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Sample records for birdsfoot trefoil seed

  1. Study of the Relationships between Technological and Productivity Elements that Determine Seed Yield in Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During an experience performed to elaborate an efficient technology of seed production in birdsfoot trefoil, we observed a series of correlations between yield and the elements of productivity, which exert a strong influence on seed quantity. In this viewpoint, the matrix of correlations between the elements of fructification, in the case of the influence exerted by birdsfoot trefoil cultivation method, made evident the following correlation coefficients: r = 0.81**, between the number of pods/plant; r = 0.82**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/inflorescence; r = 0.98**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/plant.

  2. Local evidence for tolerance of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of yield response of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) cv. San Gabriel to soil amendment with lime and superphosphate on a virgin acid soil indicated that this legume is tolerant of local acid soils and moderately tolerant of low levels of extractable phosphorus. Keywords: birdsfoot trefoil; legumes; levels; lime; ...

  3. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lactation trials were conducted to assess the feeding value of silage made from populations of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT). These silages were compared to an alfalfa silage (...

  4. CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of 14C to the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.A.; Vance, C.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Stade, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N 2 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent 14 CO 2 fixation rates of 50 to 80 μg CO 2 kg -1 s -1 (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO 2 . Nodule CO 2 fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO 2 was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO 2 kg -1 s -1 ) were 10 to 100-fold higher than 14 CO 2 fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with 14 CO 2 combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO 2 fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed 14 C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed 14 C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to 14 CO 2 . By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to 14 CO 2 . The occurrence of nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO 2 fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N 2

  5. Condensed tannins in the tissue culture of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1986-08-01

    Two forage legumes, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.), containing condensed tannins in their leaves and stems were used as source material to study condensed tannins in tissue culture. More protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll tissue of a low tannin-containing strain of birdsfoot trefoil than from a high tannin-containing strain, but more tannin-filled protoplasts were observed in the latter. Growth rates of leaf explant-derived callus tissue were greater for the high-tannin than for the low-tannin strain. In sainfoin, callus cultures from leaf explants produced numerous tannin-filled cells by 21 days. Explants from sainfoin cotyledons and roots, tissues which normally do not contain tannins, also formed callus with tannin-filled cells in 21 days but in almost every case, a cytokinin was required for tannin formation to occur. The occurrence of tannin-filled cells in callus from root and cotyledon explants was variable and genotype specific. These results show that endogenous tannins can affect protoplast isolation and possibly callus growth in birds-foot trefoil, and that the formation of condensed tannins in sainfoin callus culture can be influenced by a growth regulator.

  6. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  7. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  8. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  9. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes-Fecht, U C; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Grabber, J H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare milk production and nutrient utilization in dairy cattle fed silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) versus birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) selected for low, normal, and high levels of condensed tannins. Condensed tannin contents of the 3 BFT silages were 8, 12, and 16 g/kg of DM by butanol-HCl assay. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows (5 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned within blocks to incomplete 5×5 Latin squares. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] about 60% AL, 50% RC, or 60% of 1 of the 3 BFT; the balance of dietary DM was largely from high-moisture corn plus supplemental crude protein from soybean meal. Diets were balanced to approximately 17% crude protein and fed for four 3-wk periods; 2 wk were allowed for adaptation and production data were collected during the last week of each period. No differences existed in DM intake or milk composition due to silage source, except that milk protein content was lowest for RC. Yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were greater for the 3 BFT diets than for diets containing AL or RC. Feeding BFT with the highest condensed tannin content increased yield of milk, protein, and solids-not-fat compared with BFT containing the lowest amount of condensed tannin. Moreover, milk-N/N-intake was higher, and milk urea nitrogen concentration and urinary urea-N excretion were lower for diets with normal levels of BFT than for AL or RC diets. Feeding RC resulted in the highest apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose and lowest ruminal concentrations of ammonia and free amino acids. Ruminal branched-chain volatile fatty acid levels were lowest for RC diets and diets with high levels of BFT and highest for the AL diet. Overall, diets containing BFT silage supported greater production than diets containing silage from AL or RC

  10. In vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and utilisable CP supply of sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil silages and their mixtures with other legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Wyss, U; Arrigo, Y; Girard, M; Bee, G; Zeitz, J O; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2017-04-01

    The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined. The supply of duodenally utilisable CP (uCP) in the forages was emphasised. The legumes were each harvested from three field sites. After 24 h of wilting on the field, the legumes were ensiled in laboratory silos for 86 days. Proximate constituents, silage fermentation characteristics, CT content and CP fractions were determined. Subsequently, silage samples and 1 : 1 mixtures of the CT-containing and CT-free silages were incubated for 24 h in batch cultures using ruminal fluid and buffer (1 : 2, v/v). Each treatment was replicated six times in six runs. The effects on pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations, protozoal counts, and total gas and methane production were determined. uCP content was calculated by considering the CP in the silage and the ammonia in the incubation fluid from treatments and blanks. Statistical evaluation compared data from single plants alone and together with that from the mixtures. Among treatments, SF silage contained the least CP and the most CT. The non-protein nitrogen content was lower, favouring neutral detergent soluble and insoluble protein fractions, in the SF and RC silages. Absolute uCP content was lowest in SF and SF mixtures, although the ratio to total CP was the highest. In comparison with LU, the ammonia concentration of the incubation fluid was lower for SF, RC and BTB and for the mixture of SF with LU. The total gas and methane production was similar among the treatments, and the

  11. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H; Muck, R E; Hymes-Fecht, U C

    2017-05-01

    Two lactation trials were conducted comparing the feeding value of silages made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT) to an alfalfa silage (AS) when fed as the principal forage in total mixed rations. Diets also included corn silage, high-moisture shelled corn, soybean meal, soy hulls, and supplemental fat. In trial 1, 32 lactating Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk, assigned to treatment sequences in 8 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares, and fed 50% dietary dry matter from AS or 1 of 3 BFT silages containing 0.6, 1.2, or 1.7% CT. Diets averaged 17.5 to 19.5% crude protein and 26% neutral detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. Data were collected over the last 2 wk of each 4-wk period. Intakes were 1.3 to 2.8 kg of dry matter/d greater on BFT than on AS and cows gained 0.5 kg of body weight/d on BFT diets while losing 0.14 kg of body weight/d on the AS diet; this resulted in greater milk per dry matter intake (DMI) on AS. Linear effects indicated true protein yield and milk urea nitrogen declined with increasing CT concentration and quadratic effects indicated DMI, energy-corrected milk, and fat yield were increased at intermediate CT concentration. True protein yield and apparent N-efficiency were greater, and milk urea nitrogen lower, on all BFT diets than on AS. In trial 2, 50 lactating Holstein cows were fed a covariate AS diet for 2 wk and then blocked by parity and days in milk and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 diets that were fed continuously for 12 wk. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 48% AS, 16% AS plus 32% of 1 of 3 BFT silages with 0.5, 0.8, or 1.5% CT, or 48% of an equal mixture of each BFT silage. Diets averaged 16.5% crude protein and 30% neutral detergent fiber. Intake and milk yield tended to be lower on AS than BFT, but body weight gains averaged 0.6 kg/d on all diets. Cows fed any of the BFT silages had reduced milk urea nitrogen

  12. Palatability in sheep and in vitro nutritional value of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), and chicory (Cichorium intybus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, Anna; Arrigo, Yves; Gutzwiller, Andreas; Soliva, Carla R; Wyss, Ueli; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme, Frigga

    2007-12-01

    Three temperate forages, sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil, and chicory, characterized by elevated contents of plant secondary compounds, were compared to a ryegrass-clover mixture (control) in dried (Experiment 1) and ensiled form (Experiment 2) in their palatability and nutritional value. Palatability was measured in adult wethers (n = 6) allowed to choose between the familiar control forage and one of the three test plants. Palatability index was calculated from differences in intake of control and test plants measured after given times. Generally at first contact, palatability of the unfamiliar plants was low. Lag time until palatability index approached or exceeded a value of 100 was 2-5 d, but could not be related to the content of condensed tannins. Sainfoin had a high palatability, the highest content of condensed tannins (77.4 +/- 10.23 g/kg DM), a high content of duodenally utilisable crude protein (94.7 +/- 16.87 g/100 g CP), and a high content of metabolizable energy (9.5 +/- 0.38 MJ ME/kg DM), making this plant most promising for various purposes including anthelmintic action.

  13. Plant secondary metabolites in alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, reed canarygrass, and tall fescue unaffected by two different nitrogen sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) may increase the sustainability of agriculture systems by reducing inputs, as PSM protect plants against herbivores and pathogens, act as pesticides, insecticides, and anthelmintics, while also attracting pollinators and seed dispersers. Therefore, it is important t...

  14. Calcium-Magnesium salt of saponins from bird's foot trefoil seeds (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium-magnesium salt of saponins was isolated from bird's foot trefoil seeds with a yield of 0.04%. The salt contained: 1.37% - Ca and 0.04% - Mg. The saponin salts were deionized on IR-120 Amberlite and free crystalline saponin was obtained. In both cases the presence of one major component and of three trace ones was found, using TLC. In acid hydrolysates of the saponin salts and of the free saponin the following sugars were identified: rhamaose, xylose, glucose, galactose, glucuronic acid. From among aglycones soyasapogenols B, C, traces of E, and of one unidentified in both cases were found. The Ca-Mg salt obtained seems to be a natural form of saponins in bird's foot trefoil seeds.

  15. Caracterização agronômica de genótipos de cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L. Agronomic characterization if birdsfoot trefoil genotypes (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Bolzon Soster

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de caracterizar agronomicamente genótipos de cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., incluindo oito populações do cv. São Gabriel, um cultivar rizomatoso (cv. ARS-2620 e um cultivar sem rizomas (cv. Trueno. Plantas individuais foram cultivadas e submetidas a sete cortes em condições de campo, durante um ano, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao comprimento de entrenós, estatura, diâmetro, comprimento de legumes, produção de forragem e valor nutritivo. Na média geral, as populações e o cv. Trueno foram cerca de 50% mais produtivos em relação ao cv. ARS-2620. Os genótipos apresentaram entre 80 e 100% de sobrevivência. O conteúdo de proteína bruta reduziu de 21,8% (estádio vegetativo para 11,2% (estádio de frutificação. A média geral de fibra detergente ácido foi de 24,2% e a de fibra detergente neutro variou entre 55,3 e 58,8%.This work was carried out to characterize agronomically birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes, including eight populations derived from the cultivar São Gabriel, one rhizomatous cultivar (ARS-260 and one cultivar without rhizomes (Trueno. Individual plants were submitted to seven cuts under field conditions during one year, at Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The genotypes showed variability relative to internode lenght, height, diameter, legume lenght, forage production and nutritive value. On the average, the populations and the cv. Trueno were about 50% more productive than the cv. ARS-260. The genotypes presented a survival range from 80% to 100%. The crude protein content decreased from 21.8 (vegetative stage to 11.2% (fruiting stage. The overall mean for acid detergent fiber was 24.2% and the neutral detergent fiber ranged from 55.3% to 58.8%.

