion. Infection-associated premature rupture of membranes (PROM accounts for 40% of extremely preterm births (<28 weeks of gestation. Major research efforts are directed towards improving the understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm birth and ways to prevent or at least postpone delivery. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor that plays a significant role in infection-triggered preterm birth. Its involvement in a number of pathological mechanisms and its elevation in preterm delivered amniotic fluid samples implicate it in preterm birth. Sphingosine kinase (SphK is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. S1P acts as second messenger in a number of cell proliferation and survival pathways. SphK is found to play a key role in ET-1 mediated myometrial contraction. This review highlights SphK as a prospective target with great potential to prevent preterm birth.

  6. 2007-2012年围产儿出生缺陷人群监测结果分析%Analysis of the monitoring results of perinatal birth defects in the crowd from 2007 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑荣; 袁燕; 陆晓莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the monitoring data of population birth defect,to understand its prevalence and related factors,in order to provide evidence for the intervention measures.Methods:We analyzed the birth data of 23686 perinatal borned in 2007-2012,observed the structure and demographic characteristics of perinatal with birth defects,and found out the related influencing factors.Results:The average incidence of perinatal birth defects in 2007-2012 was 84.58/million.The top five occurrence of major birth defects were total cleft lip,multi finger(toe),neural tube defects,hydrocephalus,congenital heart disease and limb shortening,and the incidence were 18.94/million,11.78/million,7.15/million,6.31/million,5.05/million respectively. Maternal age and the incidence of birth defects linked.Conclusion:Prevention and cure of birth defects is a system engineering.It requires multi sectoral participation,and takes effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:通过分析出生缺陷人群监测资料,了解其发生率及相关因素,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法:对2007-2012年出生的23686例围生儿的出生资料进行分析,观察围产儿出生缺陷的构成及人口学特征,找出相关影响因素。结果:2007-2012年围产儿出生缺陷平均发生率84.58/万,其中总唇裂、多指(趾)、神经管缺陷、脑积水和先天性心脏病、肢体短缩位居发生主要出生缺陷的前5位,其发生率分别为18.94/万、11.78/万、7.15/万、6.31/万、5.05/万;产妇年龄与出生缺陷的发生有关。结论:出生缺陷的防治是一项系统工程,需要多部门共同参与、采取有效的措施才能降低出生缺陷的发生。

  7. Cyclopia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopia is characterized by the presence of a single eye, with varying degrees of doubling of the intrinsic ocular structures, located in the middle of the face. It is the severest facial expression of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with cyclopia. Data originated in 20 Clearinghouse (ICBDSR) affiliated birth defect surveillance systems, reported according to a single pre-established protocol. A total of 257 infants with cyclopia were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 100,000 births (95%CI: 0.89–1.14), with only one program being out of range. Across sites, there was no correlation between cyclopia prevalence and number of births (r = 0.08; P=0.75) or proportion of elective termination of pregnancy (r= −0.01; P=0.97). The higher prevalence of cyclopia among older mothers (older than 34) was not statistically significant. The majority of cases were liveborn (122/200; 61%) and females predominated (male/total: 42%). A substantial proportion of cyclopias (31%) were caused by chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 13. Another 31% of the cases of cyclopias were associated with defects not typically related to HPE, with more hydrocephalus, heterotaxia defects, neural tube defects, and preaxial reduction defects than the chromosomal group, suggesting the presence of ciliopathies or other unrecognized syndromes. Cyclopia is a very rare defect without much variability in prevalence by geographic location. The heterogeneous etiology with a high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, and female predominance in HPE, were confirmed, but no effect of increased maternal age or association with twinning was observed. PMID:22006661

  8. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen M H J van Gelder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of selected birth defects after prenatal exposure to prescribed and over-the-counter NSAIDs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on 69,929 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2006. Data on NSAID exposure were available from a self-administered questionnaire completed around gestational week 17. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Only birth defects suspected to be associated with NSAID exposure based upon proposed teratogenic mechanisms and previous studies were included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 3,023 women used NSAIDs in gestational weeks 0-12 and 64,074 women did not report NSAID use in early pregnancy. No associations were observed between overall exposure to NSAIDs during pregnancy and the selected birth defects separately or as a group (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.4-1.1. Associations between maternal use of specific types of NSAIDs and the selected birth defects were not found either, although an increased risk was seen for septal defects and exposure to multiple NSAIDs based on small numbers (2 exposed cases; crude odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 0.9-15.7. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to NSAIDs during the first 12 weeks of gestation does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of the selected birth defects. However, due to the small numbers of NSAID-exposed infants for the individual birth defect categories, increases in the risks of specific birth defects could not be excluded.

  9. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  10. Evaluation of an integrated services program to prevent subsequent pregnancy and birth among urban teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Loral; Letourneau, Kathryn; Berggren, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This article details the evaluation of a clinical services program for teen mothers in the District of Columbia. The program's primary objectives are to prevent unintended subsequent pregnancy and to promote contraceptive utilization. We calculated contraceptive utilization at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery, as well as occurrence of subsequent pregnancy and birth. Nearly seven in ten (69.5%) teen mothers used contraception at 24 months after delivery, and 57.1% of contraceptive users elected long-acting reversible contraception. In the 24-month follow-up period, 19.3% experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy and 8.0% experienced a subsequent birth. These results suggest that an integrated clinical services model may contribute to sustained contraceptive use and may prove beneficial in preventing subsequent teen pregnancy and birth.

  11. Advances in the Prevention of infection-Related Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R. F.

    2015-01-01

    for the prevention of PTB, in meta-analyses these effects have been negated by large methodologically flawed studies with negative results. As a result, many clinicians think that any antibiotic given at any time in pregnancy to any woman at risk of PTB will cause more harm than good. Recently, a more focused SR...... and attempts to explain the confusion using new information from culture-independent molecular-based techniques. It also gives guidance on the structure of putative future antibiotic intervention studies....

  12. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in women with multiple pregnancies: the AMPHIA trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers Hubertina CJ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15% of multiple pregnancies ends in a preterm delivery, which can lead to mortality and severe long term neonatal morbidity. At present, no generally accepted strategy for the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies exists. Prophylactic administration of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC has proven to be effective in the prevention of preterm birth in women with singleton pregnancies with a previous preterm delivery. At present, there are no data on the effectiveness of progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Methods/Design We aim to investigate the hypothesis that 17OHPC will reduce the incidence of the composite neonatal morbidity of neonates by reducing the early preterm birth rate in multiple pregnancies. Women with a multiple pregnancy at a gestational age between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation will be entered in a placebo-controlled, double blinded randomised study comparing weekly 250 mg 17OHPC intramuscular injections from 16–20 weeks up to 36 weeks of gestation versus placebo. At study entry, cervical length will be measured. The primary outcome is composite bad neonatal condition (perinatal death or severe morbidity. Secondary outcome measures are time to delivery, preterm birth rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal morbidity, maternal admission days for preterm labour and costs. We need to include 660 women to indicate a reduction in bad neonatal outcome from 15% to 8%. Analysis will be by intention to treat. We will also analyse whether the treatment effect is dependent on cervical length. Discussion This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not 17OHPC-treatment is an effective means of preventing bad neonatal outcome due to preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN40512715

  13. The experience of black parents/caretakers with the births and care of a child with profound congenital defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mabaso

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Black families to the birth and care of a baby with profound congenital defects was researched using twenty case studies. It was found that the families went through stages of the grieving process, that they shifted from the Western/Christian viewpoint to the traditional viewpoint in their struggle to cope and that they find the existing services grossly inadequate.

  14. Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, John C.; Brender, Jean D; Zheng, Qi; Sharkey, Joseph R; Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Griesenbeck, John S; Suarez, Lucina; Langlois, Peter H.; Canfield, Mark A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Weyer, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. Methods For this population-based case–control study, data from a 58-...

  15. Use of Progesterone Treatment for the Prevention of Recurrent Preterm Birth: Identification of Obstacles to Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Lim; A. Goossens; A.C.J. Ravelli; K. Boer; H.W. Bruinse; B.W.J. Mol

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone treatment has proven to be effective in preventing recurrent preterm birth. The use of progesterone varies widely between different obstetric clinics in the Netherlands. The study aimed to identify factors that hamper or facilitate the use of progesterone to create an implementation str

  16. Use of Progesterone Treatment for the Prevention of Recurrent Preterm Birth : Identification of Obstacles to Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Arianne C.; Goossens, Astrid; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Boer, Kees; Bruinse, Hein W.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone treatment has proven to be effective in preventing recurrent preterm birth. The use of progesterone varies widely between different obstetric clinics in the Netherlands. The study aimed to identify factors that hamper or facilitate the use of progesterone to create an implementation str

  17. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During preg

  18. Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and birth defects and infant mortality in nearby communities 1971-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was commissioned to examine whether there were elevated rates of stillbirth, birth defects, or death in the first year of life between 1971 and 1988 among offspring of residents of communities within a 25-kilometre radius of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The study was also to investigate whether there were any statistical associations between the monthly airborne or waterborne tritium emissions from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and the rates of these reproductive outcomes. Overall analysis did not support a hypothesis of increased rates of stillbirths, neonatal mortality or infant mortality near the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, or a hypothesis of increased birth prevalence of birth defects for 21 of 22 diagnostic categories. The prevalence of Down Syndrome was elevated in both Pickering and Ajax; however, there was no consistent pattern between tritium release levels and Down Syndrome prevalence, chance could not be ruled out for the associations between Down Syndrome and tritium releases or ground-monitored concentrations, the association was detected in an analysis where multiple testing was done which may turn up significant associations by change, and maternal residence at birth and early in pregnancy needs to be verified. The association between Down Syndrome and low-level radiation remains indeterminate when existing evidence from epidemiological studies is summed. The estimated radiation exposure from the nuclear plant for residents of Pickering and Ajax is lower by a factor of 100 than the normal natural background radiation. Further study is recommended. (21 tabs., 29 figs., 5 maps, 37 refs.)

  19. Analysis of birth defect in Zhongshan city from 2008 to 2010%中山地区2008年-2010年出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 万波; 李莉敏; 胡朝霞; 彭学鸣; 曾冠

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中山市出生缺陷的发生及分布情况,及时发现影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,协助指导制定相应的干预措施,做好今后出生缺陷监控工作提供科学依据.方法 对2008年-2010年中山市各医院分娩的孕满28周~产后7天内出生的所有围产儿(包括活产、死胎、死产)进行出生缺陷监测,并对其发生率、顺位及诊断依据进行分析.结果 三年内中山市出生缺陷发生率为260.05/万,排位前五位分别是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、马蹄内翻足、地中海贫血、总唇腭裂.中山市户籍人口和农村、流动人口的顺位和发生率有明显差异.结论 加强流动人口孕产妇的孕期保健管理,普及孕期产前筛查意识,提高出生缺陷产前筛查和产前诊断的准确性,早期发现,早期诊断,早期干预,预防性用药等可减少出生缺陷的发生%Objective: To understand the prevalence of birth defects in Zhongshan, to detect the suspicious factors of influencing birth defects, to divide to provide scientific basis for making countermeasures to prevent and control birth defects. Method; Connecting the all perinatal birth defects data, including fetal deaths, stillbirths, live births, which detected during the second pregnancy over 28 weeks to postnatal day 7, analyzing the incidence rate, the sequence and the basis diagnosis on of birth defects. Results: The incidence of birth defect is 260. 05 per ten thousand in recent three years. The first five birth defect were: congenital heart disease, combined or excessive fingers or toes ( polydactyly) , clubfoot, a- Mediterranean-anaemia, cleft lip and palate. The sequence and the incidence rate of birth defect were significant difference, between Registered population and floating population. Registered population and population in rural areas. Conclusion; In order to depress perinatal birth defect rate, we should pay more attention in not only to the work of education of the

  20. Next generation sequencing in research and diagnostics of ocular birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raca, Gordana; Jackson, Craig; Warman, Berta; Bair, Tom; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2010-06-01

    Sequence capture enrichment (SCE) strategies and massively parallel next generation sequencing (NGS) are expected to increase the rate of gene discovery for genetically heterogeneous hereditary diseases, but at present, there are very few examples of successful application of these technologic advances in translational research and clinical testing. Our study assessed whether array based target enrichment followed by re-sequencing on the Roche Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX) system could be used for novel mutation identification in more than 1000 exons representing 100 candidate genes for ocular birth defects, and as a control, whether these methods could detect two known mutations in the PAX2 gene. We assayed two samples with heterozygous sequence changes in PAX2 that were previously identified by conventional Sanger sequencing. These changes were a c.527G>C (S176T) substitution and a single basepair deletion c.77delG. The nucleotide substitution c.527G>C was easily identified by NGS. A deletion of one base in a long polyG stretch (c.77delG) was not registered initially by the GS Reference Mapper, but was detected in repeated analysis using two different software packages. Different approaches were evaluated for distinguishing false positives (sequencing errors) and benign polymorphisms from potentially pathogenic sequence changes that require further follow-up. Although improvements will be necessary in accuracy, speed, ease of data analysis and cost, our study confirms that NGS can be used in research and diagnostic settings to screen for mutations in hundreds of loci in genetically heterogeneous human diseases. PMID:20359920

  1. The Brazilian Zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugola, Fernanda R; Fernandes, Isabella R; Russo, Fabiele B; Freitas, Beatriz C; Dias, João L M; Guimarães, Katia P; Benazzato, Cecília; Almeida, Nathalia; Pignatari, Graciela C; Romero, Sarah; Polonio, Carolina M; Cunha, Isabela; Freitas, Carla L; Brandão, Wesley N; Rossato, Cristiano; Andrade, David G; Faria, Daniele de P; Garcez, Alexandre T; Buchpigel, Carlos A; Braconi, Carla T; Mendes, Erica; Sall, Amadou A; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Muotri, Alysson R; Beltrão-Braga, Patricia C B

    2016-05-11

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in Uganda following blood analyses of sentinel Rhesus monkeys. Until the twentieth century, the African and Asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. However, in 2007, vectored by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, ZIKV caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the Yap Island in Micronesia. Patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. From 2013 to 2015, the Asian lineage of the virus caused further massive outbreaks in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. In 2013, ZIKV reached Brazil, later spreading to other countries in South and Central America. In Brazil, the virus has been linked to congenital malformations, including microcephaly and other severe neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Despite clinical evidence, direct experimental proof showing that the Brazilian ZIKV (ZIKV(BR)) strain causes birth defects remains absent. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV(BR) infects fetuses, causing intrauterine growth restriction, including signs of microcephaly, in mice. Moreover, the virus infects human cortical progenitor cells, leading to an increase in cell death. We also report that the infection of human brain organoids results in a reduction of proliferative zones and disrupted cortical layers. These results indicate that ZIKV(BR) crosses the placenta and causes microcephaly by targeting cortical progenitor cells, inducing cell death by apoptosis and autophagy, and impairing neurodevelopment. Our data reinforce the growing body of evidence linking the ZIKV(BR) outbreak to the alarming number of cases of congenital brain malformations. Our model can be used to determine the efficiency of therapeutic approaches to counteracting the harmful impact of ZIKV(BR) in human neurodevelopment.

  2. Economic burden of neural tube defects and impact of prevention with folic acid: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yunni; Lindemann, Marion; Colligs, Antje; Snowball, Claire

    2011-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common group of serious birth defects. Although folic acid has been shown to reduce effectively the risk of NTDs and measures have been taken to increase the awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid, the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized in most countries. To understand the economic burden of NTDs and the economic impact of preventing NTDs with folic acid, a systematic review was performed on relevant studies. A total of 14 cost of illness studies and 10 economic evaluations on prevention of NTDs with folic acid were identified. Consistent findings were reported across all of the cost of illness studies. The lifetime direct medical cost for patients with NTDs is significant, with the majority of cost being for inpatient care, for treatment at initial diagnosis in childhood, and for comorbidities in adult life. The lifetime indirect cost for patients with spina bifida is even greater due to increased morbidity and premature mortality. Caregiver time costs are also significant. The results from the economic evaluations demonstrate that folic acid fortification in food and preconception folic acid consumption are cost-effective ways to reduce the incidence and prevalence of NTDs. This review highlights the significant cost burden that NTDs pose to healthcare systems, various healthcare payers, and society and concludes that the benefits of prevention of NTDs with folic acid far outweigh the cost. Further intervention with folic acid is justified in countries where the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized.

  3. 0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey on 0-1 years old baby with birth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪少义; 何洁壁; 陈少娜; 吴翔; 蔡幸生; 黄伟鹏; 王榕生; 洪艳苹; 倪少英; 卢晓航

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defect in 0-1 years old baby in some regions of Jieyang, then to determine the focus groups for prevention. So that it can provide a foundation for birth defect prevention, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care. Methods Those babies, who were born in Jiedong County, Puning City and Rongcheng District from March 3, 2011 to May 2, 2012 were surveyed by general investigation. Birth defect based on clinical diagnosis, its entity and statistical standard referred to the regulations of International Centre on Birth Defects and Prematurity. Results 238 cases of birth defect babies were found out of 10 773 cases of monitored new babies. The top five diseases of baby birth defects were congenital heart disease, talipes equinovarus, polydactyly, cleft lip and palate and fetal-edematous-syndrome. Some babies had higher incidence of birth defects, such as baby boy, low birth weight baby, and those babies whose mother did not take folic acid, vitamin and trace elements during pregnancy and whose family members smoking and excessive drinking (P < 0.05). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects in 0-1 years old baby is 220.92 per ten thousand in some regions of Jieyang City. It is slightly higher than the national average, so it needs attention from each side. Strengthening propaganda and education, screening and preventing birth defects are matters of great urgency.%目的 了解揭阳部分地区0~1岁婴儿出生缺陷的发病情况,确定预防的重点人群,为出生缺陷的预防和孕前、孕期保健提供依据.方法 采用普查的方式,对揭东县、普宁市、榕城区三地2011年3月3日~2012年5月2日出生的婴儿进行调查.出生缺陷以临床诊断为依据,病种及统计标准参照国际出生缺陷监测情报交换所的规定.结果 共监测10 773名婴儿,发现出生缺陷238例;婴儿出生缺陷排名前5位的疾病分别是先天性心脏病、马蹄内翻足、多指(趾)、唇(腭)裂

  4. Birth defects in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital during 2006 -2010%2006年-2010年烟台毓璜顶医院围产儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲鑫; 刘志芬; 李蕾; 徐爱群; 柳红杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the situation, influencing factors, diagnosis of the birth defects in our hospital, so as to provide evidences for periconceptional care. Methods; 301 birth defects in a total of 22211 births were monitored from 2006 to 2010, the birth defect rate was 13. 55% (301/22211). The top 5 common birth defects were Cadiovascular disease, total cleft in lip and palate , synpolydactyly, anephrogenesis or Polycystic kidney and Genital malformation. There was significant difference in birth defect rate between puerperal at city and countryside (x2 = 24. 34, P < 0. 01). There was no significant difference in birth defect rate between puerperal at different age, with different educational status, or different gender of fetus, But, the birth defect rate were higher in the age below 25 and exceed 35 groups than the other group, and the birth defect rate decrease when the educational status of puerperal increase. 48. 17% (145/301 ) cases were confirmed in prenatal diagnosis, and the main method was Ultrasonic Diagnosis. Conclusions: The key to reduce the birth defect rate is the primary prevention. We should improve the quality of antenatal examination and prenatal diagnosis technology, reduce birth defects, and improve the population quality of newborn.%目的 探讨我院围产儿出生缺陷发生状况、影响因素及确诊手段,为探索开展围孕期保健提供依据.方法 对2006年- 2010年5年间在我院住院分娩出生围产儿的监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2006年- 2010年我院共出生22211例围产儿,出生缺陷共301例,出生缺陷发生率为13.55‰(301/22211).出生缺陷率位居前五位的分别为先天性心血管疾病、唇腭裂、多指与并指(趾)、单肾缺如及多囊肾、生殖器畸形.产妇城乡间出生缺陷发生率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=24.34,P<0.01).不同年龄、文化程度及胎儿性别比较,差异无统计学意义,但年龄<25岁及≥35岁的产妇其出生缺陷率

  5. Research Progress on Environment Factors Leading to Birth Defects%导致出生缺陷的环境因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晶

    2012-01-01

    Birth defects is the structural or functional abnormalities already existed before birth (which can be found in a lifetime years before or after birth) ,and its causes including genetic, environmental and both of joint action. Environmental factors have become threats to humanity even in the reproduction of the species. Nowadays .birth defects has become one of the hot topics. This review focuses on recent environmental factors on the impact of birth defects,and focus on the ultrasound and psychological factors associated with birth defects.%出生缺陷(birth defects)是指出生前已经存在(在出生前或出生后数年内可以发现)的结构或功能异常,其产生原因包括遗传、环境以及两者的共同作用.环境问题已经变成威胁人类生存甚至繁衍的一个重要问题.出生缺陷也已成为当今世界关注的热点课题之一.综述近年有关环境因素对出生缺陷影响的研究,并重点探讨超声波及心理因素与出生缺陷的相关性.

  6. Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects: the Danish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2008-06-01

    Evidence from controlled trials suggests that ingestion of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day in the periconceptional period is effective in preventing neural tube defects (NTD). For this reason, most countries recommend that women planning pregnancy take folic acid supplements in the periconceptional period, and some countries even fortify stable foods with folic acid. Denmark exemplifies a country with a relatively conservative attitude with respect to taking action in these matters. In 1999, a national information campaign was launched that recommended women planning pregnancy take 0.4 mg of folic acid periconceptionally, but with the moderation that women who eat a healthy diet do not need to take folic acid supplement. The campaign was repeated during 2001. The results of the latter campaign were evaluated by using data from a national survey among pregnant women conducted simultaneously with the campaign by the Danish National Birth Cohort. An increase in the proportion of folic acid users took place concomitantly with the launching of the information events, but the increase was limited. Among women who did not plan their pregnancy, a small proportion had taken folic acid supplements periconceptionally, and this proportion did not change concomitantly with the campaign. Young age and low education were factors associated with low likelihood of taking folic acid. It seems that different and more efficient actions are needed if a more substantial proportion of Danish women and their fetuses are going to benefit from the knowledge that folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period can prevent NTD.

  7. 怀孕年龄与胎次对出生缺陷的影响分析%The Impact of Age of Pregnancy and Birth Order on Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 李骅; 米红

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 5782 cases of patients from the Attached of Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital of Zhejiang University , the paper analyzes the impacts of pregnant age and birth order on the fetal defect rate as well as impacts of the fetal defect on the population quality at the policy of two-children for all families. It is found that the pregnant age lower than 19 and older than 35 can cause the increase of fetal defect rate , while the birth order impact the birth defect rate in different ways , the higher the birth order is , for those mothers younger than 24 , the higher rate of birth defect and for the mothers aged 25-44 there is no increase of birth defect rate for their second and third child birth but with a relatively higher birth defects for their fourth child birth. It seems that the birth defect rate of second child have no negative impacts on population quality even after the permit of second child birth for all families in future.%本研究通过抽取浙江大学医学院附属妇产科医院某病区5782个病例(736例患病),从出生缺陷的角度,通过对妇女怀孕年龄及胎次与胎儿畸形患病率的关系对开放二胎政策之后的人口质量的影响进行分析,发现孕妇年龄过低(19岁以下)与过高(35岁以上)均会导致出生缺陷率提高;而胎次的影响比较复杂,对于24岁以下的年龄段来说,胎次越高,患病率越高,而对于25-44岁的孕妇来说,除了第4胎及以上的患病率较高,第2、3胎的患病率没有明显的差别。因此,放开二胎将不会对人口质量产生显著影响。

  8. The Impact of Age of Pregnancy and Birth Order on Birth Defects%怀孕年龄与胎次对出生缺陷的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 李骅; 米红

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 5782 cases of patients from the Attached of Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital of Zhejiang University , the paper analyzes the impacts of pregnant age and birth order on the fetal defect rate as well as impacts of the fetal defect on the population quality at the policy of two-children for all families. It is found that the pregnant age lower than 19 and older than 35 can cause the increase of fetal defect rate , while the birth order impact the birth defect rate in different ways , the higher the birth order is , for those mothers younger than 24 , the higher rate of birth defect and for the mothers aged 25-44 there is no increase of birth defect rate for their second and third child birth but with a relatively higher birth defects for their fourth child birth. It seems that the birth defect rate of second child have no negative impacts on population quality even after the permit of second child birth for all families in future.%本研究通过抽取浙江大学医学院附属妇产科医院某病区5782个病例(736例患病),从出生缺陷的角度,通过对妇女怀孕年龄及胎次与胎儿畸形患病率的关系对开放二胎政策之后的人口质量的影响进行分析,发现孕妇年龄过低(19岁以下)与过高(35岁以上)均会导致出生缺陷率提高;而胎次的影响比较复杂,对于24岁以下的年龄段来说,胎次越高,患病率越高,而对于25-44岁的孕妇来说,除了第4胎及以上的患病率较高,第2、3胎的患病率没有明显的差别。因此,放开二胎将不会对人口质量产生显著影响。

  9. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  10. 2000~2010年围产儿出生缺陷监测与分析%Monitoring and analysis on birth defects of perinatal infants from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳兰; 孙丽洲; 田静

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the high risk factors of birth defects in the area by retrospectively analyzing growth and decline of birth defects in the hospital, timely find out suspicious malformation - inducing factors, and provide a basis for carrying out prevention, early diagnosis, and intervention of birth defects. Methods: According to the monitoring project of birth defect in China, the data of parturient women and perinatal infants born in the hospital from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: From 2000 to 2010, a total of 27 838 perinatal infants were monitored, 311 perinatal infants were found with birth defects, the incidence rate was 11. 17%c. The main types of birth defects were polydactyly, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, multi - malformation, digestive tract malformation, hypospa-dias, and hydrocephalus; the incidence rate of birth defects in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls; the risk of birth defects among perinatal infants born by parturient women ≥ 35 years old increased significantly, especially among perinatal infants born by parturient women < 20 years old. Conclusion: Enhancing prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis and raising prenatal detection rate of birth defects can reduce incidence rate of birth defects.%目的:通过回顾分析该院出生缺陷的消长情况,了解该地区出生缺陷的高危高发因素,及时发现可疑的致畸因素,为开展出生缺陷的预防、早期诊断和干预提供依据.方法:依照《中国出生缺陷监测方案》,对2000 ~ 2010年在该院分娩的产妇及其围产儿的资料进行统计分析.结果:11年间共监测围产儿27838例,缺陷儿311例,发生率为11.17‰;主要出生缺陷为指(趾)畸形、先天性心脏病、总唇裂、复合畸形、消化道畸形、尿道下裂、脑积水;男婴出生缺陷发生率较女婴显著增加;产母年龄≥35岁,尤其是产母年龄< 20岁时出生缺陷发生率的危险

  11. Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage at Home Birth in Afghanistan: Program Expansion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Nasratullah; Zainullah, Partamin; Kim, Young‐Mi; Tappis, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has a maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death. Two‐thirds of births occur at home. A pilot program conducted from 2005 to 2007 demonstrated the effectiveness of using community health workers for advance distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women for self‐administration immediately following birth to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. The Ministry of Public Health requested an expansion of the pilot to study implementation on a larger scale before adopting the intervention as national policy. The purpose of this before‐and‐after study was to determine the effectiveness of advance distribution of misoprostol for self‐administration across 20 districts in Afghanistan and identify any adverse events that occurred during expansion. Methods Cross‐sectional household surveys were conducted pre‐ (n = 408) and postintervention (n = 408) to assess the effect of the program on uterotonic use among women who had recently given birth. Maternal death audits and verbal autopsies were conducted to investigate peripartum maternal deaths that occurred during implementation in the 20 districts. Results Uterotonic use among women in the sample increased from 50.3% preintervention to 74.3% postintervention. Because of a large‐scale investment in Afghanistan in training and deployment of community midwives, it was assumed that all women who gave birth in facilities received a uterotonic. A significant difference in uterotonic use at home births was observed among women who lived farthest from a health facility (> 90 minutes self‐reported travel time) compared to women who lived closer (88.5% vs 38.9%; P maternal deaths were identified among those women who used misoprostol. Discussion The results of this study build on the findings of the pilot program and provide evidence on the effectiveness, primarily measured by uterotonic use, of an expansion of advance distribution of

  12. The early use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics in susceptible women for the prevention of preterm birth of infectious etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    /meta-analyses have been conducted but none has simultaneously addressed the optimal choice of agent, patient and timing of intervention. We conclude that inappropriate antibiotics used in inappropriate women at inappropriately late gestations do not reduce preterm birth. Conversely, a focused systematic review...... of preterm birth so it is logical to consider the use of antibiotics for the prevention of preterm birth. AREAS COVERED: Infection and antibiotics in the etiology, prediction and prevention of preterm birth. EXPERT OPINION: Antibiotics for the prevention of preterm birth have addressed different risk groups......, diagnostic methods, degrees of abnormal flora, antibiotic dose regimens, routes of administration, host susceptibilities, host response, gestational age at time of treatment, outcome parameters and definitions of success and outcomes. To address this confusion, a number of systematic reviews...

  13. Clinical analysis of 31 cases birth defects fetus withtherapeutic induced labor%治疗性引产31例缺陷儿临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清明; 周瑾

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨产前诊断对出生缺陷疾病诊断的临床意义,提高产前诊断率,降低出生缺陷发生率.方法 通过孕期系统B超、产前筛查、染色体病产前诊断方法进行产前检查,分析2009年9月~2010年12月本院产前诊断的出生缺陷胎儿病例资料.结果 2549例孕妇通过系统B超、产前筛查、染色体病产前诊断等技术共诊断并引产缺陷胎儿31例,出生缺陷检出率为1.22%.结论 通过产前超声检查、产前筛查技术、羊水染色体检查,及早地发现缺陷儿并及时终止妊娠,是减少出生缺陷发生的有效措施.%Objective: To explore the clinical significance of prenatal diagnosis for birth defects, improve the detection rate of birth defects and reduce the incidence of birth defects. Methods; To do prenatal care by systematic ultrasound examination prenatal screening and chromosomal diagnosis. We have analyzed the birth defects from September 2009 to December 2010. Results: 31 cases of birth defects were diagnosed by obstetric examination during pregnancy. The detecting rate of birth defect was 1. 22%. Conclusion; It is an effective measure to reduce birth defect by prenatal screening, prenatal diagnosis and therapeutic induced labor.

  14. 孝感市2007~2011年围产儿出生缺陷流行病学调查%Study on perinatal birth defects from 2007 to 2011 in Xiaogan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱越; 陆敏; 杨树杰; 刘景丽; 付汉东; 彭红华; 李君; 罗红英; 余小艳

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To master the epidemiology of birth defect in Xiaogan City,analysis the dynamic trends and try to find out the main factors that may affect birth defects so as to develop effective preventive measures to improve the quality of newborn births.METHODS All the perinatal birth defects monitoring data of year 2007-2011 that in all the midwifery unit of Xiaogan were collected by child birth defects registration card and analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS Five-year birth defects incidence was 4.26‰ and the rates among the 5 years had no statistic difference (P> 0.05).The common birth defects in the top five were multi-finger polydactyly (0.61‰),external ear malformation (0.47‰),cleft lip with cleft palate (0.45‰),cleft lip (0.39‰) and congenital heart disease (0.32‰).Prenatal diagnosis rate was 21.08%,of which B-ultrasound diagnosis was 14.46%.Age of the maternal was a factor to birth defects that when the mother was older than 35 or younger than 20 the incidence of birth defects was obviously higher than other age group.Male birth defects rate were higher than females.The defects rate in countries was higher than that in towns.There was a positive relationship between the maternal education level or lower household income and rate of perinatal birth defects.CONCLUSION The main birth defects in Xiaogan of the last five years are the surface defects and the high risk factor of the birth defects are mother age,education level,economic level and place of residence.The rural areas are the focus to make prevention.So we should strengthen promotion of marriage and pregnancy health and improve prenatal diagnostic techniques so as to reduce the incidence of birth defects effectively.%目的 掌握孝感市围产儿出生缺陷的流行病学特征,分析主要出生缺陷的高危因素,制定有效的预防措施,提高出生人口的素质.方法 采用《出生缺陷儿登记卡》收集孝感市所有助产技术单位2007~2011年围产儿出生

  15. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  16. Clinical Analysis in 265 Perinatals Birth Defects%265例出生缺陷儿的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红霞

    2012-01-01

      Objective To characterize the distribution patterns of birth defects in Huai-rou First Hospital 2006-2011. Methods Birth defects surveillance data in the period of January 2002 to December 2004 were analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rate of birth defects was 207.97/10,000 births. The first 5 common birth defects were hyperdactylism and ankylodactylia, accessory auricle,congenital heart disease,total cleft lip and palate,pigmented mole. chromosomal abnormalities,and neural tube defects. Conclusion To disease the prevalence rate of birth defects and elevate the disposition of the birth population, we should put the emphasis to preservation(the third-level prevention).%  目的 分析我院住院分娩围生儿的出生缺陷发生情况、变化趋势,为进一步预防出生缺陷的发生提供依据.方法 对2006至2011年在怀柔区第一医院住院分娩的围生儿出生缺陷监测资料进行分析.结果 6年共监测围生儿12742例,发现缺陷儿265例,平均出生缺陷发生率为207.97/万,前5位分别是多指(趾)及并指(趾)36例,副耳34例,先天性心脏病33例,唇裂合并腭裂23例,色素痣13例.结论 减少出生缺陷的工作重点在预防,应加强优生知识的宣传,提高产前检查质量及产前诊断技术,做好三级预防工作,以期降低围生儿出生缺陷的出生率,提高出生人口素质.

  17. The prevention of neural tube defects by folic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Hitzeroth

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects, in particular spina bifida and anencephaly, are serious and relatively common congenital abnormalities worldwide. They also occur in South Africa and affect all population groups to varying degrees. The overall incidence in South Africa is approximately 1-2 per 1000 newborns. Higher incidences, up to 6 per 1000 newborns have been recorded in certain parts, especially in some rural areas of the country. In total as many as 1500 newborns could be affected by a neural tube defect each year. The precise aetiology of neural tube defects is still unknown.

  18. Analysis of peripregnancy health care effects on birth defects%围孕期保健对出生缺陷的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘葵; 吕海荣

    2014-01-01

    significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:By strengthening the antenatal care, reduce and control risk factors, could prevent and reduce the birth defects, improve the birth quality.