  16. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In multispecies grasslands the proportion of different herb species may vary considerably due to low competitiveness of some herbs. To examine the possibility for increasing the competitiveness, an experiment with three factors was set up: 1) amount of herb seed (5, 50 or 100%) in a mixture...... (Carum carvi), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and melilot (Melilotus officinalis). All herb species, except lucerne and caraway, were most competitive in the first harvest year. The proportion of all...... herbs, except lucerne, was higher at a 6-cut than at a 4-cut strategy, and application of cattle slurry also affected the competitiveness of the herbs. In general, lucerne, chicory, caraway and plantain were the strongest competitors; salad burnet and birdsfoot trefoil were intermediate; and melilot...

  17. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Dragoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertility of arable land and the protection of agro-ecosystems. An important factor for the cheaper production of livestock feed is the possibility to provide sufficient quantities of quality seeds at affordable prices. Production of quality seeds of local varieties of perennial legumes is possible to obtain sufficient amounts of good quality forage. Current situation in forage crop seed production of the Republic of Serbia is unsatisfactory because the seed of perennial grasses are mostly imported. Domestic production of alfalfa, red clover and birdsfoot trefoil met domestic needs only in some years. Seed of imported varieties are often not satisfactory because those varieties are not adapted to our local agro-ecological conditions. The present results provide the basis and direction for further researches that may provide solutions to increase seed yields and which will be widely accepted in practice, which will make the production more cost-effective. Institute for forage crops Kruševac is making a significant contribution to the development of technology of seed productions, especially alfalfa, red clover and perennial grasses. Therefore the role of the Institute is very important and necessary link between production, processing and trading seeds of perennial legumes and grasses in Serbia.

  18. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels and placards and required to be...

  20. Trefoil knot timescales for reconnection and helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Robert M.

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional images of evolving numerical trefoil vortex knots are used to study the growth and decay of the enstrophy and helicity. Negative helicity density (hhydrofoil models is used to correct the published experimental circulations Γ that use only the flat-plate approximation.

  1. Promoter hypomethylation and upregulation of trefoil factors in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Tørring, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . In clinical samples, methylation of the promoter/enhancer regions of TFF1 and TFF3 was significantly lower in PC compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The present study shows an inverse relation between promoter methylation and expression of trefoil factors. Preliminary analysis on clinical samples...... cell lines with significant TFF expression as compared to benign immortalized prostate cell lines and PC cell lines not expressing trefoil factor. The most striking difference was observed for CpG sites located close to the AUG start codon overlapping several putative binding sites for cellular......Trefoil factors, mucin-associated peptides, are overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC). We hypothesized that promoter methylation contributes to the regulation of trefoil factors (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) in human prostate cells. Here we show hypomethylation of promoter regions of TFF1 and TFF3 in PC...

  2. Effect of trefoil factors on the viscoelastic properties of mucus gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, L; Madsen, F; Poulsen, S S

    2002-01-01

    Trefoil peptides (TFFs) are expressed and secreted in a tissue-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of coexpression of trefoil peptides and mucins has been demonstrated in most mucus-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of trefoil peptides is up-regulat...

  3. Effect of trefoil factors on the viscoelastic properties of mucus gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, L; Madsen, F; Poulsen, S S

    2002-01-01

    Trefoil peptides (TFFs) are expressed and secreted in a tissue-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of coexpression of trefoil peptides and mucins has been demonstrated in most mucus-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of trefoil peptides is up...

  4. Immunoassays of human trefoil factors 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E M; Brynskov, J; Ejskjaer, K

    2004-01-01

    The trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are cysteine-rich peptides expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where they play a critical role in mucosal protection and repair. The expression is up-regulated at sites of ulceration in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, we presented an ELISA method...

  5. Trefoil factor family peptides--friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Maike; Dünker, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are a group of molecules bearing a characteristic three-loop trefoil domain. They are mainly secreted in mucous epithelia together with mucins but are also synthesized in the nervous system. For many years, TFF peptides were only known for their wound healing and protective function, e.g. in epithelial protection and restitution. However, experimental evidence has emerged supporting a pivotal role of TFF peptides in oncogenic transformation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Deregulated expression of TFF peptides at the gene and protein level is obviously implicated in numerous cancers, and opposing functions as oncogenes and tumor suppressors have been described. With regard to the regulation of TFF expression, epigenetic mechanisms as well as the involvement of various miRNAs are new, promising aspects in the field of cancer research. This review will summarize current knowledge about the expression and regulation of TFF peptides and the involvement of TFF peptides in tumor biology and cancerogenesis.

  6. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, E M; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs in pregnant...... women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum....

  7. Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida

    2007-01-01

    pattern of the three trefoil factors analyzing mRNA from a panel of 20 human tissues by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and, in addition, by real-time PCR. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tissues using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised...... closely related TFF1 and TFF3 showed a more general tissue distribution and were found to colocalize on an array of mucosal surfaces. This is the first thorough parallel description of the tissue distribution of TFFs in normal tissues, and it provides a baseline for similar analysis in diseased tissues...

  8. Quantitative measurements of trefoil factor family peptides: possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund

    2013-01-01

    The trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are produced and secreted by mucous membranes throughout the body. Their importance for the protection and repair of epithelial surfaces is well established, and the three peptides are present in various amounts in mucosal secretions...... as well as in the circulation. They have been linked to both inflammatory diseases and to various types of cancer, and serum concentrations of TFF3 show a more than 47-fold increase during pregnancy. Several both commercial and in-house immunoassays exist, but a number of methodological issues remain...

  9. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  10. Distribution and metabolism of intravenously administered trefoil factor 2/porcine spasmolytic polypeptide in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba

    1998-01-01

    Trefoil peptides are secreted by mucus producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and are supposed to be involved in oligomerisation processes of the mucin glycoproteins in the lumen. Endocrine functions have also been suggested.......Trefoil peptides are secreted by mucus producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and are supposed to be involved in oligomerisation processes of the mucin glycoproteins in the lumen. Endocrine functions have also been suggested....

  11. Aortic valvuloplasty of calcific aortic stenosis with monofoil and trefoil balloon catheters: practical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Plante (Sylvain); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); L.C.P. van Veen; C. di Mario (Carlo); C.E. Essed; K.J. Beatt (Kevin); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn order to evaluate the relation between balloon design (monofoil, trefoil) and valvular configuration, experimental aortic valvuloplasty was performed in four post-mortem hearts with calcific aortic stenosis of various morphology. The degree of obstruction of the aortic orifice was

  12. Trefoil factor family peptides in the human foetus and at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (7): 785-792 ABSTRACT: Background Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are cysteine-rich peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces. Changing levels of expression are reflected in serum concentrations. Serum levels of TFF2 and TFF3 are highly elevated during pregnancy. Here, we explore...

  13. Trefoil factor peptide 3 is positively correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara Kjær; Samson, Mie Hesselund; Becher, Naja

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug are considered essential for the occlusion of the cervical canal and thereby for protection against ascending infections during pregnancy. Factors controlling this property are virtually unknown. This study explores a possible role of trefoil...

  14. Trefoil factors are expressed in human and rat endocrine pancreas: differential regulation by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackerott, Malene; Lee, Ying C; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2, and 3 are expressed in mucosal epithelia. TFFs are particular abundant in the intestine in which they play a crucial role in maintenance and restitution of the epithelium. Because pancreas developmentally arises from the primitive foregut, we explored the expression o...

  15. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  16. BEL β-trefoil: a novel lectin with antineoplastic properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Cenci, Lucia; Perduca, Massimiliano; Capaldi, Stefano; Carrizo, Maria E; Civiero, Laura; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2013-05-01

    A novel lectin was purified from the fruiting bodies of king bolete mushrooms (Boletus edulis, also called porcino, cep or penny bun). The lectin was structurally characterized i.e its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined. The new protein is a homodimer and each protomer folds as β-trefoil domain and therefore we propose the name Boletus edulis lectin (BEL) β-trefoil to distinguish it from the other lectin that has been described in these mushrooms. The lectin has potent anti-proliferative effects on human cancer cells, which confers to it an interesting therapeutic potential as an antineoplastic agent. Several crystal forms of the apoprotein and of complexes with different carbohydrates were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the apoprotein was solved at 1.12 Å resolution. The interaction of the lectin with lactose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc, was examined in detail. All the three potential binding sites present in the β-trefoil fold are occupied in at least one crystal form and are described in detail in this paper. No important conformational changes are observed in the lectin when comparing its co-crystals with carbohydrates with those of the ligand-free protein.

  17. Evolution of trefoil factor(s: genetic and spatio-temporal expression of trefoil factor 2 in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Jiang

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors are essential healing initiators participating in mucosal reconstitution and tissue morphogenesis, especially on the surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract. This family has been cloned and characterized predominantly from mammals and amphibians. Avian species ingest stone and grit to help digest food, which may expose their gut to severe physical conditions. To further the understanding of the function of the TFF gene family across species, we undertook this research to clone, sequence, and characterize the spatio-temporal expression patterns of chicken TFF2 (ChTFF2 cDNA. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter region and deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated that ChTFF2 contained unique characteristics; specifically the chicken promoter has multiple start sites and the protein contains a series of Lys-Lys-Val repeats. Unlike mammals, where TFF2 is detected primarily in the stomach, and occasionally in the proximal duodenum, chicken TFF2 transcripts are found throughout the gastrointestinal tract, with major expression sites in the glandular and muscular stomach as well as evident expression in the colon, small intestine, cecal tonsil and crop. Temporal analysis of intestinal ChTFF2 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR showed high levels in embryos and a trend of constant expression during embryonic and post-hatch development, with a reduction occurring around hatch. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted the conservation of TFF proteins and functional divergence of trefoil domains, which suggest a transitional role in the bird during evolution.

  18. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 expression is regulated by insulin and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Jose Barrera Roa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. They are classified into three groups: the gastric peptides (TFF1, spasmolytic peptide (TFF2 and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3. Previous studies have shown that trefoil factors are located and expressed in human endocrine pancreas suggesting that TFF3 play a role in: a pancreatic cells migration, b β-cell mitosis, and c pancreatic cells regeneration. We speculated that the presence of TFF3 in pancreas, could be associated to a possible regulation mechanism by insulin and glucose. To date, there are not reports whether the unbalance in carbohydrate metabolism observed in diabetes could affect the production or expression of TFF3.Methods: We determined the TFF3 levels and expression by immunoassay (ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique respectively, of intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29 treated with glucose and insulin. Also,Real Time-PCR (RTq-PCR was done.Results: Increasing concentrations of glucose improved TFF3 expression and these levels were further elevated after insulin treatment. Insulin treatment also led to the up-regulation of human sodium/glucose transporter 1 (hSGLT1, which further increases intracellular glucose levels. Finally, we investigated theTFF3 levels in serum of diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM and healthy patients. Here we shown that serum TFF3 levels were down-regulated in T1DM and this levels were up-regulated after insulin treatment. Also, the TFF3 levels of healthy donors were up-regulated 2 h after breakfast.Conclusion: Our fi ndings suggest for the fi rst time that insulin signaling is important for TFF3 optimal expression in serum and intestinal epithelial cells.

  19. Trefoil factors in saliva and gingival tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Chayasadom, Anek; Wara-Aswapati, Nawarat

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trefoil factors (TFFs) are secreted molecules that are involved in cytoprotection against tissue damage and the immune response. TFFs have been detected in saliva and oral tissues, but their clinical significance has never been investigated in patients with chronic periodontitis....... The objective of this study is to determine whether TFF expression in saliva and gingival tissues is associated with periodontal pathology. METHODS: Saliva and gingival tissue samples were collected from 25 non-periodontitis individuals and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Enzyme...... observed in patients with CP (P = 0.003 and P periodontal pathology and number of Porphyromonas gingivalis...

  20. Intestinal trefoil factor in treatment of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Bing-Hong; Yu, Hong-Gang; Yu, Jie-Ping; Xi, Juan-Li

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disease of premature infants. The role of cytokines and growth factors in the pathophysiology of NEC is not yet clearly defined. Among these factors, the intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is known as cytoprotective to the gut. We studied the cytoprotective effect of trefoil factor in the 1-day-old Wistar rat pup model following hypoxic-ischemic cold stress. In the present study, thirty 1-day-old Wistar rat pups were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1, normal controls: Group 2, NEC; Group 3, NEC+ITF. Experimental NEC was induced by exposure to hypoxia for 60 s followed by cold stress at 4 degrees C for 10 min. The animals were euthanized at development of NEC, and at 96 h the intestinal tissue was processed and examined for histological changes of NEC. The pathological lesions indicated severe separation of the submucosa and lamina propria and tissue necrosis in Group 2, and slight submucosal and lamina propria separation in Group 3. There were no histopathological changes in the controls. The mean of histological grade of group 2 was 2.8 (range 2-4), and 1.2 (range 0-2) in group 3. A difference was found when the two groups were compared (P<0.05). ITF may provide a new way for the therapy of NEC in rats.

  1. Systemically administered trefoil factors are secreted into the gastric lumen and increase the viscosity of gastric contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellev, S.; Nexo, E.; Thim, L.

    2006-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) secreted by mucus-producing cells are essential for the defence of the gastrointestinal mucosa. TFFs probably influence the viscoelastic properties of mucus, but this has not been demonstrated in vivo. We therefore studied the gastric secretion of systemically administered ...

  2. Investigation of trefoil factor expression in saliva and oral mucosal tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Utrawichian, Akasith; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of our study were to determine levels of trefoil factor (TFF) peptides in saliva and oral mucosal tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate whether individual members of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) might act as biomarkers of disease...

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  4. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared...... and specificity of plasma TFF3 in differentiating between patients with localized and advanced disease was 74% (59-85%) and 81% (66-91%). Plasma levels of TFF3 were highest in patients with bone metastases (P = 0.008). Patients with serum PSA >10 microg/L had significantly higher plasma TFF3 values than patients...... with serum PSA or = 7 (P = 0.02). Expression of TFF1 and TFF3 determined by immunohistochemistry was increased in patients with prostate cancer but did not correlate with plasma trefoil factor values. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma...

  5. Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3 Is Regulated by Food Intake, Improves Glucose Tolerance and Induces Mucinous Metaplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Ge

    Full Text Available Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3, also called intestinal trefoil factor or Itf, is a 59 amino acid peptide found as a homodimer predominantly along the gastrointestinal tract and in serum. TFF3 expression is elevated during gastrointestinal adenoma progression and has been shown to promote mucosal wound healing. Here we show that in contrast to other trefoil factor family members, TFF1 and TFF2, TFF3 is highly expressed in mouse duodenum, jejunum and ileum and that its expression is regulated by food intake. Overexpression of TFF3 using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV vector, or daily administration of recombinant TFF3 protein in vivo improved glucose tolerance in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Body weight, fasting insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol and leptin levels were not affected by TFF3 treatment. Induction of mucinous metaplasia was observed in mice with AAV-mediated TFF3 overexpression, however, no such adverse histological effect was seen after the administration of recombinant TFF3 protein. Altogether these results suggest that the therapeutic potential of targeting TFF3 to treat T2D may be limited.

  6. A novel non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from amphibian skin and its functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bai Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, non-lens betagamma-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive.A naturally existing 72-kDa complex of non-lens betagamma-crystallin (alpha-subunit and trefoil factor (beta-subunit, named betagamma-CAT, was identified from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Its alpha-subunit and beta-subunit (containing three trefoil factor domains, with a non-covalently linked form of alphabeta(2, show significant sequence homology to ep37 proteins, a group of non-lens betagamma-crystallins identified in newt Cynops pyrrhogaster and mammalian trefoil factors, respectively. betagamma-CAT showed potent hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. The specific antiserum against each subunit was able to neutralize its hemolytic activity, indicating that the two subunits are functionally associated. betagamma-CAT formed membrane pores with a functional diameter about 2.0 nm, leading to K(+ efflux and colloid-osmotic hemolysis. High molecular weight SDS-stable oligomers (>240-kDa were detected by antibodies against the alpha-subunit with Western blotting. Furthermore, betagamma-CAT showed multiple cellular effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Low dosages of betagamma-CAT (25-50 pM were able to stimulate cell migration and wound healing. At high concentrations, it induced cell detachment (EC(50 10 nM and apoptosis. betagamma-CAT was rapidly endocytosed via intracellular vacuole formation. Under confocal microscope, some of the vacuoles were translocated to nucleus and partially fused with nuclear membrane. Bafilomycin A1 (a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar-type ATPase and nocodazole (an agent of microtuble depolymerizing, while inhibited betagamma-CAT induced vacuole formation, significantly inhibited betagamma-CAT induced cell detachment, suggesting

  7. pH and urea dependence of amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates in the beta-trefoil protein hisactophilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houliston, R Scott; Liu, Chengsong; Singh, Laila M R; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2002-01-29

    Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange rates were measured as a function of pH and urea for 37 slowly exchanging amides in the beta-trefoil protein hisactophilin. The rank order of exchange rates is generally maintained under different solution conditions, and trends in the pH and urea dependence of exchange rates are correlated with the rank order of exchange rates. The observed trends are consistent with the expected behavior for exchange of different amides via global and/or local unfolding. Analysis of the pH dependence of exchange in terms of rate constants for structural opening and closing reveals a wide range of rates in different parts of the hisactophilin structure. The slowest exchanging amides have the slowest opening and closing rates. Many of the slowest exchanging amides are located in trefoil 2, but there are also some slow exchanging amides in trefoils 1 and 3. Slow exchangers tend to be near the interface between the beta-barrel and the beta-hairpin triplet portions of this single-domain structure. The pattern of exchange behaviour in hisactophilin is similar to that observed previously in interleukin-1 beta, indicating that exchange properties may be conserved among beta-trefoil proteins. Comparisons of opening and closing rates in hisactophilin with rates obtained for other proteins reveal clear trends for opening rates; however, trends in closing rates are less apparent, perhaps due to inaccuracies in the values used for intrinsic exchange rates in the data fitting. On the basis of the pH and urea dependence of exchange rates and optical measurements of stability and folding, EX2 is the main exchange mechanism in hisactophilin, but there is also evidence for varying levels of EX1 exchange at low and high pH and high urea concentrations. Equilibrium intermediates in which subglobal portions of structure are cooperatively disrupted are not apparent from analysis of the urea dependence of exchange rates. There is, however, a strong correlation between

  8. Promoter polymorphisms in trefoil factor 2 and trefoil factor 3 genes and susceptibility to gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis among Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Chen, Mo-Ye; He, Cai-Yun; Sun, Li-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-10-15

    The polymorphisms in trefoil factor (TFF) gene family that protect gastrointestinal epithelium might influence individual vulnerability to gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY platform to identify the genotypes of TFF2 rs3814896 and TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphisms in 478 GC patients, 652 atrophic gastritis patients, and 724 controls. For the TFF2 rs3814896 polymorphism, in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years, we found that AG+GG genotypes were associated with a 0.746-fold decreased risk of atrophic gastritis [p=0.023, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.580-0.960], a 0.626-fold decreased risk of GC (p=0.005, 95% CI=0.451-0.868), and a 0.663-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC (p=0.034, 95% CI=0.452-0.970) compared with the common AA genotype. For the TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphism, in the male subgroup, individuals with variant AG+AA genotype were associated with a 0.761-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC compared with the common GG genotype (p=0.043, 95% CI=0.584-0.992). Additionally, we found that in subjects aged ≤ 50 years compared with common AA genotype, TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes were associated with increased TFF2 mRNA levels in the total gastric cancer specimens and in the diffuse-type gastric cancer specimens; and in males aged ≤ 50 years compared with common GG genotype, TFF3 rs9981660 AA+AG genotypes were associated with TFF3 mRNA levels in diffuse-type gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between the TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes and decreased risks of GC, diffuse-type GC, and atrophic gastritis in younger people aged ≤ 50 years, and an association between TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotype and decreased risk of diffuse-type GC in men. Moreover, we found that TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes in people aged ≤ 50 years and TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotypes in younger males with diffuse-type GC were associated with higher levels of

  9. Excitonic Coupling in Linear and Trefoil Trimer Perylenediimide Molecules Probed by Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Yoo, Hyejin