  19. 围产儿出生缺陷的相关危险因素分析%Analysis of Risk Factors of Perinatal Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidence of birth defects(BD)in eight hospitals of Erqi district in Zhengzhou,to explore correlation factors of BD,and to provide scientific basis for developing appropriate intervention strategies and measures for BD. Method:All new born were monitored and a 1:2 case-control study for BD was performed in 117 babies with BD in eight hospitals of Erqi district in Zhengzhou during one year. Simple and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the correlates of BD. Result:The incidence of birth defects was 183.41 per 10 000 live births. In multiple factors analysis,backward stepwise regression was used to fit the main effects of equation. The experience without progestational examination,partiality for a particular kind of food during early pregnancy, contacted chemical agent,maternal history of birth defects,unhealthy emotion,diseases history during pregnancy were risk factors of BD. Conclusion:We should propagandize health knowledge widely in the crowd to avoid risk factors of BD, and do well in health care of perinatal period to prevent and reduce the incidence of birth defects,so as to improve the quality of the population born in China.%目的:了解郑州市二七区内8家医院的出生缺陷发生率,分析其影响因素,为制定适宜的干预策略和措施提供科学依据。方法:对郑州市二七区内8家医院1年内分娩的围产儿进行监测,并对其中117例出生缺陷儿进行1:2病例对照,采用单因素、多因素logistic回归模型分析出生缺陷的影响因素。结果:出生缺陷的发生率为183.41/万。多因素logistic逐步回归分析结果显示:无孕前检查、孕早期偏食、孕期接触化学制剂、既往分娩缺陷儿史、孕期不良情绪、孕期患病史是发生出生缺陷的危险因素。结论:要普遍宣传健康知识,避免出生缺陷的危险因素,作好围产期保健工作,预防和减少出生缺陷的发生,提高我国出生人口素质。

  20. The Nexus of Prematurity, Birth Defects, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Role for Plac1-Regulated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Michael E.; Fuentes, Juan; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Jackman, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of birth defects and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among infants born prematurely suggesting they share common biological determinants. The identification of key regulatory pathways contributing to this nexus is essential to ongoing efforts to develop effective intervention strategies. Plac1 is a paternally imprinted and X-linked gene that conforms to this paradigm. Examination of a mutant mouse model has confirmed that Plac1 is essential for normal placental development and function. Moreover, it is expressed throughout the developing embryo indicating that it also has broad relevance to embryogenesis. Most notably, its absence in the developing embryo is associated with abnormal brain development and an increased risk of lethal, postnatal hydrocephalus identifying it as a novel, X-linked determinant of brain development. The essential and non-redundant roles of Plac1 in placental and neurological development represent a novel regulatory paradigm for embryonic growth and pregnancy maintenance. Regulatory pathways influenced, in part, by Plac1 are likely to contribute to the observed nexus of IUGR, prematurity, and birth defects. PMID:24600606

  1. 肇庆市2001-2010年围产儿出生缺陷监测资料分析%Data analysis of perinatal and infants with birth defects from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志玮; 刘楚芹; 梁云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the incidence of birth defects and its variation in four hospitals of Zhaoqing, and to investigate the risk factors that causing birth defects, in order to provide references for formulating intervention measures. Methods According to the requirements of "Monitoring planning of birth defects in hospitals of Guangdong province", four hospitals in Zhaoqing were chosen for this investigation, and statistical analysis methods were used to analyze the birth defects data from 2001 to 2010 in Zhaoqing. Results 63 476 perinatal and infants were observed from 2001 to 2010, and 1 043 infants were found to have birth defects, and the incidence was 162.9 per ten thousand. There was an upward trend in general, and the incidence in 2010 was significantly higher than that in 2001 (χ2=21.635,P<0.001). The top three types of birth defects were congenital heart disease, fetal edema syndrome, and polydactyly malformation. Incidence of birth defect was associated with the sex, maternal age, and fetus number. Conclusion Birth defects have a great impact on the quality of the population, and the third class preventive measure should be continually strengthened to reduce the birth defects.%目的 了解肇庆市4家监测医院出生缺陷儿的发生率及其变化情况,研究出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定出生缺陷干预措施提供依据.方法 按照《广东省出生缺陷医院监测方案》的要求,以市内4家医院作为监测医院,对肇庆市2001-2010年的出生缺陷监测资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2001-2010年共监测围产儿63476名,其中出生缺陷儿1 034名,发生率为162.90/万,总体呈上升趋势,2010年的发生率比2001年高,差异有统计学意义(x2=21.635,P<0.001).前3位出生缺陷类型依次为先天性心脏病、胎儿水肿综合征、多指(趾)畸形.出生缺陷发生率与围产儿性别、孕母年龄、胎数有关.结论 出生缺陷严重影响出生人口的素质,应继续加强三

  2. Relating Factors and Effects of Intervention on Birth Defects in Zhuhai City%珠海市围产儿出生缺陷危险因素及干预措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 金正平; 戚小兵; 赵静; 胡翀; 张红忠; 曾淑萍; 李文典; 梁雄; 谭晓燕; 黄辉文

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To find out the status of birth defects and the relating factors in Zhuhai city, to valuate the effect of the measures of integrated intervention and to provide evidence for intervention measures and decisions-making. Methods Data was collected from the Zhuhai birth defects surveillance system from 2007 to 2010. And a case-control study was carried out on congenital malformations to evaluate the risk factor and the effect of the measures of integrative intervention. Results The incidence of birth defects reduced after the integrative intervention, top birth defects ranking changed, the incidence of NTD reduced. The main risk factors of congenital malformations were the history of abortion, times of abortion, exposure to chemical substances before or during pregnancy, the history of birth defect, the father's smoking history, maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, and maternal bad feelings during pregnancy. Conclusions Some risk factors were identified as having important effect on preinstall congenital malformations. Taking serial integrative intervention measures and strengthening three-level prevention will be beneficial to the reduction of birth defects.%目的 调查珠海市围产儿出生缺陷的发生情况,了解围产儿出生缺陷发生的危险因素,为围产儿出生缺陷的预防和干预提供依据.方法 收集珠海市2006~2010年出生缺陷资料,对先天畸形儿的双亲进行了病例对照研究,调查其危险因素,并对其综合干预措施的效果进行对比评估.结果 干预后,珠海市出生缺陷发生率下降,出生缺陷顺位及构成发生变化,神经管畸形发生率降低.出生缺陷的主要影响因素有:流产史及流产次数、孕期接触化学制剂、生产畸胎史、父亲吸烟史、母亲孕期营养不良、母亲孕期情绪不良.结论 影响出生缺陷的相关危险因素较多,降低出生缺陷发生率,应建立多种形式的综合措施,做好三级预防工作.

  3. Effective Defect Prevention Approach in Software Process for Achieving Better Quality Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Suma, V

    2010-01-01

    Defect prevention is the most vital but habitually neglected facet of software quality assurance in any project. If functional at all stages of software development, it can condense the time, overheads and wherewithal entailed to engineer a high quality product. The key challenge of an IT industry is to engineer a software product with minimum post deployment defects. This effort is an analysis based on data obtained for five selected projects from leading software companies of varying software production competence. The main aim of this paper is to provide information on various methods and practices supporting defect detection and prevention leading to thriving software generation. The defect prevention technique unearths 99% of defects. Inspection is found to be an essential technique in generating ideal software generation in factories through enhanced methodologies of abetted and unaided inspection schedules. On an average 13 % to 15% of inspection and 25% - 30% of testing out of whole project effort tim...

  4. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  5. 重庆市涪陵区311例围生儿出生缺陷分析%Birth defects analysis of 311 perinatal infants at Fuling district in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明会; 薛莹; 李红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status and change tendency of birth defects in the region to provide ref-erence for formulating reasonable prevention measures against birth defect. Methods A total of 311 monitoring data of birth de-fect from the hospitals including Fuling Central Hospital ,Puling Women and Children Health Care Hospital and Puling People′s Hospital from October 1,2010 to September 30,2013 at Fuling district in Chongqing were analyzed retrospectively,understanding the occurrence of birth defect,defect rate change trend as well as the related factors and birth defects (defects gender,age,residence and education level of lying-in women,etc.). Results Birth defect rate from the three monitoring organs of this region was de-creased annually. The occurrence of birth defects in 2013,accoutning for 1.846%(120/6 501),was significantly lower than that 2.046%(88/4 301) in 2011,whose difference had statistically significance(P0.05). The incidence of birth defect of the women aged less than 20 years old or over 35 years old were both higher than that of the women aged 20-35 years old. The lying-in women graduated from junior middle school or below had a higher occurrence in birth defect,and the difference had statistical significance(P<0.05). The prenatal diagnosis of birth defects,with the diagnostic rate of 21.54%(63/311) only,gave priority of ultrasonic diagnosis and chromo-some examination . Conclusion Paying attention to the occurrence of relevant factors of birth defect and improving the prenatal diagnosis of birth defects rate may effectively reduce the incidence of birth defect.%目的:探讨重庆市涪陵区出生缺陷儿的现状和变化趋势,为制订适合当地出生缺陷防治措施提供参考。方法选取该地区涪陵中心医院、涪陵区妇幼保健院、涪陵区人民医院3家监测机构2010年10月1日至2013年9月30日分娩的311例出生缺陷儿监测资料进行回顾性分析,了解出生缺陷发生率的

  6. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  7. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons’ components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20–25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers’ contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect.

  8. 昌吉州2005至2010年486例出生缺陷分析%Analysis of birth defects of 486 cases in 2005-2010 in Changji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筱萍; 李冬梅; 马彦华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of birth defects and related factors in Changji so as to provide some basis for working out preventive measures for birth defects. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the data of 486 cases of birth defects collected from each hospital in Changji from 2005 to 2010. Results The incidence of birth defects increased year by year from 2005 to 2010, and it increased in 2010 ( 10. 67‰ ) by 5. 61% compared with that in 2005 ( 5. 06 ‰). The incidence of birth defects when pregnant women were over 35 years and over 40 years was 8. 28% ‰ and 10. 67‰ respectively. The sequence of birth defects was neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, congenital hydrocephalus, congenital heart disease and talipes equinovarus in order. Conclusion The advanced ages and rural areas are the focus of prevention work. Strengthening propaganda on prenatal and postnatal care, enhancing system management during pregnancy, taking low-dose folic acid tablets before pregnancy and at early pregnancy and improving prenatal diagnostic technique are the effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 了解昌吉州出生缺陷发生情况及相关因素,为制订预防出生缺陷的措施提供依据.方法 收集昌吉州辖区内各家医院2005至2010年间出生的486例缺陷儿的资料,进行回顾性分析.结果 2005至2010年出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升趋势,2005年(5.06‰)与2010年(10.67‰)相比上升了5.61‰;年龄大于35、40岁以上妊娠者缺陷发生率分别为8.28‰、10.67‰;出生缺陷的顺位依次为神经管畸形、唇腭裂、多指趾、先天性脑积水、先心病、马蹄内翻.结论 高龄孕妇、农村地区是出生缺陷工作预防的重点,加强优生优育宣传,加强孕期系统管理,在孕前、孕早期服用小剂量叶酸片,提高产前诊断技术,是降低出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.

  9. Defect Prevention Approaches In Medium Scale It Enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Suma, V

    2010-01-01

    The software industry is successful, if it can draw the complete attention of the customers towards it. This is achievable if the organization can produce a high quality product. To identify a product to be of high quality, it should be free of defects, should be capable of producing expected results. It should be delivered in an estimated cost, time and be maintainable with minimum effort.

  10. 我院1996-2011年出生缺陷监测分析%Monitoring of birth defects in our hospital from 1996 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 刘华平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the birth defects-related factors in order to take countermeasures against them. Methods Data about birth defects in our hospital from 1996 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of the 10 025 perinatal infants, 217 (21.65‰) had birth defects. The rate of birth defects was significantly lower in 1996-2003 than in 2004-2011. The birth defects were related with the maternal age, newborn gender, fever in the early gestational period, taking drugs and exposure to toxic or harmful substances. The incidence of congenital heart disease was the highest in perinatal infants with birth defects. B ultrasound plays an important role in prenatal examination. Conclusion The incidence of birth defects should be reduced by improving their prenatal diagnosis, strengthening the good birth and good care awareness and enhancing the population quality.%  目的了解新生儿出生缺陷的相关因素,制定干预措施。方法对1996-2011年我院围产儿的出生缺陷情况进行回顾性分析。结果10025例围产儿中,出生缺陷217例,发生率21.65‰。1996-2003年的出生缺陷率明显低于2004-2011年,出生缺陷与孕母年龄、新生儿性别以及孕早期发热、服用药物、接触有毒有害物质有关。出生缺陷中先天性心脏病的发生率最高,而且明显升高。B超在产前检查中起重要作用。结论提高产前诊断水平,加强优生优育意识,降低出生缺陷的发生,提高人口素质。

  11. 我院1996-2011年出生缺陷监测分析%Monitoring of birth defects in our hospital from 1996 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 刘华平

    2013-01-01

      目的了解新生儿出生缺陷的相关因素,制定干预措施。方法对1996-2011年我院围产儿的出生缺陷情况进行回顾性分析。结果10025例围产儿中,出生缺陷217例,发生率21.65‰。1996-2003年的出生缺陷率明显低于2004-2011年,出生缺陷与孕母年龄、新生儿性别以及孕早期发热、服用药物、接触有毒有害物质有关。出生缺陷中先天性心脏病的发生率最高,而且明显升高。B超在产前检查中起重要作用。结论提高产前诊断水平,加强优生优育意识,降低出生缺陷的发生,提高人口素质。%Objective To investigate the birth defects-related factors in order to take countermeasures against them. Methods Data about birth defects in our hospital from 1996 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of the 10 025 perinatal infants, 217 (21.65‰) had birth defects. The rate of birth defects was significantly lower in 1996-2003 than in 2004-2011. The birth defects were related with the maternal age, newborn gender, fever in the early gestational period, taking drugs and exposure to toxic or harmful substances. The incidence of congenital heart disease was the highest in perinatal infants with birth defects. B ultrasound plays an important role in prenatal examination. Conclusion The incidence of birth defects should be reduced by improving their prenatal diagnosis, strengthening the good birth and good care awareness and enhancing the population quality.

  12. Analysis of birth defects supervision in obstetrical hospitals in Beijing Haidian District%北京市海淀区产科医院出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟赋真; 张雪峰; 周钰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of birth defects in hospitals in Haidian District during recent years so as to provide management clue for supervision in the future. Methods From October 1 of 2006 to September 30 of 2010, fetus and newborns between 13 gestational weeks and 7d after delivery were supervised for birth defects in hospitals of Haidian district, and the supervision results were analyzed in terms of rate and cis position. Results There were 3 776 defected cases including 2 861 cases in perinatal period ( the incidence rate of birth defects in perinatal period was 17. 98‰ ) and 906 cases induced to abortion in second trimester. In floating population the incidence rate of birth defects showed a rising trend in perinatal period during these years( x2 =52. 250, P = 0. 000 ). The first five highest rates of birth defects were congenital heart disease, deformity of external ear, multi finger ( toe ), merged finger ( toe ) and hypospadias in order. The trend of neural tube defects rate was stable and the incidence of cleft lip dropped obviously. But the incidence of Trisomy 21 rose gradually, and there was no significant difference (x2 =6. 906, P =0. 075 ). Conclusion The incidence rate of birth defects is 17. 98‰ in hospitals of Haidian district, and the trend of birth defects rate is rising during 2006-2010 year especially in floating population. The primary prevention of folic acid supplement should be strengthened.%目的 了解近年来北京市海淀区医院出生缺陷的发生情况,为今后监测工作的管理重点提供依据.方法 对2006年10月1日至2010年9月30日期间北京市海淀区产科医院孕13周~产后7天的胎儿及新生儿进行出生缺陷监测,并对监测结果进行率及顺位等分析.结果 ①监测到出生缺陷儿3 776例,其中围产期2 861例(围产期出生缺陷儿发生率为17.98‰),中孕引产906例;②2006至2010年,外地户籍围产期出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升的趋势(χ2

  13. Can our understanding of epigenetics assist with primary prevention of congenital defects?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Having identified teratogenic factors, primary prevention of congenital defects is possible by the implementation of specific measures in pregnant women or those planning pregnancy. Our current understanding of the epigenetic processes acting during reproductive events raises new possibilities to prevent both heritable and sporadic congenital anomalies. Cell differentiation during embryonic-foetal development involves different epigenetic processes which, if altered, may a...

  14. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system m

  15. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Roeleveld, N.; Nordeng, H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during pregnancy is common, small increases in the risk of birth defects may have significant implications for public health. Results of human studies on the teratogenic risks of NSAIDs are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated

  16. Amelia : A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all conti

  17. Related factors of birth defects%保定地区出生缺陷相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余瑞欣; 侯雯莅; 王建

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To 80 261 cases of perinatal analysis of 889 cases of defective children, most of unknown causes, of which 183 cases had a number of reasons, through the analysis to understand the defects caused by a common cause of children. Methods; The case study method, one by one asked about the history. Results: A number of reasons, such as high fever, contact with a number of chemical raw materials, indiscriminate use of drugs during pregnancy, social factors are all caused by defects. Conclusion; The prevention of pregnancy cold, away from toxic substances, rational drug use and change the bad ideas in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of defects in children.%目的 通过80 261例围产儿分析,缺陷儿889例,大部分不明原因,其中183例有一些明确原因,通过对这些因素分析,了解引起缺陷儿的常见原因.方法 采用个案调查方法,逐一询问病史.结果 一些原因如高烧、接触一些化工原料、孕期乱用药物、社会因素等都是引起缺陷的原因.结论 预防孕期感冒、远离有毒物质、合理用药,改变不良观念从而有效预防缺陷儿的发生.

  18. Impact of HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) Knowledge on HIV Prevention Practices Among Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Osuji; Jennifer R. Pharr; Uche Nwokoro; Anulika Ike; Christiana Ali; Ogheneaga Ejiro; John Osuyali; Michael Obiefune; Kevin Fiscella; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention pra...

  19. Prevention of visual field defects after macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinane, A B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND\\/AIM: The pathogenesis of visual field loss associated with macular hole surgery is uncertain but a number of explanations have been proposed, the most convincing of which is the effect of peeling of the posterior hyaloid, causing either direct damage to the nerve fibre layer or to its blood supply at the optic nerve head. The purpose of this preliminary prospective study was to determine the incidence of visual field defects following macular hole surgery in cases in which peeling of the posterior hyaloid was confined only to the area of the macula. METHODS: 102 consecutive eyes that had macular hole surgery had preoperative and postoperative visual field examination using a Humphrey\\'s perimeter. A comparison was made between two groups: I, those treated with vitrectomy with complete posterior cortical vitreous peeling; and II, those treated with a vitrectomy with peeling of the posterior hyaloid in the area of the macula but without attempting a complete posterior vitreous detachment. Specifically, no attempt was made to separate the posterior hyaloid from the optic nerve head. Eyes with stage II or III macular holes were operated. Autologous platelet concentrate and non-expansile gas tamponade was used. Patients were postured prone for 1 week. RESULTS: In group I, 22% of patients were found to have visual field defects. In group II, it was possible to separate the posterior hyaloid from the macula without stripping it from the optic nerve head and in these eyes no pattern of postoperative visual field loss emerged. There were no significant vision threatening complications in this group. The difference in the incidence of visual field loss between group I and group II was significant (p=0.02). The anatomical and visual success rates were comparable between both groups. CONCLUSION: The results from this preliminary study suggest that the complication of visual field loss after macular surgery may be reduced if peeling of the posterior hyaloid is

  20. Analysis on monitoring results of 554 cases with birth defects%554例出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩练

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To understand the prevalence, change trend and related factors of birth defects in liuyang city, provide a basis for making intervening measures. Methods; According to the requirements of brochure of birth defect monitoring of Chinese, the fetuses and infants whose mothers lived in 37 villages, towns and streets (including natives or those who had lived in Liuyang city for more than one year) were monitored from October first, 2006, the monitoring time was from 28 gestational weeks to 42 days after birth. Results; The incidence of birth defects was 108.70 per ten thousand, the incidence of birth defects in rural areas was 114. 28 per ten thousand, which was significantly higher than that in urban areas (64. 58 per ten thousand) (X2 = 11. 68, P < 0.01) . The mortality of perinatal infants was 7.93%0, the mortality of perinatal infants with birth defects was 3. 55%0, accounting for 44. 80% , birth defect was a main cause of perinatal death. The top five birth defects were accessory auricle, polydactyly, congenital heart disease, cleft lip with or without cleft palate and talipes equinovarus. Conclusion: Health education should be carried out widely among the population of childbearing age, supplement of folic acid should be popularized, health care before pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy should be enhanced, the factors inducing birth defects should be avoided, consultation about prepotency, prenatal examination and prenatal diagnosis should be conducted, all the a-bove - mentioned measures are effective to reduce the occurrence of birth defects.%目的:了解浏阳市出生缺陷的发生状况、变化趋势及相关因素,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法:按照《中国人群出生缺陷监测手册》要求,从2006年10月1日起对居住在浏阳市37个乡、镇、街道产妇(包括本地户口及非本地户口在浏阳市居住1年以上的产妇)的胎婴儿进行人群监测,监测期限为孕满28周~产后42天

  1. Analysis of the report of perinatal birth defects monitoring in fengtai district of beijing from 2006 to 2010%北京市丰台区2006-2010年出生缺陷监测数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 张静; 房春玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: By understanding the incidence of perinatal birth defect in Fengtai district of Beijing, in order to explore the influencing factors and develop interventions to reduce the incidence of birth defect. Methods; The data of perinatal birth defects from 2006 to 2010 were gathered from monitoring hospitals in Fengtai district. Results: The incidence of birth defect in Fengtai district was 110.5/10000 and there was a upward trend during 5 years. The perinatal birth defects stood on the first 3 rank of incidence list followed by Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of auricle, Congenital heart defects. There were certain correlation among birth defects, the mother's residence geography, gestational age, birth weight, gestational age of birth. Conclusion: It is valuable to reduce the incidence by a well - planned birth defects monitoring and preventive health care program.%目的 分析丰台区出生缺陷的发生情况及相关因素,探索降低出生缺陷发生的干预措施.方法 对2006~2010年北京市丰台区出生缺陷监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2006~2010年出生缺陷总发生率为110.5/万,各年的出生缺陷发生率呈上升趋势;按照出生缺陷病种分类,位于前3位的为多指(趾)、外耳畸形、先天性心脏病;男婴与女婴出生缺陷发生率比较具有显著性差异;母亲户籍、分娩年龄、婴儿出生体重、孕周等是出生缺陷发生的影响因素.结论 做好出生缺陷监测工作,加强出生缺陷三级预防,是降低出生缺陷发生的必要措施.

  2. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  3. [Neural tube defects and folic acid: a historical overview of a highly successful preventive intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Adriana Ordoñez; Suarez-Obando, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This article gives a broad overview of part of the historical evolution of medical knowledge about neural tube defects (NTD) and the discovery of vitamin B9 or folic acid, as well as some relevant research events that, over the course of several centuries, defined the relationships between the understanding of central nervous system embryology, the discovery of the vitamin, the correlation between folic acid and cell proliferation and lastly the development of preventive measures for this type of defects. This narrative allows us to examine historically relevant concepts underlying clinical actions with a populational impact that prevent NTDs via folic acid consumption prior to conception.

  4. Risk factors of birth defects in China:a Meta analysis%我国出生缺陷影响因素的M eta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万素馨; 罗亚玲; 周天津

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the main risk factors related to birth defects to provide the scientific basis for making the best prevention policy and implementing the effective interventions .Methods Totally 21 domestic research articles on the risk fac‐tors of birth defects were comprehensively analyzed by the meta analysis method ,including accumulated 6 112 patients and 15 741 control cases .The articles were screened preliminarily according to inclusion and exclusion standard ,and then the fixed and random effects model were selected according to the homogeneity test .The merged results were performed the chi‐square test .Results The main merged results OR values of single‐factor‐analysis were as follows:the family history of birth defects 36 .22 ,early pregnant in‐fectious disease 5 .62 ,early pregnancy exposure to chemicals 4 .19 ,paternal smoking 3 .89 ,contact sedatives during pregnancy 3 .19 , pregnancy complication 2 .94 ,high protein food during pregnancy 0 .37 ;the main merged results OR values of multiple‐factor‐analy‐sis were as follows :early pregnancy infectious disease 7 .65 ,poor prenatal mental state 5 .44 ,early pregnancy fever 4 .70 ,early preg‐nancy exposure to toxic chemical 3 .90 ,history of abortion 3 .59 ,supplement of multivitamin during pregnancy 0 .45 .Conclusion The main risk factors of birth defects in our country are family history of birth defects ,early pregnancy infectious disease ,early pregnancy exposure to chemicals ,paternal smoking and pregnancy complication;the protective factors are eating more high protein food during pregnancy ,supplement of multivitamin during pregnancy and taking folic acid during pregnancy .%目的:探讨影响我国出生缺陷发生的主要危险因素,为制定最佳预防控制决策、实行有效的干预措施提供科学依据。方法利用M eta分析方法综合分析国内关于出生缺陷发病危险因素的研究文献21篇,累计病例6112例,对照15741例。据纳

  5. Analysis of influencing factors of birth defect based on health education%基于健康教育的出生缺陷影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月芬; 李佳樾

    2012-01-01

    Teratogenic factors are closely related with living environment and human production and life, but are ignored easily. Therefore, the key link of reducing birth defect is to highlight public awareness effectively. This article indicated potential high-risk teratogenic factors in people' s life from the point of view of physics and chemistry so as to strengthen the concept of mass prevention and treatment and improve the effectiveness of preventing birth defects.%致畸因子与生存环境息息相关,其与人类生产生活密不可分,但却易被忽视.因此,降低出生缺陷至关重要的环节是有效地提高防范意识.该文从物理、化学等角度指出人们生活中潜在的高危致畸因素,强化群防群治理念,提高防范出生缺陷的效力.

  6. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  7. Drugs to block cytokine signaling for the prevention and treatment of inflammation induced preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Y Ng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB at less than 37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine infection (IUI due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is the leading cause of early PTB (<32 weeks. Commensal genital tract Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma species, as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, have been associated with IUI-induced PTB. Bacterial activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs and other pattern recognition receptors initiates a cascade of inflammatory signaling via the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, prematurely activating parturition. Antenatal antibiotic treatment has had limited success in preventing PTB or fetal inflammation. Administration of anti-inflammatory drugs with antibiotics could be a viable therapeutic option to prevent PTB and fetal complications in women at risk of IUI and inflammation. In this mini-review we will discuss the potential for anti-inflammatory drugs in obstetric care, focusing on the class of drugs termed ‘cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs’ or CSAIDs. These inhibitors work by specifically targeting the NF-κB and p38 MAPK inflammatory signaling pathways. Several CSAIDs are discussed, together with clinical and toxicological considerations associated with the administration of anti-inflammatory agents in pregnancy.

  8. Rational Reflections about Euthanasia of Newborn with Birth Defect%对缺陷新生儿安乐死问题的理性思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is semi-open and hidden euthanasia of newborn with birth defects. Due to great family burden, social tolerance and the incomplete relevant legislation of birth defect, this phenomenon has existed for a long time. In order to avoid abuse, disordered and protect the interests of non-serious defects newborn, this article suggests that it should develop regulations as an important component of the birth defect intervention legislation.%分析目前我国存在着的半公开的、隐蔽的缺陷新生儿安乐死行为,因家庭负担、社会宽容态度和相关法律不完善致使该现象长期存在.当务之急是制定缺陷新生儿处置法规并将其作为整个出生缺陷干预立法的重要组成部分,以此来避免缺陷新生儿安乐死行为的滥用和无序,保障成千上万非严重缺陷新生儿的生命权益.

  9. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  10. 开封市出生缺陷影响因素病例对照研究%Case-control study on influencing factors of perinatal birth defects in Kaifeng city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 潘新娟; 余增丽

    2013-01-01

    ) environment pollution sources near residence (OR= 10. 23) were the risk factors of birth defects. [Conclusion] The habit of smoking and drinking,the history of mother exposure to teratogenic factors,medication during pregnancy,exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy,environment pollution sources near residence are the main risk factors of birth defects. Primary prevention to the causes is important to reduce birth defects.

  11. Impact of HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC Knowledge on HIV Prevention Practices Among Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Osuji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01, sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01, participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01, and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01. As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.

  12. Analysis of perinatal birth defects monitoring results in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008%甘肃省2001年~2008年围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁秀琴; 郭瑛泉; 张玲; 廖丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the trend of birth defects incidence, species and changes in Gansu province, in order to provide evidence for preventive measure.Methods: According to Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Program and Maternal and child health surveillance program in Gansu Province, to monitor perinatal birth in 43 hospitals in Gansu province from 2001 to 2008.Results:( 1 ) In 8 years, the birth defects average incidence is 11.043 per thousand, its trend began go up in 2004, but there is no statistical difference between every years.(2) And the birth defects average incidence no statistical difference between boys and girls ( P >0.05 ); The pregnant motheres age distribution characterized with "two side high and middle low", the lowest incidence (5.9 -9.7 per thousand ) is at 25 - 29 years age group, higher in country than in city ( P < 0.05 ).( 3 ) In 8 years, most common birth defects were neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip, talipes equinovarus, limb shorten, polydactyly and congenital heart disease.Neural tube defects and congenital hydrocephalus were always in first there birth defects in Gansu province.Conclusion: Neural tube defects, congenital hydrocephalus, cleftlip are high incidence in all birth defects, which are result of genetic or environmental factors, or interaction of both.Prevention is preior to therapy.Aiming at high detection rate of birth defects, to establish effective administrative intervention and medical care meature.%目的 探讨甘肃省出生缺陷的发生率、种类及变化趋势,为预防措施的制定提供依据.方法 按<中国出生缺陷监测方案>及<甘肃省妇幼卫生监测方案>,对甘肃省2001年~2008年间在43家监测医院住院分娩的围产儿进行监测.结果 (1)8年间的出生缺陷发生率平均为110.43/万,2004年起有明显上升趋势,各年份间出生缺陷发生率无显著的统计学差异.(2)胎儿性别间出生缺陷发生率

  13. 2008-2010年围产期出生缺陷分析%2008-2010 years perinatal birth defect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景丽丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective: in order to know the QingShanOu incidence of birth defects, this paper discusses the related factors birth defects happen for formulating and take measures to provide the basis. Methods: according to the national birth defects monitoring scheme, at the request of (2008-2010) on October 1, 2007-October 31, 2010 QingShanOu 5 home delivery hospital inpatient delivery at full and thoughtful within 7 days after perinatal infants dead for monitoring. Results: three years were monitoring perinatal infants dead 11 850 cases, birth defects in 104 cases, de- fect rate of 8.8%, which was born in 2008 to 3.6 per 2009, defects in 10.1%~, in 2010 to 13.2 per thousand. Birth defects increasing year by year, the top five birth defects is as follows: (1) the outer ear malformation; (2) by and means; Cleft palate (3); (4) foot deformity; (5) head facial deformity. Mother from air pollution in the area close to significantly higher than the far from air pollution area, mother of low degree of culture birth defects son is obviously higher than that of the culture degree is high. The occurrence of the birth defects and gender no phase relationship. Conclusion: to widely develop health education, general knowledge level of eugenic and superior nurture, strengthen the examination before marriage, prenatal care and prenatal diagnosis work.%目的:了解青山区出生缺陷发生率,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关因素,为制定和采取预防干预措施提供依据。方法:按照全国出生缺陷监测方案的要求,对(2008-2010年)2007年10月1日-2010年10月31日青山区5家分娩医院住院分娩的孕满28周到产后7天内围产儿进行监测。结果:3年共监测围产儿11850例,出生缺陷儿104例,缺陷发生率为8.8%,其中2008年出生缺陷率为3.6%。、2009年为10.1%。、2010年为13.2%。。出生缺陷呈逐年上升趋势,前5位出生缺陷依次为:①外耳畸

  14. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  15. Sirenomelia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORIOLI, IÊDA M.; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; ARTEAGA-VAZQUEZ, JAZMIN; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BOTTO, LORENZO D.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; CORREA, ADOLFO; CSAKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LÓPEZ-CAMELO, JORGE S.; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.

    2015-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and were reported according to a single pre-established protocol. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally. A total of 249 cases with sirenomelia were identified among 25,290,172 births, for a prevalence of 0.98 per 100,000, with higher prevalence in the Mexican registry. An increase of sirenomelia prevalence with maternal age less than 20 years was statistically significant. The proportion of twinning was 9%, higher than the 1% expected. Sex was ambiguous in 47% of cases, and no different from expectation in the rest. The proportion of cases born alive, premature, and weighting less than 2,500 g were 47%, 71.2%, and 88.2%, respectively. Half of the cases with sirenomelia also presented with genital, large bowel, and urinary defects. About 10–15% of the cases had lower spinal column defects, single or anomalous umbilical artery, upper limb, cardiac, and central nervous system defects. There was a greater than expected association of sirenomelia with other very rare defects such as bladder exstrophy, cyclopia/holoprosencephaly, and acardia-acephalus. The application of the new biological network analysis approach, including molecular results, to these associated very rare diseases is suggested for future studies. PMID:22002878

  16. Monitoring analysis of birth defects from 2009 to 2010 in Guangzhou%广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹兴文; 王平; 杨丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨广州市2009至2010年出生缺陷发生率、发生类型、转归及影响因素.方法 收集并分析广州市全部148家医院在2009至2010年期间分娩儿出生缺陷监测资料.结果 共监测352 084例围产儿,发生出生缺陷5 724例,出生缺陷发生率162.6/万,前五位缺陷类型依次是先天性心脏病、多指(趾)、总唇腭裂、马蹄内翻足和外耳其他畸形.男性围产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于女性(177.74/万 vs 144.66/万,P<0.05),早产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于足月儿(756.40/万 vs 122.19/万,P<0.05),孕母年龄越大,发生出生缺陷的风险越高(P<0.05).严重出生缺陷的治疗性引产率超过60%.结论 广州市出生缺陷发生率偏高,应重视对男婴、早产儿的先天畸形检查,加强对高龄孕妇的管理.提高产前确诊率和致死性畸形的治疗性引产率.%Objective To explore the incidence, type, outcomes and influencing factors of birth defects in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2010. Methods The data of birth defects during this period from all of 148 hospitals in Guangzhou was collected and analyzed. Results Among 352 084 perinatal infants monitored, 5724 cases were detected with birth defects with incidence of 162. 6 per ten thousand. The first five birth defects were congenital heart disease, polydactylia, total cheiloschisis/palatoschisis, congenital talipes equino varus and deformity of external ear in order. The incidence of birth defects in boys was higher than that in girls (177. 74/ten thousand vs 144. 66/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ), and it was higher in premature infants than term infants ( 756. 40/ten thousand vs 122. 19/ten thousand, P < 0. 05 ). The older the pregnant women were, the greater the risk of birth defects was. The rate of therapeutic termination of severe birth defects was more than 60%. Conclusion The incidence of birth defects is slightly high in Guangzhou. Attention should be paid to malformation examination on male infants and

  17. 426例出生缺陷儿产前超声诊断分析%Cases study on 426 birth defects monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉环

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨我院分娩的出生缺陷儿临床类型与产前超声诊断分析,为孕期早期诊断出生缺陷提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析我院2001年至2009年共分娩28 311例,出生缺陷儿426例,发生率15‰,产前超声诊断269例,(检出率63.1%),我院采取产科超声检查三个重点时间段进行筛查(孕龄10 -14周,22-26周及32 -36周)检测胎儿发育情况.结果 孕龄14 -27周超声检查出生缺陷人工终止妊娠92例(21.59%),出生缺陷发生率前五位依次为:神经管畸形(21.8%),唇腭裂(16.9%),多指并指(趾)畸形(10.01%),胎儿水肿(9.85%),外耳畸形(4.22%),产前超声检出率分别为:95.69%,50.72%,9.30%,80.95%,0,结论 产前超声诊断除神经管畸形,胎儿水肿,唇腭裂外,其它发病率较高的畸形超声检出率较底,因此加强产前诊断人员的技术培训,提高超声诊断技术水平,是提高人口素质降低出生缺陷的重要措施.%Objective: Study the birth defects type and the prebirth monitoring result at the hospital in order to improve the diagnosis of birth defects. Methord; All toghter there are 28 311 births at the hospital, and 426 birth defects were found. The frequency is 1.5%. 426 cases were diagnosed by prebirth monitoring (63. 1%). The monitoring was done at three key points of the pregnancy. (10-14 week, 22-26 week, 32 - 36week). Results: 92 birth defects cases were found and the pregnancy terminated. The most likely occurred five birth defects are neural tube defects (21. 8% ), cheilopalatognathus (16. 9% ), polysyndactyly (10.01%), fetus edema (9.85% ), deformity of external ear (4.22% ). And the monitoring diagnosis rate are: 95.69% , 50.72% , 9.30% , 80. 95% , 0. Conclusion: the monitoring diagnosis rate of birth defects is low except neural tube defects, fetus edema and cheilopalatognathus. Therefor, improving the successful diagnosis of birth diagnosis throught technology and training is essential for population quality

  18. Optimal serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age for prevention of neural tube defects: World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Amy M; Crider, Krista S; Rogers, Lisa M; Cannon, Michael J; Berry, R J

    2015-04-24

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that occur during the first month of pregnancy when the neural tube fails to close completely. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have shown that adequate daily consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy considerably reduces the risk for NTDs. The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily for NTD prevention. Furthermore, fortification of staple foods (e.g., wheat flour) with folic acid has decreased folate-sensitive NTD prevalence in multiple settings and is a highly cost-effective intervention. PMID:25905896

  19. Adjunctive Therapies to Cerclage for the Prevention of Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. DeFranco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough summary of published studies that have assessed the efficacy of adjunctive therapies used in addition to cervical cerclage as a preventive measure for preterm birth. We limited our paper to patients treated with cerclage plus an additional prophylactic therapy compared to a reference group of women with cerclage alone. The specific adjunctive therapies included in this systematic review are progesterone, reinforcing or second cerclage placement, tocolytics, antibiotics, bedrest, and pessary. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases without date criteria with restriction to English language and human studies and performed additional bibliographic review of selected articles and identified 305 total studies for review. Of those, only 12 studies compared the use of an adjunctive therapy with cerclage to a reference group of cerclage alone. None of the 12 were prospective randomized clinical trials. No comparative studies were identified addressing the issues of antibiotics, bedrest, or pessary as adjunctive treatments to cerclage. None of the 12 studies included in this paper demonstrated a clear benefit of any adjunctive therapy used in addition to cerclage over and above cerclage used alone; however, few studies with small numbers limited the strength of the conclusions.