    2012-10-25

    Perylenediimide (PDI) molecules are promising building blocks for photophysical studies of electronic interactions within multichromophore arrays. Such PDI arrays are important materials for fabrication of molecular nanodevices such as organic light-emitting diodes, organic semiconductors, and biosensors because of their high photostability, chemical and physical inertness, electron affinity, and high tinctorial strength over the entire visible spectrum. In this work, PDIs have been organized into linear (L3) and trefoil (T3) trimer molecules and investigated by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to probe the relationship between molecular structures and interchromophoric electronic interactions. We found a broad distribution of coupling strengths in both L3 and T3 and hence strong/weak coupling between PDI units by monitoring spectral peak shifts in single-molecule fluorescence spectra upon sequential photobleaching of each constituent chromophore. In addition, we used a wide-field defocused imaging technique to resolve heterogeneities in molecular structures of L3 and T3 embedded in a PMMA polymer matrix. A systematic comparison between the two sets of experimental results allowed us to infer the correlation between intermolecular interactions and molecular structures. Our results show control of the PDI intermolecular interactions using suitable multichromophoric structures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lebherz-Eichinger

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In many patients CKD is diagnosed late during disease progression. Therefore, the implementation of potential biomarkers may facilitate the early identification of individuals at risk. Trefoil factor family (TFF peptides promote restitution processes of mucous epithelia and are abundant in the urinary tract. We therefore sought to investigate the TFF peptide levels in patients suffering from CKD and their potential as biomarkers for CKD. We analysed TFF1 and TFF3 in serum and urine of 115 patients with CKD stages 1-5 without dialysis by ELISA. 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Our results showed, that urinary TFF1 levels were significantly increased with the onset of CKD in stages 1-4 as compared to controls and declined during disease progression (p = 0.003, 0.8. In conclusion our results show increased levels of TFF1 and TFF3 in CKD patients with a pronounced elevation of urinary TFF1 in lower CKD stages. Furthermore, TFF1 and TFF3 seems to be differently regulated and show potential to predict various CKD stages, as shown by ROC curve analysis.

  11. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) deficiency in murine digestive tract influences the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus-Loncar, Mirela; Schmid, Janinne; Lalani, El-Nasir; Rosewell, Ian; Goodlad, Robert A; Stamp, Gordon W H; Blin, Nikolaus; Kayademir, Tuncay

    2005-01-01

    The gastrointestinal trefoil factor family (TFF1, TFF2, TFF3) peptides are considered to play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosa. The physiological role of TFF2 in the protection of the GI tract was investigated in TFF2 deficiency. TFF2-/- mice were generated and differential expression of various genes was assessed by using a mouse expression microarray, quantitative real time PCR, Northern blots or immunohistochemistry. On an mRNA level we found 128 differentially expressed genes. We observed modulation of a number of crucial genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity in the TFF2-/- mice. Expression of proteasomal subunits genes (LMP2, LMP7 and PSMB5) involved in the MHC class I presentation pathway were modulated indicating the formation of immunoproteasomes improving antigen presentation. Expression of one subunit of a transporter (TAP1) responsible for importing degraded antigens into ER was increased, similarly to the BAG2 gene that modulates chaperone activity in ER helping proper loading on MHC class I molecules. Several mouse defensin (cryptdin) genes coding important intestinal microbicidal proteins were up-regulated as a consequence of TFF2 deficiency. Normally moderate expression of TFF3 was highly increased in stomach. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Overexpression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) contributes to the malignant progression in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaohu; Chen, Dandan; Chen, Xiaojie; Yang, Huikuan; Wei, Yaming

    2017-01-01

    There remains a great need for effective therapies for cervical cancers, the majority of which are aggressive leaving patients with poor prognosis. Here, we identify a novel candidate therapeutic target, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) which overexpressed in cervical cancer cells and was associated with reduced postoperative survival. Functional studies demonstrated that TFF3 overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells, and inhibited the apoptosis by inducing the mRNA changes in SiHa and Hela cell lines. Conversely, TFF3 silencing disrupted the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells, and induced the apoptosis via Click-iT EdU test, flow cytometry analysis and two-dimensional Matrigel Transwell analysis. Western blot analysis showed that overexpression of TFF3 repressed E-cadherin (CDH1) expression to promote the invasion of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulated CDH1 via overexpression of TFF3 was significantly up-regulated by virtue of inhibitor of p-STAT3. These results suggested that TFF3 stimulated the invasion of cervical cancer cells probably by activating the STAT3/CDH1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of TFF3 decreased the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to etoposide by increasing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) functional activity. Overall, our work provides a preclinical proof that TFF3 not only contributes to the malignant progression of cervical cancers and but also is a potential therapeutic target.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization, farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, stubble crop (oleiferous radish, oleiferous radish – mulch. The results pointed that, the conditions of vegetation period, significantly modified the consumption values of potato tubers. The consumption value of potato tubers which were fertilized with intercrops was formed on approximated level, as the potato which was fertilized with farmyard manure. The best consumption features, especially taste, had potatoes which were fertilized with birdsfoot trefoil and with the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and Italian ryegrass.

  14. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    . The ten species were: chicory (Cichorium intybus), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), birds-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), white meliot (Melilotus officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), white clover...

  15. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ``Mitsuba``, Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, immersed in hydroponic culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro

    1998-11-01

    Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ``Mitsuba``, Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, with or without root was investigated to prepare higher radioactive plant in hydroponic culture medium (140-150 Bq/ml). It was found that {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue was increased with time, as high as 1.6 times of that in the culture medium after 4 days. On the other hand, {sup 137}Cs concentration was affected by carrier element (Cs>6 ppm) and coexistent elements in the medium. Radioactivity of the plant after 4 days was shown to be sufficient for successive experiments. (author)

  16. Accumulation of 137Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ''Mitsuba'', Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, immersed in hydroponic culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    Accumulation of 137 Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ''Mitsuba'', Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, with or without root was investigated to prepare higher radioactive plant in hydroponic culture medium (140-150 Bq/ml). It was found that 137 Cs concentration in plant tissue was increased with time, as high as 1.6 times of that in the culture medium after 4 days. On the other hand, 137 Cs concentration was affected by carrier element (Cs>6 ppm) and coexistent elements in the medium. Radioactivity of the plant after 4 days was shown to be sufficient for successive experiments. (author)

  17. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. → Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. → Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  18. Metabolism of oral trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) and the effect of oral and parenteral TFF2 on gastric and duodenal ulcer healing in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Thulesen, J; Christensen, L

    1999-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) are peptides produced by mucus-secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tract. A functional association between these peptides and mucus, leading to stabilisation of the viscoelastic gel overlying the epithelia, has been suggested. Both oral and parenteral administration of ...

  19. Preliminary Results of Relationship between Preoperative Walking Ability and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Morphology in Patients with Lumbar Canal Stenosis: Comparison between Trefoil and Triangle Types of Spinal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Parisa; Yazdanian, Taravat; Benzel, Edward C

    2017-08-01

    Cross-sectional. To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphology stenosis grades and preoperative walking ability in patients with lumbar canal stenosis (LCS). No previous study has analyzed the correlation between MRI morphology stenosis grades and walking ability in patients with LCS. This prospective study included 98 consecutive patients with LCS who were candidates for surgery. Using features identified in T2-weighted axial magnetic, stenosis type was determined at the maximal stenosis level, and only trefoil and triangle stenosis grade types were considered because of sufficient sample size. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed by calculating weighted kappa coefficients. Symptom severity was evaluated via the Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ). Walking ability was assessed using the Self-Paced Walking Test (SPWT) and JOABPEQ subscales. Demographic characteristics, SPWT scores, and JOABPEQ scores were compared between patients with trefoil and triangle stenosis types. The mean patient age was 58.1 (standard deviation, 8.4) years. The kappa values of the MRI morphology stenosis grade types showed a perfect agreement between the stenosis grade types. The trefoil group (n=53) and triangle group (n=45) showed similar preoperative JOABPEQ subscale scores (e.g., low back pain, lumbar function, and mental health) and were not significantly different in age, BMI, duration of symptoms, or lumbar stenosis levels (all p >0.05); however, trefoil stenosis grade type was associated with a decreased walking ability according to the SPWT and JOABPEQ subscale scores. These findings suggest preoperative walking ability is more profoundly affected in patients with trefoil type stenosis than in those with triangle type stenosis.

  20. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  1. Investigation of trefoil factor expression in saliva and oral mucosal tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Utrawichian, Akasith; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Vatanasapt, Patrawut; Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Samson, Mie Hessellund; Giraud, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    The aims of our study were to determine levels of trefoil factor (TFF) peptides in saliva and oral mucosal tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate whether individual members of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) might act as biomarkers of disease. Saliva samples were from 23 healthy subjects and 23 OSCC patients. Tissue samples were collected from 32 normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 32 OSCC biopsy specimens. ELISA and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in saliva and oral mucosal tissues, respectively. Expression of TFF2 and TFF3 in oral mucosal tissues of OSCC patients was strongly downregulated when compared to healthy subjects (p markers of tumor progression in OSCC. Quantification of TFF levels in saliva may not be optimal in terms of diagnostic or predictive value for OSCC derived from oral mucosa.

  2. Protective effect of intestinal trefoil factor on injury of intestinal epithelial tight junction induced by platelet activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-fen; Teng, Xu; Guo, Jing; Sun, Mei

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To evaluate the effect of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) on increased intestinal permeability and its association with tight junction proteins, an in vitro intestinal epithelia barrier model was established with Caco-2 cells and treated with platelet-activating factor (PAF). We found that exposing cells to 0.3 M ITF (30 min before or 30 min after PAF treatment) attenuated the PAF-induced changes in transepithelial electrical resistance and Lucifer yellow flux. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that ITF suppressed PAF-induced downregulation of tight junction proteins claudin-1 and ZO-1 expression; furthermore, an abnormal localization and distribution of these proteins was inhibited, as assessed by immunofluorescence staining. These results suggest that ITF decreases mucosal permeability and shows potential as a therapy for treating IBD.

  3. Host-derived, pore-forming toxin-like protein and trefoil factor complex protects the host against microbial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Yan, Chao; Guo, Xiaolong; Zhou, Kaifeng; Li, Sheng'an; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-05-06

    Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the bacterial β-pore-forming toxin superfamily. Surprisingly, numerous aerolysin-like proteins exist in vertebrates, but their biological functions are unknown. βγ-CAT, a complex of an aerolysin-like protein subunit (two βγ-crystallin domains followed by an aerolysin pore-forming domain) and two trefoil factor subunits, has been identified in frogs (Bombina maxima) skin secretions. Here, we report the rich expression of this protein, in the frog blood and immune-related tissues, and the induction of its presence in peritoneal lavage by bacterial challenge. This phenomena raises the possibility of its involvement in antimicrobial infection. When βγ-CAT was administrated in a peritoneal infection model, it greatly accelerated bacterial clearance and increased the survival rate of both frogs and mice. Meanwhile, accelerated Interleukin-1β release and enhanced local leukocyte recruitments were determined, which may partially explain the robust and effective antimicrobial responses observed. The release of interleukin-1β was potently triggered by βγ-CAT from the frog peritoneal cells and murine macrophages in vitro. βγ-CAT was rapidly endocytosed and translocated to lysosomes, where it formed high molecular mass SDS-stable oligomers (>170 kDa). Lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin B release were detected, which may explain the activation of caspase-1 inflammasome and subsequent interleukin-1β maturation and release. To our knowledge, these results provide the first functional evidence of the ability of a host-derived aerolysin-like protein to counter microbial infection by eliciting rapid and effective host innate immune responses. The findings will also largely help to elucidate the possible involvement and action mechanisms of aerolysin-like proteins and/or trefoil factors widely existing in vertebrates in the host defense against pathogens.

  4. The role of trefoil factor family in apparently healthy subjects administrated gastroprotective agents for the primary prevention of gastrointestinal injuries from low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Takagi, Yu; Fukuzawa, Mari; Yamagishi, Tetsuya; Goto, Shinya

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid induces gastrointestinal complication. Recently, trefoil factor family has been reported as a mucosal protective factor. We focused on trefoil factor family as one of defensive system for gastrointestinal injuries. The aim of this trial was to evaluate trefoil factor family levels in the serum of healthy subjects with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with placebo or proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide were administered in 30 healthy subjects. Transnasal endoscopy was performed at 0, 24 h, 3 and 7 day. Changing of trefoil factor family (1,2,3) and numbers of gastric injuries were evaluated. The numbers of gastric injuries were significantly increased in the placebo group at 3 and 7 days. Injuries in the proton pump inhibitor group were not induced, in the rebamipide group were slightly induced. Trefoil factor family level in the placebo group were decreased in 3 and 7 days compared with prior to starting the trial. Trefoil factor family may have an important association with acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal damage. Proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide prevented low-dose acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal complications compared with the placebo group.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  6. Host-defense and trefoil factor family peptides in skin secretions of the Mawa clawed frog Xenopus boumbaensis (Pipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Leprince, Jérôme; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2015-10-01

    Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from the octoploid Mawa clawed frog Xenopus boumbaensis Loumont, 1983 led to the identification and characterization of 15 host-defense peptides belonging to the magainin (two peptides), peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa; three peptides), xenopsin precursor fragment (XPF; three peptides), caerulein precursor fragment (CPF; two peptides), and caerulein precursor fragment-related peptide (CPF-RP; five peptides) families. In addition, caerulein and three peptides with structural similarity to the trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides, xP2 and xP4 from Xenopus laevis were also present in the secretions. Consistent with data from comparisons of the nucleotides sequence of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, the primary structures of the peptides suggest a close phylogenetic relationship between X. boumbaensis and the octoploid frogs Xenopus amieti and Xenopus andrei. As the three species occupy disjunct ranges within Cameroon, it is suggested that they diverged from a common ancestor by allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endometriosis Leads to an Increased Trefoil Factor 3 Concentration in the Peritoneal Cavity but Does Not Alter Systemic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Diana; Doecke, Wolf-Dietrich; Hornung, Daniela; Agueusop, Inoncent; von Ahsen, Oliver; Machens, Kathrin; Schmitz, Arndt A; Gashaw, Isabella

    2017-02-01

    This study analyzed whether trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is locally elevated and correlated with common biomarkers and inflammatory processes in endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid (PF) was obtained from 50 women and serum from 124 women with or without endometriosis. Experimental endometriosis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by syngeneic transplantation of uterine tissue to the abdominal wall. Levels of TFF3 in PF of women with endometriosis were significantly increased ( P endometriosis: cancer antigen (CA) 125, CA-19-9, interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 7. Serum levels of TFF3 in women were significantly influenced by the menstrual cycle but were independent from disease state. In mice, local TFF3 levels were significantly elevated in early endometriosis (up to 4 weeks after transplantation, P peritoneal cavity in endometriosis and might play a role in disease pathogenesis and its associated inflammatory processes. Furthermore, the results show that TFF3 is regulated through the menstrual cycle. With respect to animal models, syngeneic mouse model does reflect local TFF3 upregulation in the peritoneal cavity affected by endometriosis.

  8. Long term irradiation of SAP-clad, UO2 fuelled, trefoil bundles in the X-7 organic cooled loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.; Thexton, H.E.; Lew, D.E.; MacDonald, R.D.; Heal, K.G.

    1963-05-01

    An irradiation of experimental fuel bundles of UO 2 clad in Sintered Aluminium Product (SAP) sheaths was performed in the X-7 loop in the NRX Reactor from August to November 1961. The twofold objective of this irradiation was to gain confidence in the use of such a fuel in an organic coolant and to assess the fouling problem associated with a coolant which was as 'clean' as the existing technology could produce. The trefoil bundles successfully underwent an irradiation of 2400 MWD/Tonne U (max.). The maximum sheath temperature was 460 o C in a coolant temperature of about 310 o C. Surface heat fluxes were roughly 100 w/cm 2 . After irradiation a film of about 80 μm thickness was found covering the sheath over fuelled sections. The film was by weight 40% polymerized organic and 60% Fe 3 O 4 . The net effect of the film was to increase the pressure drop across the fuel by 50% and increase the sheath temperature by 60 o C. The SAP sheath showed no effects of irradiation except for small apparent increases in diameter at two out of eighteen planes measured. The appearance of the UO 2 was similar to that of UO 2 irradiated in pressurized water loops at similar heat ratings. (author)

  9. Forced Trefoil Factor Family Peptide 3 (TFF3) Expression Reduces Growth, Viability, and Tumorigenicity of Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Kreul, Jan; Busch, Maike; Winter, Claudia; Pikos, Stefanie; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to effect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of normal cells and various cancer cell lines. In the literature TFF peptides are controversially discussed as tumor suppressors and potential tumor progression factors. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF3 overexpression on growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of the human retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, WERI-Rb1, RBL-13 and RBL-15. As revealed by WST-1 and TUNEL assays as well as DAPI and BrdU cell counts, recombinant human TFF3 significantly lowers retinoblastoma cell viability and increases apoptosis levels. Transient TFF3 overexpression likewise significantly increases RB cell apoptosis. Stable, lentiviral TFF3 overexpression lowers retinoblastoma cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases cell death in retinoblastoma cells. Blockage experiments using a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor and capase-3 immunocytochemistry revealed the involvement of caspases in general and of caspase-3 in particular in TFF3 induced apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. Soft agarose and in ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF3 overexpression influences anchorage independent growth and significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from retinoblastoma cells. Our study demonstrates that forced TFF3 expression exerts a significant pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and tumor suppressive effect in retinoblastoma cells, setting a starting point for new additive chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of retinoblastoma.

  10. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  11. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  12. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  13. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  14. A Variant Form of the Human Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumor 1 (DMBT1) Gene Shows Increased Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Interacts with Dimeric Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Nielsen, Ole Stig

    2013-01-01

    The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1) and the trefoil factor (TFF) proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human...

  15. Site-characteristic expression and induction of trefoil factor family 1, 2 and 3 and malignant brain tumor-1 in normal and diseased intrahepatic bile ducts relates to biliary pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Motoko; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Saito, Takahito

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Trefoil factor family (TFF)1,2,3 are involved in a homeostasis/repair process of mucosal epithelia. In this study, the significance of TFF family and deleted in the malignant brain tumor-1 (DMBT1), a putative receptor of TFF2, in the intrahepatic biliary tree was investigated...

  16. Enhanced antidepressant-like effects of the macromolecule trefoil factor 3 by loading into negatively charged liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qin,1 Xu Yang,1–3 Jia Mi,4 Jianxin Wang,1 Jia Hou,1,2 Teng Shen,1 Yongji Li,2 Bin Wang,4 Xuri Li,4 Weili Zhu5 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, 5National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Immunocytes, mainly neutrophils and monocytes, exhibit an intrinsic homing property, enabling them to migrate to sites of injury and inflammation. They can thus act as Trojan horses carrying concealed drug cargoes while migrating across impermeable barriers to sites of disease, especially the blood–brain barrier (BBB. In this study, to target circulating phagocytic cells, we formulated negatively charged nanosize liposomes and loaded trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 into liposomes by the pH-gradient method. According to the optimized formulation (5:1.5 of lipid to cholesterol, 10:1 of lipid to drug, 10 mg/mL of lipid concentration, and 10 mmol/L of phosphate-buffered saline, 44.47% entrapment efficiency was obtained for TFF3 liposomes with 129.6 nm particle size and –36.6 mV zeta potential. Compared with neutrally charged liposomes, the negatively charged liposomes showed a strong binding capacity with monocytes and were effectively carried by monocytes to cross the BBB in vitro. Furthermore, enhanced antidepressant-like effects were found in the tail-suspension and forced-swim tests in mice, as measured by decreased immobility time, as well as increased swimming time and reduced immobility in rats. These results suggested that negatively charged liposomes could improve the behavioral responses of TFF3, and our study opens up a new way for the development of

  17. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  18. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  19. Seed lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, I A

    1966-12-02

    Many of the newly discovered seedoil acids have reactive or unusual functional groups or other facets of molecular structure that permit their ready differentiation from oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and the other most prevalent saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The recognition and availability of the new acids, coupled with methods that make detection and determination easy, will help studies of lipid biosynthesis in the plant and of lipid metabolism and utilization in animals, and will stimulate more studies in depth on the fine points of seedlipid structure. Correlations of structural patterns in seed lipids of particular groups of plants with classical taxonomic categories will permit clarifications, raise needed questions concerning classifications, and accelerate research in chemotaxonomy and phylogenetics. Seed lipids are particularly well suited for establishing relationships among plants because of their great variety in structure compared to the more limited structural types of amino acids, sugars, purines, and many other plant substances. The newly characterized seed oils are potentially important industrial raw materials whenever they come from agronomically promising plant species. The molecular structures of seed triglycerides have major influence on their physical properties and therefore advances in knowledge in that sphere have practical implications. For example, the unusual characteristics of cocoa butter that make it so valuable for food and confectionery use are attributed to the specific arrangement of fatty acids it its triglycerides. The glycerides are almost all 2-oleic-1,3-disaturated acid triglycerides. The physical characteristics of lard are advantageously changed by catalytically rearranging fatty acyl groups among the glycerides initially in the fat to achieve a more nearly random distribution, followed sometimes by further fractionation to remove more saturated glycerides. Through this change of glyceride structures a

  20. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  1. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  2. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  3. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  4. Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 (TFF3) in epithelial tissues originating from the three germ layers of developing mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Tolušić Levak, Maja; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-20

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are involved in the maintenance of epithelial integrity and epithelial restitution. Mature epithelial tissues originate from different embryonic germ layers. The objective of this research was to explore the presence and localization of TFF3 peptide in mouse embryonic epithelia and to examine if the occurrence of TFF3 peptide is germ layer-dependent. Mouse embryos (14-18 days old) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed with affinity purified rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody, goat anti-rabbit biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, followed by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. TFF3 peptide was present in the gastric and intestinal mucosa, respiratory mucosa in the upper and lower airways, pancreas, kidney tubules, epidermis, and oral cavity. The presence and localization of TFF3 peptide was associated with the embryonic stage and tissue differentiation. TFF3 peptide distribution specific to the germ layers was not observed. The role of TFF3 peptide in cell migration and differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis might be associated with specific embryonic epithelial cells. TFF3 peptide may also be considered as a marker for mucosal maturation.