  20. N,N-Dimethylacetamide Regulates the Proinflammatory Response Associated with Endotoxin and Prevents Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Sruthi; Ashby, Charles R.; Pekson, Ryan; Sampat, Vaishali; Sitapara, Ravikumar; Mantell, Lin; Chen, Chih-Hung; Yen, Haoting; Abhichandani, Khushboo; Munnangi, Swapna; Khadtare, Nikhil; Stephani, Ralph A.; Reznik, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    The proinflammatory response leads to various types of pathologic pathways, including the development of preterm birth. Preterm birth occurs in 12% of deliveries in the United States and causes more than 70% of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of spontaneous preterm birth is intrauterine infection in the mother. There is accumulating evidence indicating that the release of proinflammatory cytokines plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated pr...

  1. Analysis of the trend in prevalence of birth defects in Guangxi from 2001 to 2010%2001-2010年广西壮族自治区围生儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾萼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of birth defects and its variation from 2001 to 2010 in Guangxi.Methods According to national birth defect monitoring program,all perinatal infants in the birth defects monitoring hospitals in Guangxi from 2001 to 2010 were investigated and statistically analyzed for prevalenee of birth defects( per ten thousand),incidence rates of major birth defects,category and correlating factors.Results In recent 10 years,540 449 perinatal infants were monitored.And 10 897 cases of birth defects were identified with a prevalence rate of 201.63 per ten thousand.The main deformities were fetal edema syndrome,polydactyly,congenital heart disease,cleft lip and external ear malformation.The prevalence of birth defects among boys in the period of 2001-2010was significantly higher than that among girls and that in rural areas was significantly higher than that in the urban areas,and the differences were significant ( x2 =43.71,4.04 respectively,both P < 0.05 ).The prevalence rate of birth defects in 35 ~ age group was the highest and it was significantly higher than that in the < 20 age group,~ 25 age group,25 age group and 30 ~ age group ( x2 =9.17,41.33,58.77,29.10 respectively,all P < 0.05 ).There was an ascending tendencyin prevalence rate of birth defects in the period of 2001 and 2005,and there was a descending tendency in the period of 2005 and 2010.Conclusion Strengthening tertiary prevention measures,and improving skills of the medical wokers for prenatal diagnosis were effective measures to reduce the prevalence of birth defects.%目的 分析广西壮族自治区2001-2010年围生儿出生缺陷特征及变化趋势.方法 按照国家出生缺陷监测方案,对2001-2010年广西壮族自治区围生儿出生缺陷监测医院的围生儿进行出生缺陷监测,统计分析出生缺陷的发生率、类别和相关因素.结果 10年共监测围生儿540 449例,其中出生缺陷儿10 897例,发生率为201.63/万.出

  2. Rapid-prenatal diagnosis through fluorescence in situ hybridization for preventing aneuploidy related birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Fauzdar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Rapid FISH is a reliable and prompt method for detecting numerical chromosomal aberrations and has now been implemented as a routine diagnostic procedure for detection of fetal aneuploidy in India.

  3. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quad screen tests the levels of 4 proteins AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), hCG, estriol, and inhibin-A. Generally, ... of the proteins for which an amniocentesis tests. AFP AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein, a protein the ...

  4. Research Progress on Progestins Treatment for the Prevention of Spontaneous Preterm Birth%孕激素在自发性早产防治中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别亚男

    2012-01-01

    在中国,妊娠满28周至不足37周间分娩称为早产,分为自发性早产和治疗性早产两种.早产是导致新生儿致病及死亡的主要原因,即使存活亦常有神经智力发育缺陷.目前动物实验、体外实验及大样本随机对照试验证明,孕激素治疗(包括孕酮及人工合成孕激素)能减少早产风险.孕酮通过维持子宫静止状态和抑制宫颈成熟预防早产,维持妊娠.综述孕激素在自发性早产高危患者中的防治作用及其使用安全性.%Preterm birth is defined as birth between 28 and 37 completed weeks of gestation in China, and classified as either indicated preterm birth or spontaneous preterm birth. Preterm birth causes the major determinant of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and the long -term results of preterm birth often lead to neural and mental developmental defects. There is experimental support from animal and in vitro studies, and also empirical evidence from large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, that treatment with progestins (includes natural progesterone and its analogues) may reduce the risk of preterm birth. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by maintaining uterine quiescence and inhibiting cervical riping. This article reviews the use of progestins in women with high-risk factors for the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth and the safety of progestins supplementation in pregnancy.

  5. Effect of cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin on repairing large segmental bone defects and preventing infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪波; 陈安民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of repairing long segmental bone defects and preventing infection with cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin (C-BMG). Methods: C-BMG was made from putting cefazolin into BMG by vacuum absorption and lyophilization techniques. The sustaining period of effective drug concentration in vitro and in vivo was detected. The time of inhibiting bacteria, and the drug concentration in local tissues ( bone and muscle) and plasma after implantation of C-BMG were examined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The effective inhibition time to staphylococcus aureus of C-BMG was 22 days in vitro; while 14 days in vivo. The cefazolin concentration in local tissues was higher in early stage, and later it kept a stable and low drug release. C-BMG showed an excellent ability to repair segmental long bone defects.Conclusions: C-BMG can gradually release cefazolin with effective drug concentration and has excellent ability to repair segmental bone defects. It can be used to repair segmental long bone defects and prevent infection after operation.

  6. Role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects: physicians yet unaware!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Kumhar, G Das; Harit, D; Faridi, M M A

    2010-09-01

    Folic acid supplementation is important in the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD). The study was conducted to assess the awareness amongst physicians regarding the role of Folic Acid (FA) in the prevention of NTD. Physicians were interviewed regarding the awareness of FA dose, timing of supplementation and knowledge about its role in prevention of neural tube defects using a semistructured questionnaire. Among 202 physicians interviewed (48 pediatricians, 54 obstetricians, 100 recently qualified medical graduates) overall awareness about FA was present in 92.07%, similar in three groups (P > 0.05). Only 47.52% were aware of preconception administration, 61.38% about dose of supplementation and 11.88% about recurrence rate of NTD. Only 15 (7.4%) knew all these. Regarding the etiology of NTDs only 26.7% said both FA and genetic factors are involved. Though majority were aware that folic acid has a role in prevention of NTDs, their knowledge about timing and dose of supplementation was lacking. Hence attempts should be made to increase the awareness regarding prevention of NTD's by FA supplementation at a proper time.

  7. 2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷监测情况%Monitoring and analysis on birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng district of Beijing 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚喆萍; 薄新生; 纪晋文

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市西城区德胜社区出生缺陷发生特点,为干预措施提供科学依据.方法 对2009-2010年北京市西城区德胜社区的人群出生缺陷监测结果进行分析.结果 2009、2010年德胜社区出生缺陷发生率分别为25.91%、22.58%,出生缺陷发生顺位前3位的分别是先天性心脏病(52.50%)、外耳其他畸形(15.00%)、并指(趾)(10.00%),出生缺陷发生与孕周、孕妇年龄有关(P<0.05),出生缺陷的诊断手段主要为B超和临床.结论 要关注高龄孕妇围生期保健,做好孕产妇系统管理,规范产前检查和预防,降低出生缺陷发生率.%[Objective]To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing, provide the scientific basis for intervention measures. [Methods] The monitoring results of birth defects in Desheng community in Xicheng District of Beijing during 2009-2010 were analyzed. [Results] The incidence rate of birth defects in Desheng community in 2009 and 2010 was 25. 91‰ and 22. 58‰ respectively. The top three birth defects were congenital heart disease (52.50% ), congenital external ear malformations (15.00% ) and syndactyly (10.00% ). The birth defects were related to gesta-tional age and maternal age (P <0. 05). The main diagnostic methods of birth defects were B-ultrasound and clinical diagnosis. [Conclusion] It is necessary to pay attention to perinatal health care among senile gravida, carry out the system management among pregnant women, and improve the prenatal examination and prevention, in order to reduce the incidence rate of birth defects.

  8. Drugs to block cytokine signaling for the prevention and treatment of inflammation induced preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Pearl Y.; Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) at less than 37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine infection (IUI) due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is the leading cause of early PTB (

  9. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  10. Sphingosine Kinase: A Novel Putative Target for the Prevention of Infection-Triggered Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhuti Vyas; Ashby, Charles R.; Reznik, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing an exorbitant cost of $5.8 billion. Infection-associated premature rupture of membranes (PROM) accounts for 40% of extremely preterm births (

  11. 2010年常州市围产儿出生缺陷及城市功能区出生缺陷状况%Birth defects of perinatal infants in Changzhou city in 2010 and birth defects in different functional areas of the city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪金剑; 周华; 蒋健

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the birth defects in Changzhou city in 2010 and the birth defects in different functional areas of the city, explore the related factors of occurrence of birth defects in Changzhou city. Methods: The perinatal infants with birth defects who were bom in obstetric department of all the hospitals in Changzhou city in 2010 were collected, and the city was divided into central urban area, industrial area, and agricultural area according to the functions of the city, the birth defects of perinatal infants were compared among different functional areas. Results: There were 39 399 perinatal infants in 2010, the incidence of birth defects was 5.10‰, the incidence of birth defects and the top three birth defects were in accord with those from 2007 to 2009, the mean incidence of birth defects in Changzhou city was 5.10‰, and the incidences of birth defects in industrial area, central urban area, and agricultural area were 9.13‰, 4.60‰, and 3. 24‰, respectively, the incidence of birth defects in industrial area was significantly higher than the mean level in Changzhou city. Among the perinatal infants with birth defects, the indexes including floating population, gestational smoking or passive smoking, drinking during pregnancy, engaging in high risk works were higher than those of normal control group; the rate of medical examination before marriage and the regular examination rate during gestational period were lower than those in normal control group. Conclusion: Premarital check - up and pregestational health care should be enhanced, the management of reproductive health of the floating population should be improved, and the prenatal examination rate of birth defects should be strengthened, the measures above - mentioned can be conducted to reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的:了解常州市2010年出生缺陷发生情况以及城市功能区出生缺陷状况,探讨常州市出生缺陷发生的相关因素.方法:收集2010

  12. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Educational Needs in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Christiane; Boschma-Wynn, Rachel V.; Dewane, Sarah L.; Edwards, Alexandra; Robinson, Rebecca Volino

    2011-01-01

    As many as 4.5 live births per 1000 are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), preventable birth defects with life-long consequences. Prevention of FASDs is gaining in importance, and recruitment of diverse disciplines in delivering prevention to women of childbearing age is essential. This needs assessment explored to what extent…

  13. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  14. Health Care for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Certain Korea Veterans--Covered Birth Defects and Spina Bifida. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This rule adopts as final a proposed rule of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to amend its regulations concerning the provision of health care to birth children of Vietnam veterans and veterans of covered service in Korea diagnosed with spina bifida, except for spina bifida occulta, and certain other birth defects. In the proposed rule published on May 15, 2015, VA proposed changes to more clearly define the types of health care VA provides, including day health care and health-related services, which we defined as homemaker or home health aide services that provide assistance with Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living that have therapeutic value. We also proposed changes to the list of health care services that require preauthorization by VA. This final rule addresses comments received from the public and adopts as final the proposed rule, without change. PMID:27051894

  15. Understanding the causes and prevention of neural tube defects: Insights from the splotch mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Massa, Valentina; Copp, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    Splotch mutant mice develop neural tube defects (NTDs), comprising exencephaly and/or spina bifida, as well as neural crest-related defects and abnormalities of limb musculature. Defects in splotch mice result from mutations in Pax3, and some human NTDs may also result from mutations in the human PAX3 gene. Pax3 encodes a transcription factor whose function may influence expression of multiple downstream genes associated with a variety of cellular properties (including apoptosis, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation), that could be important for neural tube closure. The frequency of NTDs varies between mutant alleles and is also influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. Notably, splotch provides a model for folic acid-preventable NTDs, and conversely, dietary folate deficiency exacerbates NTDs. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of splotch NTDs, as well as the mechanisms by which the frequency of defects is influenced by genetic and environmental factors (such as sub-optimal folate status), may provide insight into the causation of these severe congenital malformations in humans.

  16. 中枢神经系统出生缺陷相关因素的调查%Investigation on the Correlation Factors of Birth Defects of Central Nervous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙熙德; 丁华新; 舒仁和

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the correlation factors of birth defects of central nervous system(CNS) in the area of Dongting Lake, and to provide the references for establishing intervention measures to prevent birth defects of CNS. [Methods] Among 89147 pregnant women who had been pregnant for at least 28 weeks and delivered after 7 days during the period from January 1997 to December 2006, mothers of 115 children patients who were confirmed to suffer from congenital malformation of CNS were collected as the case group. According to 1:2 matched, mothers of 230 normal newborns with the same condition were chosen as comparison group. Then, questionnaire investigation and match research were conducted. [Results] Family history of congenital malformation, father touching chemicals, fathers' drinking index, fever caused by cold, touching pesticide during pregnancy, smoking passively were main dangerous factors of birth defects of CNS, with OR value of 14.50, 10.10, 5.00, 4.53, 3.89 and 1.76, respectively. Education level, B-ultrasound in the middle of pregnancy and taking folic acid were protection factors, with βj value of -0.48, -2.36 and -2.51, respectively and OR value less than 1. The difference between scores of questionnaire of knowledge of birth defects obtained by patient case group and comparison group had statistical significance (P0.05). [Conclusion]Doing pre-marriage health education and pregnancy health care, and medically monitoring high risk population are keys to further reduce birth defects of CNS.%[目的]探讨中枢神经系统(CNS)出生缺陷的相关因素,为制定预防CNS出生缺陷干预措施提供参考依据.[方法]收集1997年1月至2006年12月期间孕满28周至产后7d的孕产妇89147例,其中确诊为CNS先天畸形患儿115例的母亲为病例组,按1:2配对,选取同等条件的230例正常新生儿的母亲为对照组,进行问卷调查、配对研究.[结果]先天畸形家族史、父接触化学物品、父饮酒指数、

  17. Folic acid and the prevention of neural tube defects: A survey of awareness among Latina women of childbearing age residing in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Menotti, Elaine; Scherer, Holly K; Dickinson, Jennifer; Larson, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce the risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). To inform southeast Michigan Latina women of childbearing age about the benefits of food and supplemental sources of the micronutrient in the prevention of NTDs, Spanish-English bilingual health educators carried out 20 education events in supermarkets and community organizations serving Latina women. One hundred and sixty Latina women ages 19 to 50 years indicated their current folic acid awareness and stated their future intentions regarding folic acid. Of 160 women surveyed, 114 (71%) had heard of folic acid, 84 (74%) knew that folic acid prevents birth defects, 63 (55%) knew the critical time to take folic acid, and 76 (67%) identified at least one source of folic acid. After participating in the education events, 136 women (85%) reported planning to eat more folate and/or folic acid-rich foods. Although general folic acid awareness is fairly high, health promotion efforts must be coordinated at community locations serving Latina women to share folic acid's specific protective effects in the prevention of NTDs, the critical timing of intake, and its food and supplement sources.

  18. Antepartum and intrapartum interventions to prevent preterm birth and its sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, T A J; van Vliet, E O G; Koullali, B; Mol, B W; Oudijk, M A

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This review provides an overview of antepartum and intrapartum management of threatened preterm birth. The most effective method to identify women at high risk of delivering within seven days is the combination of cervical length and fetal fibronectin test. Antenatal corticosteroids administered for 48 h improve neonatal outcome. Although tocolysis has been shown to prolong pregnancy, there is no evidence that tocolytic therapy improves neonatal outcomes. Intrapartum administration of magnesium sulfate improves neurologic outcomes, such as cerebral palsy and gross motor function. In women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, prophylactic antibiotic treatment with erythromycin improves short-term neonatal outcomes, but proof of long-term benefit is lacking. In threatened preterm birth with intact membranes, prophylactic antibiotic treatment is thought to be harmful. Critical appraisal of the long-term benefits and harms of all these treatments questions their use. PMID:26875954

  19. Preventive education and birth order as co-determinants of IQ in disadvantaged 5-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boat, B W; Campbell, F A; Ramey, C T

    1986-01-01

    The effects of preventive education and birth order on IQ scores of 95 economically disadvantaged children at risk for retarded intellectual development were studied. Experimental first- and later-born children participated from birth in a 5-year programme of systematic educational intervention. An equal number of children served as controls and received no systematic intervention. First-borns prevailed as the brighter children in both the educational treatment group and the control group when Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) full scale and verbal IQ scores were compared. Furthermore, mothers of first-borns (70% of whom were only-born at age 5) achieved significantly higher WAIS scores than did mothers of later-born children. Results suggest that later-born disadvantaged children are at greatest risk for developmental retardation. PMID:3955795

  20. Ten Tips to Prevent Infections During Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-14

    This podcast gives 10 tips for preventing infections during pregnancy.  Created: 12/14/2007 by National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 1/10/2008.

  1. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  2. Avaliação das declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre defeitos congênitos Evaluation of the birth certificates as source of information on birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia Geremias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos congênitos (DC em uma coorte de nascidos vivos (NV vinculando-se os bancos de dados do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM e do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo para avaliar as declarações de nascido vivo como fonte de informação sobre DC. A população de estudo é uma coorte de NV hospitalares do 1º semestre de 2006 de mães residentes e ocorridos no Município de São Paulo no período de 01/01/2006 a 30/06/2006, obtida por meio da vinculação dos bancos de dados das declarações de nascido vivo e óbitos neonatais provenientes da coorte. RESULTADOS: Os DC mais prevalentes segundo o SINASC foram: malformações congênitas (MC e deformidades do aparelho osteomuscular (44,7%, MC do sistema nervoso (10,0% e anomalias cromossômicas (8,6%. Após a vinculação, houve uma recuperação de 80,0% de indivíduos portadores de DC do aparelho circulatório, 73,3% de DC do aparelho respiratório e 62,5% de DC do aparelho digestivo. O SINASC fez 55,2% das notificações de DC e o SIM notificou 44,8%, mostrando-se importante para a recuperação de informações de DC. Segundo o SINASC, a taxa de prevalência de DC na coorte foi de 75,4%00 NV; com os dados vinculados com o SIM, essa taxa passou para 86,2%00 NV. CONCLUSÕES: A complementação de dados obtida pela vinculação SIM/SINASC fornece um perfil mais real da prevalência de DC do que aquele registrado pelo SINASC, que identifica os DC mais visíveis, enquanto o SIM identifica os mais letais, mostrando a importância do uso conjunto das duas fontes de dados.OBJECTIVE: To obtain the prevalence of birth defects in a live birth cohort, linking the live birth information system (SINASC and the mortality information system (SIM databases. METHODS: Descriptive study to assess linked databases of hospital live births (LB and neonatal deaths of resident mothers that occurred in the city of S

  3. Prevention and treatment of wound complications at alloplasty of the complex abdominal wall defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Lysenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major reasons causing the unsatisfactory results of the alloplasty of complex abdominal wall defects (CAWD is the development of wound complications (WC, the frequency of which varies from 7.9 to 49.2%. The aim of the research was to identify measures for prevention and treatment of wound complications in alloplasty of the complex abdominal wall defects. Materials and methods. 360 operated patients with CAWD were recruited in the period from 2005 to 2015 in the surgical clinic of the 1-st Poltava hospital. 309 (85.8% of them were women, 51 (14.2% - men. Average age was 61 years. Planned operations were in 294 (81.7% patients, emergency – 47 (13.0%, delayed operations were in 19 (5.3% patients. Results. In patients with CAWD considerable attention to WC prevention was separately assessed on several stages: before, during and after surgery. Proposed techniques developed by us allows to achieve not only a reliable closure of the defect abdominal wall, but also to reduce the number of regional administration in patients with CAWD with increased risk of development: seroma was diagnosed in 9 (2.5% patients, hematoma – 2 (0.6%, subcutaneous serous infiltration – 5 (1.4%, purulent wound infection – in 2 (0.7%, the formation of «meshoma» – in 1 (0.3%, abdominal wall abscess – in 1 (0, 3%, ligature fistula – in 3 (0.8%. Relapse was diagnosed in 6 (1.7% patients. Average hospital stay was 10,2±3,4 days. Conclusions. Using the proposed preventive and therapeutic principles at all stages of the treatment of patients with CAWD individual approach can reduce the number of postoperative WC to 6.4%, significantly improve the results of surgical treatment of these patients.

  4. 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素分析%Analysis of status and influence factors of women of childbearing age be-ing aware of birth defects knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王民

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况现状及影响因素,以便有针对性地开展出生缺陷预防工作,降低出生缺陷发生率. 方法 随机抽取青龙满族自治县2014年1月~2015年7月符合生育政策、计划怀孕并参加免费孕前优生健康检查的1200名育龄妇女,使用自行设计的统一调查问卷,进行预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况自填式问卷调查. 结果 育龄妇女获取预防出生缺陷知识的途径形式单一,依次为书籍杂志、医院、网络等,预防出生缺陷知识的总知晓率仅为68%;影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素为年龄、文化水平、职业、经济条件等.其中20~32岁年龄段的人群高于33~39岁;大专及以上文化程度的人群高于其他文化长度的人群; 有固定工作的人群高于无固定工作的人群; 经济收入较高的人群高于经济收入较低的人群(P<0.01). 结论 青龙满族自治县育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓率较低,应引起有关部门重视,应根据影响育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识知晓情况的因素,认真开展多种渠道的健康教育宣传,提高育龄妇女预防出生缺陷知识的知晓率,有效降低出生缺陷发生的风险.%Objective To know the status and influence factors of women of childbearing age being aware of birth de-fect knowledge in Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County to carry out targetedly the prevention work of birth defect and reduce the incidence rate of birth defect. Methods 1200 women of childbearing age who had met the requirement for pregnancy and were planning to have a baby and had participated in the free pre-pregnancy health examination for eu-genics from January 2014 to July 2015 were randomly selected.Self-designed and self-administrated unified question-naire was adopted to investigate the status of awareness of birth defect prevention knowledge. Results Women of child-bearing age got to

  5. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuit Ewoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death. Methods/design We propose an individual participant data meta-analysis of high quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of progestogen treatment in women with a twin pregnancy. The primary outcome will be adverse perinatal outcome (a composite measure of perinatal mortality and significant neonatal morbidity. Missing data will be imputed within each original study, before data of the individual studies are pooled. The effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or vaginal progesterone treatment in women with twin pregnancies will be estimated by means of a random effects log-binomial model. Analyses will be adjusted for variables used in stratified randomization as appropriate. Pre-specified subgroup analysis will be performed to explore the effect of progestogen treatment in high-risk groups. Discussion Combining individual patient data from different randomized trials has potential to provide valuable, clinically useful information regarding the benefits and potential harms of progestogens in women with twin pregnancy overall and in relevant subgroups.

  6. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Rodrigues, C.H.; Verkerk, M.A.; Berg, P.P. van den; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  7. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children : what do experts in the field say?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M.A.; van den Berg, P.P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  8. Analysis of risk factors of birth defects in Shaanxi Province%陕西省出生缺陷的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杨; 曾令霞; 颜虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors influencing birth defects in Shaanxi Province and then provide scientific evidence for intervention strategies. Methods Stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted.Totally 124 towns were sampled from 12 counties of 9 cities in Shaanxi Province. Household survey was carried out among 13 273 women who were residents and had conceived from October 2007 to July 2009, and all of these women had 28 weeks' gestational age. We collected 7 531 complete questionnaires finished for the progestational and pregnant period. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the risk factors by using SPSS13.0software. Results The results of logistic regression showed that the risk factors for birth defects were by turns the birth defects history of patrilineal family (OR = 14. 283), poor mental state (OR = 10. 835), abnormal pregnancy and reproductive history (OR = 8. 264), mothers living in rural areas ( OR = 5. 067), the history of alcohol intake in pregnancy (OR = 4. 598), mother's age higher than 35 years (OR = 3. 696), exposure to agricultural chemicals during pregnancy (OR=3. 507), drinking strong tea during pregnancy (OR = 1. 993), taking folic acid during pregnancy (OR=0. 549) and higher family income per capita (OR = 0. 422), which were the protective factors of birth defects. Conclusion We should strengthen publicity in scientific knowledge of pre-natal and post-natal care,increase self-care consciousness of women of childbearing age, improve their living environment and change the unhealthy lifestyle. These strategies play a very important role in reducing the prevalence rate of birth defects in Shaanxi Province.%目的 探讨陕西省出生缺陷发生的影响因素,为采取有针对性的干预措施提供依据.方法 应用分层随机整群抽样方法,抽取陕西省9市12个区县共124个乡镇.对终止妊娠日期发生在2007年10月至2009年7月间且孕满28周的13273名妇女进行入户调查.要求

  9. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in

  10. 成都市某区六年来新生儿出生缺陷分析%The Analysis of Birth Defects of Newborns During the Past Six Years in a District of Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅; 周礼英; 吴怀勇; 张志华; 张倩; 李青林; 汪渝; 杜彪; 王园

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered, gave birth or had induced la-bor in our district during 2007 and 2013. For our sample,we investigated on subjects who had newborns with defects,or stillbirths. We summarized the factors on puerperae to have newborns with defects. We also summarized the examination methods and the de-velopment of newborn defects. We investigated newborns’ defects and the dynamic changes so that we can have a theoretical basis in preventing newborn defects. Methods We included puerperae from one district in Chengdu who registered,gave birth or had induced labor in our district during 2007 and 2013. All subjects were founded by using the registration information from pediatrics, obstetrics and health divisions. Puerperae with birth defects information were included. They were divided into two groups accord-ing to their due dates. We did retrospective survey on both groups,studied their medical records,and made records about puerperae who gave birth to defected newborns or had stillbirths. We used χ2test with collected data on both groups. Results During recent years,maternal health awareness might have increased. Puerperae in Group B were significantly better than puerperae in Group A in terms of premarital medical examinations,periodic medical examinations during pregnancy,and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Birth defects screening methods relied mainly on Down’s screening and fetal ultrasound examination. Birth defects were still mainly focused on eye,ear,face,or neck malformation,cryptorchidism,limbs,fingers or toes deformity. Conclusion During the past three years, chromosome abnormalities were found more frequently. It might suggest that there was a correlation with high-risk contacts.%目的:对成都市某区2007年至2013年在我区建卡、分娩或引产孕产妇,调查其中具有缺陷新生儿及死胎的产妇相关信息,总结近年来出生缺陷的产妇因素、检

  11. The effect of providing skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care in preventing stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawn Joy E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the global burden of 2.6 million stillbirths, around 1.2 million occur during labour i.e. are intrapartum deaths. In low-/middle-income countries, a significant proportion of women give birth at home, usually in the absence of a skilled birth attendant. This review discusses the impact of skilled birth attendance (SBA and the provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC on stillbirths and perinatal mortality. Methods A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Database and the WHO regional libraries. Data of all eligible studies were extracted into a standardized Excel sheet containing variables such as participants’ characteristics, sample size, location, setting, blinding, allocation concealment, intervention and control details and limitations. We undertook a meta-analysis of the impact of SBA on stillbirths. Given the paucity of data from randomized trials or robust quasi-experimental designs, we undertook an expert Delphi consultation to determine impact estimates of provision of Basic and Comprehensive EOC on reducing stillbirths if there would be universal coverage (99%. Results The literature search yielded 871 hits. A total of 21 studies were selected for data abstraction. Our meta-analysis on community-based skilled birth attendance based on two before-after studies showed a 23% significant reduction in stillbirths (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69 – 0.85. The overall quality grade of available evidence for this intervention on stillbirths was ‘moderate’. The Delphi process supported the estimated reduction in stillbirths by skilled attendance and experts further suggested that the provision of Basic EOC had the potential to avert intrapartum stillbirths by 45% and with provision of Comprehensive EOC this could be reduced by 75%. These estimates are conservative, consistent with historical trends in maternal and perinatal mortality from both developed and developing countries, and are

  12. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  13. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  14. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  15. Research on the secondary intervention mode of birth defects in Chengdu%成都市出生缺陷二级干预模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 冉隆蓉; 赵顺霞; 陈硕

    2011-01-01

    目的:积极建立出生缺陷二级干预网络,有效提高产前筛查率和诊断率,以降低成都市出生缺陷率.方法:自2009年起,成都市通过原有妇幼保健网络,采取依托产前诊断中心和分中心力量,发展产前筛查采血点和产前筛查机构的模式,初步建立起产前筛查网络,对辖区孕妇进行产前筛查和产前诊断.结果:通过积极发展产前筛查采血点和产前筛查机构,产前筛查工作迅速覆盖到所有区市县.与此同时,成都市政府出台出生缺陷干预规划,将产前筛奁率纳入卫生部门年度目标管理,极大地促进了产前筛查和诊断工作的开展.成都市产前筛查率从2008年的22.99%,提高到2009年的42.77%.结论:发展产前筛查采血点和产前筛查机构对建立产前筛查网络有积极作用,能迅速及持续实现筛查人群最大化,达到降低成都地区出生缺陷,提高人口素质的目的,值得推广应用.%Objective: To establish the secondary intervention network of birth defects actively, increase the prenatal screening rate and diagnosis rate effectively, in order to reduce the incidence of birth defects in Chengdu.Methods: Since 2009, based on the previous maternity and child care network, relying on prenatal diagnosis centers and sub - centers, the mode of blood collection points and institutions of prenatal screening was developed, prenatal screening network was established preliminarily, then prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis were conducted among the pregnant women.Results: The prenatal screening work covered all the cities and counties by developing blood collection points and institutions of prenatal screening actively.At the same time, Chengdu municipal government issued birth defect intervention planning, prenatal screening rate was included into annual target management of health department, which promoted the development of prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis works greatly.The prenatal screening

  16. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children: what do experts in the field say?

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, A.J.; Rodrigues, Catarina; Verkerk, M A; van den Berg, P. P.; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately...

  17. Impact of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance on effectiveness of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in pregnancy at clearing infections and preventing low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, Meghna; Gutman, Julie; Taylor, Steve M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Owing to increasing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in sub-Saharan Africa, monitoring the effectiveness of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) with SP is crucial. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, both the efficacy of IPTp-SP at clearing existing peripheral...... malaria infections and the effectiveness of IPTp-SP at reducing low birth weight (LBW) were assessed among human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected participants in 8 sites in 6 countries. Sites were classified as high, medium, or low resistance after measuring parasite mutations conferring SP resistance......-treated net use or gravidity, and remained significant in areas with high SP resistance (PR, 0.81; 95% CI, .67-.97; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of SP to clear peripheral parasites and prevent new infections during pregnancy is compromised in areas with >90% prevalence of Pfdhps-K540E. Nevertheless...

  18. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  19. The Role of Immunonutrients in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l-citrulline. Based on current research evidence, probiotics are the most documented effective method to prevent NEC, while others still require further investigation in animal studies and clinical randomized controlled trials.

  20. Risk factors for birth defects:A community-based child survey%社区儿童的出生缺陷影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 赵丽萍; 商颖; 蔡建华; 周维谨; 车焱

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解以社区为基础的出生缺陷发生水平和有关影响因素,为出生缺陷的预防和孕期保健提供依据.方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法,从我国东、中、西部地区9个中等发达省份中各抽取1个国家人口计生委信息采集抽样县,每个县抽取2个乡镇,再从中各抽取2~4个居委(村),调查其中所有已婚育龄妇女≤9岁子女的出生缺陷发生及相关信息,通过单因素分析和多元logistic回归分析,探讨出生缺陷的影响因素.结果:调查对象共3958例,出生缺陷发生率为1.80%.单因素卡方检验发现母亲产龄、文化程度、流产史、孕期微量营养素补充、产检机构与出生缺陷发生有关(P <0.05).多元logistic回归分析显示,产龄16~20岁(OR=2.53,95 % CI:1.25~5.10)、有人工流产史(OR=3.32,95% CI:1.69~6.51)、吸烟(OR=3.34,95 % CI:1.04~10.75)、孕期未补充微量元素(OR=1.84,95%CI:1.07~3.16)、在乡镇及以下机构产前检查(OR=1.70,95% CI:1.06~2.74)的母亲生育出生缺陷儿的危险较高.结论:出生缺陷预防干预应重点关注既往有人工流产史、低龄、吸烟孕妇对象,重视基层产前检查机构服务能力建设,提供优质孕期监测与营养保健咨询服务.%Objective; To explore the prevalence and risk factors for birth defects ( BD) among children in 9 provinces of China. Methods; By using stratified, random cluster sampling methods, 17 townships and 36 rural villages and urban neighbourhood were sampled from 9 provinces of China. All married women aged between 20 - 49 years old were investigated and a questionnaire survey on birth defects of their children under 9 year - old was conducted. Chi - square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between BD and maternal risk factors. Results: There were 3 958 respondents, and the prevalence of BD was 1.80%. Results of chi - square tests indicated that maternal age

  1. Prevention of dental anomalies in children by prosthetics defects hard tooth tissues and dentitions: the need to possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetenkov D.Ye.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of restore the function and anatomy of the tooth and replacement of defects of dentition by prosthesis in children under the removable bite as a method of prevention of dentoalveolar anomalies. Identified the need for prosthetic treatment of children and the willingness of dentists as primary health care professional to address the problems identified. A clinical analysis of complex treatment of defects in the teeth with fixed restorations

  2. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...... were significantly lower in the LBW group. Insulin-stimulated glycolytic flux was significantly reduced, and suppression of endogenous glucose production was enhanced in the LBW group. Nevertheless, basal and insulin-stimulated rates of whole-body peripheral glucose disposal, glucose oxidation, lipid...

  3. [Folic acid and prevention of neural tube closure defects: the question is not solved yet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Dupont, C; Darmaun, D; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Putet, G; Rieu, D; Rigo, J; Turck, D

    2008-07-01

    Between 1981 and 1996, several interventional studies proved the efficacy of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube closure defects (NTCD), first in women at risk (with a previous case of NTCD) and also in women of the general population in age to become pregnant. The poor observance of this supplementation led several countries (USA, Canada, Chile...) to decide mandatory folic acid fortification of cereals, which permitted a 30% (USA) to 46% (Canada) reduction in the incidence of NTCD. Moreover, this benefit was accompanied by a diminished incidence of several other malformations and of stroke and coronary accidents in elderly people. However, several papers drew attention to an increased risk of colorectal and breast cancer in relation with high blood folate levels and the use of folic acid supplements. A controlled interventional study showed a higher rate of recurrence of colic adenomas and a higher percentage of advanced adenomas in subjects receiving 1mg/day of folic acid. A recent study demonstrated an abrupt reversal of the downward trend in colorectal cancer 1 year after the beginning of cereal folic acid fortification in the USA and Canada. Two studies also reported impaired cognitive functions in elder persons with defective vitamin B(12) status. Taken in aggregate, these studies question the wisdom of a nationwide, mandatory, folic acid fortification of cereals. As of today, despite their limited preventive efficacy, a safe approach is to keep our current French recommendations and to increase the awareness of all caregivers, so as to improve the observance of these recommendations.