  5. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes for extending the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss how clovers and warm-season legumes, such as alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil, in mixture with grasses can enhance the overall nutritive value of the overall forage, increase dry matter yield, and contribute nitrogen to the soil via the nitrogen fixing Rhizobia bacteria ...

  6. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    plantain ( Plantago lanceolata )) and three legume species (yellow sweet clover ( Melilotus officinalis ), lucerne ( Medicago sativa ), and birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus ))] and a perennial ryegrass-white clover mixture were investigated in a cutting trial with four harvests (May-October) during...

  7. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient

  8. Giardia co-infection promotes the secretion of antimicrobial peptides beta-defensin 2 and trefoil factor 3 and attenuates attaching and effacing bacteria-induced intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Anna; Motta, Jean-Paul; Cotton, James A; Feener, Troy; Oyeyemi, Ayodele; Vallance, Bruce A; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure. This study analyzed Giardia spp. co-infections with attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, and assessed whether and how the presence of Giardia modulates host responses to A/E enteropathogens, and alters intestinal disease outcome. In mice infected with the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, co-infection with Giardia muris significantly attenuated weight loss, macro- and microscopic signs of colitis, bacterial colonization and translocation, while concurrently enhancing the production and secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mouse β-defensin 3 and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Co-infection of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) monolayers with G. duodenalis trophozoites and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) enhanced the production of the AMPs human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and TFF3; this effect was inhibited with treatment of G. duodenalis with cysteine protease inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that Giardia infections are capable of reducing enteropathogen-induced colitis while increasing production of host AMPs. Additional studies also demonstrated that Giardia was able to directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These results reveal novel mechanisms whereby Giardia may protect against gastrointestinal disease induced by a co-infecting A/E enteropathogen. Our findings shed new light on how microbial-microbial interactions in the gut may protect a host during concomitant infections.

  9. Trefoil Factor-3 (TFF3 Stimulates De Novo Angiogenesis in Mammary Carcinoma both Directly and Indirectly via IL-8/CXCR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hoe Lau

    Full Text Available Mammary carcinoma cells produce pro-angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis and tumor growth. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3 is an oncogene secreted from mammary carcinoma cells and associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we demonstrate that TFF3 produced in mammary carcinoma cells functions as a promoter of tumor angiogenesis. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells promoted proliferation, survival, invasion and in vitro tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. MCF7-TFF3 cells with forced expression of TFF3 generated tumors with enhanced microvessel density as compared to tumors formed by vector control cells. Depletion of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells by siRNA concordantly decreased the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells stimulated IL-8 transcription and subsequently enhanced IL-8 expression in both mammary carcinoma cells and HUVEC. Depletion of IL-8 in mammary carcinoma cells with forced expression of TFF3, or antibody inhibition of IL-8, partially abrogated mammary carcinoma cell TFF3-stimulated HUVEC angiogenic behavior in vitro, as did inhibition of the IL-8 receptor, CXCR2. Depletion of STAT3 by siRNA in MCF-7 cells with forced expression of TFF3 partially diminished the angiogenic capability of TFF3 on stimulation of cellular processes of HUVEC. Exogenous recombinant hTFF3 also directly promoted the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Hence, TFF3 is a potent angiogenic factor and functions as a promoter of de novo angiogenesis in mammary carcinoma, which may co-coordinate with the growth promoting and metastatic actions of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma to enhance tumor progression.

  10. Trefoil Factor-3 (TFF3) Stimulates De Novo Angiogenesis in Mammary Carcinoma both Directly and Indirectly via IL-8/CXCR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai-Hoe; Pandey, Vijay; Kong, Xiangjun; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wu, ZhengSheng; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma cells produce pro-angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis and tumor growth. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is an oncogene secreted from mammary carcinoma cells and associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we demonstrate that TFF3 produced in mammary carcinoma cells functions as a promoter of tumor angiogenesis. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells promoted proliferation, survival, invasion and in vitro tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). MCF7-TFF3 cells with forced expression of TFF3 generated tumors with enhanced microvessel density as compared to tumors formed by vector control cells. Depletion of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells by siRNA concordantly decreased the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells stimulated IL-8 transcription and subsequently enhanced IL-8 expression in both mammary carcinoma cells and HUVEC. Depletion of IL-8 in mammary carcinoma cells with forced expression of TFF3, or antibody inhibition of IL-8, partially abrogated mammary carcinoma cell TFF3-stimulated HUVEC angiogenic behavior in vitro, as did inhibition of the IL-8 receptor, CXCR2. Depletion of STAT3 by siRNA in MCF-7 cells with forced expression of TFF3 partially diminished the angiogenic capability of TFF3 on stimulation of cellular processes of HUVEC. Exogenous recombinant hTFF3 also directly promoted the angiogenic behavior of HUVEC. Hence, TFF3 is a potent angiogenic factor and functions as a promoter of de novo angiogenesis in mammary carcinoma, which may co-coordinate with the growth promoting and metastatic actions of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma to enhance tumor progression. PMID:26559818

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea and rhonchopathy are associated with downregulation of trefoil factor family peptide 3 (TFF3)-Implications of changes in oral mucus composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siber-Hoogeboom, Regina; Schicht, Martin; Hoogeboom, Sebastian; Paulsen, Friedrich; Traxdorf, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides belong to the family of mucin-associated peptides and are expressed in most mucosal surfaces. TFF peptides carry out functions such as proliferation and migration enhancement, anti-apoptosis, and wound healing. Moreover, TFFs are associated with mucins and interact with them as "linker peptides", thereby influencing mucus viscosity. To test the hypothesis that in rhonchopathy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) changes occur in the expression of TFF3 and -2 that could contribute to changes in mucus viscosity, leading to an increase in upper airway resistance during breathing. RT-PCR, Western-blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA were performed to detect and quantify TFF3 and -2 in uvula samples. In addition, 99 saliva samples from patients with mild, moderate or severe OSA, as well as samples from rhonchopathy patients and from healthy volunteers, were analyzed by ELISA. TFF3 was detected in all uvula samples. Immunohistochemistry revealed a subjectively decreasing antibody reactivity of the uvula epithelia with increasing disease severity. ELISA demonstrated significantly higher TFF3 saliva protein concentrations in the healthy control group compared to cases with rhonchopathy and OSA. Predisposing factors of OSA such as BMI or age showed no correlation with TFF3. No significant changes were observed with regard to TFF2. The results suggest the involvement of TFF3 in the pathogenesis of rhonchopathy and OSA and lead to the hypothesis that reduction of TFF3 production by the epithelium and subepithelial mucous glands of the uvula contribute to an increase in breathing resistance due to a change in mucus organization.

  12. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  13. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  14. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  15. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  16. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The ab- dominal sternite is cream-white. The femur of the hind leg is thick. The compound eyes are black. This study showed that the larvae developed within the shells, on surface of the seeds, rotten. Infestation by Megaselia rufipes Meigen on germinated oil palm seeds ... 29. Fig. 5: Cracked seeds infested with maggots.

  17. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  18. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  19. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  20. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  2. (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the ... Key words: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Apiaceae, seed, fatty acids composition, petroselinic acid, maturation. ..... atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorder, diabetes and other diseases.

  3. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  5. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  6. Effect of seed invigoration by osmopriming on seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of osmopriming techniques on seed lots of three Capsicum species. The seeds were primed using seven different solutions for three different priming durations. Primed seed lots were evaluated for seed germination, seedling vigour index, seedling emergence and ...

  7. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  8. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by the genotypes and growing conditions i.e. plant population and cropping seasons. Genotypes with superior seed quality were prevalent at 166.667 and 266.667 plants ...

  9. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  10. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not ... ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called chia ...

  11. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  13. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  14. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  15. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes......, red clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil. Overall, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were 1.3 and 1.6kg/day higher, respectively, whereas milk protein and milk fat concentration were 0.5 and 1.4 g/kg lower, respectively, for legume-based diets compared with grass-based diets. When comparing...... individual legume species with grasses, only red clover resulted in a lower milk protein concentration than grasses. Cows fed white clover and birdsfoot trefoil yielded more milk than cows fed red clover and lucerne, probably caused by a higher OM digestibility of white clover and activity of condensed...

  16. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  17. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  18. Histomorphometric Parameters of the Growth Plate and Trabecular Bone in Wild-Type and Trefoil Factor Family 3 (Tff3)-Deficient Mice Analyzed by Free and Open-Source Image Processing Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Stolnik, Dunja; Lovrić, Ivana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family 3 (Tff3) peptide is present during intrauterine endochondral ossification in mice, and its deficiency affects cancellous bone quality in secondary ossification centers of mouse tibiae. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze parameters describing the growth plate and primary ossification centers in tibiae of 1-month-old wild-type and Tff3 knock-out mice (n=5 per genotype) by using free and open-source software. Digital photographs of the growth plates and trabecular bone were processed by open-source computer programs GIMP and FIJI. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated using measurements made with FIJI. Tff3 knock-out mice had significantly smaller trabecular number and significantly larger trabecular separation. Trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surface, and trabecular thickness showed no significant difference between the two groups. Although such histomorphological differences were found in the cancellous bone structure, no significant differences were found in the epiphyseal plate histomorphology. Tff3 peptide probably has an effect on the formation and quality of the cancellous bone in the primary ossification centers, but not through disrupting the epiphyseal plate morphology. This work emphasizes the benefits of using free and open-source programs for morphological studies in life sciences.

  19. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differ...

  20. Control of seed borne diseasees in organic seed propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The key control measure of plant diseases in organic agriculture is crop rotation, mixed cropping and moderate fertilization. A wide range of plant diseases can be controlled or minimized in this way. However, at least one group of plant diseases, the seed borne diseases, cannot. The seed borne diseases are not transmitted through the soil, and crop rotation is therefore an insufficient tool. Mixed cropping is impractical in seed propagation, where seed purity according to the...