  4. Environmental pollution by depleted uranium in Iraq with special reference to Mosul and possible effects on cancer and birth defect rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Riyad Abdullah; Matti, Lilyan Yaqup; Al-Salih, Hana Said; Godbold, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Iraq is suffering from depleted uranium (DU) pollution in many regions and the effects of this may harm public health through poisoning and increased incidence of various cancers and birth defects. DU is a known carcinogenic agent. About 1200 tonnes of ammunition were dropped on Iraq during the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003. As a result, contamination occurred in more than 350 sites in Iraq. Currently, Iraqis are facing about 140,000 cases of cancer, with 7000 to 8000 new ones registered each year. In Baghdad cancer incidences per 100,000 population have increased, just as they have also increased in Basra. The overall incidence of breast and lung cancer, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, has doubled even tripled. The situation in Mosul city is similar to other regions. Before the Gulf Wars Mosul had a higher rate of cancer, but the rate of cancer has further increased since the Gulf Wars. PMID:23729095

  5. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T. (Medical Birth Registry of Norway, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-08-15

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed.

  6. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed

  7. The App-Runx1 region is critical for birth defects and electrocardiographic dysfunctions observed in a Down syndrome mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Raveau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS leads to complex phenotypes and is the main genetic cause of birth defects and heart diseases. The Ts65Dn DS mouse model is trisomic for the distal part of mouse chromosome 16 and displays similar features with post-natal lethality and cardiovascular defects. In order to better understand these defects, we defined electrocardiogram (ECG with a precordial set-up, and we found conduction defects and modifications in wave shape, amplitudes, and durations in Ts65Dn mice. By using a genetic approach consisting of crossing Ts65Dn mice with Ms5Yah mice monosomic for the App-Runx1 genetic interval, we showed that the Ts65Dn viability and ECG were improved by this reduction of gene copy number. Whole-genome expression studies confirmed gene dosage effect in Ts65Dn, Ms5Yah, and Ts65Dn/Ms5Yah hearts and showed an overall perturbation of pathways connected to post-natal lethality (Coq7, Dyrk1a, F5, Gabpa, Hmgn1, Pde10a, Morc3, Slc5a3, and Vwf and heart function (Tfb1m, Adam19, Slc8a1/Ncx1, and Rcan1. In addition cardiac connexins (Cx40, Cx43 and sodium channel sub-units (Scn5a, Scn1b, Scn10a were found down-regulated in Ts65Dn atria with additional down-regulation of Cx40 in Ts65Dn ventricles and were likely contributing to conduction defects. All these data pinpoint new cardiac phenotypes in the Ts65Dn, mimicking aspects of human DS features and pathways altered in the mouse model. In addition they highlight the role of the App-Runx1 interval, including Sod1 and Tiam1, in the induction of post-natal lethality and of the cardiac conduction defects in Ts65Dn. These results might lead to new therapeutic strategies to improve the care of DS people.

  8. Tobacco smoking and its consequences on reproductive health: the impact of a lifestyle choices including cigarette smoke exposure on fertility and birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Travis; Mazela, Jan; Merritt, Allen

    2013-01-01

    There are several life style choices which may impact fertility and thus national birth rate. Epidemiological cohort studies indicates that modification of life style habits, among them nicotine consumption can influence reproductive health. Influence of tobacco smoking on reproductive health has to be analyzed within the context of the influence of body mass index, caffeine and alcohol consumption, exercise, maternal and paternal age, and stress. Approximately 27% Polish women and 23% Americans smoke cigarettes during their reproductive years. Cohort studies directly showed the relationship between nicotine consumption and decrease in fertility among smoking women. Besides there is evidence that smoking leads to higher rate of congenital heart defects, limbs abnormalities, central nervous malformations among infants born to smoking mothers. Finally, the relationship between smoking and decreased fertility should be of great concern since Polish fertility rate has dropped from 1989 till 2007 year from 2,1 to 1,27 respectively. Programs focused on improvement in national birth rate should focus also on decrease smoking rates among women.

  9. [Artifactual defect of inferior myocardium on 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial SPECT: characteristic findings and preventive method on phantom study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Terada, S; Kanaya, S; Kashikura, K; Momose, M; Hosoda, S; Kusakabe, K

    1994-04-01

    Discordance between planar and SPECT image of inferior myocardial defect on 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) was occasionally observed in the clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the existence of artifactual myocardial defect on MIBG SPECT image. Phantom study was performed in various kinds of situation using triple gamma camera. Artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was significantly observed in the case of increased liver/heart uptake ratio more than 2:1. Artifactual defect was markedly observed in the 180 degrees than that in the 360 degrees SPECT acquisition. To avoid artifactual defect during SPECT acquisition, liver phantom was moved down to the foot direction (vanishing liver position). In this phantom position, artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was not observed on reconstructed myocardial SPECT image. The vanishing liver position was also applicable to human study. Human body was inclined to right side at an angle of 15 degrees, artifactual defect could be avoided. Further study is needed to analyze the cause of this artifactual defect and to conform the preventive method with vanishing liver position in the routine myocardial SPECT examination.

  10. Perinatal surveillance of birth defects in Zhengzhou City%河南省郑州市各级医院出生缺陷儿监测情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚楠; 赵悦淑; 张展; 胡孟彩; 姚梅玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:动态分析郑州市各级医院出生缺陷发生情况,为出生缺陷预防提供决策依据.方法:对2011年7月~2012年6月郑州市各级医院正常分娩婴儿及治疗性引产的围产儿进行出生缺陷监测.结果:共监测围产儿138 376例,死亡1 408例,死亡率为10.18%.;出生缺陷儿1 315例,出生缺陷率为953.4‰;1 408例死亡围产儿中缺陷儿488例,占34.66%;≥35岁孕妇分娩围产儿出生缺陷率1 260.6%.;缺陷儿产前诊断率为45.40%,产前诊断的出生缺陷疾病前3位分别是先天性心脏病、总唇裂和先天性脑积水,出生后诊断的出生缺陷疾病前3位分别是多指(趾)、外耳畸形和总唇裂.结论:出生缺陷是围产儿死亡的主要原因,重视优生知识宣传,加强产前筛查,提高产前诊断技术是降低出生缺陷儿出生的关键.%Objective; To investigate the status of birth defects in Zhengzhou City, and to provide a evidence base for the countermeasures. Methods: Birth defects were monitored in the childbirths of normal deliveries and those of therapeutic induction of labor in the hospitals of Zhengzhou City, from July 2011 to June 2012. Results; The perinatal mortality was 10. 18% (1,408/138,376) , of which 34. 66% (488/1,408) were the deaths with birth defect( s). The incidence of birth defect( s) was 9.53/10,000 (1,315/128,376). The incidence of birth defect(s) in the children of the mothers over 35 years old was the highest (126.06/10,000). The prenatal diagnosis rate of birth defect(s) was45.40%. The top three birth defects prena-tally diagnosed were congenital heart disease, total cleft lip and congenital hydrocephalus, while the top three birth defects postnatally diagnosed were multi -finger (toe) , outer ear deformity and total cleft lip. Conclusion; Birth defects have become one of the major causes of perinatal deaths. Perinatal education and prenatal screening should be strengthened. The improved prenatal diagnostic techniques

  11. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  12. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  13. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    oxidation, exogenous glucose storage, and nonoxidative glucose metabolism were similar in the two groups. Insulin secretion was reduced by 30% in the LBW group, when expressed relative to insulin sensitivity (disposition index = insulin secretion x insulin action). We propose that reduced insulin......Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...... physiological insulin levels (10 and 40 mU/m(2) per min), indirect calorimetry, and [3-(3)H]glucose. Insulin secretion was examined during an oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fasting p-glucose was higher in the LBW group (5.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.1; P < 0.05). Basal plasma glycerol concentrations...

  14. The APPLe study: a randomized, community-based, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin for the prevention of preterm birth, with meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in both high- and low-income countries. The causes of preterm labour are multiple but infection is important. We have previously described an unusually high incidence of preterm birth (20% in an ultrasound-dated, rural, pregnant population in Southern Malawi with high burdens of infective morbidity. We have now studied the impact of routine prophylaxis with azithromycin as directly observed, single-dose therapy at two gestational windows to try to decrease the incidence of preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomized 2,297 pregnant women attending three rural and one peri-urban health centres in Southern Malawi to a placebo-controlled trial of oral azithromycin (1 g given at 16-24 and 28-32 wk gestation. Gestational age was determined by ultrasound before 24 wk. Women and their infants were followed up until 6 wk post delivery. The primary outcome was incidence of preterm delivery, defined as 6,200 pregnancies shows no effect on preterm birth (relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.22. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no support for the use of antibiotics as routine prophylaxis to prevent preterm birth in high risk populations; prevention of preterm birth requires alternative strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84023116

  15. Assessing the Risk of Birth Defects Associated with Exposure to Fixed-Dose Combined Antituberculous Agents during Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Awodele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (≤0.05 low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (≤0.05 elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents

  16. Assessing the risk of birth defects associated with exposure to fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents during pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Patrick, E B; Oluwatoyin Agbaje, Esther; Oremosu, A A; Gbotolorun, S C

    2012-01-01

    Due to the risks of disease progression and transmission to the newborn, treatment of tuberculosis is often pursued during pregnancy and fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents have been found to be beneficial. Unfortunately, there is paucity of data on the safety of the fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs during pregnancy. This study intends to assess the teratogenic effect of fixed-dose combined antituberculous drugs on the organogenesis stage of fetal development and also investigate the possible roles of vitamin C in modulating the teratogenic effects of these agents on the fetus using animal model. Pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 animals per group: group 1 received distilled water (10 mL/kg) orally; group 2 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents orally; group 3 received 51.4 mg/kg/day of fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg/day) orally. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and sacrificed on day 20 by cervical dislocation prior to day 21 of gestation, and the foetuses were harvested through abdominal incision for physical examination. Blood samples were collected from the 1st filial rats of the remaining six animals for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver, kidney, heart, and brain of all the sacrificed animals were used for histopathological examination. There were significant (P ≤ 0.05) low birth weights of the foetuses of the animals that were treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents. The haematological parameters also revealed a reduction in the platelets counts and neutrophiles at the first filial generation. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the foetuses of the animals treated with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents were also observed. However, the combination of vitamin C with fixed-dose combined antituberculous agents significantly

  17. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, Anke J M; Rodrigues, Catarina H C M L; Verkerk, Marian A; van den Berg, Paul P; Dekkers, Wim J M

    2010-08-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately and timely to current and possible future ethical issues, a prospective and anticipatory ethical analysis is essential. To obtain a first survey of ethical issues that might arise during the different phases of the project, the Delphi method was used. The professionals directly involved in the EuroSTEC project were questioned about their views on possible ethical issues. The first round yielded 27 ethical issues, which the respondents were asked to prioritize in the second round. For the fundamental research phase, issues deemed most important were privacy and informed consent of the tissue donor. For the animal experimentation phase, three issues were mentioned (in order of decreasing priority): the suffering of animals, the use of animals as means to an end, and the limited adequacy of the animal models. Issues that were deemed most important during the clinical (trial) phase pertained to the problem of weighing risks and benefits for the fetus/child and the pregnant woman. PMID:20163208

  18. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a community-based delivery system and its effect on parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, Ib; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of a community-based delivery system of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on access, parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight as primary outcome measures. METHODS...... and low birth weight. However the reduced effect of IPT on parasitemia points to drug resistance with SP and this requires further evaluation; research into the identification of other more efficacious drugs for malaria prevention in pregnancy is also required.......: A study was designed to test the community-based delivery system of IPT through traditional birth attendants (TBAs), drug-shop vendors (DSVs), community reproductive health workers (CRHWs) and adolescent peer mobilizers (APMs), and to compare these with IPT at health units in an area of high malaria...

  19. 180例出生缺陷儿危险因素分析%Analysis of risk factors of birth defect in 180 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季静敏; 鲁巧珍; 何萍; 黄璧琨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors of birth defect ( BD ). Methods With case-control method 180 cases with birth defect and 180 normal newborns were selected through the medical history review. The differences in maternal age, maternal occupation, first check gestational age, medical history at early stage of pregnancy, antenatal examination times, drug use at pregnant period, pregnancy complications, history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery, family history of congenital defects, history of exposing to toxic and harmful substances, paternal age, paternal occupation and etc. Between them were analyzed. Results Univariate analysis revealed that five factors were different between case group and control group: the average age of mother ( t = 3. 255, P = 0. 001 ), the average age of father( t= 2.047, P = 0.041 ), maternal occupation(χ2= 11. 016, P =0. 026 ), history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery (χ2 =5. 767, P = 0.016), and family history of congenital defects (χ2 = 4. 405 , P = 0.044 ). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that maternal occupation ( education ) was protective factor. Conclusion BD is caused by complicated factors, including age of parents, maternal occupation, history of abnormal pregnancy and delivery and family history of congenital defects.%目的 分析引起出生缺陷儿的危险因素.方法 用病例对照的研究方法,比较分析180例出生缺陷儿(其中133例活产缺陷儿、47例引产缺陷儿)与180例出生正常儿的母亲年龄、母亲职业、初次孕检孕周、孕早期疾病史、产前检查次数、妊娠期用药、妊娠合并症并发症、异常孕产史、缺陷家族史、接触有毒有害物史、父亲年龄、父亲职业等因素的差异.结果 单因素分析显示以下5个因素在病例组和正常组之间存在显著性差异:母亲平均年龄(t=3.255,P=0.001)、父亲平均年龄(t=2.047,P=0.041)、母亲职业(χ2=11.016,P=0.026)、异常孕产史(χ2=5.767,P=0.016)

  20. 早产对脑性瘫痪儿童乳牙釉质发育的影响%The developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小波; 张笋; 吴卫红; 吴志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究早产因素对脑瘫儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的影响.方法 选择135名脑瘫患儿,与62名正常儿童对比,进行乳牙釉质发育缺陷状况的统计调查.同时比较脑瘫儿童中早产与乳牙釉质发育缺陷发生的关系.结果 脑瘫儿童组中早产儿童乳牙釉质发育缺陷的患病率明显高于足月组,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 早产的脑瘫儿童更容易发生乳牙釉质发育缺陷.%Objective To investigate the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition of cerebral palsied children with premature birth. Methods One hundred and thirty-five children with cerebral palsy were examined for the clinical manifestation of the developmental enamel defects in the primary dentition. The relationship between the defects and cerebral palsied children's birth conditions were assessed. Results The prevalence of enamel defects in cerebral palsied children born premarurely was significantly higher than that in those with full term birth. Conclusion Enamel defects in the primary dentition are more likely to happen in cerebral palsied children with premature birth than those with full term birth.

  1. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children : the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Smit, Henriette A.; Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were an

  2. Awareness of folic acid for neural tube defect prevention among Israeli women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, S; Lahat, E; Elizov, T; Greenberg, R; Arieli, S; Afriat, R; Berkovitch, M

    1999-07-01

    The failure of neural tube closure during early embryogenesis results in a range of neural tube defects (NTD), the most common of which is spina bifida. The role of folic acid in reducing the rate of NTD has been well-established. Three recent cases of infants with NTD inspired this investigative study into the level of awareness and knowledge of folic acid and its function in the prevention of NTD among Israeli women. Of 920 women interviewed, only 51 (5.5%) had heard of folic acid, and 27 (2.8%) were reported to have taken it. The source of information and the motivation for self-medication were also explored with regard to socioeconomic and health profile. Awareness of folic acid was significant among women aged 17-29 years (P = 0.005) and those aged 30-39 years (P = 0.009), and among semireligious and nonreligious women (P = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively). Among women who were aware of folic acid, only nonreligious women tended to take it. No correlation was found between folic acid intake and age, religiosity, nationality, number of pregnancies, and health status among women who were aware of folic acid intake. The poor level of awareness, evident in our study, demands that the medical community broadcast the benefit of folic acid. Furthermore, government health initiatives, such as the addition of folic acid to flour preparations, may effectively ensure its appropriate daily intake. These improved education and prevention programs may forcibly reduce the rate of NTD-affected pregnancies.

  3. Knowledge, attitude and behavior investigation on the early pregnant couples about birth defects in Sanlin area%三林地区育龄夫妇预防出生缺陷知识态度行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪天英; 曲毅; 施榕; 胡国华; 王赟; 庄康璐; 宋徽江

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the current status of the knowledge,attitude and behavior of birth defect prevention among the early pregnant couples in Sanlin area of Pudong New District in order to provide the support for the community-based first level prevention of the birth defect,and provide reference for the publicity of prenatal and postnatal care.Methods:A questionnaire survey was made among the early pregnant couples who had established maternal Manual during the year of 2012 from April to September in Sanlin Community Health Service Center.Results:Among the 403 collected questionnaires,391 were valid with an effective rate of 97.02%.The survey results indicated the awareness rate towards the eugenic related knowledge was range from 42.20% to 97.95% among the couples of childbearing age in Sanlin area.The percentages of sources of the Eugenic knowledge obtained from were internet (73.91%),medical staffs (71.61%),books and newspaper (63.43 %),and TV broadcasting (50.13 %).The rates for premarital medical examination,pre-pregnancy medical examination,medical prenatal examination and planned pregnancy were 55.50%,42.97%,98.50% and 68.29%.Conclusion:Couples of childbearing age widely know the basics of preventing birth defects but not in a comprehensive degree.Majority of the couples have the positive attitude and action towards the promotion of eugenics.The critical time period of preventing birth defects is before the pregnancy and during the early stage of pregnancy.It is necessary to broaden the preconception and periconceptional care range in order to locate the entry points of level-one intervention and health education accurately.%目的:了解浦东新区三林地区育龄夫妇掌握出生缺陷知识的水平及其对此的态度及相关行为,为以社区为基础的出生缺陷一级提供依据,为做好优生优育预防知识的宣传提供参考.方法:用问卷调查方式,对2012年4月至9月在上海浦东新区三林社区卫

  4. Relationship of Birth Defects with Electromagnetic Radiation and Food Chain%出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏花莉; 夏红卫; 韦红卫; 黄卫民; 孔琳; 黄琳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链的关系。方法选择195例出生缺陷患儿母亲作为研究组,195例健康儿母亲为对照组,对两组孕期居住环境及使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉频率和饮食习惯等进行调查,并检测分娩时母血雌激素、孕酮、睾酮水平。结果研究组居住靠近变压器、电视塔、通讯转播塔比例高于对照组(P均<0.05),孕期食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼等的频率高于对照组(P均<0.05);研究组孕期使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉、观看电视的频率高于对照组( P均<0.05)。结论电磁辐射和食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼类等肉食对出生缺陷可能有影响。%Objective To investigate the relationship of birth defects with electromagnetic radiation and food chain.Methods One hundred and ninety-five mothers who had infants with birth defects were selected as study group ,and 195 mothers who had healthy infants were selected as control group .An investigation was conducted on the aspects of living environment ,the frequency of using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven or microwave oven , and diet habit during pregnant period .The levels of estrogen ,gestagen and testosterone in maternal blood were detected after delivery .Results The mothers in the study group living near the electric transformer ,TV tower or communication transmission tower were more than those in the control group (all P<0.05),the frequencies of mothers′eating artificial feeding fowl,livestock or fish during pregnant period of study group were higher those of control group (all P<0.05). The frequencies of mothers′using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven ,microwave oven or watching TV during pregnant period of study group were higher than those of control group (all P<0.05).Conclusion Electromagnetic radiation and eating artificial feeding fowl ,livestock and

  5. Relationship of Birth Defects with Electromagnetic Radiation and Food Chain%出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏花莉; 夏红卫; 韦红卫; 黄卫民; 孔琳; 黄琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of birth defects with electromagnetic radiation and food chain.Methods One hundred and ninety-five mothers who had infants with birth defects were selected as study group ,and 195 mothers who had healthy infants were selected as control group .An investigation was conducted on the aspects of living environment ,the frequency of using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven or microwave oven , and diet habit during pregnant period .The levels of estrogen ,gestagen and testosterone in maternal blood were detected after delivery .Results The mothers in the study group living near the electric transformer ,TV tower or communication transmission tower were more than those in the control group (all P<0.05),the frequencies of mothers′eating artificial feeding fowl,livestock or fish during pregnant period of study group were higher those of control group (all P<0.05). The frequencies of mothers′using mobile phone ,computer ,electromagnetic oven ,microwave oven or watching TV during pregnant period of study group were higher than those of control group (all P<0.05).Conclusion Electromagnetic radiation and eating artificial feeding fowl ,livestock and fish might have influence on birth defects .%目的:探讨出生缺陷与电磁辐射和食物链的关系。方法选择195例出生缺陷患儿母亲作为研究组,195例健康儿母亲为对照组,对两组孕期居住环境及使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉频率和饮食习惯等进行调查,并检测分娩时母血雌激素、孕酮、睾酮水平。结果研究组居住靠近变压器、电视塔、通讯转播塔比例高于对照组(P均<0.05),孕期食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼等的频率高于对照组(P均<0.05);研究组孕期使用手机、电脑、电磁炉、微波炉、观看电视的频率高于对照组( P均<0.05)。结论电磁辐射和食用人工饲料喂养的家禽、牲畜、鱼类

  6. Case-control study on influencing factors of perinatal birth defects%围产儿出生缺陷影响因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 张海鲲; 李忠良; 翟庆峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探寻围产儿出生缺陷的影响因素,为出生缺陷干预提供科学依据.方法 按照1:1配对的原则选取出生缺陷围产儿和健康围产儿各807例,用单因素与多因素Logistic回归分析筛选出生缺陷的主要影响因素.结果 婚前参加体检,经常食用鱼虾肉蛋类、牛奶豆类食物等为出生缺陷的保护性因素;父母近亲结婚、家庭附近有污染、孕育期用药、孕育期接触有害物质、有生育畸形儿史、母亲吸烟饮酒为出生缺陷的危险因素.结论 出生缺陷干预可从控制环境有害因素、加强孕期营养保健、指导孕期合理用药、减少吸烟饮酒等不良行为生活方式、提倡婚前体检等方面综合入手.%Objective; To explore the influencing factors of perinatal birth defect. Methods; According to the birth date and sex matching principle, selected 807 perinatal birth defects infants and 807 normal infants. The influencing factors of perinatal birth defect were filtered with the Logistic regression analysis. Results: Regular intake of fish, shrimp, meat, eggs, milk, and beans during pregnancy , participating in pre-marital medical examination were the protective factors of birth defects. Consanguineous marriage, environment pollution sources near residence, suffering from chronic diseases before or during pregnancy, maternal exposure to occupational risk factors before or during pregnancy, abnormal reproductive history, and the habit of drinking and smoking were the risk factors of birth defects. Conclusion; To reduce infant birth defect incidence and improve national body diathesis, we must protect from environment risk factors, enhance pregnant nutrition, quit smoking and drinking, and advocate the premarital examination.

  7. Analysis on the Changes of Incidence Rates on Birth Defects in Yidu City during 2007-2011%宜都市2007-2011年出生缺陷发生趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹方兰

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查笔者所在市出生缺陷发生情况,了解出生缺陷变化趋势,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法:对笔者所在市2007-2011年各监测医院上报的《出生缺陷报告卡》进行回顾性总结分析。结果:出生缺陷发生率呈下降趋,五年平均出生缺陷发生率10.57‰。其中肢体缺陷发生率3.97‰,居第一位;唇腭裂发生率1.55‰,居第二位;外耳畸形发生率1.4‰,居第三位。结论:开展婚前保健、增补叶酸、孕前保健、孕期保健、产前筛查、产前诊断和终止妊娠等干预措施,降低出生缺陷发生率。%Objective:To investigate the birth defects in this city,to acquaintance the trend of birth defects and provide evidence for the intervention measures.Method:To retrospectively analyze“birth defects report card”reported by each monitoring hospital in 2007-2011.Result:The incidence of birth defects was declined,the average defect rate was 10.57‰.The incidence rate of limb defects reached 3.97‰,ranking the first;the incidence rate of cleft lip and palate defects reached 1.55‰,ranking the second;the incidence rate of ear malformation reached 1.4‰,ranking the third.Conclusion:To reduce the incidence of birth defects by intervention measures such as premarital care,folic acid,preconception care,prenatal care,prenatal screening,prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy.

  8. 不同户籍类型出生缺陷监测分析与干预措施的研究%The analysis and interventions research for different census types of birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健; 朱丹玲; 何慧芳; 张清; 王莉平

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To know different types of prenatal incidence of birth defects in children and their tendency, and to realize outcome of children with birth defects, common types of birth defects and changes in Futian District, Shenzhen, which would provide the basis for developing interventions. Metheds: Birth defects and prenatal child death observation data from 2003 to 2007 were analyzed in retrospectively. Results; The incidence of birth defects is on an upward trend (x2 = 23. 52, P = 0. 001) , for the most part, incidence of birth defects came from the floating population (x2 = 23. 70, P = 0. 001). The average birth defect rate in the 7 years was 21. 74 ‰, the residence rate was 20. 80 ‰, temporary rate was 20. 50 ‰, floating population rate was 23. 38 ‰, residence and temporary residents of birth defects rate was significantly lower than the floating population, the difference was significant (x2 = 11.91, P= 0.003). Residence, temporary, and floating population, compose the birth defect death rate of 2. 95‰, 3. 74‰, 6.42‰; the difference was significant (x2 = 69. 35, P<0. 001). The top six of birth defects is; congenital heart disease, multiple fingers (toes) , total cleft lip and palate, ear deformities, clubfoot, and hypospadias. These account for 59. 07% of the birth defects. Conclusion; The floating population in maternal health care system for the management of pregnant women in Shenzhen City, which is a bottleneck problem; the proposed solution for maternal and child health services is to make it equal, by establishing "to introduction the free prenatal care and postpartum visits project in Futian District, Shenzhen" , to improve the creating card rate of early pregnancy women in floating population and the rate of system management, in order to promote detection of birth defects, particularly to improve the pregnancy early and mid - term detection rate of birth defects and diagnosis rates. To reduce birth defects and prenatal child

  9. Mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento en menores de 5 años de edad en México de 1998 a 2006 Birth defects mortality in five-year-old minors of age, Mexico, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdés-Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la mortalidad por defectos al nacimiento (DAN entre 1998 y 2006. Seleccionar los municipios con alta mortalidad en OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to birth defects from 1998-2006. To select municipalities with high mortality among children under 5 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The source of information was mortality records from vital statistics collected by SSA/INEGI. We used the 2005 Municipal Geostatistical Framework by INEGI and SIGEPI for the spatial analysis. The selection criteria were municipalities with 80% and over of deaths due to birth defects. RESULTS: Deaths diminished 8% during 1998-2006 and rates decreased 20%. A total of 42.57% - 48% of deaths are due to circulatory system defects and 13.69% - 19.39% are due to the nervous system; the former rose 4% and the latter fell 32%. Eighty percent or more occur in children under 5 years and the rate in this group fell 8.63%. A total of 1 025 (41.82% municipalities are priorities, 104 (10.14% are high and 102 (9.95% are very high priorities, where 66% of deaths occur among children under 5 years old. DISCUSSION: The interventions to decrease mortality due to birth defects should be directed towards one-year-old children (75% and towards 8.4% of the municipalities that are a very high priority, since they represent 66% of the deaths.

  10. 杭州市余杭区人群基础出生缺陷普查及高危因素研究%Prevalence of birth defects and related risk factors among children age 0 - 3 years old in Yuhang District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王撬撬; 周任婧; 陈琴芳; 刘小芹; 袁伟; 王波

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To know about the prevalence of birth defects in Yuhang District of Hangzhou City and to explore the risk factors related to birth defects. Methods; A total of 21 713 children aged 0-3 years old were investigated in Yuhang District. A case - control study was used to determine potential risk factors. Results: A total of 365 children with birth defects were found. Low income, poor health during pregnancy, strenuous work for women three months before pregnancy and taking medicine during pregnancy could increase the risk of birth defects. Moreover, experience of second - smoking exposure for pregnant women, spouses'poor health status and elder age (above 35 years old) also contributed to birth defects. Conclusion; It is necessary to prevent birth defects by improving the knowledge about health care among pregnant women and providing primary prevention strategy.%目的:获得余杭区出生缺陷基本信息,寻找出生缺陷高危因素,为出生缺陷病因学研究及防治措施提供可靠依据.方法:对2007年6月1日~2010年5月31日分娩(孕周≥28周),在余杭区进行出生申报的21 713名0~3岁婴幼儿进行出生缺陷信息收集.根据基线调查结果,采用1:2病例对照研究方法,收集出生缺陷组及对照组孕母人口学特征、孕前及妊娠期精神情况、药物暴露史等信息.结果:共筛查出生缺陷儿365名.出生缺陷高危因素分析发现,家庭收入低、母亲健康状况差、孕前3个月工作强度高、精神压力大和妊娠期间服用药物等因素是余杭地区出生缺陷发生的高危因素.此外,孕妇妊娠期存在被动吸烟情况、配偶健康状况差及生育年龄>35岁也会增加出生缺陷发生危险.结论:进一步加强优生优育宣教,提高育龄妇女自我保健意识,深化出生缺陷一级预防干预策略,以降低出生缺陷发生风险.

  11. 广东省深圳市龙岗区孕期妇女出生缺陷相关知信行调查%Survey on knowledge, attitudes and practices about birth defects among pregnant women in Longgang District of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍强; 廖瑞容; 张玲; 陈文英; 夏洪波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine knowledge, attitude and practice about birth defects among pregnant women, and provide reasonable suggestions to improve perinatal health services and health education. Methods Stratified. Random sampling method was used to select 86 of pregnant women from three streets of Longgang District, Shenzhen City as participants in this study. Results There were 91. 86% of pregnant women had heard of birth defect before pregnancy. 80. 77% of them women said they supported the policy of distributing folic acid free by government 50% of respondents conducted premarital medical examination. In higher education level group, the participation rate in premarital medical examination of couples was significantly higher than that with low literacy. Moreover, pregnant women with higher literacy would pay more attention to prenatal care, prevention of birth defects and folic acid knowledge. The pregnant women with higher per capita monthly income of family would have higher degree of attention to you should get rid of contacting with pesticides/paint and reduce the opportunities of touching cats and dogs. The sources of knowledge about prevention birth defects before pregnancy were mainly from doctors and communication materials, with the proportion of 30.23% and 29.07% , respectively. Conclusion The findings showed that the level of general knowledge about birth defect and folic acid was relatively high among pregnant women in Longgang District. Literacy and per capita monthly income of family are influencing factors on knowledge about birth defects among pregnant women.%目的 了解广东省深圳市龙岗区孕期妇女对预防出生缺陷的知信行情况,为进一步完善围产期保健服务及健康教育工作提供合理化建议.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,抽取86名孕期妇女进行面对面问卷调查.结果 91.86%的孕期妇女在怀孕前听说过出生缺陷,80.77%的孕期妇女对政府免费发放

  12. 佛山市2007~2009年围产儿出生缺陷监测分析%Analysis on surveillance of birth defects among perinatal infants of Foshan city from 2007 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德勤; 王星; 伍捷阳; 吴雪丽

    2011-01-01

    目的了解佛山市2007~2009年围产儿出生缺陷发生状况和变化趋势,分析影响其出生缺陷发生的危险因素.方法 对2007~2009年在广东省佛山市妇幼保健院接受产前检查和(或)住院分娩的孕期满28周至产后7 d内的围产儿18 073例进行出生缺陷及相关因素的监测.结果 (1)3年来围产儿出生缺陷率为608.09/万,呈逐年上升的趋势.(2)出生缺陷前5位依次为先天性心脏病、葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症、外耳其他畸形、多指(趾)、α-地中海贫血.上述几种缺陷的发生率均明显高于全国平均水平.(3)出生缺陷发生的性别差异明显,男性高于女性.(4)孕母大于或等于30岁是出生缺陷的高发年龄段,尤其是大于或等于35岁组出生缺陷发生率明显高于其他各年龄组.(5)出生缺陷围产儿死亡率为141.04‰.结论 出生缺陷发生率逐年上升,应积极开展婚前医学检查,提高产前诊断水平,及时进行新生儿疾病筛查,提高人口素质.%Objective To understand the incidence of the birth defects and variation tendency from 2007 to 2009 in foshan,and to analyse the risk factor which influence the incidence of birth defects. Methods The birth defects and its relevant factor of 18 073 perinatal neonates(dated from 2007 to 2009)were monitored. Results (1)In recent 3 years the average detection rate of birth defects was 608.09/10 000,which showed an increasing tendency year by year. (2)Top five birth defects were congenital heart disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, deformity of external ear, polydactyly fingers, α-thalassemia. (3) The incidence of these defects were significantly higher than the nationwide average. (4)The occurrence of birth defects was higher in male than that in female according to the sex distribution. (5)Pregnant female over 30 years old was higher outbreak age group, especially more than 35 years. (5)The mortality of birth defects was 141.04‰. Conclusion

  13. BQ-123 prevents LPS-induced preterm birth in mice via the induction of uterine and placental IL-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Nicole S., E-mail: Nicole.olgun02@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY, 11439 (United States); Women and Children' s Research Laboratory, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Hanna, Nazeeh, E-mail: Nhanna@winthrop.org [Women and Children' s Research Laboratory, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Reznik, Sandra E., E-mail: Rezniks@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY, 11439 (United States); Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women' s Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as any delivery occurring prior to the completion of 37 weeks' gestation, currently accounts for 11–12% of all births in the United States. Maternal genito-urinary infections account for up to 40% of all PTBS and induce a pro-inflammatory state in the host. The potent vasoconstrictor Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known to be upregulated in the setting of infection, and elicits its effect by binding to the ET{sub A} receptor. We have previously shown that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor with BQ-123 is capable of preventing LPS-induced PTB in mice. We hypothesize that the administration of BQ-123 post LPS exposure will dismantle a positive feedback loop observed with pro-inflammatory cytokines upstream of ET-1. On GD 15.5, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were injected with PBS, LPS, BQ-123, or LPS + BQ-123. Changes at both the level of transcription and translation were observed in uterus and placenta in the ET-1 axis and in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines over the course of 12 h. We discovered that BQ-123, when administered 10 h post LPS, is capable of increasing production of uterine and placental Interleukin-10, causing a shift away from the pro-inflammatory state. We also observed that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor decreased IL-1β and TNFα in the placenta while also decreasing transcription of ET-1 in the uterus. Our results reinforce the role of ET-1 at the maternal fetal interface and highlight the potential benefit of ET{sub A} receptor blockade via the suppression of ET-1, and induction of a Th2 cytokine dominant state. - Highlights: • The pro-inflammatory response to LPS in the uterus and placenta is ET-1 dependent. • ET{sub A} blockade triggers up-regulation of IL-10 in uterus and placenta. • A positive feedback loop drives ET-1 expression in gestational tissue.