  1. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen genetically diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes were grown under three diverse .... genetic line. GenotypiC differences in the quality of seed provide an opportunity for employing. genotypiC selection as a method of improving seed quality (Adebisi,. 2004). ...... Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seed vigour ...

  2. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  3. Cowpea seed coat chemical analysis in relation to storage seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field emergence of stored cowpea seeds in the tropical environment is a major limitation to its production, particularly in cultivars with unpigmented seed coats. To determine the storage potential of cowpea, seeds of five cultivars comprising two pigmented and three unpigmented ones were subjected to controlled ...

  4. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  5. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  6. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistanc...

  7. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Low seed quality was observed in ... Seed quality did not vary between cultivars. Regardless of the fermentation process and cultivars used, the best seed and seedling qualities were observed when the amount of rainfall during the experiment ..... wet (Bouaziz and Hicks, 1990; Evans and Etherington.

  8. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  9. Utility of avocado pear seed ( Persea Americana ), mango seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of three plant materials, Avocado pear seed (Persea americana), mango seed (Magifera indica) and bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Crude protein varied from 2.0 ± 0.06% in Magifera indica to 3.73 ± 0.08% in Persea americana. Generally, the amino ...

  10. Lower seed rates favor seed multiplication ratio with minimal impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in split plot design of three replications to determine effects of four sowing rates (50, 75, 100, 125 kg ha-1) and three row spacing (10, 20, 30 cm) on seed multiplication ratio, seed yield, and seed quality of wheat at Kulumsa and Assasa from 2012 to 2014. Results indicated that ...

  11. The importance of good seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  12. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    OpenAIRE

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after c...

  13. Seed coat sculpturing in Halophila

    OpenAIRE

    Japar, Sidik Bujang; Muta, Harah Zakaria; Suzalina, Akma Awing; Nojima, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    This study furnishes information on external morphology of the seed coats of selected Halophila. Fruiting plants of Halophila beccarii, H. ovalis, H. decipiens, Halophila sp. were collected from various locations around Malaysia and including Halophila stipulacea from Mauritus. Seeds extracted from mature fruits were fixed in 2.5% glutaradehyde. Fixed seeds were washed in 0.1M Sodium cacodylate buffer at 4℃ for 10 minutes. The washing procedure was repeated three times. The seeds were dehydra...

  14. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  15. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  16. Sexual reproduction, seeds, and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter T. McDonough

    1985-01-01

    Natural genetic interchange and extensive colonization of aspen by seed strongly depends upon favorable climatic and microclimatic conditions and upon human intervention. At times, in regions with the right combination of environmental conditions, there is significant L, reproduction by seed; elsewhere such establishment is rare. Seed production generally is profuse;...

  17. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  18. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... In the Middle East, lupin seeds are consumed as a snack after they are soaked in water, scalded and ... used as roasted bean 'kolo' and to prepare local alcoholic drink 'katikala' and other food products .... Switzerland), followed 15 min cooling under running tap water and finally centrifuged at 2000 x g for ...

  19. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  20. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  1. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  2. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  3. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  4. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    When seed producers and seed users are geographically or functionally separated, seeds are transferred from producers to users. In market-oriented systems, transfer includes the pricing of seed, which reflects the procurement cost and seed quality. Physiological quality is documented via the seed...

  5. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if...

  6. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed...

  7. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  8. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  9. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  11. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under...

  12. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  13. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  14. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  15. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  16. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  17. Sunflower seed allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  19. Seed storage behavior of forest tree species seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of five forest species were classified according to their physiological storage behavior. Seeds of Casearia sylvestris Swart (Salicaceae, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. (Meliaceae, Eremanthus incanus Less. (Asteraceae, Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae were collected and taken to the laboratory, where they were processed and submitted to both rapid and slow drying, storage and assayed for viability. After physiological classification regarding storage behavior, it was observed that seeds of C. sylvestris and E. incanus presented orthodox behavior. Seeds of G. kunthiana and P. heptaphyllum were classified as recalcitrant and Q. grandiflora as an intermediate, which did not tolerate low moisture content.

  20. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  1. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  2. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  3. Chapter 24. Seed collection, cleaning, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent R. Jorgensen; Richard Stevens

    2004-01-01

    Acquisition of quality seed in the quantity needed is essential for successful restoration and revegetation programs. Seed is grown and harvested as a crop, or collected from native stands. In the past, when native species were seeded, it was either collect the seed yourself, or go without. Now, there are dealers who supply seed of many native species on a regular...

  4. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules and...

  5. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  6. Seed mucilage from Ipomoea dasysperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Pandey, M; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V

    2007-04-01

    A non-ionic water-soluble galactomannan, having galactose and mannose in 1:6 molar ratio, was isolated from endosperm of the seeds of Ipomoea dasysperma. The seed mucilage was found to have a structure having a linear chain of beta (1-->4) linked mannopyranosyl units with D-galactose side chains attached through alpha (1-->6) linkage to the main chain. I. dasysperma seed gum possesses non-ionic characteristics of commercial seed gums and has potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  8. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  9. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... This study was conducted to evaluate the response of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seeds under accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test was carried out at three different temperatures: 41, 43 and 45°C with four duration periods of 48, 72, 96, 144 and a relative humidity of 100%. The two seed lots of F.

  10. Genetic variation in Pinus brutia Ten. seed stands and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... have been completed and progeny tests have been esta- blished on multiple sites to evaluate the genetic merits of the selected trees. There are also well distributed clonal seed orchards established to represent the breeding zones of the species. Some of these seed orchards, how- ever, are still too young ...

  11. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... the effect of seed priming with 5 g/L NaCl on germination and seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to five salinity levels ... Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling ..... Beneficial effects of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress.

  12. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Cueff, G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Rajjou, L.; Bentsink, L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  13. Effect of Seed Density on Splash Cup Seed Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Patrick; Pepper, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    Splash cup plants are plants that utilize a small, mm-sized cup filled with seeds as a method of seed dispersal. The cup uses kinetic energy of an incident raindrop in order to project the seeds away from the plant up to 1 meter. The dispersal distance is important to ensure the offspring are not clustered too tightly to the parent plant. It has previously been found that a cup angle of 40 degrees to the horizontal is optimal for maximum dispersal of water from cups with no seeds. In this study we examine if the 40 degree cup is optimal for cups containing seeds with varying densities. We released uniform water drops above 5.0 mm 3D printed models of splash cups, using 1.0 mm plastic and glass microspheres of varying densities to simulate seeds. We observed the dispersal characteristics of each bead type by measuring the final seed locations after each splash, and by recording high speed video to determine the angle and velocity of the seeds as they exited the cup.

  14. Ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the response of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seeds under accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test was carried out at three different temperatures: 41, 43 and 45°C with four duration periods of 48, 72, 96, 144 and a relative humidity of 100%. The two seed lots of F. excelsior were ...

  15. Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V.B.; Ruiz, J.A.P.; Parra, A.C.; Zagoya, R.A.; Rodriguez, H.G

    2014-01-01

    Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

  16. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Saasveld Forestry Research Centre, George. Many species of Cape Proteaceae have seeds dispersed by ants. Ants may reduce seed predation by rapidly transporting and burying seeds in their nests. Three field experiments using ant and ...

  17. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  18. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  19. Storage of Water Tupelo Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; H. E. Kennedy

    1973-01-01

    Water tupelo seeds can be stored for at least 30 months without significant losses in viability. Moisture contents of 20 percent or lower and polyethylene bags with walls 4 mils thick gave the best results at 38F. At 14F, seed moisture must be below 10 percent.

  20. on germination of chickpea seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patience

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... electric field (by varying voltage) on the water absorption and germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. Chickpea seeds were exposed to the electric field (by varying voltage from zero to 1300 V) for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). The present study was conducted to find ...

  1. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  2. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  3. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  4. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  5. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  6. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  7. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides

  8. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  9. effect of neem seed husk ash em seed husk ash em seed husk ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    therefore can be used for non-structural and mass concrete application structural and ... ilable material with minor. Waste materials can concrete if they are not term properties of. Neem seed husk ash (NSHA) the waste husk obtained during the ex from neem seed. ... strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was designed using.

  10. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  11. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  12. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  13. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  14. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  15. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  16. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  17. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  18. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  20. Mucilage in Yellow Mustard (Brassica Hirta) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, I. R.; Yiu, S. H.; Jones, J. D.; Kalab, M.

    1986-01-01

    Release of mucilage from yellow mustard (brassica hirta, also known as Sinapis alba) seed coats (hulls) was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs were obtained of the mucilage which had exuded from briefly moistened seeds and dried subsequently in the form of small droplets on the seed surface. The mucilage collected from the seed surface and mucilage isolated on a larger scale from seed hulls was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid and the hydrolyzates were analyzed f...

  1. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Saez-Aguayo; Corinne Rondeau-Mouro; Audrey Macquet; Ilkka Kronholm; Marie-Christine Ralet; Adeline Berger; Christine Sallé; Damien Poulain; Fabienne Granier; Lucy Botran; Olivier Loudet; Juliette de Meaux; Annie Marion-Poll; Helen M North

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was mod...

  2. Local Evolution of Seed Flotation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Saez Aguayo, S.; Rondeau Mouro, C.; Macquet, A.; Kronholm, I.; Ralet, M.C.; Berger, A.; Sallé, C.; Poulain, D.; Granier, F.; Botran, L.; Loudet, O.; De Meaux, J.; Marion-Poll, A.; North, H.; Botran, L.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was mod...

  3. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  4. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food

  5. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  6. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  7. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  8. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombir Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  9. Longevity of cryogenically stored seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Christina; Wheeler, Lana; Stanwood, Phillip C

    2004-06-01

    Though cryogenic storage is presumed to provide nearly infinite longevity to cells, the actual shelf life achieved under ultra-cold temperatures has not been addressed theoretically or empirically. Here, we report measurable changes in germination of dried seeds stored under liquid nitrogen conditions for >10 years. There was considerable variability in the extent of deterioration among species and accessions within a species. Aging time courses for lettuce seeds stored at temperatures between 50 and -196 degrees C were fit to a form of the Avrami equation to determine rate coefficients and predict half-life of accessions. A reduction in the temperature dependency on aging rate, determined as a break in the Arrhenius plot, occurred at about -15 degrees C, and this resulted in faster deterioration than anticipated from extrapolation of kinetics measured at higher temperatures. The break in Arrhenius behavior occurred at temperatures in between the glass transition temperature (28 degrees C) and the Kauzmann temperature (-42 degrees C) and also coincided with a major triacylglycerol phase change (-40 to -7 degrees C). In spite of the faster than anticipated deterioration, cryogenic storage clearly prolonged shelf life of lettuce seeds with half-lives projected as approximately 500 and approximately 3400 years for fresh lettuce seeds stored in the vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The benefit of low temperature storage (-18 or -135 degrees C) on seed longevity was progressively lost if seeds were first stored at 5 degrees C. Collectively, these results demonstrate that lowering storage temperature progressively increases longevity of seeds. However, cryogenic temperatures were not sufficient to stop deterioration, especially if initial stages of aging were allowed to progress at higher storage temperatures. This work contributes to reliable assessments of the potential benefit and cost of different genebanking strategies.