  14. Use of Family History Information for Neural Tube Defect Prevention: Integration into State-Based Recurrence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Ehrhardt, Joan; Ruttenber, Margaret F.; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) can increase the risk of a pregnancy affected by an NTD. Periconceptional folic acid use decreases this risk. Purpose: Our objective was to determine whether second-degree relatives of NTD-affected children showed differences in folic acid use compared with the general population and to provide them…

  15. How surface reparation prevents catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on atomic gold at defective magnesium oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpfer, Kai; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-07-21

    In this contribution, we study using first principles the co-adsorption and catalytic behaviors of CO and O2 on a single gold atom deposited at defective magnesium oxide surfaces. Using cluster models and point charge embedding within a density functional theory framework, we simulate the CO oxidation reaction for Au1 on differently charged oxygen vacancies of MgO(001) to rationalize its experimentally observed lack of catalytic activity. Our results show that: (1) co-adsorption is weakly supported at F(0) and F(2+) defects but not at F(1+) sites, (2) electron redistribution from the F(0) vacancy via the Au1 cluster to the adsorbed molecular oxygen weakens the O2 bond, as required for a sustainable catalytic cycle, (3) a metastable carbonate intermediate can form on defects of the F(0) type, (4) only a small activation barrier exists for the highly favorable dissociation of CO2 from F(0), and (5) the moderate adsorption energy of the gold atom on the F(0) defect cannot prevent insertion of molecular oxygen inside the defect. Due to the lack of protection of the color centers, the surface becomes invariably repaired by the surrounding oxygen and the catalytic cycle is irreversibly broken in the first oxidation step. PMID:27345190

  16. Effect of closure of the mesenteric defect during laparoscopic gastric bypass and prevention of internal hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Danshøj; Naver, Lars; Jess, Per;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of closing the mesenteric defects during gastric bypass to avoid internal herniation (IH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is performed as a single-centre, randomised, controlled, blinded trial. Patients are randomly...... assigned to either conventional laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) without closing the mesenteric defects (n = 250) or RYGB with closing of the defects with hernia clips (n = 250). Follow-up is conducted at six months, one year, two years and five years after RYGB. The primary endpoint...

  17. 宁波市2010年度出生缺陷危险因素调查及干预效果评价%Risk Factors of Birth Defects and Evaluation of Effect of Intervention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹鸣飞; 孙跃宏; 屈煜; 钱莹莹; 蒋燕萍; 舒立波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the birth defect monitoring of residents of Ningbo in 2010 and to analyze the birth defects incidence, risk factors, intervention measures and its effect in order to seek effective measures to reduce the incidence of birth defects. Methods 693 birth defects cases who were 28 weeks after pregnancy to 1 week after delivery from all levels hospital in Ningbo were selected as observation group, and 585 subjects without birth defects were selected as control group. Risk factors of birth defects and intervention measures were compared between the two groups. Results There were 211 cases having risk factors in birth defect group, accounting for 30. 45% . There were 142 cases having risk factors in control group, accounting for 24. 27%. Exposing rate of risk factors like chemical risk factors and physical risk factors showed statistically significant differences between the two groups ( P 0. 05 ) . While participation of premarital physical examination, TORCH testing, intake of folic acid three months before pregnancy and three months after the pregnancy showed statistically significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion A-voidance of chemical or physical risk factors, participation of premarital physical examination, TORCH testing and intake of folic acid three months before pregnancy and three months after the pregnancy can effectively reduce the incidence of birth defects.%目的 调查宁波市2010年度出生缺陷监测实况,分析宁波市出生缺陷发生情况、危险因素与干预措施及其效果,寻求降低出生缺陷发生率的有效措施.方法 随机抽取2010年度宁波市在各级各类医疗保健机构内住院分娩的妊娠满28周至产后1周的出生缺陷围生儿693例为观察组,同期随机抽取无出生缺陷围生儿585例为对照组,对两组进行致出生缺陷危险因素及干预措施比较分析.结果 出生缺陷组有危险因素的围生儿211例,占30.45%;对照

  18. The relationship between folate metabolism Related Gene and Birth Defects, Poor Pregnancy%叶酸代谢基因与出生缺陷和不良妊娠的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英华; 陈瑛

    2012-01-01

    More and more study shown that folate had important role in the birth defects such as congenital heart disease and neural tube defects, adverse pregnancy such as premature birth and abortion. However, promotion " folic acid fortification" will artificially lead to future population dependent on a large number of vitamin, lead to the overall gene composition changed, the crowd will become very fragile to a fatal disease, folate level in whose is lower than that in normal persons. Maternal folate deficiency may result in general impairment of fetal growth, which is reflected in low birth weight. Such women also have a high incidence of abortion, ab-ruptio placentae and fetal malformation. Folate supplemented in pregnant women with the appropriate dose can reduce the risk of diseases such as birth defects and adverse pregnancy. In this article, we discussed the relationship between polymorphisms of enzyme genes involving folate metabolism and risk of birth defects such as congenital heart disease and neural tube defects, adverse pregnancy such as premature birth and abortion.%叶酸在先天性心脏病、神经管畸形等出生缺陷和早产、流产等不良妊娠中的作用越来越受到关注.然而,研究表明推广“叶酸强化”将人为地导致未来的人口对于大量的维生素产生依赖性,导致人口整体的基因组发生变化,这种人群对于某种致命的疾病将变得十分脆弱,患者体内的叶酸水平低于正常个体,产妇叶酸缺乏会因产生低出生体重的胎儿而损害胎儿的生长,另外还有流产、胎儿畸形和胎盘早剥等高发病率的风险.孕妇在妊娠前和妊娠期补充适量的叶酸可降低出生缺陷、不良妊娠等疾病的发生概率.因此,本研究就近几年国内外关于叶酸代谢相关酶基因多态性和先天性心脏病、神经管畸形等出生缺陷和早产、流产等不良妊娠关系进行简要综述.

  19. Trends in neural tube defect prevalence, folic acid fortification, and vitamin supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Richard S; Mulinare, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    In this review, the authors analyze international trends in rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) during the past three decades. Population-based data sources include the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program and other US birth defects surveillance programs in the National Birth Defects Prevention Network, the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems, and US and Canadian vital records. To analyze trends in vitamin consumption, we review data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and international surveys of multivitamin use. We discuss the role of factors associated with historic and continuing declines in NTD rates in most countries. These factors include the introduction and increased utilization of prenatal diagnosis, recommendations for multivitamin use in women of childbearing age, and population-wide increases in blood folate levels that have occurred since food fortification was mandated. We also discuss research needs for further NTD prevention. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.

  20. Correlation analysis of 1206 cases of birth defects in prenatal screening and diagnosis%1206例出生缺陷产前筛查及产前诊断的相关情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东海

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To know the prenatal screening and diagnosis for maternal and infant health care sector, to provide reference for establishing corresponding prevention countermeasures. METHODS Selected a total of 1 206 infants with birth defect during the years of 2008-2011 in our hospital, retrospectively analyzed the prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis results of birth defects, comparatively analyzed the ratio in different regions without prenatal screening. RESULTS The positive cases in antenatal screening accounted for 33.4% (403/1 206), positive in prenatal diagnosis accounted for 28.8% (347/ 1 206) , without prenatal screening accounted for 9.8% (118/1 206). Interim malformations induced accounted for 25.2% (304/1 206). The first 5 causes of prenatal diagnosis of defect were as follows: neural tube defects, congenital heart disease, cleft lip, chromosomal abnormalities and strephenopodia. The first 5 causes of defect was total 295 cases, proportion of 85.1%, which were as follows; 364 cases with congenital heart disease (53.1%) , ear deformity in 79 cases (11.5%) , cleft lip in 75 cases (10.9%), cryptorchidism in 62 cases (9.1%) , polydactyly in 49 patients (7.2%). The constituent ratio that without prenatal screening (1.4%) in towns was significant lower than in countries (15.4%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In order to reduce the incidence of birth defects, it should strengthen exploration on limbs and features of five sense organs in prenatal screening and diagnosis, can not only concern about the value of screening, and ignore the importance of antenatal diagnosis.%目的 为了解本地区产前筛查及产前诊断状况,给妇婴保健部门制定相应的预防对策提供参考.方法 选择2008 ~2011年期间某院分娩的出生缺陷儿,共计1206例,回顾分析出出生缺陷儿产前筛查与产前诊断结果,对照分析不同区域未进行产前筛查者构成比.结果 产前筛查阳性者占33.4% (403/1206),产前诊断阳性者占28.8

  1. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  2. Male circumcision as strategy for HIV prevention and sexually transmitted diseases: the potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal male circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, it would be advisable to give priority to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention strategies, because of the high mortality caused by the rapid spread of the pandemic. Furthermore, HIV prevention could contribute to the mitigation of tuberculosis (TB propagation, which is tightly correlated to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD. The suggested strategy considers the neonatal MC advantageous, since it is safer, feasible, culturally more acceptable and less costly than adult MC. This approach is based on the assumption that, if newborn males are circumcised, within the next 15-20 years the sexually active population will be almost entirely circumcised and, consequently, the HIV transmission will be reduced. The employment of retrained traditional birth attendants is considered in order to implement the MC after the child birth and to facilitate its acceptance in those contexts where it is not traditionally performed.

  3. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  4. 2010-2014年勐腊县出生缺陷发生现状及结果分析%The status of birth defects and result analysis in mengla county from 2010 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰英; 依彦光; 胡亚君

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查2010-2014年勐腊县出生缺陷的发生情况,探讨出生缺陷发生的相关因素,提出干预措施。方法:监测勐腊县6家医院住院分娩情况。孕28周至产后7 d内围产儿逐一筛查,并填写出生缺陷儿登记卡。结果:11442例围产儿中,出生缺陷38例(3.32‰)。出生缺陷死亡16例(421.05‰),其中农村4.67‰,城市1.59‰(χ2=1.92,P<0.05)。出生缺陷前5位是多、并指(趾),先心病,α-地中海贫血,唐氏综合症,神经管畸形。结论:勐腊县是少数民族居住地区,经济、文化、医疗技术落后,为此应加强健康教育、婚前检查、孕前保健、产前检查和产前诊断,降低出生缺陷,提高人口素质。%Objective:To investigate the occurrence of birth defects in mengla county from 2010 to 2014,to explore the factors related to the incidence of birth defects,and to propose interventions.Methods:Labor conditions were monitored in 6 hospitals of mengla county.We made detailed screening for perinatal fetus from 28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after postpartum,and filled in birth defects registration card.Results:In 11 442 cases of perinatal fetus,38 cases(3.32‰) had birth defects,16 cases died because of birth defects(421.05‰ ),the rural was 4.67‰ ,the city was 1.59‰ ( χ 2=1.92, P<0.05).The top 5 birth defects were more finger(toe) or syndactyly,congenital heart disease,alpha thalassemia,Down's syndrome,neural tube defects.Conclusion:Mengla county was the region of ethnic minorities living,the economic,cultural,medical technology were backward,therefore,we should strengthen the health education,premarital examination,prenatal care,prenatal care and prenatal diagnosis,in order to reduce birth defects and improve the quality of the population.

  5. Developing effective campaign messages to prevent neural tube defects: a qualitative assessment of women's reactions to advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi Lindsey, Lisa L; Silk, Kami J; Von Friederichs-Fitzwater, Marlene M; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Boster, Franklin J

    2009-03-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year, can be reduced by 50-70% with daily periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid. Two studies were designed to assess college women's reactions to and perceptions of potential campaign advertising concepts derived from preproduction formative research to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. Study one assessed draft advertising concepts in eight focus groups (N = 71) composed of college-enrolled women in four cities geographically dispersed across the United States. Based on study one results, the concepts were revised and reassessed in study two with a different sample (eight focus groups; N = 73) of college women in the same four cities. Results indicated that participants generally responded favorably to concepts in each of the two studies, and provided insight into individual concepts to increase their overall appeal and effectiveness. The specific findings and implications of these results are discussed. PMID:19283538

  6. Developing effective campaign messages to prevent neural tube defects: a qualitative assessment of women's reactions to advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi Lindsey, Lisa L; Silk, Kami J; Von Friederichs-Fitzwater, Marlene M; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Boster, Franklin J

    2009-03-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year, can be reduced by 50-70% with daily periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid. Two studies were designed to assess college women's reactions to and perceptions of potential campaign advertising concepts derived from preproduction formative research to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. Study one assessed draft advertising concepts in eight focus groups (N = 71) composed of college-enrolled women in four cities geographically dispersed across the United States. Based on study one results, the concepts were revised and reassessed in study two with a different sample (eight focus groups; N = 73) of college women in the same four cities. Results indicated that participants generally responded favorably to concepts in each of the two studies, and provided insight into individual concepts to increase their overall appeal and effectiveness. The specific findings and implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Risk Factors for Birth Defects:A Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis of a Case-Control Study in Guang-dong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志瑾; 穆荔

    1999-01-01

    In order to study risk factors and their association with birth defects,data were collected from 329 cases and 329 controls in 38 hospitals in Guangdong Province of China in 1988.Information was obtained from the same questionnaire(23 risk factors listed)of cases and controls.We used a multivariate logistic model,which described variables significantly increased risk of birth defects.The risk factors included maternal educa-tional levels,medicine taken during pregnancy and antenatal care.It was suggested to strengthen antenatal care was the main preventive measure against birth defects.

  8. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number of cases, the infection can cause intellectual disability, hearing loss, and vision problems. CMV can be spread ... woman becomes infected during pregnancy. It can cause hearing loss, intellectual disability, and vision problems in infected infants. Diabetes Mellitus: ...

  9. Advances in the Relationship between Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in the Folate Metabolic Pathway and Birth Defects%叶酸代谢基因多态性与出生缺陷的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽; 陈岳明; 王贤军

    2015-01-01

    With birth mortality decreasing significantly ,birth defects have become more serious in China. Increasing evidences supported the polymorphisms of genes involved in the folate metabolic pathway impact the occurrence of birth defects. MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism impacting the occurrence of neural tube defects had reached a consistent conclusion. However,the relationship between MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and cleft lip/palate,congenital heart disease,Down′s syndrome is still controversial. Researches seldom took further study on the correlation between MTR 2756A>G,MTRR 66A>G,RFC-1 80A>G polymorphism and birth defects. In this summary,we outlined the origination of folate,metabolic pathway and the association between the polymorphisms of genes involved in the pathway and birth defects.%随着我国新生儿出生死亡率明显降低,出生缺陷问题日益突出。在降低新生儿出生缺陷发生率的众多研究中,发现叶酸吸收代谢途径基因多态性与出生缺陷发生存在明显相关性。亚甲基四氢叶酸还原酶(MTHFR)677C>T多态性与神经管缺损发生明显相关已取得较为一致的结论。但MTHFR 677C>T、MTHFR 1298A>C在唇裂/腭裂、先天性心脏病、唐氏综合征的发生中所起的作用结论尚不统一,并且较少涉及叶酸代谢通路中甲硫氨酸合成酶(MTR)2756A>G、甲硫氨酸合成还原酶(MTRR)66A>G、还原型叶酸载体-1(RFC-1)80A>G多态性与出生缺陷的研究。就叶酸来源、吸收代谢途径及代谢途径关键基因多态性与出生缺陷的相关性进行综述。

  10. Monitoring and analysis of the Population Birth Defects in Tianjin Downtown from 2008 to 2010%天津市区2008~2010年人群出生缺陷监测资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝娟

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the population birth defects prevalence and potential affecting factors in Tianjin downtown from 2008 to 2010. METHODS The data of fetus and infants in Tianjin city from 2008 to 2010 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 1 062 cases with birth defect were collected from 65 990 births, with an overall prevalence rate of 160.93/104 births. The rates in male and female births were 172.34/104 births and 146.65/104 births, and there was significant difference between the two groups (r = 6.902, P< 0.01). Compared with 20-29 years old, the rate was 189.61/104 births in an age ≥30 years group, especially, the rate was 482.76/104 births in an age ≥40 years group (χ2 = 18.849, P < 0.001). There was significant difference in premature delivery and low birth weight babies (χ2 = 404.491, P< 0.001; χ2 = 381.164, P < 0.001). The rate was 3 505.98 per 10 000 births in fetal death and stillbirth, early neonatal death and death with in 7-42 days. The rate was 25.91 times of live-births (χ2 = 3 663.76, P< 0.01). Birth defect risk factors included male births, elderly puerperal, premature delivery babies and babies with low birth weight. CONCLUSION Annual prevalence rate of birth defect in Tianjin presented an increasing trend. The improvement ability in diagnosis and monitoring should be partly accounted for it. Birth defects were more likely to occur in elderly puerpera's babies, premature and low birth weight babies. The babies were mortality in high and poor prognosis.%目的 了解2008~2010年天津市区人群出生缺陷的发生情况及其影响因素.方法 对2008~2010年居住在天津市市内6区的产妇所分娩的胎婴儿资料进行分析.结果 共收集围产儿65 990例,出生缺陷儿1 062例,发生率为160.93/万.男、女性胎婴儿出生缺陷发生率分别为172.34/万和146.65/万,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.902,P<0.01);与20~29岁相比,产妇年龄在30岁以上,尤其是40岁以上时,胎婴

  11. Heat treatment to prevent image defect occurrence in amorphous Se doped with Te avalanche multiplication photoconductive film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Yuji; Matsubara, Tomoki; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Kubota, Misao; Egami, Norifumi [NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, 1-10-11 Kinuta Setagaya-ku, 157-8510 Tokyo (Japan); Miyakawa, Kazunori [NHK Engineering Services, Inc., 157-8540 Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Akira [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 438-0193 Shizuoka (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    We have been developing an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche multiplication photoconductive film, named HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor), for the purpose of making a high-sensitivity video camera useful for broadcasting, x-ray medical diagnosis, etc. The HARP film used for the red channel in a colour camera is doped with tellurium (Te) to improve its red-light sensitivity. However, doping a-Se with Te generates impurity levels that trap electrons, and the built-in-field formed by these trapped electrons causes image defects. We devised a heat treatment to prevent the occurrence of these defects. We suppose that the thermal energy of the heat treatment releases the originally trapped electrons, and that the energy makes it difficult for moving electrons to be trapped during operation. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Research on the influence factors of birth defect in Zhongshan City%中山市出生缺陷发生的相关影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊付兴; 王丹; 史妙丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查分析中山市出生缺陷的相关影响因素,为出生缺陷一级干预提供决策支持。方法选择2014年1月至2016年1月中山市105例出生缺陷儿作为缺陷组,同期选择105例无出生缺陷的新生儿作为对照组。对两组父母的“国家免费孕前优生健康检查项目”档案中疾病史、用药史、孕育史、家族史、饮食营养、生活习惯、环境毒害物接触、社会心理因素以及孕前的各种医学检验结果进行分析。结果两组父母文化程度、在孕产史、用药史、饮食营养、生活习惯、生活环境、疾病史、家族遗传病史等因素比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。家庭经济收入低、孕期营养状况差、早孕期自然流产、死胎死产、曾用避孕药、被动吸烟、接解放射线是出生缺陷的危险因素。结论新生儿出生缺陷的危险因素较多,临床医生需加强宣传,指导女性进行婚前、孕前检查,养成良好的生活习惯,从而减少新生儿出生缺陷的发生。%Objective To investigate and analyze the related influence factors of birth defect in Zhongshan City,Providing decision support for the first -level intervention.Methods 105 children with birth defect in Zhongshan City from January of 2014 to January of 2016 were selected as defect group,and 105 children without birth defect were selected as control group.The disease history,medication history,birth history,family history,diet,living habits,environmental poisonexposure,social psy-chological factors and pre -pregnancy medical testing results from "national free pre pregnancy health check"archives were ana-lyzed.Results The differences in the degree of education,history of gestation,history of pharmacy,diet nutrition,living hab-it,diseases history,history of family genetic disease and some other factors of parents between two goups were statistically signifi-cant (P <0.05).The low family income,bad nutriture at

  13. Can the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia be prevented by bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia exerts a pervasive effect on the global population, particularly at northerly latitudes. The winter infection hypothesis and the low vitamin D hypothesis are both compelling but lack conclusive clinical data. The present work develops a maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis for this season of birth risk factor and its prevention by maternal bright light treatment. Around the winter solstice, due to decreased sunlight, the chronobiological apparatus of the at-risk second trimester mother is characterized by a reduced amplitude circadian pacemaker, and a reduced maximum of her nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations (MTmax) and an increased minimum of her nocturnal core body temperatures (Tmin)--both of which exert adverse effects on the fetal hippocampus and dorsal striatum. The consequences for the fetus include reduced volume and increased excitability of the hippocampus, ventral striatal dysfunction, increased presynaptic nigrostriatal dopamine transmission, and increased propensity for pathological nigrostriatal neuronal phasic firing. Thus, the maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis fully accounts for the fetal precursors of the major pathognomonic abnormalities in adults with schizophrenia. Bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice, by increasing maternal circadian amplitude, could possibly prevent the fetal hippocampal and striatal abnormalities and eliminate the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia. PMID:25456791

  14. Analysis on birth defect surveillance in south Xicheng District, Beijing%北京市西城南区围产儿出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽霞; 王淼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the birth defect of south Xicheng District, Beijing from 2008 to 2010, and observe the feature of the birth defect incidence. Methods Statistics and analysis of birth defect infants from 6 hospitals of south Xicheng district in Beijing were performed, 293 perinatal infants and 88 infants (induction of labour in second trimester) were found. Results The incidence of birth defect of south Xicheng district in Beijing from 2008 to 2010 was 14.51‰. There were 20190 perinatal infants, and 132 of them were dead. The mortality was 6.54‰. 25 of them were infants with birth defects. The percentage was 18. 98%. The incidence of birth defect in these 293 cases, from high to low, in turn were: congenital heart disease (3.37‰) , polysyndactyly (2.82‰) , deformity of external ear (1.04‰), syndactyly (0. 74‰) , anorectal atresia (0.45‰) , cleft lip(0.35‰) , microtia(0.35‰). Conclusion As the incidence rate of congenital heart disease and other defects were quite high, intensify health care in perinatal period should be promoted, and the level of antenatal diagnosis should be enhanced.%目的 分析北京市西城南区2008-2010年出生缺陷监测结果,了解本地区出生缺陷发生情况.方法 对2008-2010年北京市西城南区6家助产机构产科孕满28周至出生后7d的出生缺陷儿293例,以及因出生缺陷进行中期引产的胎儿88例进行出生缺陷结果分析.结果 2008-2010年北京市西城南区围产儿出生缺陷发生率为14.51‰;20190名围产儿中共132例围产儿死亡,死亡率为6.54‰,其中出生缺陷25例,占围产儿死亡的18.98%;293例出生缺陷发生率由高到低依次为先天性心脏病(3.37‰)、多指(趾)(2.82‰)、外耳其他畸形(1.04‰)、并指(0.74‰)、直肠肛门闭锁或狭窄(0.45‰)、唇裂(0.35‰)、小耳(0.35‰).结论 进一步提高产前诊断水平,增强围孕保健措施.

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  16. Folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects: awareness among laywomen and healthcare providers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Inoue, Hiromi; Watanabe, Junichiro; Tada, Katsuhiko; Yoshimoto, Nobuko

    2009-09-01

    It is known that neural tube defects are folic acid preventable congenital anomalies. We investigated to what extent this information was disseminated among laywomen and healthcare providers. Questionnaire studies were conducted twice, in 2002 and 2007, for four groups of laywomen and seven groups of healthcare providers in Japan regarding awareness, folic acid supplements and healthy diets. Awareness among laywomen was less than 20%, except for families who had experience with spina bifida in 2002, and 5 years later only pregnant women showed a significant increase in awareness. Awareness among healthcare providers varied from 12 to 76%, depending on their profession, and this proportion increased in five of the seven groups in 2007. The majority of laywomen obtained their information from mass media, while the majority of healthcare providers received information through media for professionals. Laywomen who used folate supplements and healthcare providers who recommended them were initially fewer than 25 and 37%, respectively. Five years later, however, pregnant women who used folic acid supplements increased from 9.1 to 43.1%. As awareness among non-pregnant laywomen and some healthcare providers is considerably low, information should be presented repeatedly to these groups. The difficulty in getting women to consume folic acid supplements is an argument for the government to require folic acid fortification of grains so that the prevention of neural tube defects can be maximized.

  17. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W;

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  18. 妊娠合并症与妊娠期接触化学毒物对出生缺陷影响的系统评价%Effect of pregnancy complications and gestational exposure to toxic chemical on birth defect:a systematic ;evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳书华; 万素馨

    2016-01-01

    exposure to toxic chemical was a risk factor of birth defects.Conclusion Pregnancy complications and gestational exposure to toxic chemical are risk factors of birth defects,this targeted provides reference to birth defects prevention.

  19. 宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷补漏调查%Investigation on the mend Leakage on the birth defects in Yichang between 2008 and 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小葵

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in Yichang city between 2008 and 2010. METHODS We investigated the omissions and quality of report card on the birth defects in midwifery agency of Yichang city on the basis of the National monitoring project of health of mothers and children. RESULTS The leakage rate was 7.49%, and the mistaking rate was 1.26% in the tables and cards. The two rates decreased year by year. CONCLUSION The fundamental guarantee of improving the quality of monitoring in the birth defects was the strengthening of management and supervision , and the raising responsibility of medical staff.%目的 了解宜昌市城区2008~2010年医院出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况.方法 根据《全国妇幼卫生监测方案》对出生缺陷监测质量的要求,对城区各助产机构出生缺陷漏报及报告卡质量情况进行调查.结果 2008~2010年宜昌市城区医院出生缺陷漏报率平均达7.49%;表、卡填写差错率平均达1.26%.漏报率和差错率都有逐年下降趋势.结论 加强管理,坚持督导,提高医务人员责任心,是提高出生缺陷监测质量的根本保证.

  20. Analysis on Related Factors of Newborn Birth-defects in 36 Hospitalized Childbirth%36例住院分娩围生儿出生缺陷的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧丽莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解盐城地区住院分娩围生儿出生缺陷状况,探索引起出生缺陷的相关因素方法对2010年10月—2014年5月盐城市第一人民医院住院分娩的4347新生儿进行监测,标准为孕满28周~产后7d的围生儿结果检出出生缺陷儿36例,出生缺陷发生率为8.28‰,在不同新生儿性别、产母职业之间差异无统计学意义。但产妇年龄35-39、40岁及以上年龄组(13.33‰,45.46‰),多胎多产(GnPn,n≥3,为51.55‰)及经产者(17.96‰),发生率显著升高(P28 gestational weeks within the 7 days perineonata period were monitored in hospital of 180 of Quanzhou.Results: There were 36 out of 4347 newborns with various types of birth-defect and the birth-defect rate was 8.28‰. There was no statistically signiifcant difference in the occurrence of birth-defect from the neonatal genders and occupationsof pregnant women. But the rates were signiifcantly higher when the pregnant women were 35-39 and 40 years old,multi-pregnancies and multi-labors(51.55‰)and multiparas(17.96‰),and there was statistical signiifcant difference(P<0.05,P<0.01).Conclusions: Birth-defects are related to the maternal age,numbers of pregnancies and labors,but not related to the sex of neonates and occupations of pregnant women.

  1. 南京市六合区2007-2011年出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis on the monitoring results of birth defect in Luhe district in 2007-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寿花

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解本地区围产儿出生缺陷的发生情况,及时发现影响出生缺陷的可疑因素,为制定干预措施提供依据。方法按照国家出生缺陷监测方案的要求,对2006年10月1日~2011年9月30日在六合区有产科的医院出生的、孕满28周至产后7天内的32562例围产儿进行监测。结果出生缺陷儿171例,出生缺陷儿发生率为5.25‰;出生缺陷的发生与环境因素、孕母年龄、出生性别等有关。结论进行优生优育宣传指导,为孕妇创造优良的生育环境及合理的均衡饮食,提高产前诊断技术,适时终止妊娠,可有效降低出生缺陷发生率。%Objective :in this study, we monitored and analyzed the perinatal birth defect in Luhe district, Nanjing in order to promptly establish proper measures to control this disease.Methods: According to the national birth defect monitoring protocol, 32562 perinatal samples during 28 weeks after pregnancy and 7 days after born were monitored. The term was from October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2011. The data were colected from al the hospitals or centers in Luhe district.Results: the monitoring results showed that 171 cases were diagnosed birth defect. The ratio was 5.25‰. It related to multi-influence factors including environment, maternal’s age on perinatal outcomes and baby gender etc.Conclusions:The perinatal birth defect could be controled efficiently by several ways, such as folowing the pregnant quality guideline, providing good environments to pregnant women, and improving the pre-pregnant diagnosis in terminal pregnancy.

  2. Study on 204 birth defects of the prenatal in the city of Taiyuan from 1997 to 2008%1997年-2008年太原地区204例出生缺陷回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫惠娜; 张月莲; 郑梅玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解1997年-2008年间太原市出生缺陷发生情况,为进一步制定干预措施提供依据.方法 将1997年-2008年12年中在我院妇产科终止妊娠的出生缺陷忠儿按年限分为1997年-2002年(前六年)组和2003年-2008年(后六年),并对其种类、发生率及城乡分布进行回顾性分析.结果 (1) 12年中神经管畸形的发生率为56.11/万,居于首位,占全部出生缺陷的32.35%,虽然后六年的神经管畸形的发生率低于前6年,但无统计学差异(x2=3.70,P>0.05).(2)后6年中28W前B超诊断率(1.12%)比前六年(0.41%)显著提高(x2=7.49,P<0.05).(3)前6年中城市与农村出生缺陷发生率分别为133.94/万、545.45/万,后6年城市与农村出生缺陷发生率分别为129.64/万、436.50/万,(x2=42.27,P<0.05; x2 =44.47,P<0.05)农村的平均发生率为城市的3.7倍,明显高于城市.结论 神经管畸形的发生在我省仍较为突出,只有加强对神经管畸形的预防,加强优生优育知识的宣传,改善农村生活环境,提高产前诊断率水平,才有可能有效性地降低出生缺陷的发生.%Objective: In order to formulate for further interventions, investigated the types, time of making a definite diagnosis, incidence of prenatal death defects in the city of Taiyuan, from 1997 to 2008. Methods; made two different groups, the first group form the year of 1997 to 2002 and the second group form the year of 2003 to 2008. Results: (1) The most of birth defects were Neural Tube defects and the percentage was 32. 35. (2) Morbidity by B ultrasound before 28w compare to after 28w were different between 1997 - 2002 and 2003 - 2008. (x2 = 7.49, P < 0.05 ) , the later six years' diagnostic rate of type - B ultrasonic before 28w was higher than the one of former six years. (3) Incidence of death defects were relate to the gravidas's place of residence, the gravidas' s birth defect rate form countries was higher than who form the cities whatever the first group or

  3. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  4. Remaining visual field and preserved subjective visual functioning prevent mental distress in patients with visual field defects

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    Carolin eGall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with visual field defects after visual pathway lesion may experience reduced vision-related quality of life (vrQoL. It has not been clarified how vrQoL impairments contribute to vision-related mental distress.Methods: 108 subjects with visual field defects caused by optic neuropathies (age M=57.6; SD=13.7 years answered the National Eye Institute Visual-Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ for vrQoL and the SF-12 Short Form Health Survey for health-related quality of life (hrQoL. A ten item composite of NEI-VFQ visual functioning and five items of mental health symptoms due to vision problems were subjected to Rasch analysis. The test battery comprised static and High Resolution Perimetry (HRP. Regression and path analysis were used to investigate associations between QoL, mental distress and perimetry results.Results: A higher level of visual functioning was associated with monocular impairment and a larger remaining visual field compared to binocular impairment. Subjective visual functioning but not visual field parameters predicted mental health symptoms due to vision problems which was the only variable associated with the SF-12 mental component score. The SF-12 physical component score was less strongly associated with mental health symptoms due to vision problems. Here, reaction time in HRP and mean threshold in perimetry were additional significant variables. Path analysis revealed a significant path of remaining visual field via visual functioning on mental health. Conclusions: Subjective consequences of visual impairments in everyday life impact mental health rather than objective visual function loss as measured by perimetry. Since a higher extent of vrQoL was related to lower levels of mental distress, the maintenance of vrQoL could reduce and prevent mental distress due to vision problems. Patients with persisting visual field defects may benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation and supportive therapies.

  5. A biodegradable antibiotic-impregnated scaffold to prevent osteomyelitis in a contaminated in vivo bone defect model

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    JS McLaren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Open fractures are at risk of serious infection and, if infected, require several surgical interventions and courses of systemic antibiotics. We investigated a new injectable formulation that simultaneously hardens in vivo to form a porous scaffold for bone repair and delivers antibiotics at high concentrations to the local site of infection. Duration of antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using the serial plate transfer test. Ultimate compressive strength and porosity of the material was measured with and without antibiotics. The material was evaluated in vivo in an ovine medial femoral condyle defect model contaminated with S. aureus. Sheep were sacrificed at either 2 or 13 weeks and the defect and surrounding bone assessed using micro-computed tomography and histology. Antimicrobial activity in vitro persisted for 19-21 days. Sheep with antibiotic-free material and bacteria became infected, while those with antibiotic-containing material and bacteria did not. Similarly, new bone growth was seen in uninoculated animals with plain polymer, and in those with antibiotic polymer with bacteria, but not in sheep with plain polymer and bacteria. The antibiotic-impregnated scaffolds were effective in preventing S. aureus infections whilst supporting bone growth and repair. If translated into clinical practice, this approach might reduce the need for systemic antibiotics.

  6. Usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa model for preventing palate bone alterations in rabbits with a mucoperiostial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Valadés-Gámez, Ricardo; Garzón, Ingrid; Liceras-Liceras, Esther; España-López, Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martin-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María-Ángeles; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria-Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández-Valadés, Ricardo

    2016-02-19

    The use of mucoperiostial flaps during cleft palate surgery is associated with altered palatal bone growth and development. We analyzed the potential usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa in an in vivo model of cleft palate. First, a 4 mm palate defect was created in one side of the palate oral mucosa of 3 week-old New Zealand rabbits, and a complete autologous bioengineered oral mucosa (BOM) or acellular fibrin-agarose scaffold (AS) was implanted. No material was implanted in the negative controls (NC), and positive controls were not subjected to palatal defect (PC). Animals were allowed to grow for 6 months and the results were analyzed morphologically (palate mucosa and bone size) and histologically. Results show that palatal mucosa and bone growth and development were significantly altered in NC and AS animals, whereas BOM animals had similar results to PC and the bioengineered oral mucosa was properly integrated in the host palate. The amount and compaction of collagen fibers was similar between BOM and PC, and both groups of animals had comparable contents of proteoglycans and glycoproteins at the palate bone. No differences were found for decorin, osteocalcin and BMP2. The use of bioengineered oral mucosa substitutes is able to improve palate growth and maturation by preventing the alterations found in animals with denuded palate bone. These results support the potential clinical usefulness of BOM substitutes for the treatment of patients with cleft palate and other conditions in which palate mucosa grafts are necessary with consequent bone denudation.

  7. Maternally provided LSD1/KDM1A enables the maternal-to-zygotic transition and prevents defects that manifest postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Jadiel A; Simon, Ashley K; Myrick, Dexter A; Wolf, Gernot; Driscoll, Shawn; Pfaff, Samuel L; Macfarlan, Todd S; Katz, David J

    2016-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has established that the oocyte contains maternal factors with epigenetic reprogramming capacity. Yet the identity and function of these maternal factors during the gamete to embryo transition remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, LSD1/KDM1A enables this transition by removing H3K4me2 and preventing the transgenerational inheritance of transcription patterns. Here we show that loss of maternal LSD1/KDM1A in mice results in embryonic arrest at the 1-2 cell stage, with arrested embryos failing to undergo the maternal-to-zygotic transition. This suggests that LSD1/KDM1A maternal reprogramming is conserved. Moreover, partial loss of maternal LSD1/KDM1A results in striking phenotypes weeks after fertilization; including perinatal lethality and abnormal behavior in surviving adults. These maternal effect hypomorphic phenotypes are associated with alterations in DNA methylation and expression at imprinted genes. These results establish a novel mammalian paradigm where defects in early epigenetic reprogramming can lead to defects that manifest later in development. PMID:26814574

  8. 热锻件常见缺陷及防止方法%Hot Forging Common Defects and Prevention Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹伟; 孙福勋

    2012-01-01

    The forging quality affects directly the performance of parts and service life. The paper analyses the reason of the heating control of oxidation, improper may cause the decarburization, excessive heat or burn, internal crack, heating distributed defects, of forging process prone to filling discontent, and fold, crack defects ,points out the reasons and puts forward the concrete prevention and solutions, and has important guiding role of ensure product quality and control forgings.%锻件质量的优劣直接影响着零件的性能及使用寿命。本文对加热控制不当可能导致的氧化、脱碳、过热或过烧、内部裂纹、加热不均匀等缺陷,对锻造过程容易出现的充填不满、折叠、裂纹等缺陷进行了研究分析,指出了产生的原因,提出了具体的预防、解决方案,对保证和控制锻件产品质量具有重要的指导作用。

  9. 河池市金城江区2010-2014年新生儿出生缺陷监测分析%Birth Defects Monitoring Analysis of Jin Chengjia Ng area in Hechi City from 2010 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 兰仙朵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To monitor birth defects of Jin Chengjiang area in Hechi city from 2010 to 2014. Methods Selected birth defects monitoring data of Jin Chengjiang area in Hechi city from 2010 to 2014. Results The birth defect rate of Jin Chengjiang area was 18.85 ‰ from 2010 to 2014, there is an upward trend in the incidence of birth defects. Male’s birth defects incidence rate was higher than baby?daughter, birth defects rate of pregnant women beyond 35 ages was highest. The first there disease of birth defects rate were congenital heart disease, congenital hydrocephalus and merger of cleft lip cleft palate respectively. The mainly diagnosis basis was clinical diagnosis and B ultrasonic diagnosis. Conclusion Perinatal birth defects of Jin Chengjiang district was higher than the national level, birth defects rate was present an upward trend year by year, and need to pay a attention.%目的:对河池市金城江区2010—2014年出生缺陷新生儿进行监测分析。方法收集河池市金城江区2010—2014年出生缺陷监测资料。结果2010—2014年金城江区新生儿缺陷发生率为18.85‰,出生缺陷儿的发生率呈逐年上升的趋势。男性围产儿的出生缺陷发生率高于女性,孕妇年龄≥35岁发生出生缺陷率最高。出生缺陷发生率位于前三的分别为先天性心脏病、先天性脑积水及唇裂合并腭裂。主要依据为临床诊断和B超诊断。结论金城江区围产儿出生缺陷高于全国水平,出生缺陷发生率呈逐年上升的趋势,需要引起重视。

  10. 广西不同民族新生儿出生情况及出生缺陷分析%The analysis of the birth condition and defects of different ethnic of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继昌; 林墨菊; 邱萍; 罗琳琳; 王麟; 农铮

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article was to analyze the situation of newborns at Liuzhou ,Guangxi,in 2012,and understand the newborns’ information in order to pro-vide a theoretical basis for the development of maternal and child health interventions .Method We used statistics to analyze the 46877 cases of different ethnical newbo-rns in 2012 at Liuzhou city,Guangxi.Results The sex ratio of newborns in 2012 was lower than that of the national average;the incidence rate of premature and low birth weight newborns were higher than other regions;cesarean section rate was lower than that of the national average;the incidence of birth defects close to the national aver-age.Conclusion We should accordingly strength the propagation of relative knowledge about the pregnant period health .Provide guidance to the nutrition of pregnant women,promote fetal development and reduce the incidence of premature birth and low birth weight infants and birth defects ,which is the prior task to the maternal health care.%目的分析广西柳州市2012年出生新生儿情况及出生缺陷,了解不同民族新生儿出生的基本资料及出生缺陷情况,为制定孕产期保健和儿童保健干预措施提供理论依据。方法统计分析2011年广西柳州市46877例不同民族新生儿出生资料。结果2012年柳州市出生新生儿性别比低于全国平均水平;早产儿发生率和低出生体重发生率高于其他地区水平;剖宫产率低于全国平均水平;出生缺陷发生率接近国内平均水平。结论加强孕产期保健等相关知识宣教,进行孕妇营养指导,促进胎儿发育,减少早产和低体重儿的发生,减少出生缺陷的发生是孕产期保健的重点工作。

  11. Pharmacoeconomic impact of use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimaguila MAVT

    2013-04-01

    initiation of L. reuteri as a probiotic for prevention of NEC in neonates with birth weight ≤ 1000 g is a cost-effective strategy during their stay in neonatal intensive care. Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis, probiotic, extremely low birth weight, Lactobacillus reuteri, pharmacoeconomics

  12. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  13. Rare birth defects associated with Morgagni hernia and segmental aplasia of uterine horn in bitch: Case reportDefeitos congênitos raros em cadela – relato de caso

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    Ricardo Santana de Lima

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects, deformities or abnormalities are terms used to describe developmental defects present at birth, most of which are rare in bitches. We report the case of a six-month old mongrel bitch corpse, which, when subjected to an anatomotopographic study revealed the presence of rare birth defects as Morgagni hernia and segmental aplasia of the right uterine horn with its attachment to the transverses muscle of abdominis. In association with HM, we observed the presence of dextrocardia and a defect of the abdominal wall supraumbilical characteristic of incompletely Pentalogy of Cantrell’s, syndrome so far described only in humans. In association with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn, we observed the ipsilateral presence of the renal hypoplasia and ureteral agenesis. The diagnosis of those abnormalities was based on anatomical findings and confirmed histologically. Despite the rarity and complexity of the abnormalities first described in bitches, the literature suggested that the prognosis may be favorable to the life of the animal. However, early diagnosis is essential to avoid the potential complications of those diseasesDefeitos congênitos, deformidades ou anormalidades são termos usados para descrever defeitos no desenvolvimento presentes ao nascimento. A maioria destes, como a aplasia segmentar uterina, é de ocorrência rara em cadelas. Relata-se o caso de um cadáver de cadela, sem raça definida, de seis meses de idade, que ao ser submetido ao estudo anatomotopográfico revelou a presença de aplasia segmentar uterina (ASU associada à hérnia de Morgagni (HM, agenesia ureteral (AU e hipoplasia renal direita (HR. Além destas anormalidades, foi observada a presença de dextrocardia e de um defeito da parede abdominal supraumbilical, que caracterizam a forma incompleta da pentalogia de Cantrell, só descrita em humanos. O diagnóstico destas anormalidades foi baseado nos achados anatômicos e confirmado histologicamente. A

  14. Artifactual defect of inferior myocardium on [sup 123]I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial SPECT; Characteristic findings and preventive method on phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Terada, Shinichiro; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kashikura, Kenichi; Momose, Mitsuru; Hosoda, Saichi; Kusakabe, Kiyoko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Discordance between planar and SPECT image of inferior myocardial defect on [sup 123]I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) was occasionally observed in the clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the existence of artifactual myocardial defect on MIBG SPECT image. Phantom study was performed in various kinds of situation using triple gamma camera. Artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was significantly observed in the case of increased liver/heart uptake ratio more than 2:1. Artifactual defect was markedly observed in the 180 degree than that in the 360 degree SPECT acquisition. To avoid artifactual defect during SPECT acquisition, liver phantom was moved down to the foot direction (vanishing liver position). In this phantom position, artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was not observed on reconstructed myocardial SPECT image. The vanishing liver position was also applicable to human study. Human body was inclined to right side at an angle of 15 degree, artifactual defect could be avoided. Further study is needed to analyze the cause of this artifactual defect and to conform the preventive method with vanishing liver position in the routine myocardial SPECT examination. (author).

  15. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  16. Folic acid and prevention of neural tube defects in 2000 improved awareness--low peri-conceptional uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleary, M; Donnell, R M; Johnson, H

    2001-06-01

    Eight years have passed since recommendations were made by the Irish Department of Health on the importance of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD). There is currently no mandatory fortification of foodstuffs with folic acid in Ireland, with reliance placed on campaigns promoting increased dietary folate intake and supplements. We assessed knowledge and use of folic acid among 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin maternity hospitals in the year 2000 using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Qualitative information was obtained through means of a focus group. Ninety two percent of respondents had heard of folic acid and 67% knew it could prevent NTD. Thirty per cent were advised to take it peri-conceptionally but overall only 18% did so; 39% of women had planned their pregnancy. The focus group indicated that folic acid was not 'visible' enough and that fortification of food was more realistic. This study shows that improved folic acid awareness has not been accompanied by corresponding peri-conceptional uptake in 2000. Folic acid promotional campaigns should be continuous and targeted. Mandatory food fortification should be strongly considered.

  17. A Vicarious Experience of the Actions of Contraceptive Devices in Birth Control and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2002-01-01

    Describes how self-constructed models of the male and female reproductive systems are used to simulate sexual intercourse and the actions of contraceptive devices in preventing conception and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/YDS)

  18. 北京平谷区三年出生缺陷产前超声筛查分析%Prenatal Ultrasound Screening Analysis for the Birth Defects within 3 Years in Pinggu District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大平

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ultrasonography in prenatal screening for birth defects diagnosis,understanding of the region the incidence of birth defects,in order to reduce the occurrence of congenital malformation.Methods In 2007,2008,my area,2009 (statistical time for every year from October 1st to next September 30th) delivery within seven days after the diagnosis of birth defects and ultrasound examination results were analyzed.Results In three years the region a total of 162 infants with birth defects,a total of 60 cases of prenatal ultrasound screening detected fetal malformation,and confirmed after birth ultrasound diagnosis correctly,ultrasound screening for the detection rate for 37 %.Missed diagnosis of malformations mainly for cardiac malformation in 45 cases,means (toe) abnormalities in 26 cases,lip,palate 8 cases.Conclusions Ultrasound examination can be detected in the vast majority of congenital fetal malformations,at present this area for gastroschisis,anencephaly and other obvious fetal malformation high detection rate,on minor malformations such as finger (toe) abnormalities in three years has never been detected,on fetal cardiac abnormalities by ultrasonography technology needs to be further improved.%目的 探讨超声产前筛查对出生缺陷的诊断价值,了解本地区出生缺陷的发生动态,为减少先天畸形的发生提供依据.方法 将平谷区2007-2009年(统计时间为每年10月1日至次年9月30日)分娩后7d内诊断的出生缺陷儿与超声检查结果,进行对比分析.结果 3年全区共分娩畸形儿162例,产前超声共筛查出60例畸形胎儿,且出生后证实超声诊断正确,超声筛查的检出率为37%.漏诊心脏畸形45例,指(趾)异常26例,唇、腭裂8例等.结论 超声检查可以检出绝大多数的胎儿先天畸形,目前平谷区对腹裂、无脑儿等明显的胎儿畸形检出率高,对微小畸形如指(趾)异常3年从未检出过,对胎儿心脏异常的超声检查技术有待进一步提高.

  19. The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated congenital heart defects

    OpenAIRE

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Almost 15 years ago it was hypothesized that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism could lead to aberrant methylation of peri-centromeric regions of chromosome 21, favoring its abnormal segregation during maternal meiosis. Subsequently, more than 50 small case-control studies investigated whether or not maternal polymorphisms of folate pathway genes could be risk factors for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS), yielding conflicting and inconclusive res...

  20. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  1. Defect-mediated relaxation in the random tiling phase of a binary mixture: birth, death and mobility of an atomic zipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondl, Elisabeth; Ramsay, Malcolm; Harrowell, Peter; Widmer-Cooper, Asaph

    2014-03-14

    This paper describes the mechanism of defect-mediated relaxation in a dodecagonal square-triangle random tiling phase exhibited by a simulated binary mixture of soft discs in 2D. We examine the internal transitions within the elementary mobile defect (christened the "zipper") that allow it to move, as well as the mechanisms by which the zipper is created and annihilated. The structural relaxation of the random tiling phase is quantified and we show that this relaxation is well described by a model based on the distribution of waiting times for each atom to be visited by the diffusing zipper. This system, representing one of the few instances where a well defined mobile defect is capable of structural relaxation, can provide a valuable test case for general theories of relaxation in complex and disordered materials. PMID:24628178

  2. Regulation of Budding Yeast CENP-A levels Prevents Misincorporation at Promoter Nucleosomes and Transcriptional Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Hildebrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The exclusive localization of the histone H3 variant CENP-A to centromeres is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis helps to ensure that CENP-A does not mislocalize to euchromatin, which can lead to genomic instability. Consistent with this, overexpression of the budding yeast CENP-A(Cse4 is lethal in cells lacking Psh1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CENP-A(Cse4 for degradation. To identify additional mechanisms that prevent CENP-A(Cse4 misincorporation and lethality, we analyzed the genome-wide mislocalization pattern of overexpressed CENP-A(Cse4 in the presence and absence of Psh1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing. We found that ectopic CENP-A(Cse4 is enriched at promoters that contain histone H2A.Z(Htz1 nucleosomes, but that H2A.Z(Htz1 is not required for CENP-A(Cse4 mislocalization. Instead, the INO80 complex, which removes H2A.Z(Htz1 from nucleosomes, promotes the ectopic deposition of CENP-A(Cse4. Transcriptional profiling revealed gene expression changes in the psh1Δ cells overexpressing CENP-A(Cse4. The down-regulated genes are enriched for CENP-A(Cse4 mislocalization to promoters, while the up-regulated genes correlate with those that are also transcriptionally up-regulated in an htz1Δ strain. Together, these data show that regulating centromeric nucleosome localization is not only critical for maintaining centromere function, but also for ensuring accurate promoter function and transcriptional regulation.

  3. Regulation of Budding Yeast CENP-A levels Prevents Misincorporation at Promoter Nucleosomes and Transcriptional Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Erica M; Biggins, Sue

    2016-03-01

    The exclusive localization of the histone H3 variant CENP-A to centromeres is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis helps to ensure that CENP-A does not mislocalize to euchromatin, which can lead to genomic instability. Consistent with this, overexpression of the budding yeast CENP-A(Cse4) is lethal in cells lacking Psh1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CENP-A(Cse4) for degradation. To identify additional mechanisms that prevent CENP-A(Cse4) misincorporation and lethality, we analyzed the genome-wide mislocalization pattern of overexpressed CENP-A(Cse4) in the presence and absence of Psh1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing. We found that ectopic CENP-A(Cse4) is enriched at promoters that contain histone H2A.Z(Htz1) nucleosomes, but that H2A.Z(Htz1) is not required for CENP-A(Cse4) mislocalization. Instead, the INO80 complex, which removes H2A.Z(Htz1) from nucleosomes, promotes the ectopic deposition of CENP-A(Cse4). Transcriptional profiling revealed gene expression changes in the psh1Δ cells overexpressing CENP-A(Cse4). The down-regulated genes are enriched for CENP-A(Cse4) mislocalization to promoters, while the up-regulated genes correlate with those that are also transcriptionally up-regulated in an htz1Δ strain. Together, these data show that regulating centromeric nucleosome localization is not only critical for maintaining centromere function, but also for ensuring accurate promoter function and transcriptional regulation.

  4. 筒纱常见疵点成因及预防%Prevention and Reasons of Cheese Yarn Frequent Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈航; 杨绪美

    2012-01-01

    总结络筒过程中乱纱、夹回丝、小辫子纱、双纱纱疵的产生原因及解决措施.分析了细纱管纱脱圈、大吸嘴与筒纱距离、张力盒作用不良、结头动作频繁、筒纱与槽筒接触不良对筒纱乱纱纱疵的影响,并介绍了预防筒纱夹回丝、小辫子纱、双纱纱疵的技术要点.认为做好细纱管纱成形工作和张力盒、捻接器等部件的检修工作可以有效降低乱纱纱疵的发生;合理设置络筒工艺和做好各部清洁工作才能更好的减少筒纱各类纱疵的发生.%Measures and reasons of several frequent defects in winding process were summarized. Cheese yam raveling factors were analyzed, such as bobbin yarn slough-off,gauge between large nozzle and cheese yam,tension box work worse,splicing frequently, poor contact between cheese yam and groove drum. Technology key points of preventing cheese yam thread waste, itink, winder doubling were introduced, It is considered that tavelings can he reduced by dealing bobbin yarn forming,examining & repairing tension box and splicer. Winding processing should be adapted rationally, cleaning should be done well to reduce all types of cheese yam defects.

  5. Effect analysis of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan%中山地区重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施的实施对降低唐氏综合征出生率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 江陵; 吴剑波; 陈昂; 陈咏莲; 李莉敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analysize the effect of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan, 2010 -2011. Methods; Prenatal screening of Down's syndrome has been free in residents since January 1, 2010. The Surveillance and Intervention were carried out at the same time. Data of the surveillance were analyzed, 2008 -2011 , comparing the difference of the incidences. Results; After the surveillance and intervention, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome increased significantly. The rate of live births with Down's syndrome decreased in 2010 -2011 (1. 63 -0. 64/ten thousand) compared with 2008 and 2009 (3. 5-3. 78/ten thousand). Conclusion; The Surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on were effective on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan.%目的 分析2010年-2011年中山地区对重大出生缺陷采取的监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面的实际效果.方法 2010年1月1日始中山市对户籍人口实施免费产前筛查唐氏综合征,并进行监控和干预措施,通过2008年-2011年中山市出生缺陷监测网监测唐氏综合征儿数据,比较唐氏综合征出生率的差异.结果 实施重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施后,唐氏综合征的产前诊断率显著提高,唐氏综合征出生率2010年-2011年(1.63-0.64/万)较2008年-2009年(3.5-3.78/万)有明显下降(P =0.001).结论 2010年-2011年中山市对重大出生缺陷采取监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面起到很好的效果.

  6. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya;

    2015-01-01

    of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l...

  7. Experience of reasons and intervention measures of 7 cases of birth defects of multi finger(toe)%出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例原因分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呙明蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨出生缺陷多指(趾)儿的原因及干预措施。方法:2009年10月-2013年9月收治出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例,针对其发生率、孕周、胎儿性别、孕妇的年龄、文化程度、孕早期情况、出生缺陷、转归等7个方面进行统计及分析。结果:发生率:出生缺陷儿的发生率70.63‰,围产儿的死亡率32.60‰;多指(趾)儿发生率26.92%,围产儿存活率100%。孕周:37周1例,38周3例,39周2例,40周1例,7例均为足月产。胎儿性别:男4例,女3例,性别没有差异。孕妇年龄:26岁1例,27岁1例,28岁2例,29岁2例,30岁1例,孕妇年龄没有差别。文化程度:小学1例,初中3例,大专3例。孕早期情况:感冒1例,发热1例,无异常5例。畸形部位:多指5例,多趾1例,右足并趾1例。转归:活产7例,均为活产。结论;对7例出生缺陷儿的原因分析,加强对优生优育的宣教,避免不良生活习惯,避免孕早期病毒感染和孕期的保健,提高生存质量的重要措施。%Objective:To explore the reasons and intervention measures of birth defects of multi finger(toe).Methods:7 cases with birth defects of multi finger(toe) were selected from October 2009 to September 2013.We analyzed the incidence,gestational weeks,fetus gender,maternal age,culture degree,early pregnancy,birth defects and prognosis.Results:The incidence rate of birth defects in children was 70.63‰,and perinatal mortality was 32.60‰.Multi finger(toe) rate was 26.92%,and the perinatal survival rate was 100%.Gestational age:1 case was 37 weeks,3 cases were 38 weeks,2 cases were 39 weeks,1 case were 40 weeks,7 cases were all full-term birth.The sex of the fetus:4 cases were male,3 cases were female,there was no gender differences.Age of pregnant women:1 case was 26 years old,1 case was 27 years old,2 cases were 28 years old,2 cases were 29 years old,1 case was 30 years old,there was no difference in

  8. 出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例原因分析及干预措施%Experience of reasons and intervention measures of 7 cases of birth defects of multi finger(toe)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呙明蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨出生缺陷多指(趾)儿的原因及干预措施。方法:2009年10月-2013年9月收治出生缺陷多指(趾)儿7例,针对其发生率、孕周、胎儿性别、孕妇的年龄、文化程度、孕早期情况、出生缺陷、转归等7个方面进行统计及分析。结果:发生率:出生缺陷儿的发生率70.63‰,围产儿的死亡率32.60‰;多指(趾)儿发生率26.92%,围产儿存活率100%。孕周:37周1例,38周3例,39周2例,40周1例,7例均为足月产。胎儿性别:男4例,女3例,性别没有差异。孕妇年龄:26岁1例,27岁1例,28岁2例,29岁2例,30岁1例,孕妇年龄没有差别。文化程度:小学1例,初中3例,大专3例。孕早期情况:感冒1例,发热1例,无异常5例。畸形部位:多指5例,多趾1例,右足并趾1例。转归:活产7例,均为活产。结论;对7例出生缺陷儿的原因分析,加强对优生优育的宣教,避免不良生活习惯,避免孕早期病毒感染和孕期的保健,提高生存质量的重要措施。%Objective:To explore the reasons and intervention measures of birth defects of multi finger(toe).Methods:7 cases with birth defects of multi finger(toe) were selected from October 2009 to September 2013.We analyzed the incidence,gestational weeks,fetus gender,maternal age,culture degree,early pregnancy,birth defects and prognosis.Results:The incidence rate of birth defects in children was 70.63‰,and perinatal mortality was 32.60‰.Multi finger(toe) rate was 26.92%,and the perinatal survival rate was 100%.Gestational age:1 case was 37 weeks,3 cases were 38 weeks,2 cases were 39 weeks,1 case were 40 weeks,7 cases were all full-term birth.The sex of the fetus:4 cases were male,3 cases were female,there was no gender differences.Age of pregnant women:1 case was 26 years old,1 case was 27 years old,2 cases were 28 years old,2 cases were 29 years old,1 case was 30 years old,there was no difference in

  9. Prevention of Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Preterm Birth with Presumptive Antibiotic Treatment of Pregnant Women: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashorn, Per; Vanhala, Hanna; Pakarinen, Outi; Ashorn, Ulla; De Costa, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth (PTB) account for a large share of global child mortality, morbidity and developmental loss. Of the numerous risk factors for these conditions, maternal infections have been most consistently identified. Our aim was to study if presumptive antibiotic treatment of pregnant women before any signs of the onset of labor would promote fetal growth and reduce the incidence of PTB or low birthweight (LBW). In a systematic literature search, we identified 14 clinical trials of sufficient quality. Eight trials concluded that there was a positive effect on one or both of the conditions, and others found no such association. The trials reporting an effect were typically conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa (6 trials) and with broadest spectrum antibiotics, whereas data from India (2) suggested no intervention effect and trials in the US (5) or Europe (1) yielded both positive and negative findings. We conclude that appropriately chosen presumptive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women, targeting infections in the reproductive tract but also other maternal infections such as malaria, other parasitic diseases, skin infections, and periodontitis, can in selected contexts promote fetal growth and reduce the incidence of PTB and LBW. PMID:26111562

  10. Prevention of Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Preterm Birth with Presumptive Antibiotic Treatment of Pregnant Women: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashorn, Per; Vanhala, Hanna; Pakarinen, Outi; Ashorn, Ulla; De Costa, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth (PTB) account for a large share of global child mortality, morbidity and developmental loss. Of the numerous risk factors for these conditions, maternal infections have been most consistently identified. Our aim was to study if presumptive antibiotic treatment of pregnant women before any signs of the onset of labor would promote fetal growth and reduce the incidence of PTB or low birthweight (LBW). In a systematic literature search, we identified 14 clinical trials of sufficient quality. Eight trials concluded that there was a positive effect on one or both of the conditions, and others found no such association. The trials reporting an effect were typically conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa (6 trials) and with broadest spectrum antibiotics, whereas data from India (2) suggested no intervention effect and trials in the US (5) or Europe (1) yielded both positive and negative findings. We conclude that appropriately chosen presumptive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women, targeting infections in the reproductive tract but also other maternal infections such as malaria, other parasitic diseases, skin infections, and periodontitis, can in selected contexts promote fetal growth and reduce the incidence of PTB and LBW.

  11. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zsuzsanna Suba National Institute of Oncology, Surgical and Molecular Tumor Pathology Centre, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. Keywords: cancer prevention, infertility, insulin resistance, menopause

  12. Bortezomib Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Ovarian Insult and Follicle Demise, Improving the Fertility Window and Pup Birth Weight in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elon C Roti Roti; Ashley K Ringelstetter; Jenna Kropp; David H Abbott; Salih, Sana M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing numbers of female patients survive cancer, but succumb to primary ovarian insufficiency after chemotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that Bortezomib (Bort) protects ovaries from doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy by treating female mice with Bort 1 hour prior to DXR. By preventing DXR accumulation in the ovary, Bort attenuated DXR-induced DNA damage in all ovarian cell types, subsequent γH2AFX phosphorylation, and resulting apoptosis in preantral follicles. Bort pretreatment extended t...

  13. Awareness of folic acid for prevention of neural tube defects in a community with high prevalence of consanguineous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lutfi; Karim, Igbaria A; Jawdat, Abu Moch; Fausi, Mawasi; Merlob, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations and can be fatal. Intake of 0.4 mg folic in the periconceptional period reduces the risk of NTD by 50-70%. Consanguinity in the Arab population in Israel is a prevalent custom. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness regarding folic acid and its effect in the prevention of NTD among Arab Israeli women of childbearing age. We conducted a cross-sectional study. Of the 653 women (18-45 years) who were randomly selected for interview while visiting their family physician or well-baby clinic, 624 women completed the questionnaire. Fifty-three percent (n = 333) of the respondents had heard of folic acid; 14% (n = 89) were familiar with the protective effect of NTD and 3% (n = 18) had taken folic acid in the first months of pregnancy whereas none of them had used it in the preconception period. Highly educated women, women with one or two children, paramedics, and women of high socioeconomic status were more knowledgeable about the protective effects of folic acid (P awareness of this population to the protective effect of folic acid. Daily supplementation and fertification of food with folic acid should be considered as the best way to improve the balance of folic acid in women of childbearing age of this special population (high prevalence of consanguinity).

  14. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  15. Birth outcomes of cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities and pregnancy complications in their mothers depending on the number of component defects. Population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E; Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2008-09-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities (MCA) represent the most severe category of structural birth defects, (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CA]). Unfortunately, most MCA are not recognized and/or identified as MCA syndromes or MCA associations in the clinical practice. The term unclassified MCA (UMCA) is used for this category of MCA. We decided to evaluate the component CA of UMCA cases. The population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (1980-1996) was evaluated. 'False' MCA, such as complex CA, polytopic field defects and sequences were excluded from the category of MCA. In addition, MCA syndromes caused by chromosomal aberrations and major mutant genes with preconceptional origin were excluded from the dataset of the Surveillance. MCA syndromes caused by teratogens and MCA associations with well-defined component CA were also excluded in the study. Thus, only UMCA cases (i) without the recognition of previously delineated MCA syndromes (ii) and/or without the identification of new MCA syndromes or (iii) caused by random combination of CA were included in the study. We compared data from 1349 cases with UMCA, 2405 matched population controls without any CA, and 21 494 malformed controls with isolated CA. There was a higher rate of stillbirth and a moderate male excess in UMCA cases, a somewhat shorter gestational age at delivery and an obvious reduction in birthweight. The intrauterine fetal growth retardation and rate of low-birthweight newborns showed an association with the number of component CA in UMCA cases. A similar association was not found with gestational age and the rate of preterm birth. UMCA represent one of the most severe categories of CA. The degree of intrauterine fetal growth retardation depends on number of component CA in UMCA cases.

  16. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study: a randomised controlled trial of sleep, food and activity interventions for preventing overweight from birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain during the first three years of life predicts child and adult obesity, and also later cardiovascular and other morbidities. Cross-sectional studies suggest that infant diet, activity and sleep are linked to excessive weight gain. As intervention for overweight children is difficult, the aim of the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI.nz study is to evaluate two primary prevention strategies during late pregnancy and early childhood that could be delivered separately or together as part of normal health care. Methods/Design This four-arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 800 families recruited at booking in the only maternity unit in the city of Dunedin, New Zealand. Mothers are randomised during pregnancy to either a usual care group (7 core contacts with a provider of government funded "Well Child" care over 2 years or to one of three intervention groups given education and support in addition to "Well Child" care: the Food, Activity and Breastfeeding group which receives 8 extra parent contacts over the first 2 years of life; the Sleep group which receives at least 3 extra parent contacts over the first 6 months of life with a focus on prevention of sleep problems and then active intervention if there is a sleep problem from 6 months to 2 years; or the Combination group which receives all extra contacts. The main outcome measures are conditional weight velocity (0-6, 6-12, 12-24 months and body mass index z-score at 24 months, with secondary outcomes including sleep and physical activity (parent report, accelerometry, duration of breastfeeding, timing of introduction of solids, diet quality, and measures of family function and wellbeing (parental depression, child mindedness, discipline practices, family quality of life and health care use. This study will contribute to a prospective meta-analysis of early life obesity prevention studies in Australasia. Discussion Infancy is likely to

  17. 宫颈托预防早产的研究进展%Research Progress of Pessary Use for Preventing Preterm Birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩欢; 包怡榕; 瞿晓娴

    2015-01-01

    The pessary has emerged as a possible treatment for the prevention of preterm birth ,the exact mechanism in reducing the likelihood of preterm birth is unknown,one hypothese suggested that the pessary encompasses the cervix and changes the uterocervical angle. Different models of pessaries are used to prevent preterm birth and among them the most widely used is Arabin pessary. Its dome-like design resembled the vaginal fornix ,surrounded the cervix as close as possible to internal. The pessary size should be choiced according to the clinical situation and cervical morphology. In recent years ,many studies have shown that the use of pessary can significantly prolong the delivery gestational age, reduce the rate of preterm birth and poor perinatal outcome,especially in high risk population of women such as cervical incompetence and twins pregnancy. Compared with the other methods,like the use of progesterone in vagina and cervical cerclage, there′s no significant side effects have been reported,the most common complaint is an increase in vaginal discharge, besides,cervical pessary can be inserted and removed easily without the need for anesthesia and is noninvasive and inexpensive. However ,due to the lack of available high quality randomized controlled trials,the benefit of the cervical pessary could not be confirmed and further research is urgently needed.%宫颈托是近年来逐渐兴起的一种早产治疗方法,作用机制尚不明确,可能与压紧宫颈管并改变其角度有关.宫颈托类型多样,近年临床上Arabin托较常用,其半球形设计与阴道穹窿结构相似,可尽量包绕宫颈至内口.宫颈托放置术前应根据孕妇的临床情况和宫颈形态选择合适的型号. 目前诸多国内外研究显示宫颈托在早产高危人群如宫颈机能不全、双胎中的防治效果显著,可延长分娩孕周、降低早产的发生率,减少围生儿不良结局的发生. 与阴道用孕激素及宫颈环扎术等其他治疗

  18. Bortezomib prevents acute doxorubicin ovarian insult and follicle demise, improving the fertility window and pup birth weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of female patients survive cancer, but succumb to primary ovarian insufficiency after chemotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that Bortezomib (Bort protects ovaries from doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy by treating female mice with Bort 1 hour prior to DXR. By preventing DXR accumulation in the ovary, Bort attenuated DXR-induced DNA damage in all ovarian cell types, subsequent γH2AFX phosphorylation, and resulting apoptosis in preantral follicles. Bort pretreatment extended the number of litters per mouse, improved litter size and increased pup weight following DXR treatment, thus increasing the duration of post-chemotherapy fertility and improving pup health. As a promising prophylactic ovoprotective agent, Bort does not interfere with cancer treatment, and is currently used as a chemotherapy adjuvant. Bort-based chemoprotection may preserve ovarian function in a non-invasive manner that avoids surgical ovarian preservation, thus diminishing the health complications of premature menopause following cancer treatment.

  19. Analysis of 1540 neonates with birth defects related to different assisted reproductive technique%不同辅助生殖技术妊娠分娩的1 540例新生儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 孙莹璞; 孔慧娟; 苏迎春; 郭艺红; 梁菊艳; 李朋粉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨不同辅助生殖技术妊娠分娩的新生儿出生缺陷的发生情况及影响因素.方法 对1998年10月至2006年12月在郑州大学第一附属医院生殖医学中心接受体外受精(IVF)助孕[IVF、卵母细胞胞质内单精子注射(ICSI)、冻融胚胎移植(Thaw-ET)]妊娠的孕妇分娩的1271例新生儿(体外受精组)及同期接受人工授精妊娠的孕妇所分娩的269例新生儿(人工授精组)的临床资料进行分析,比较两组及不同辅助生殖技术后出生的新生儿情况、出生缺陷及出生缺陷受累系统.结果 体外受精组中,IVF、ICSI、Thaw-ET后出生的低体重(LBW)儿分别为20.0%(134/671)、22.4%(92/410)、18.9%(36/190),也均高于人工授精组的11.5%(31/269),差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 不同体外受精助孕后多胎率明显升高,由此造成的相关风险也随之增加,但新生儿的出生缺陷并没有明显增加;减少多胎妊娠是保护出生新生儿健康的关键.%Objective To investigate the incidence of and clinical factors influencing neonatal birth defects from different assisted reproductive technology. Methods Between October 1998 and December 2006,1271 newborns from mothers treated by in vitro fertilization techniques [ including in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (1CSI) and thaw embryo transfer (Thaw-ET) ] matched with 269 newborns from mothers treated by artificial insemination were enrolled in Reproductive Medicine Center in First Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University. Their medical information was analyzed retrospectively to compared neonatal characteristics, the incidence of birth defect and anomalous organs involved between in vitro fertilization group and artificial insemination group. Results In group of in vitro fertilization, those newborns with low birth weight from IVF, ICSI and Thaw-ET were 20. 0% ( 134/671 ), 22. 4% (92/410), 18.9% (36/190)respectively, which were more than 11.5% (31/269) cases

  20. 循证医学在早产防治中的应用%Evidence-Based Medicine in Prevention and Treatment of Preterm Birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴香

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is one of obstetric complications and is the primarycause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Therefore, prediction and early diagnosis of preterm labor, become one of obstetric research focus in recent years. Domestic and international obstetric community and neonatology have done a lot of researches on many aspects including the physical indicators, laboratory biochemical, immunological indicators, the use of tocolyfic drugs, antibiotic applications, and promotion of fetal lung maturation. They have brought a lot of approaches of prevention, treatment of preterm labor and reduction of perinatal mortality and morbidity. It focuses on introducing measurement of cervical length with transvaginal ultrasound, cervical cerclage, progesterone preparation( 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate), cytokine (C-reactive protein) and medicine supplementarytherapy (vitamin C and vitamin E) from evidence-based medicine in prevention and therapy of preterm birth.%早产是产科常见并发症之一,是围生儿死亡和发病的首要病因.因此早产的预测和早期诊断是当前产科研究热点之一.国内外产科和新生儿科研究者做了大量研究,从物理指标、实验室生化指标、免疫指标、使用宫缩抑制剂及保胎药物、抗生素的应用、促胎肺成熟等方面提出许多预防、治疗早产和降低围生儿死亡、发病的方法.从循证医学的角度介绍阴道超声测量宫颈长度、宫颈环扎术、孕激素及其制剂(17-α己酸羟孕酮)、细胞因子(C反应蛋白)、药物(维生素C和维生素E)补充疗法等在早产防治中的作用.

  1. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  2. Fear of Birth Defects Is a Major Barrier to Soil-Transmitted Helminth Treatment (STH) for Pregnant Women in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Emily R Insetta; Alex J Soriano; Totañes, Francis Isidore G.; Bernard J C Macatangay; Belizario, Vicente Y.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends anthelminthic treatment for pregnant women after the first trimester in soil-transmitted helminth (STH) endemic regions to prevent adverse maternal-fetal consequences. Although studies have shown the high prevalence of infection in the Philippines, no research has evaluated deworming practices. We hypothesized that pregnant women are not receiving deworming treatment and we aimed to identify barriers to World Health Organization guideline implementatio...

  3. Analysis on current situation of birth defects in Panyu district of Guangzhou city%广州市番禺区出生缺陷现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶小君; 赵如青; 辜俊梅

    2013-01-01

    目的:利用完善的计划生育三级服务网络进行多个目标病种的群体干预,逐步建立以降低唐氏综合征(包括18三体综合征)、重型地中海贫血及重大体表、内脏、骨骼畸形患儿出生率为目的的产前筛查和产前诊断服务体系.方法:唐氏筛查为中孕期血清学唐氏筛查,联合检测AFP、HCG、uE3三种标记物;地中海贫血采用MCV、MCH初筛和高效液相色谱(HPLC)复筛,阳性者进行基因诊断;地中海贫血、唐氏筛查高风险家庭进一步行产前诊断确诊.孕18~ 24周重大体表、内脏、骨骼畸形采用彩色多普勒进行排畸筛查.结果:1 320个唐氏筛查高风险家庭和91个地中海贫血高风险家庭进行了产前诊断,结果确诊染色体异常23例,重症地中海贫血22例.超声排畸筛查诊断重大体表、内脏、骨骼畸形183例.三大病种共确诊并终止妊娠共229例.结论:完善的计划生育三级服务网络有助于减少唐氏综合征(包括18三体综合征)、重型地中海贫血及重大体表、内脏、骨骼畸形患儿出生.%Objective: To conduct population intervention of various diseases by improved three -stage service network of family-planning, and gradually construct prenatal screening and diagnostic service system for the purpose of reducing birth rate of infants with Down's syndrome (including trisomy 18 syndrome) , severe thalassemia, and major external, visceral, skeletal malformations. Methods: The methods to screen Downs syndrome included serological examination, joint detection of alpha fetal protein (AFP) , human chorionic gon-adotropin ( HCG) , and uncojugated estriol; while methods to screen thalassemia included preliminary screening with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin ( MCH) , secondary screening with high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) , the positive cases received genetic diagnosis; the high risk families of Downs syndrome and thalassemia further

  4. A study on relationship between serum folate-related metabolism and birth defects%血清叶酸相关代谢与出生缺陷发生的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓琳; 王芳; 包怡华; 付立平; 吴丽华; 张霆

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较出生缺陷高发和低发地区--山西吕梁和北京怀柔地区孕妇血清叶酸、维生素B12及其代谢产物同型半胱氨酸水平,探讨造成两地出生缺陷发生率差异的营养学因素.方法 选择吕梁地区的140名孕妇和怀柔地区的133名孕妇作为研究对象,采集研究对象的静脉血,比较两地区孕妇血清叶酸、维生素B12和同型半胱氨酸水平差异.结果 吕梁地区孕妇血清平均叶酸、维生素B12水平显著低于怀柔地区(t值分别为6.10、13.77,均P<0.05).同时吕梁地区孕妇血清同型半胱氨酸水平显著高于怀柔地区(t=15.32,P<0.05),吕梁地区叶酸、维生素B12缺乏率显著高于怀柔地区(χ2值分别为7.84、61.02,均P<0.05).结论 出生缺陷高发地区孕妇血清叶酸、维生素B12水平显著偏低,叶酸相关一碳单位代谢水平异常在一定程度上解释了高出生缺陷发生率的原因.%Objective To explore the nutritional factors that affect the difference in prevalence of birth defects between Lvliang in Shanxi with high prevalence and Huairou in Beijing with low prevalence by comparing the serum levels of folio acid ( FA ), vitamin B12( VitB12 )and homooysteine ( Hcy ) of pregnant women in these two areas. Methods One hundred and forty pregnant women in Lvliang and 133 pregnant women in Huairou were recruited. Their serum levels of FA, VitB12 and Hcy were analyzed and compared. Results The average levels of FA and VitB12 of pregnant women in Lvliang were significantly lower than those in Huairou ( t was 6.10 and 13.77 respectively,P < 0.05 ), but the average serum level of Hcy in Lvliang was significantly higher ( t= 15.32, P < 0.05 ). The deficiency rate of FA and VitB12 in Lvliang was significantly higher than that in Huairou (X2 was 7.84 and 61.02 respectively, P < 0.05 ). Conclusion The serum levels of FA and VitB12in pregnant women are significantly low in the area where the prevalence of birth defects is high. The

  5. 孕前风险评估对出生缺陷的影响分析%Impact Analysis of Pre Pregnancy Risk Assessment on the Effect of Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国荣; 张红; 肖桂梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨实施育龄妇女孕前风险评估对降低出生缺陷的干预效果。方法选择在我院进行免费孕前筛查的650例育龄妇女为干预组,进行孕前风险评估;随机抽取650例在县人民医院住院分娩,且未进行孕前风险评估的产妇为对照组。比较两组观察对象优生知识知晓情况、孕期营养指导、叶酸服用及出生缺陷发生情况等。结果干预组对象优生知识知晓率、孕期营养指导率、叶酸服用率均明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。干预组围产儿出生缺陷的发生率为4.6‰(3/650),明显低于对照组的12.3‰(8/650),差异具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论孕前风险评估可有效识别出育龄妇女自身存在的危险因素,通过采取有针对性的干预,有效降低了出生缺陷率。%Objective To investigate the effect of intervention on implementation of pre pregnant women risk assessment on the effect of thebirthdefects.Methods 650casesofreproductiveagewomenoffreescreeningbeforepregnancyinthehospitalwereselectedasthein-tervention group , and the pre pregnancy risk assessment on them was done .650 patients in county -level people′s hospital who did not carry out pre pregnancy risk assessment were randomly selected as the control group .The eugenic knowledge , nutrition guidance during pregnancy , folic acid and birth defects incidence between the two groups were compared .Results Through comparing with the control group , the eugenic knowledge rate , nutrition guidance during pregnancy rate , the rate of folic acid in the intervention group were significant-ly better than that of the control group , and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).The perinatal birth defects incidence rate of intervention group was 4.6‰(3/650), and it was significantly lower than that of the control group of 12.3‰(8/650), with significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion

  6. Acidity-induced watercourse defects and their prevention on the River Sanginjoki; Happamuuden aiheuttamat vesistoehaitat ja niiden torjuntakeinot Sanginjoella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertsunen, J.; Martinmaeki, K.; Heikkinen, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    As the first tributary of the River Oulujoki, the River Sanginjoki is one of the most important recreational areas in the Oulu region. It is also the closest potential reproduction area for salmon and trout using the Merikoski fishway. During flood peaks, occasional low pH values reduce the recreational and ecological value of the River Sanginjoki. The origin of low pH values was located as part of the 'City and Water - Improving the recreational value and ecological restoration of River Sanginjoki -project', during the years 2008-2011. This project involved largescale monitoring of the River Sanginjoki area for pH changes, while methods for preventing and reducing low pH values were tested. Based on the project's results, guidelines were drawn up for controlling problems associated with low pH values. The report also contains general information on the River Sanginjoki and its watershed, the river's ecological state and the development of its water quality. The results demonstrated a connection between low pH values and high discharges, but the lowest pH values were measured during summer and autumn rain floods in particular. A water sample analysis with other information showed that low pH values mainly originate in soil, land use and vegetation. The origin of acid runoff mainly lies in organic acids from peatlands and moss, but local factors such as acid sulphate soils and black shales may also contribute. Due to acidic peatlands, the water of the River Sanginjoki has naturally been slightly acidic, but ditch drainage of peat- and forestland has probably increased this effect. The effect of the restoration and water protection methods used in the project varied. Some methods proved effective and can be suggested for practical use at the Sanginjoki watershed, as well as other watersheds suffering from the same problems. Development of these methods should be continued, to improve their effectiveness and durability. Although defects due to

  7. Healthcare system intervention for prevention of birth injuries – process evaluation of self-assessment, peer review, feedback and agreement for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyström Monica E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is fundamental in high quality healthcare systems but despite an excellent record of perinatal care in Sweden some children still suffer from substandard care and unnecessary birth injuries. Sustainable patient safety improvements assume changes in key actors’ mental models, norms and culture as well as in the tools, design and organisation of work. Interventions positively affecting team mental models on safety issues are a first step to enhancing change. Our purpose was to study a national intervention programme for the prevention of birth injuries with the aim to elucidate how the main interventions of self-assessment, peer review, feedback and written agreement for change affected the teams and their mental model of patient safety, and thereby their readiness for change. Knowledge of relevant considerations before implementing this type of patient safety intervention series could thereby be increased. Methods Eighty participants in twenty-seven maternity units were interviewed after the first intervention sequence of the programme. A content analysis using a priori coding was performed in order to relate results to the anticipated outcomes of three basic interventions: self-assessment, peer review and written feedback, and agreement for change. Results The self-assessment procedure was valuable and served as a useful tool for elucidating strengths and weaknesses and identifying areas for improvement for a safer delivery in maternity units. The peer-review intervention was appreciated, despite it being of less value when considering the contribution to explicit outcome effects (i.e. new input to team mental models and new suggestions for actions. The feedback report and the mutual agreement on measures for improvements reached when signing the contract seemed exert positive pressures for change. Conclusions Our findings are in line with several studies stressing the importance of self-evaluation by

  8. Introduction: Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Imogen

    2009-01-01

    We are all born. Hannah Arendt suggests that the absence of this primary fact from histories of thought represents a significant lacuna in political and philosophical traditions. For Arendt natality, the capacity to begin, is the foundational fact of all thought, all politics and all action. Without some fundmental understanding of the place of birth, there can, she suggests, be no social change, no human future. Arendt’s insistence on thinking birth as the basis for politics is radical in th...

  9. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects at the Maternal-Fetal Interface and Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Preterm Birth, but Causes Dystocia and Fetal Compromise in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furcron, Amy-Eunice; Romero, Roberto; Mial, Tara N; Balancio, Amapola; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Hassan, Sonia S; Sahi, Aashna; Nord, Claire; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-06-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence by down-regulating myometrial gap junctions during pregnancy, and it was considered as a strategy to prevent preterm birth after the occurrence of preterm labor. However, the effect of hCG on innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in parturition is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the immune effects of hCG at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and whether this hormone can safely prevent endotoxin-induced preterm birth. Using immunophenotyping, we demonstrated that hCG has immune effects at the maternal-fetal interface (decidual tissues) by: 1) increasing the proportion of regulatory T cells; 2) reducing the proportion of macrophages and neutrophils; 3) inducing an M1 → M2 macrophage polarization; and 4) increasing the proportion of T helper 17 cells. Next, ELISAs were used to determine whether the local immune changes were associated with systemic concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and/or cytokines (IFNgamma, IL1beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p70, KC/GRO, and TNFalpha). Plasma concentrations of IL1beta, but not progesterone, estradiol, or any other cytokine, were increased following hCG administration. Pretreatment with hCG prevented endotoxin-induced preterm birth by 44%, proving the effectiveness of this hormone as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, hCG administration alone caused dystocia and fetal compromise, as proven by Doppler ultrasound. These results provide insight into the mechanisms whereby hCG induces an anti-inflammatory microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and demonstrate its effectiveness in preventing preterm labor/birth. However, the deleterious effects of this hormone on mothers and fetuses warrant caution. PMID:27146032

  10. Role of micronized progesterone in prevention of preterm labour in women with previous history of one or more preterm births: a research study at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ahuja

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The study concluded that progesterone use was associated with 64.2% reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (p=0.029.Antenatal administration of progesterone reduces the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks and 34 weeks as well as the risk of a newborn being born with a birth weight of less than 2500 gms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1176-1180

  11. 广东省1997-2007年医院监测出生缺陷趋势分析%Study on the changes of incidence rates on birth defects through hospital based surveillance program in Guangdong province during 1997-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 张小庄; 叶宁; 穆荔; 夏建红; 黄秀健; 何少兰

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze the tendency of hospital based surveillance incidence rates of birth defects in Guangdong province to provide reference evidence for related intervention program. Methods Data from hospital based birth defects surveillance of Guangdong province during 1997-2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The overall surveillance rates of birth defects in Guangdong province showed an increasing trend form 98.9 per 10 000 birth in 1997 to 244.2 per 10 000 birth in 2007. Among the frequently seen birth defects, the rate of congenital heart diseases increased sharply, but the rates of congenital talipes equinovarus, polydactyly, cleft lip with/without cleft palate showed a slight increasing trend.It seemed that there was a significant difference between different maternal age interval and gender of the infants. Mother's illness, drug use, and exposure to environment harmful factors in early pregnancy stage, high maternal age, negative bearing history were the suspect risk factors for birth defects. Conclusion The increasing trend of surveillance rate of birth defects seemed to be comprehensively affected by the factors as: method being adopted, target and extension of birth defects surveillance, technology used for diagnosis, kinds of risk factor,and quality control on surveillance programs.%目的 分析广东省医院出生缺陷监测发生趋势.方法 对1997-2007年广东省医院出生缺陷监测网数据进行回顾性描述和趋势分析.结果 广东省出生缺陷医院监测总发生率呈逐年上升趋势,自1997年的98.9/万上升为2007年的244.2/万;在常见出生缺陷类型中,先天性心脏病呈急剧上升,先天性足内翻、多指(趾)、总唇腭裂呈轻微上升;母亲不同年龄段、不同性别围产儿间出生缺陷发生率的差异有统计学意义;早期产前诊断的比例逐渐上升,并对监测出生缺陷发生率有影响;母亲孕早期患病、用药、接触环境有害因素

  12. Neural tube defect and folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, M A

    2000-01-01

    Neural tube defect (NTD) is a group of congenital anomalies, which include anencephaly, encephalocele, iniencephaly, meningocele, myelomeningocele, myeloschisis, lipomeningocele, and rashischisis. Congenital malformations of the central nervous system constitute more than half of all congenital malformations with an incidence of 1-2/1000 births. The condition is thought to arise from multifactorial etiology with a distinct genetic predisposition. This paper discusses the pathogenesis of NTD and explores the use of folic acid for the prevention of this serious congenital malformation. Two studies, which have shown a significant protective effect of folic acid use on NTD prevention in high-risk mothers, are cited. In considering the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation on NTD prevention, obstetricians, pediatricians, neonatologists, and family doctors are called to initiate a collective effort to increase awareness among women in the childbearing age on the need of daily multivitamin intake with folic acid prior to pregnancy.

  13. Early Pregnancy Eugenic Screening Intervention of Birth Defects%孕期优生筛查对出生缺陷干预效果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文霓; 王丽娟; 张盈; 吴玉璘

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin. Combination of B-ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means for screening and diagnosis of Jiangsu province in an area of target diseases Down's syndrome, neural tube defects. Methods This screening using time-resolved fluorescence method for the determination of PAPPA the pregnant women, serum, AFP,β-HCG level, combined with a variety of related factors, risk assessment. Results 1807 cases of second trimester pregnant women receiving prenatal screening were screened in pregnancy high-risk 21-trisomy 18-body, neural tube defects in 110 cases, the positive rate of 6.09%; and screening of high risk pregnant women the positive rate increased with increasing maternal age. 110 cases of screening-positive pregnant women, 84 cases of pregnant women receiving amniotic fluid chromosome, check out chromosomal abnormalities in two cases, 21 of them-three-body one cases;18-one cases of trisomy;B ultrasound trance administered defect in one case (one cases of spina bifida), hydrocephalus one case, two cases of congenital heart disease. Underwent induction of labor, labor induction rate of 100%. Conclusion Take the detection of maternal serum pregnancy-related protein, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin level, combined with B ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means screening for Down syndrome, neural tube defects, birth defects, to reduce its birth rate is important.%  目的 探讨检测孕妇血清中妊娠相关蛋白A(PAPPA)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)、绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)水平,结合B超检查、羊水检测等手段,对江苏省苏北某地区目标疾病唐氏综合征、神经管缺陷进行筛查

  14. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  15. Mitosis in neurons: Roughex and APC/C maintain cell cycle exit to prevent cytokinetic and axonal defects in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruggiero

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of cell cycle exit by neurons remain poorly understood. Through genetic and developmental analysis of Drosophila eye development, we found that the cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor Roughex maintains G1 cell cycle exit during differentiation of the R8 class of photoreceptor neurons. The roughex mutant neurons re-enter the mitotic cell cycle and progress without executing cytokinesis, unlike non-neuronal cells in the roughex mutant that perform complete cell divisions. After mitosis, the binucleated R8 neurons usually transport one daughter nucleus away from the cell body into the developing axon towards the brain in a kinesin-dependent manner resembling anterograde axonal trafficking. Similar cell cycle and photoreceptor neuron defects occurred in mutants for components of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome. These findings indicate a neuron-specific defect in cytokinesis and demonstrate a critical role for mitotic cyclin downregulation both to maintain cell cycle exit during neuronal differentiation and to prevent axonal defects following failed cytokinesis.

  16. Study on birth defects in the perinatal in Haizhu District of Guangzhou from 2004 to 2008%广州市海珠区2004-2008年围产儿死亡出生缺陷监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洁玲; 刘传勇; 袁瑷芹

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解广州市海珠区围产儿死亡病例中发生出生缺陷的种类及分布情况,探讨出生缺陷对围产儿死亡的影响.方法 数据来源于广州市各医院逐季上报的及汇总至省妇幼保健院的,本研究监测了2004年第四季度-2008年第三季度海珠区各所医院住院分娩孕28-w产后7d的围产儿死亡率和死亡围产儿中出生缺陷发生率.结果 监测广州市海珠区5年中围产儿48268例,围产儿死亡病例555例,围产儿死亡率为11.5‰,围产儿死亡中发生出生缺陷的220例,出生缺陷发生率为36.64%,其中胎儿水肿综合征、唇腭裂、脑积水、先天性心脏病和四肢畸形排在死亡围产儿出生缺陷发生的前5位.结论 出生缺陷是导致围产儿死亡的重要原因之一,应加强婚前生殖健康教育和医学检查,做好婚前保健,优生及孕产期保健,尽可能减少出生缺陷的发生.%Objective To investigate the types and distribution of perinatal death defects in Haizhu District of Guangzhou and look for of related factors birth defects.Methods The cases of perinatal were studied from the third quarter of 2004 to the third quarter of 2008 in most of hospitals in Haizhu District.The datas were from birth defects registration cards of Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangdong Province,which included the perinatal birth informations of every quarters from all hospitals.Results 48248 cases of perinatal of Haizhu District were monitored in this study.There are 555 cases of perinatal death and the perinatal mortality rate was 11.5‰.There were222 cases of perinatal birth defects of all perinatal deaths and the birth defect rate of perinatal death was 36.64%.Hydrops fetalis syndrome,cleft lip and palate,hydrocephalus,congenital heart disease and limb deformities are the top five defects in a variety of cases.Conclusion Birth defects is one of the major causes of perinatal death.It is important for us to promote reproduetive health

  17. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... These are abnormalities of structure, function, or body chemistry that will require medical or surgical care or ...

  18. What Are the Types of Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fee-nill-key-toe-NURR-ee-uh ) and hypothyroidism ( hahy-puh-THAHY-roi-diz-uhm ). Degenerative disorders. ... 30/2012 Related A-Z Topics Cerebral Palsy Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Down Syndrome All related topics ...

  19. Is attendant at delivery associated with the use of interventions to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births? The case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Holston, Martine; Quaiyum, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality in Bangladesh, the majority of which is due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), blood loss of 500 mL or more. Many deaths due to PPH occur at home where approximately 77% of births take place. This paper aims to determine whether the attendant at home delivery (i.e. traditional birth attendant (TBA) trained on PPH interventions, TBA not trained on interventions, or lay attendant) is associated with the use of interventions to preven...

  20. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  1. Observing and analyzing of perinatal birth defect in Zhongshan city in decade%中山地区2000年~2008年围产儿出生缺陷监测分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 袁春雷; 杨孜; 彭学鸣; 张翠梅; 王冬娥

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To Evaluate the occurrence status of birth defects from 2000 to 2008 in Zhongshan city, Guangdong province by means of reviewing and analyzing some of the cases. Provide bases for service of health to draw up intervention measures.Methods: Analyzing the perinatal birth defect data from 2000 to 2008 in Zhongshan city, Guangdong province by means of reviewing.Results: From 2000 to 2008, the mean ratio of perinatal birth defect is 189. 7 per ten thousand. This presents an upward trend. The first five birth defect were: congenital heart disease, neural tube malformation, combined or excessive fingers or toes (polydactyly),α - Mediterranean - anaemia. Conclusion: In order to depress perinatal birth defect rate, we should pay more attention in not only to the work of education of the knowledge of health care before marriage or pregnancy, but also to the work of examination and diagnosis before delivery.%目的 通过回顾性分析中山市围产儿出生缺陷水平变化情况,探讨其影响因素,为卫生行政部门制订决策提供依据.方法 对2000年至2008年中山市国产儿出生缺陷资料进行分析.结果 2000年至2008年国产儿平均出生缺陷发生率为102/万,呈上升趋势.出生缺陷发生前5位的是:先天性心脏病、唇腭裂、神经管畸形、并多指(趾)、α-地中海贫血.结论 应进一步加强宣教、加强提高产前筛查水平及产前诊断,降低围产儿出生缺陷发生率.

  2. Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, C; Sarin, S K; Patra, S; Kumar, A; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Bhutia, K; Gupta, E; Mukhopadhyay, C K; Dutta, A K; Trivedi, S S

    2013-11-01

    infection with good immune response 28%. Women who were anti-HBe positive were a low-risk group, and their babies were most likely to remain free of HBV infection (occult or overt) and had good immune response to the vaccine. Maternal HBeAg-positive status and negativity for anti-HBe predicted not only overt but also any infection (both overt and occult) in babies. In addition, high maternal HBV DNA and treatment with vaccine alone were significant factors for overt HBV infection in babies. The current practice of administration of vaccine with HBIG at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers is not effective in preventing occult HBV infection in babies, which may be up to 40%. Because the most important risk factors for mother-to-baby transmission of HBV infection are the replicative status and high HBV DNA level in mothers; it will be worthwhile investigating the role of antivirals and HBIG administration during pregnancy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection. PMID:24168259

  3. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  4. Preventing preterm birth with progesterone: costs and effects of screening low risk women with a singleton pregnancy for short cervical length, the Triple P study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvekot Johannes J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with a short cervical length in mid-trimester pregnancy have a higher risk of preterm birth and therefore a higher rate of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Progesterone can potentially decrease the number of preterm births and lower neonatal mortality and morbidity. Previous studies showed good results of progesterone in women with either a history of preterm birth or a short cervix. However, it is unknown whether screening for a short cervix and subsequent treatment in mid trimester pregnancy is effective in low risk women. Methods/Design We plan a combined screen and treat study among women with a singleton pregnancy without a previous preterm birth. In these women, we will measure cervical length at the standard anomaly scan performed between 18 and 22 weeks. Women with cervical length ≤ 30 mm at two independent measurements will be randomly allocated to receive either vaginal progesterone tablets or placebo between 22 and 34 weeks. The primary outcome of this trial is adverse neonatal condition, defined as a composite outcome of neonatal mortality and severe morbidity. Secondary outcomes are time to delivery, preterm birth rate before 32, 34 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal morbidity, maternal admission days for preterm labour and costs. We will assess growth, physical condition and neurodevelopmental outcome of the children at two years of age. Discussion This study will provide evidence for the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of screening for short cervical length at the 18-22 weeks and subsequent progesterone treatment among low risk women. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR207

  5. The origin of congenital heart defects and the epigenetic programming of the healthy child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Obermann-Borst (Sylvia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBirth defects are a global burden affecting 7% of births worldwide. Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common congenital malformation with approximately 1 million children born each year. It is not only the most frequent group of birth defects in human, but also the leading caus

  6. 降低出生缺陷关键技术及干预措施的研究%Study on key techniques and intervention in reducing birth defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宝生; 林克萍; 陈红; 李苏云; 苏洁; 卢晓红; 贺静; 朱姝; 焦存仙; 章锦曼; 唐新华; 陶滢

    2011-01-01

    低风险孕妇的妊娠结局,未发现活产儿中有上述目标疾病的患儿。血清学筛查对DS的检出率为84%( 27/32),假阳性率为6.153%( 1702/27 660)。结论孕前及孕早期补充叶酸可降低出生缺陷风险,但育龄期妇女主动补充叶酸者仅占1/3;血清学筛查可高效检出DS、ES和NTD;遗传咨询对诊断高风险和遗传病家族史的人群至关重要;以血清学筛查和产前诊断为关键技术,与常规产前检查相结合,可以降低严重出生缺陷的发生率,应成为我国的新型围产保健策略。%ObjectiveTo investigate key techniques and intervention in reducing birth defects. Method Down's syndrome (DS), trisomy-18 (Edwards syndrome, ES), neural tube defects (NTD), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), thalassemia, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) were chosen as target disease. From Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2009, the condition of intake folie acid were investigated in 5004 pregnant women in Panlong District and Wuhua District of Kunming City. All of the 27 660 pregnant women undergoing prenatal examination were enrolled into the study from the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, the Second People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, the First People's Hospital of Qujing City, the Second People's of Qujing City, Qujing Women and Children's Hospital, People's Hospital of Lincang City, Kunming Maria Women's Hospital, Maternal and Infant's Care Unit of Panlong District of Kunming City, Maternal and Infant's Hospital of Dali City. The screening was performed on serum of those pregnant women at 8 -20 +6 gestational weeks. Prenatal cytogenetic analysis and fetal ultrasonogrspy were performed on the high risk or indicated women after genetic counseling. DNA analysis was administered on those women with family or childbearing history of DMD,SMA, thalassemia, or G6PD. Outcome of pregnancy was followed up to evaluate the effect of

  7. Prevention of bone growth defects, increased bone resorption and marrow adiposity with folinic acid in rats receiving long-term methotrexate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Fan

    Full Text Available The underlying pathophysiology for bone growth defects in paediatric cancer patients receiving high dose methotrexate chemotherapy remains unclear and currently there are no standardized preventative treatments for patients and survivors. Using a model in young rats, we investigated damaging effects of long-term treatment with methotrexate on growth plate and metaphyseal bone, and the potential protective effects of antidote folinic acid. This study demonstrated that chronic folinic acid supplementation can prevent methotrexate-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and preserve chondrocyte columnar arrangement and number in the growth plate. In the metaphysis, folinic acid supplementation can preserve primary spongiosa heights and secondary spongiosa trabecular volume by preventing osteoblasts from undergoing apoptosis and suppressing methotrexate-induced marrow adiposity and osteoclast formation. Systemically, plasma of folinic acid supplemented rats, in comparison to plasma from rats treated with MTX alone, contained a significantly lower level of IL-1β and suppressed osteoclast formation in vitro in normal bone marrow cells. The importance of IL-1β in supporting plasma-induced osteoclast formation was confirmed as the presence of an anti-IL-1β neutralizing antibody attenuated the ability of the plasma (from MTX-treated rats in inducing osteoclast formation. Findings from this study suggest that folinic acid supplementation during chronic methotrexate treatment can alleviate growth plate and metaphyseal damages and therefore may be potentially useful in paediatric patients who are at risk of skeletal growth suppression due to chronic methotrexate chemotherapy.

  8. PREVALENCE OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS IN KIMS KARAD, 2012-2013 EFFECTIVENESS AND IMPACT OF PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaykumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVE: To determine Prevalence of NEURAL TUBE DEFECT in tertiary care center (KIMS Karad during July 2012-July 2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients referred to KIMS as NTD, Booked Patients diagnosed in KIMS as having neural tube defect based on ultrasound findings. RESULTS: Total prevalence of neural tube defect in KIMS from July 2012-July 2013 was 8.2/1000 births. Prevalence of different types of NTD-Anencephaly was 2.8 and spina bifida was 7.4. CONCLUSION: Aim of this study is to create awareness of NTD in order to prevent NTD by measures like periconceptional folic acid supplementation.

  9. A cohort study on the relationship between serum folic acid of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and onset of fetal birth defects%妊早期妇女血清叶酸水平与胎儿出生缺陷发病关系的队列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 潘新娟; 余增丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum folic acid of pregnant women and onset of fetal birth defects. Methods: The pregnant women who received prenatal examination and met the inclusion criteria in the hospital from April 2007 to April 2010 were selected as respondents, then they were divided into group A (never taking folic acid before and during pregnancy) , group B (taking folic acid after pregnancy) , and group C ( taking folic acid before and after pregnancy) , the serum levels of folic acid in the three groups were compared; all the pregnant women were followed up till six months after birth, the pregnancy outcome was surveyed, and the incideuees of birth defects in the three groups were compared. Results: The serum level of folic acid in group A was significantly lower than those in group B and group C, the mean serum level of folic acid in group C was higher than that in group B ( P < 0. 05 ) . The incidence of fetal birth defects in group A was significantly higher than those in group B and group C ( P <0. 05) . Compared with pregnant women taking folic acid regularly during pregnancy, the relative risk ratio of fetuses with birth defects in the pregnant women not taking folic acid regularly was 3. 48 (2. 02/0. 58) , increasing by 2. 48 times. Conclusion: The folic acid level of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy is related to birth defects, taking folic acid during pregnancy can reduce the risk of birth defects.%目的:探讨孕妇血清叶酸水平与胎儿出生缺陷发病的关系.方法:选择2007年4月~ 2010年4月在开封市妇产医院进行产检的、符合纳入标准的孕妇为调查对象,按其服用叶酸的情况分为A组(孕前、孕期从未口服叶酸)、B组(孕后口服叶酸)、C组(孕前、孕后均口服叶酸),比较三组血清叶酸水平;对其进行随访至胎儿出生6个月,调查出生结局,比较三组出生缺陷发生情况.结果:A组的血清叶酸平均水平明显低于B

  10. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs. PMID:26924399

  11. 武昌地区13家助产机构2006至2009年围生儿出生缺陷分析%Birth Defects from 13 Midwifery Institution During the Year of 2006-2009 in Wuchang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢媛; 李莹; 刘婷婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the situation , influencing factors, prognosis and diagnosis of the birth default in Wuchang region. Methods The results from 13 hospital studies on 28 542 births were analyzed by retrospective and statistics study from 2006 to 2009. Results 316 birth defects in a total of 28 542 births were monitored from 2006 to 2009, the birth defects rate was 1. 11 % (316/28 542). The first four leading diseases were congenital heart disease, anomaly of locomotor, digestive system and neurocanal.The influence factors of parturients' social relation on the birth default were family income, parturients' age and educational background. Compare to family monthly income less than 4000 yuan group, birth defects rate in family monthly income more than 8000 Renming bi yuan group was decreased (x2 = 10. 91, P<0.01). There had statistical significant difference of birth defects rate between the age from 25 to 35 group and the rest age group(P<0. 05). Also there had significant difference of birth defects rate between high school/college group and other educational background group(P<0. 05). The death rates of birth default (43.3%) was 101 times higher than non birth default 0. 43% (123/28 542). 37. 0% (117/316) cases were confirmed in prenatal diagnosis, which was the mainly method to diagnose of birth default. Conclusion The birth default has high death rates and influence by parturients. In order to increase the prenatal diagnosis of birth default and decrease the birth defaults rate, we should take measures to educate the parturients and avoid the high risk factors.%目的 探讨武昌地区助产机构围生儿出生缺陷发生状况、影响因素、确诊手段及预后.方法 按照对武昌地区13家助产机构2006年10月1日至2009年09月31日分娩的28 542例围生儿中316例(单胎)出生缺陷围生儿监测资料进行回顾性分析,对可能导致围生儿出生缺陷的相关因素包括家庭收入、产妇年龄、产妇学

  12. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

  13. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Neil F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia” in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth. We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental, and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental. Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%, basic emergency obstetric care (40%, and skilled birth care (25%. For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for

  14. A resorbable antibiotic-eluting polymer composite bone void filler for perioperative infection prevention in a rabbit radial defect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Brooks

    Full Text Available Nearly 1.3 million total joint replacement procedures are performed in the United States annually, with numbers projected to rise exponentially in the coming decades. Although finite infection rates for these procedures remain consistently low, device-related infections represent a significant cause of implant failure, requiring secondary or revision procedures. Revision procedures manifest several-fold higher infection recurrence rates. Importantly, many revision surgeries, infected or not, require bone void fillers to support the host bone and provide a sufficient tissue bed for new hardware placement. Antibiotic-eluting bone void fillers (ABVF, providing both osteoconductive and antimicrobial properties, represent one approach for reducing rates of orthopedic device-related infections. Using a solvent-free, molten-cast process, a polymer-controlled antibiotic-eluting calcium carbonate hydroxyapatite (HAP ceramic composite BVF (ABVF was fabricated, characterized, and evaluated in vivo using a bacterial challenge in a rabbit radial defect window model. ABVF loaded with tobramycin eliminated the infectious burden in rabbits challenged with a clinically relevant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (inoculum as high as 10⁷ CFU. Histological, microbiological, and radiographic methods were used to detail the effects of ABVF on microbial challenge to host bone after 8 weeks in vivo. In contrast to the HAP/BVF controls, which provided no antibiotic protection and required euthanasia 3 weeks post-operatively, tobramycin-releasing ABVF animals showed no signs of infection (clinical, microbiological, or radiographic when euthanized at the 8-week study endpoint. ABVF sites did exhibit fibrous encapsulation around the implant at 8 weeks. Local antibiotic release from ABVF to orthopedic sites requiring bone void fillers eliminated the periprosthetic bacterial challenge in this 8-week in vivo study, confirming previous in vitro results.

  15. Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects

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    Ridgely eFisk Green

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs. Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative (risk genotypes and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p=0.017. We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential

  16. Research on Difference in High-risk Birth Defect Epidemic Cause between Zhuang People and Han People in Nanning%南宁壮族与汉族高发出生缺陷流行病因差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋武; 覃頔; 黄永全; 韦金露; 言京礼

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know whether there is a national difference in the incidence rate between different high-risk birth defects in Nanning and study its causes, and summarize the strategies of reducing the incidence rate of birth defects accord-ing to various risk factors and realize the sound child rearing in Nanning region. Methods The exposed risk factors of par-ents of 1274 perinatal infants with birth defects in Nanning were given 1 : 1 matched case-control study, the relevant influ-ence factors were studied and analyzed, and the case data base was established by Excel, and then the data was analyzed and treated by SPSS16.0 statistical software. Results In the defect group, 574 cases were Zhuang people, 666 cases were Han people, the incidence rates of congenital heart disease, cleft palate , harelip and cleft palate, hypospadias and gas-troschisis in Han people were higher than those in Zhuang people, the incidence rates of harelip, congenital hydrocephalus, neural tube defect, fetal edema syndrome, esophageal a-tresia or stenosis, anorectum atresia or stenosis and con-genital diaphragmatic hernia in Zhuang people were high-er than those in Han people, and the differences had sta-tistical significance, living in the polluted environment, exposure to radiation or toxic chemicals during pregnancy, medication without guidance of doctors during pregnancy, age of pregnant women more than 35, congenital disease family history, chemical exposure history of fathers, smoking and alcohol history of fathers, nutrition of pregnant women and dysthymia during pregnancy were related to the birth defects, and all of them were risk factors of birth defects. Conclusion There is a difference in the high-risk birth defect epidemic cause be-tween Zhuang people and Han people in Nanning with national specificity, the intervention in predicting birth defects in our region can be conducted from the aspects of environment, bad living habits, vocational factor and mental factor to reduce

  17. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  18. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Poole; Rose A. Schmidt; Courtney Green; Natalie Hemsing

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3...

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  20. 中国30个县(市)1993~2000年神经管畸形在出生人群中的患病率及变动趋势分析%Prevalence of neural tube defects at birth in 30 counties and cities of China, 1993-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶荣伟; 李松; 郑俊池; 洪世欣; 陈新; 王太梅; 任爱国; 王丽娜; 李竹

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To describe the prevalence rates of neural tube defects (NTD) and yearly trends (1993-2000) in China. Methods: All the data were obtained from the Birth Defects Surveillance System in thirty counties/cities of China. The calculation of NTD prevalence rates and time trend analyses were based on the data for live (L) and stillbirths (S) only, the denominator used was total births (L+S). Linear regression analysis of the prevalence rate over years has been used to measure time trends. Results: In the period of 1993-2000, there were 1 264 neural tube defects among 1 189 126 total births in 30 counties/cities in China. The overall neural tube defects rate was 10.63 per 10000 births, and rates were higher (18.99 per 10 000 births) in the year 1993, lower (6.05 per 10 000 births) in 1998. The prevalence rates of anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele were 4.71,4.39 and 1.53 per 10 000 births respectively. Of all index NTD cases, anencephaly and spina bifida were most frequent, making up 44.3% and 41.3%, and encephalocele represented 14.4%. The stillbirth proportion was 69.3% over all index NTD cases, 95.4% in anencephaly cases, 43.7% in spina bifida, and 62.6% in encephalocele cases. Linear trend analysis indicated a significant decline for NTD rate (F=11.818, β=-0.814,P=0.014). Analysis by specific defect showed significant declines for the rates of anencephaly (P=0.004) and spina bifida (P=0.026), but no significant annual variation of encephalocele (P=0.227). Results of comparing with data reported from other surveillance systems (1994-1999) showed that the highest NTD rate (9.41 per 10000 births) was seen in China, nearly7 times the lowest rate (1.44 per 10000 births) in England and Wales. Conclusion: The overall neural tube defects rate in 30 counties/cities of China presented a significant downward trend between 1993 and 2000, and China still had the higher neural tube defects prevalence. %目的:描述中国30个县(市)1993

  1. RETROSPECTIVE CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF STILL BIRTH AND NEONATAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVE: Aim was to evaluate clinical and associated risk factors for still births and neonatal deaths at tertiary health care centre. METHODS: A retrospective analytical study of new born at birth conducted at tertiary health care centre for three consecutive years. Demographic variables, status of new born at birth, NICU care and neonatal causes of death were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 1072,990,995 births for 2011, 2012, and 2013 year respectively Still births were 30, 36 and 41 and newborn deaths were 15,8,15 for three consecutive years. Mean age of mother was 25.35 yrs standard deviation 4.4. 82 % of still births were preterm. Maximum 67% of still births birth weight was less than 1.5 kg. NICU admission included 51% full term neonate, 44% preterm and 5% post term neonate. Maximum (51% NICU admissions neonatal birth weight was less < 1.5 kg.79% of dead neonates were preterm. Life threatening congenital defects was seen in 26%. Cause of death birth asphyxia 37% hyaline membrane disease 15%. CONCLUSION: Statistically significant mean gestational age of baby with mother was 38.26 weeks (SD 2.260, NICU neonates 36.70 weeks (SD 3.3 and still births 31.34 weeks (SD 4.6. Maternal urinary tract infection, Hypertensive diseases, diabetes mellitus were major reasons for stillbirths. Neonatal mortality from 26% reduced to 8% with increasing birth weight. Major neonatal deaths are because of birth asphyxia, congenital defects. Low Birth Weight and prematurity were overlapping factor for neonatal death. Still birth rate was 35; perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 live births. Early neonatal mortality rate & Total neonatal mortality rate was 12 /1000 live births each

  2. 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor blockade prevents tau protein hyperphosphorylation and corrects the defect in hippocampal synaptic plasticity caused by a combination of environmental stressors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Di Pietro, Paola; Riozzi, Barbara; Traficante, Anna; Biagioni, Francesca; Nisticò, Robert; Fornai, Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Bruno, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to multimodal sensory stressors is an everyday occurrence and sometimes becomes very intense, such as during rave parties or other recreational events. A growing body of evidence suggests that strong environmental stressors might cause neuronal dysfunction on their own in addition to their synergistic action with illicit drugs. Mice were exposed to a combination of physical and sensory stressors that are reminiscent of those encountered in a rave party. However, this is not a model of rave because it lacks the rewarding properties of rave. A 14-h exposure to environmental stressors caused an impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory, and an enhanced phosphorylation of tau protein in the CA1 and CA3 regions. These effects were transient and critically depended on the activation of 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, which are highly expressed in the CA1 region. Acute systemic injection of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist, RS-102,221 (2 mg/kg, i.p., 2 min prior the onset of stress), prevented tau hyperphosphorylation and also corrected the defects in hippocampal LTP and spatial memory. These findings suggest that passive exposure to a combination of physical and sensory stressors causes a reversible hippocampal dysfunction, which might compromise mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and spatial memory for a few days. Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors might protect the hippocampus against the detrimental effect of environmental stressors. PMID:26145279

  3. An epidemiological study about air pollution exposure and the perinatal birth defects in six sentinel hospitals of a certain city in China%大气污染暴露与某市6家哨点医院围生儿出生缺陷的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤俊; 姚慈将; 张健; 操基玉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨和分析某市大气污染对新生儿出生缺陷的影响。方法收集某市6家哨点医院2012—2013年期间分娩的孕满18周到出生后7 d 内的所有围产儿资料,包括分娩日期、孕产妇孕周以及孕天数和围生儿的性别等资料。同时收集该市2011—2013年的大气污染物日监测资料,包括二氧化硫、二氧化氮、可吸入污染和污染指数等。采用 SPSS16.0软件进行一般性描述、卡方检验、方差分析、Spearman 秩相关等统计分析。结果2年出生缺陷总发生率为11.63‰;2012年的出生缺陷发生率为10.49‰,2013年为12.76‰,但2年之间差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);不同性别出生缺陷患儿的发生率差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),男婴出生缺陷发生率高于女婴。出生缺陷发生率与大气污染物的 Spearman 秩相关分析结果显示:在孕前1月组和孕前2月组,出生缺陷发生率与可吸入颗粒物(PM10)和污染指数呈正相关。结论该次调查的该市妊娠期妇女在妊娠前期2个月内,大气 PM10暴露浓度和污染指数暴露水平与出生缺陷的发生存在统计学关联。%Objective Objective To investigate and analyze the city air pollution effects on birth defects.Methods Data of perinatal fetus from 18 -week gestation to 7 days after the birth,including date of delivery,maternal gestational weeks,days of pregnancy and gender,were collected from six sentinel hospitals of a city during 2012—2013.The daily monitoring data of air pollutants from 2011 to 2013,including sulfur dioxide,nitrogen dioxide,inhaled pollution and pollution index,were collected at the same time.SPSS16.0 soft-ware was used for general description,chisquare test,analysis of variance and Spearman rank correlation.Results The total incidence of birth defects was 11.63 per thousand in 2 years.The incidence of birth defects was 10.49 per thousand in 2012,12.76 per thousand in 2013

  4. Prevalence of neural tube defects and folic acid knowledge and consumption--Puerto Rico, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of infant mortality in both the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine and brain; two of the most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly. In the United States, NTD prevalence is higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black women. In Puerto Rico, where most residents are Hispanic, the prevalence of NTDs (8.68 per 10,000 live births) is higher than in the mainland United States (5.59). Consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy can prevent NTDs. To assess trends in NTD prevalence and prevalence of knowledge and consumption of folic acid supplements in Puerto Rico, data were analyzed from the Birth Defects Surveillance System (BDSS) for 1996-2005 and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 1997-2006. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that prevalence of folic acid knowledge and consumption among women of childbearing age increased from 1997 to 2003 but decreased from 2003 to 2006. During similar periods, NTD prevalence declined from 1996 to 2003 but did not change significantly from 2003 to 2005. To resume the decline in prevalence of NTDs, additional measures might be needed to increase folic acid supplement use among Puerto Rican women of childbearing age. PMID:18185495

  5. Identifying environmental risk factors for human neural tube defects before and after folic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinhu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects are a major cause of infant mortality and disability in many parts of the world. Neural tube defects (NTDs are one of the most common types of birth defects. In 2001, the Chinese population and family planning commission initiated a national intervention program for the prevention of birth defects. A key step in the program was the introduction of folic acid supplementation. Of interest in the present study was to determine whether folic acid supplementation has the same protective effect on NTDs under various geographical and socioeconomic conditions within the Chinese population and the nature in which the influence of environmental factors varied after folic acid supplementation. Methods In this study, Heshun was selected as the region of interest as a surrogate for helping to answer some of the questions raised in this study on the impact of the intervention program. Spatial filtering in combination with GIS software was used to detect annual potential clusters from 1998 to 2005 in Heshun, and Kruskal-wallis test and multivariate regression were applied to identify the environmental risk factors for NTDs among various regions. Results In 1998, a significant (p Conclusion This suggests that the government needs to adapt the intervention measures according to local conditions. More attention needs to be paid to the poor and to people living in areas near coal mines.

  6. 孕前保健对某地区出生缺陷及其他不良妊娠结局影响的观察%Effect of preconception care on birth defect and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in A certain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温小鲜; 陈桂玲; 梁建文; 陈凤仪; 陶小君; 陈莲芬; 李建萍; 王耀强; 张伟强; 赖剑锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of preconception care on birth defect and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in Fanyu District. Methods Select 1000 sample size for research, 500 people who used of preconception care as the observation group, and 500 people without preconception care as the control group. Eugenic knowledge and awareness, taking the case of folic acid, prenatal care and treatment, adverse pregnancy outcomes of two groups were compared. Results Aware of knowledge about eugenics, the rate of taking folic acid and the treatment of chronic diseases coverage of observation group were significantly higher than the control group(P < 0.05); At 4 weeks pregnancy diagnosis rate and birth defects in prenatal screening coverage were significantly higher than the control group(P < 0.05), and the main risk factor for early pregnancy exposure levels was significantly lower than the observation group(P < 0.05); Preterm birth and Expired pregnancy rates, the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, and the incidence of birth defects were significantly lower than the control group(P < 0.05), and the amount of postpartum bleeding was significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05), the difference is statistically significant. Conclusion Preconception care can reduce birth defects, and improve the pregnancy outcome, we should further promote the smooth development of preconception care work.%目的:探讨孕前保健对广州市番禺区出生缺陷及其他不良妊娠结局的影响。方法选择1000个样本量进行研究,将进行孕前保健的500例设为观察组,未进行孕前保健的500例设为对照组,比较两组观察对象优生知识知晓率、叶酸服用情况、产前检查与治疗及不良妊娠结局等指标。结果观察组优生知识知晓率、叶酸服用率、慢性病的治疗覆盖率均明显优于对照组(P<0.05);观察组孕4周内妊娠确诊率、出生缺陷产前筛查覆盖率明显高于对照组,妊娠早期主

  7. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998.......Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  8. Reduced prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8 activity eliminates HAI-1 and HAI-2 deficiency-associated developmental defects by preventing matriptase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Szabo

    Full Text Available Loss of either hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI-1 or -2 is associated with embryonic lethality in mice, which can be rescued by the simultaneous inactivation of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, thereby demonstrating that a matriptase-dependent proteolytic pathway is a critical developmental target for both protease inhibitors. Here, we performed a genetic epistasis analysis to identify additional components of this pathway by generating mice with combined deficiency in either HAI-1 or HAI-2, along with genes encoding developmentally co-expressed candidate matriptase targets, and screening for the rescue of embryonic development. Hypomorphic mutations in Prss8, encoding the GPI-anchored serine protease, prostasin (CAP1, PRSS8, restored placentation and normal development of HAI-1-deficient embryos and prevented early embryonic lethality, mid-gestation lethality due to placental labyrinth failure, and neural tube defects in HAI-2-deficient embryos. Inactivation of genes encoding c-Met, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2, or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC alpha subunit all failed to rescue embryonic lethality, suggesting that deregulated matriptase-prostasin activity causes developmental failure independent of aberrant c-Met and PAR-2 signaling or impaired epithelial sodium transport. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of PAR-1 and matriptase double-deficient embryos suggests that the protease may not be critical for focal proteolytic activation of PAR-2 during neural tube closure. Paradoxically, although matriptase auto-activates and is a well-established upstream epidermal activator of prostasin, biochemical analysis of matriptase- and prostasin-deficient placental tissues revealed a requirement of prostasin for conversion of the matriptase zymogen to active matriptase, whereas prostasin zymogen activation was matriptase-independent.

  9. Aproximadamente 1 de cada 5 bebés de madres adolescentes no es el primero (Preventing Repeat Teen Births)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    Este podcast se basa en el informe de los CDC Vital Signs, de abril del 2013, que dice que aproximadamente 1 de cada 5 bebés de madres adolescentes no es el primero, y trata la manera en que los adolescentes, sus padres y tutores legales, los proveedores de atención médica y las comunidades pueden ayudar en la prevención.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  10. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  11. Disruption of the folate pathway in zebrafish causes developmental defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Marina S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and congenital heart defects. The biological mechanisms through which folate prevents birth defects are not well understood. We explore the use of zebrafish as a model system to investigate the role of folate metabolism during development. Results We first identified zebrafish orthologs of 12 human folate metabolic genes. RT-PCR and in situ analysis indicated maternal transcripts supply the embryo with mRNA so that the embryo has an intact folate pathway. To perturb folate metabolism we exposed zebrafish embryos to methotrexate (MTX, a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (Dhfr an essential enzyme in the folate metabolic pathway. Embryos exposed to high doses of MTX exhibited developmental arrest prior to early segmentation. Lower doses of MTX resulted in embryos with a shortened anterior-posterior axis and cardiac defects: linear heart tubes or incomplete cardiac looping. Inhibition of dhfr mRNA with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in embryonic lethality. One function of the folate pathway is to provide essential one-carbon units for dTMP synthesis, a rate-limiting step of DNA synthesis. After 24 hours of exposure to high levels of MTX, mutant embryos continue to incorporate the thymidine analog BrdU. However, additional experiments indicate that these embryos have fewer mitotic cells, as assayed with phospho-histone H3 antibodies, and that treated embryos have perturbed cell cycles. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that human and zebrafish utilize similar one-carbon pathways. Our data indicate that folate metabolism is essential for early zebrafish development. Zebrafish studies of the folate pathway and its deficiencies could provide insight into the underlying etiology of human birth defects and the natural role of folate in development.

  12. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  13. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  14. 重庆市1002例出生缺陷病残儿父母再生育情况调查%Investigation on the second reproduction status of 1002 pairs of parents who had infants with birth defects in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川海; 何杨; 马明福; 李安奇; 李杰; 杨皓; 付新云; 李家菊; 崔容; 刘浚

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the second reproduction status of the parents who had infants with birth defects in Chongqing.Methods: The parents who had infants with birth defects and accorded with the criterion of second reproduction from 2003 to 2008 were surveyed by questionnaires, the questionnaires were filled by investigators.Results: Among 1 002 pairs of parents who had infants with birth defects, 982 pairs of parents received second reproduction direction, and 93.31% of them received preconception counseling; 809 pairs of parents gave birth to the second children, and 9 children were sick; 81.04% of the parents who had given the second children received prenatal examination, the main place of prenatal examination were medical institutes at county level (53.69%), followed by health clinics in towns and townships (31.50%) and medical institutes at city level ( 14.78% ); 93.15% of the pregnant women chose hospital delivery, and 6.80% of them gave birth to their infants in their home; 92.31% of the families had monitoring records established by family planning office.Conclusion: The second reproduction direction, preconception counseling and prenatal examination are not reasonable and standard, the follow - up and monitoring of bearing and rearing better children are not covered fully; scientific, reasonable and standard management services system of second reproduction and eugenic technology should be established quickly.%目的:了解重庆市出生缺陷病残儿父母再生育情况.方法:对2003~2008年经重庆市病残儿童医学鉴定,符合再生育的出生缺陷病残儿父母进行问卷调查,由调查员填写调查表.结果:1 002例出生缺陷病残儿童父母中,982例父母得到再生育指导,有93.31%进行了孕前咨询;有809例生育二胎,其中有9胎患病;有81.04%已生育二胎家庭进行了产前检查,产前检查地点主要在县级医疗机构(53.69%),其次为乡镇卫生院(31.50%),市级医疗机构(14

  15. Antenatal brain injury: aetiology and possibilities of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, H; Mallard, C

    2000-02-01

    Although the aetiology of antenatal brain injury is often unclear, procedures can be employed to prevent or reduce the risk of injury. Defective neuropore closure can be prevented by periconceptional administration of folic acid, and the incidence of other severe malformations and genetic disorders can be reduced by early identification and termination of pregnancy. Antenatal identification of IUGR, administration of corticosteroids to cases with pending preterm birth, and treatment of maternal/fetal infections would also reduce the incidence of injury. Mothers can decrease the risk of injury by maintaining a good diet, avoiding smoking, alcohol intake and exposure to TORCH infections during pregnancy. PMID:10802749

  16. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  17. Efficacy observation of iron deficiency anemia prevention in 207 low birth weight infants%207例低出生体重儿预防缺铁性贫血的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小飞; 刘杰; 郑娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and adverse reactions of iron supplementation for preventing iron deficiency anemia of mild low birth weight infants at different ages, to provide reference for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in low birth weight infant. Methods Totally 207 mild low birth weight infants were divided into 3 experimental groups (groupⅠ:starting iron supplement from the age of 2 weeks;groupⅡ:starting iron sup-plement from the age of 4 weeks; groupⅢ: starting iron supplement from the age of 2 months) and one control group (groupⅣ:without iron supplement) basing on the principle of parent informed consent. The iron supplement was 2 mg·kg-1·d-1 for subjects in the three experimental groups. Performed blood cell analysis of all subjects respec-tively at the beginning, age of 3 months and 6 months, compared the HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC and anemia incidence rate of each group. Occurrence of adverse reaction were monitored at the same time. Results The hemoglobin levels of groupⅠ,ⅡandⅢwere higher than that of groupⅣ, and the incidence rates of groupⅠ,ⅡandⅢwere lower than that of the groupⅣ. The differences were statistically significant (P0.05);there were no statistically significant differences between the hemoglobin levels and anemia incidence rates of groupⅠand groupⅡ(P>0.05);GroupⅠshowed most adverse reactions. Conclusion It would be better to start iron sup-plementation at the age of 4 weeks so as to prevent iron deficiency anemia in mild low birth weight infants. Earlier iron supplementation will increase the incidence of adverse reaction, while later iron supplementation will increase the incidence of anemia.%目的:观察不同时期开始补铁以预防轻度低出生体重儿缺铁性贫血的疗效及不良反应发生情况,为预防低出生体重儿缺铁性贫血提供参考。方法将207例轻度低出生体重儿按家长知情同意原则分为三个实验组(Ⅰ组从2周龄

  18. 妇产科护理质量缺陷原因及防范对策%The Reason and Preventive Strategy for Nursing Quality Defects in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宁宁; 姬书香

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the reasons for quality defects of nursing occurring in the department of ob-stetrics and gynecology and advance the preventive strategies. Methods: All 59 cases of nursing accidents relevant to quality defects in our hospital were investigated by the method of retrospective study to figure out the relations be-tween quality defects of nursing and the factors like the nurses' educational background, professional titles and work-ing periods and advance the corresponding strategies to prevent the accident. Results: The main reasons for the acci-dents were related to nurses' not strictly following the checking system and their lacking the sense of responsibilities and the occurrence of the quality defects accidents was closely connected to the working periods of the nurse, in oth-er words, the nurses working lesser years were more prone to the accident of quality defects. Conclusion: Increasing the professional knowledge and skills of nurses and enhancing their senses of responsibilities are the effective path-way for reducing the nursing quality defects.%目的:探讨妇产科护理质量缺陷的原因,并提出相应防范对策。方法:采用回顾性研究方法,对本院妇产科发生的59例护理质量缺陷事件进行调查,分析护理质量缺陷与护理人员学历、职称、工作年限等的关系,提出相应防范对策。结果:护理人员未严格执行查对制度和责任心不强是造成护理质量缺陷的主要原因,护理质量缺陷的发生与护理人员工作年限存在密切联系,低年资护士更易发生护理质量缺陷事件。结论:加强护理人员的业务知识学习与技能训练、提高护理人员责任心是减少护理质量缺陷的有效途径。

  19. Reduced prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) activity eliminates HAI-1 and HAI-2 deficiency-associated developmental defects by preventing matriptase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Roman; Uzzun Sales, Katiuchia; Kosa, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    to placental labyrinth failure, and neural tube defects in HAI-2-deficient embryos. Inactivation of genes encoding c-Met, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) alpha subunit all failed to rescue embryonic lethality, suggesting that deregulated matriptase...

  20. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  1. 实施床边双人核对制预防临床护理缺陷的实践%Implementation of Bed Double Check System to Prevent Clinical Nursing Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雅娣; 陶伟丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of bed double check system on preventing clinical nursing defects. Methods:Establishment of bed double check system. Investigate the incidence rate of clinical nursing defects of nurs-es with different professional titles half a year before and after the implementation and incidence rate of inpatients’ nursing defects before and after the implementation, and evaluate the difference of nursing defects of nurses with differ-ent professional titles and the effect of bed double check system on prevention of nursing defects respectively. Results:The accidence rate of nursing defects of nurse practitioner and nursing staff inferior to nurse practitioner was higher than that of nurse in charge and its superiors and the difference had statistical significance(P<0.05);The accidence rate of clinical nursing defect reduced after the implementation of bed double check system, which had statistical signif-icance(P<0.05). Conclusion: As nurse practitioners and nurses with inferior professional titles easily have nursing defects, they are the important training objects in the management of patients’safety;the implementation of bed double check system can reduce the accidence rate of nursing defects, which is helpful for the management of patients’safety, thus it is worth popularizing.%目的:探讨实施床边双人核对制对预防临床护理缺陷的效果.方法:建立床边双人核对制.调查实施床边双人核对制前后各半年时间内不同职称护理人员护理缺陷发生率,以及实施床边双人核对制前后住院病人护理缺陷发生率,分别评估不同职称护士发生护理缺陷的差异和实施床边双人核对制预防护理缺陷的效果.结果:护师及以下职称护理人员发生护理缺陷的比例高于主管护师及以上职称的护士,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);实施床边双人核对制后临床护理缺陷发生率降低,与实施前相比,

  2. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  3. Defect Management in Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Noor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agile development reduces the risk of developing low quality software in the first place by minimizing defects. In agile software development formal defect management processes help to build quality software. The core purpose of defect management is to make the software more effective and efficient in order to increase its quality. There are several methods for handling defects like defect prevention, defect discovery and resolution which are used by software developers and testers. Refactoring keeps the system clean by identifying and removing quality defects. To gain the full confidence of the customer defect management should be involved at every stage of development. Agile methodologies focus on delivering the software in form of short iterations. Thus each iteration helps to overcome defects and leads better development and end user satisfaction. This study paints the picture of handling the software defects using agile based Software Development Process.

  4. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  5. The defect

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Franz-Viktor

    2010-01-01

    We give an introduction to the valuation theoretical phenomenon of "defect", also known as "ramification deficiency". We describe the role it plays in deep open problems in positive characteristic: local uniformization (the local form of resolution of singularities), the model theory of valued fields, the structure theory of valued function fields. We give several examples of algebraic extensions with non-trivial defect. We indicate why Artin-Schreier defect extensions play a central role and describe a way to classify them. Further, we give an overview of various results about the defect that help to tame or avoid it, in particular "stability" theorems and theorems on "henselian rationality", and show how they are applied. Finally, we include a list of open problems.

  6. Paravaginal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenholt, Louise T S; Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Glavind, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    , arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP), pubocervical fascia, and uterosacral/cardinal ligaments. Studies conclude that physical examination is inconsistent in detecting paravaginal defects. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to describe patterns in the appearance...

  7. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  8. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  9. Service of Social Prevention Early Care – Alternative to Institutional Care as Well as a Challenge for Social Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenka Šándorová; Barbora Faltová

    2015-01-01

    The service of social prevention early care according to Act no 108/2006 Sb. on social services, as amended, is an important alternative to institutional care and at the same time a challenge for social pedagogy, because a child at risk (in our concept, premature, preterm, with low birth weight, with a congenital developmental defect, with a disability, chronic illness, etc.) represents a problem with a complex structure, which affects not only the mother and the baby, but also significantly ...

  10. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Schulze, Kerry J; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-05-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanistic and association research links multiple antenatal micronutrients with plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and filling extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risks of being born with low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure might persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  11. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal aortopulmonary septal defect with ventricular septal defect by two-dimension echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fetal aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD) is an extremely rare condition, accounting for 0.1%-0.2% of all cardiac defects in live births world wide.1 Hospital mortality is 13% and 33% for simple and complex APSD, respectively.2 This rare cardiac defect refers to a congenital malformation in the development of the arteriosus truncus septum, and is usually associated with a wide variety of other structural cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary valve stegnosis and so on.3 Prenatal diagnosis of an APSD is possible by echocardiography.

  13. EVALUATION OF UNSAFE BIRTHS AND POSTPARTUM HOME CARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ERGIN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that mother/child deaths can be prevented by having safe births and taking routine postnatal home care. The aim of this study is to evaluate safety of births and postnatal home care visits of mothers having 0-11 month babies in the Center of Aydin. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to study a group of 806 mothers. Multistage sampling method was used. Health stations was taken as cluster units. One rural-one urban health station from ten health-centers was selected by random sampling method. Safety of births, type of births, complications after births, home visits by health personel at postpartum period were asked. Results: Unsafe births was 6,0% in Aydin. It was found that family income, mother?s age/occupation/educational level, social security, number of children, father?s occupation/educational level and household size, effects the safety of births. 59,9% of women were visited by widwives at the postpartum period and mean number of visits were 2,0 ±1,7. At this period 9,4% of women had complications, and these complications were two times greater at unsafe births. Conclusion: Although Aydin is in the west part of Turkey, unsafe births and inadequate postpartum home visits are seen. In order to prevent these problems, health centers must take more active role. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 321-329

  14. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  15. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  16. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  17. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  18. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  19. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  20. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  1. Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Children with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Carla Marques Rondon, E-mail: carlamcampos@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT (Brazil); Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis [Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia - Laboratório de Citogenômica - LIM 03 - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kim, Chong Ae [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent group of structural abnormalities at birth and one of the main causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown a contribution of the copy number variation in the genesis of cardiac malformations. Investigate gene copy number variation (CNV) in children with conotruncal heart defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in 39 patients with conotruncal heart defect. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted in all patients. The parents of the probands who presented abnormal findings were also investigated. Gene copy number variation was detected in 7/39 patients: 22q11.2 deletion, 22q11.2 duplication, 15q11.2 duplication, 20p12.2 duplication, 19p deletion, 15q and 8p23.2 duplication with 10p12.31 duplication. The clinical characteristics were consistent with those reported in the literature associated with the encountered microdeletion/microduplication. None of these changes was inherited from the parents. Our results demonstrate that the technique of MLPA is useful in the investigation of microdeletions and microduplications in conotruncal congenital heart defects. Early diagnosis of the copy number variation in patients with congenital heart defect assists in the prevention of morbidity and decreased mortality in these patients.

  2. Discussion on the medical defect management and ideology construction to prevent hospital violent incidents%加强医疗缺陷管理和思想建设有效防范暴力伤医事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓康; 王冠英; 王宏斌; 张珊红

    2014-01-01

    暴力伤医事件导致医护人员惊愕和恐慌,引起各界的强烈愤慨,是多种因素综合作用的结果。通过加强缺陷管理,可以有效地减少和防范暴力伤医事件;从医疗服务、质量、安全和效率四项重点全面提升,始终坚持聚焦、激励、创新原则,努力开展思想建设,端正医德医风,培养阳光医疗精神;弥补医疗短板,和谐医患关系,保障医患安全,是实现“零缺陷”管理目标的重要途径。%Hospital violence incidents cause medical staff tension and censured by the public. It results from many factors. By strengthening defect management, hospital violent events can be prevented and reduced. By full promoting medical service, quality, safety and safety, focusing on incentive and innovation principles to carry out the ideological construction, good medical ethics, medical spirit cultivation of sunshine and build harmonious hospital patient relationship is the important way for "zero defect" management.

  3. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Malak Hamdan; Entesar Ariabi; Chris Busby

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulti...

  4. Quality defects and prevention measures of cast-in-place reinforced concrete%浅谈现浇钢筋混凝土质量通病及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国尧

    2014-01-01

    Cast-in-place reinforced concrete is used more and more widely in constructional engineering,thus ensuring the construction quality is very important.This paper analyzes causes and prevention measures of quality defects of reinforced concrete, such as cracks,cellular,pockmarked face,holes,exposed tendons and so on.%现浇钢筋混凝土施工在建筑工程中应用越来越广泛,因此,保证其工程质量很重要。文章分析了钢筋混凝土裂缝、蜂窝、麻面、孔洞、露筋等质量通病产生的原因及其防治措施。

  5. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  6. Validity of Health Plan and Birth Certificate Data for Pregnancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Susan E.; Scott, Pamela E.; Davis, Robert L.; Li, De-Kun; Getahun, Darios; Cheetham, T. Craig; Raebel, Marsha A.; Toh, Sengwee; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Smith, David H.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Cooper, William O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using administrative and claims data from 11 U.S. health plans, and corresponding birth certificate data from state health departments. Diagnoses, drug dispensings, and procedure codes were used to identify infant outcomes (cardiac defects, anencephaly, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) and maternal diagnoses (asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) recorded in the health plan data for live born deliveries between January 2001 and December 2007. A random sample of medical charts (n = 802) was abstracted for infants and mothers identified with the specified outcomes. Information on newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics (gestational age at birth, birth weight, previous pregnancies and live births, race/ethnicity) was also abstracted and compared to birth certificate data. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated with documentation in the medical chart serving as the gold standard. Results PPVs were 71% for cardiac defects, 37% for anencephaly, 87% for preterm birth, and 92% for NICU admission. PPVs for algorithms to identify maternal diagnoses of asthma and SLE were ≥ 93%. Our findings indicated considerable agreement (PPVs > 90%) between birth certificate and medical record data for measures related to birth weight, gestational age, prior obstetrical history, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Health plan and birth certificate data can be useful to accurately identify some infant outcomes, maternal diagnoses, and newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics. Other outcomes and variables may require medical record review for validation. PMID:22753079

  7. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  8. Ethics and professional responsibility: Essential dimensions of planned home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2016-06-01

    Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth. PMID:26804379

  9. Ethics and professional responsibility: Essential dimensions of planned home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2016-06-01

    Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth.

  10. Adverse reactions of ritodrine hydrochloride in prevention of premature birth and the prophylactico-therapeutic measures%盐酸利托君预防早产的不良反应及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包春荣; 余自成

    2015-01-01

    盐酸利托君为肾上腺素能β2受体激动剂,用于预防早产。该药对孕妇的影响包括引起心律失常、肺水肿、横纹肌溶解症、腮腺炎、粒细胞减少症、急性泛发性发疹性脓疱病、恶心呕吐及血糖升高等。上述不良反应的发生机制可能与盐酸利托君致电解质失衡,血钾降低,肺毛细血管锲压改变,低血钾使肌肉一过性缺血,唾液淀粉酶分泌增加,骨髓抑制,以及促进糖原分解等有关。该药致急性泛发性发疹性脓疱病的机制尚不明确。盐酸利托君对胎儿的影响包括致胎儿过度生长、胎儿心动过速和新生儿短暂中性粒细胞减少等,可能与该药致孕妇血糖升高刺激胎儿胰岛素分泌,通过胎盘屏障引起免疫介导的毒性反应,以及改变胎盘血流等有关。使用盐酸利托君时应密切观察孕妇心率,监测血糖,定期检测血象与肝肾功能,一旦出现不良反应应停药并给予对症治疗。对母亲曾应用盐酸利托君的新生儿必要时行超声心动图检测评价心脏功能,检测血糖,尽早开始母乳喂养或配方奶喂养。%Ritodrine hydrochloride,a beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist,is used for prevention of preterm birth. Maternal cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, rhabdomyolysis, parotitis, granulocytopenia,acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis,nausea,vomiting,and elevated blood glucose are the main adverse reactions induced by ritodrine hydrochloride in the pregnant woman. The possible mechanisms of the above-mentioned adverse reactions may be associated with ritodrine hydrochloride inducing electrolyte imbalance,hypokalemia,changes of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure,muscular transient ischemia due to hypokalemia,hypersecretion of salivary amylase,bone marrow suppression,and promoting of glycogenolysis. The mechanism of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by ritodrine hydrochloride is yet unknown. Fetal

  11. Study on the use of model life tables methodology in birth defect's life expectancy estimation:the case of Down's syndrome%模型生命表方法在出生缺陷患者预期寿命估算中的应用——以唐氏综合征为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪颖; 陈功; 郑晓瑛

    2008-01-01

    以唐氏综合征为例,研究采用Brass-Logit模型生命表的原理,通过美国一般人群的生命表、美国唐氏综合征患者的生命表、中国一般人群的生命表,间接估算中国唐氏综合征患者的生命表和预期寿命.经过与其他国家一般人群和唐氏综合征人群预期寿命的比较,研究认为,用Brass-Logit模型生命表原理来推算出生缺陷患者的生存状况和预期寿命,是在某一国家或地区的出生缺陷患者存活的数据非常缺乏、而另一些国家已有比较系统数据的情况下可以考虑使用的方法.%Using Brass-Logit model and life tables for general population and Down's syndrome patients in U.S.A and lire tables for general population in China,we estimated the life table of Down's syndrome patients in China.Through comparing with data from other countries,we suggested that BrassLogit Model Life Table could be adopted were minimum data of birth defects survival was available and systematic data was handy in another areas.

  12. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  13. Atrial – Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Panagiotopoulos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atrial and ventricular septal defect constitute the most common congenital heart disease.Aim: Τhe aim of the present retrospective study was to record data and factors that affect atrial and ventricular septal defect.Method and material: The sample study included patients of both sexes who were hospitalized with diagnosis atrial and ventricular septal defect in a Cardiac Surgery hospital of Athens. A specially constructed printed form was used for data collection, where were recorded the demographic and personal variables, the pathological, surgical, cardiology and obstetric history, the habits of adults, as well as the personal characteristics of mothers. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistical analysis.Results: The sample study consisted of 101 individuals with diagnosis atrial or ventricular Septal Defect, of which 40% were boys and 60% girls. The 70% of the sample study suffered from atrial Septal Defect and the 30% suffered from ventricular Septal Defect. Regarding age, 12% of the sample study was 0-1 years old, 35% was >1 years old, 8% was >12-18 years old and 45% over than 18 years old. Regarding educational status of the adult participants, 9% was of 0-6 years education, 22%>6 -12 years, 13%>12 years. 14% of the adult paticipants smoked, 4% consumed alcohol and 5% smoked in conjunction with alcohol. In terms of the obstetric history of the sample studied, 32% of the cases had normal birth, 4% had a twin birth and 1% had a triplet one. According to the variables related to mothers, the mean age of the mother was 30 years and 3 months, 10% were smokers at pregnancy and 3% used chemical substance and mainly hair color. Also, the results of the present study showed that individuals of 12-18 and >18 years old did not suffer from ventricular Septal Defect, whereas the infants 0-1 years old did not suffer from Atrial Septal Defect. The mean value of age at the admission in intensive care unit was 7 months (12% for the infants

  14. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ≥4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD. PMID:25590679

  15. Relationship between GDM maternal advanced glycation end products level and fetal birth defects and it's clinical significance%GDM孕妇血清晚期糖基化终产物水平与其胎儿出生缺陷的关系及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤栩文; 林斯; 谢晓斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇血清及脐血血清中晚期糖基化终产物(AGE)的水平,并观察胎盘组织中AGE受体(RAGE)的表达,探讨AGE与胎儿出生缺陷的关系及其在产前筛查中的临床意义.方法:选择经产前筛查诊断为胎儿畸形或胎死宫内的GDM孕妇作为病例组(42例),随机选择GDM无胎儿异常孕妇作为GDM组(30例),无妊娠合并症的健康孕妇作为健康对照组(30例).采用酶联免疫法检测孕妇血清及脐血血清AGE水平;采用免疫组化方法检测胎盘组织中RAGE蛋白的表达.结果:病例组、GDM组、健康对照组脐血血清AGE水平分别为(223.9±54.6),(160.7±37.2),(108.3+15.8) μg/L,三组差异显著(P<0.05);病例组、GDM组、健康对照组孕妇血清AGE水平分别为(169.1±14.3),(105.4±17.2),(80.6±11.4) μg/L,三组亦有显著差异(P<0.05);病例组孕妇血清与脐血血清中AGE水平呈正相关(r=0.863,P<0.01);病例组、GDM组及健康对照组胎盘组织中RAGE的阳性表达率分别为87.5%、53.1%、29.6%,三组差异显著(P<0.05).结论:GDM孕妇高AGE血症是导致出生缺陷的危险因素,孕妇血清AGE水平可作为GDM出生缺陷的产前筛查指标.%Objective:To detect serum advanced glycation end products(AGE) level in gestation diabetic mother( GDM) gestational period and fetal cord blood, and observe the RAGE protein expression in placenta. To explore the clinical significance of relationship be-tween fetal