  10. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, ZS; Jansen, PA; Zhang, ZB

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques - thread-marking and wire tin-tagging - affected seed fate by placing

  11. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Z.; Jansen, P.A.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques – thread-marking and wire tin-tagging – affected seed fate by placing

  12. [Dynamics of seed rain of Tripterygium hypoglaucum and soil seed bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiang; Su, Shu; Qu, Xian-You; Wang, Chang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Tripterygium hypoglaucum is an endangered species in arid areas of Xiannvshan Chongqing, China. The dynamic characteristics of seed rain and soil seed bank of T. hypoglaucum were studied in this paper.Results showed that T. hypoglaucum years of mature seeds distribution number up to October; the seed rain occurred from the last ten-day of September to in the first ten-day of November and the peak of scattered seed rain concentrated in the October.The numbers of soil seed bank at 2-5 cm soil layer,mainly concentrated in the 1.5-3.5 m range. T. hypoglaucum seeds to the wind as a force for transmission, the transmission ability is strong, but in the process of natural reproduction, full mature seed rate is low, the soil seed bank seeds seed short-lived factors these were unfavorable for the natural reproduction of T. hypoglaucum population. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Salmonella in sesame seed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Stefan O; Piechotowski, Isolde; Kimmig, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In the context of an international outbreak of multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 that was correlated to the consumption of halvah ("helva," an Asian candy made from sesame seed), we examined several sesame seed products for the occurrence of Salmonella. Of 117 ready-to-eat food items containing sesame, we isolated salmonellae from 11 (9.4%) samples. In addition to finding Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in the halvah involved in the outbreak, we also isolated different Salmonella Typhimurium strains out of halvah from other manufacturers and countries of origin, as well as Salmonella Offa, Salmonella Tennessee, and Salmonella Poona from sesame paste (tahini) and sesame seed, which is sold for raw consumption in cereals.

  14. EFFICIENCY OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukru Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper pomegranate kinds that reach to harvest maturity which are produced in commercial scales in Adana, Antalya, Finike and Kilis regions in Turkey and also Hicaz and Eksilik kinds are chosen randomly to be investigated. Seed efficiencies, grain ratios, oil efficiency of these chosen pomegranate kinds were studied. According to this study, pomegranate kind taken from Kilis region is found to have the highest grain efficieny with a ratio of 71% and pomegranate kind taken from Hicaz region is found to have the highest seed oil with a ratio of 18%. Also various solvent efficiencies including Hexan, Diethylether and petroleum ether on pomegranate seed oil is examined and most efficient one is obtained with Diethylether.

  15. Factors influencing upon the incidence of seed migration in I-125 seed transperineal prostate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun; Onishi, Kayoko; Kanemura, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    Transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer is rapidly expanding in Japan. Seed migrations to lung and abdomen are well known complication in the seed brachytherapy. The rate of incidence and the predisposing factors were studied. From April 2004 through January 2005, 36 patients underwent transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. In all patients loose I-125 seeds were inserted with Mick applicator according to modified peripheral loading pattern. One day, 1 week, and 1 month after the procedure, posteroanterior and lateral chest X-rays and abdominal X-ray were performed. Abdominal and chest seed migrations were seen in 11 (30.6%) and 14 (38.9%) patients, respectively. In total, 20 patients (55.6%) showed seed migrations. Forty-two I-125 seeds migrated out of 2,508 implanted seeds. Most of the migrations were seen until 1 month after the procedure. The preplanned number of the extraprostatic seeds had a statistically significant influence upon the incidence of seed migration. Seed migration is not a rare phenomenon in transperineal I-125 seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer. To confirm seed migration, X-ray examinations 1 month after the procedure are suited. At the preplanning, the number of extraprostatic seeds should be limited to minimal to decrease the incidence of seed migration. In future, the introduction of linked I-125 seeds is preferred. (author)

  16. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended pri...

  17. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  18. Combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the highest positive direct influence on grain yield per plant. Both traits also displayed a positive indirect effect considerably to biological yield per plant and harvest index. Thus, combined selection for seed number and weight would be fruitful to improve yield potential of chickpea. Key Words: Cicer arietinum, heritability, ...

  19. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the

  20. Lower Seed Rates Favor Seed Multiplication Ratio with Minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in split plot design of three replications to determine effects of four ... row space of 20 cm to accelerate early generation seed supply within the fast track variety release program in .... of a standard germination paper (400 g/m2) saturated with distilled water and placed in bowls ...

  1. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  2. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  3. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  4. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  5. Chemical Composition of Kapok (Ceibapentandra) Seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ceibapentandra) seeds and physicochemical properties of its oil were carried out using standard methods. Mature dried fruits of Kapok from which seeds were obtained were collected from in and around Basawa village, Sabon Gari Local Government Area, ...

  6. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. Copyright 2004 The American Genetic Association

  7. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  8. Efficient chaining of seeds in ordered trees

    OpenAIRE

    Allali, Julien; Chauve, Cédric; Ferraro, Pascal; Gaillard, Anne-Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We consider here the problem of chaining seeds in ordered trees. Seeds are mappings between two trees Q and T and a chain is a subset of non overlapping seeds that is consistent with respect to postfix order and ancestrality. This problem is a natural extension of a similar problem for sequences, and has applications in computational biology, such as mining a database of RNA secondary structures. For the chaining problem with a set of m constant size seeds, we describe...

  9. Access to improved hybrid seeds in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, Richard; Afari-Sefa, Victor; Muilerman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Poor access to improved seeds in West and Central Africa has compromised crop yields and productivity as most farmers source the bulk of their seeds from informal channels. The use of farmer produced seeds has mostly resulted in high seedling mortality thereby presenting challenges to cocoa rehabilitation programmes across the sub region. With the aid of a mobile data collection system (MDCS), the first of its kind to enhance accuracy of survey results in an improved seed supply system throug...

  10. Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumul...

  11. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  12. Drug Plant Seed Viability Preservation by Cryoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sh. Dodonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of cryopreservation of seeds of several species of drug plants in Central Kazakhstan – Tanacetum ulutavicum, Niedzwedzkia semiretschenskia, Rhaponticum carthamoides. To increase the amount of viable seeds after liquid nitrogen freezing, we used different defrosting temperatures, deposited seeds with different moisture contents and used different containers for cryopreservation. Recommendations, concerning conditions of cryopreservation of seeds of these drug plant species were developed, basing on the obtained results.

  13. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva; Verônica Barbosa Santos; Rosa Honorato de Oliveira; Sirleine Lima de Oliveira; Otoniel Magalhães Morais

    2009-01-01

    The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, B...

  14. Microfocus X-ray seeds separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, A. Yu; Staroverov, N. E.; Kholopova, E. D.; Guk, K. K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the model of X-ray seeds separator is described. The main parameters of the seed separator are determined. The operating modes of the X-ray apparatus were determined; with these modes the greatest contrast of the image was achieved. For the research, seeds of almost 40 different plant species were selected. For each type of seed, the optimal parameters of the imaging were calculated; also during the experimental studies the parameters were checked.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts.

  16. Smallholder seed practices : maize seed management in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badstue, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to contribute to an in­creased understanding of what is commonly referred to as 'local seed systems', 'farmer seed systems' or 'informal seed systems', both in relation to seed supply for agricultural production and in relation to the conservation of important crop genetic

  17. Consistent individual differences in seed disperser quality in a seed-eating fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, Bart J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to

  18. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  19. Effect of fire on a seed bank pathogen and on seeds of its host Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Beckstead; S.E. Meyer; L.E. Street; P.S. Allen

    2010-01-01

    The generalist pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda (Brittlebank and Adam) Shoemaker occurs primarily in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) seed banks, where it causes high seed mortality (Beckstead et al. 2007; Meyer et al. 2007). How does fire impact survival of a fungal seed pathogen, P. semeniperda, versus survival of the seeds of its cheatgrass host, the invasive Bromus...

  20. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  1. Access to improved hybrid seeds in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asare, Richard; Afari-Sefa, Victor; Muilerman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Poor access to improved seeds in West and Central Africa has compromised crop yields and productivity as most farmers source the bulk of their seeds from informal channels. The use of farmer produced seeds has mostly resulted in high seedling mortality thereby presenting challenges to cocoa

  2. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Bower; J. Bradley St.Clair; Vicky. Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum...

  3. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  4. Biochemical analysis of Brachystegia aurycoma harms seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A biochemical analysis of Brachystegia aurycoma harm seeds was conducted. Brachystegia, of the family Leguminosae sub-family Caesalpinioidae is a timber tree whose seeds “achi”, are relished as soup condiment by the lgbo-speaking people of Nigeria. The seed were subjected to oil extraction using Soxhlet method.

  5. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  6. Chapter 25. Shrub and forb seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon A. Van Epps; Richard Stevens

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of range restoration and revegetation programs depends on procurement of an adequate supply of quality grass, forb, and shrub seed. Rangeland species seed is either grown commercially or collected from wildland stands. Commercially produced seed of numerous grass species is available (Asay and Knowles 1985b; Horton and others 1990; Sours 1983). A...

  7. Staying Alive: Molecular Aspects of Seed Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Rajjou, Loïc; North, Helen M; Debeaujon, Isabelle; Marion-Poll, Annie; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-04-01

    Mature seeds are an ultimate physiological status that enables plants to endure extreme conditions such as high and low temperature, freezing and desiccation. Seed longevity, the period over which seed remains viable, is an important trait not only for plant adaptation to changing environments, but also, for example, for agriculture and conservation of biodiversity. Reduction of seed longevity is often associated with oxidation of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Seeds possess two main strategies to combat these stressful conditions: protection and repair. The protective mechanism includes the formation of glassy cytoplasm to reduce cellular metabolic activities and the production of antioxidants that prevent accumulation of oxidized macromolecules during seed storage. The repair system removes damage accumulated in DNA, RNA and proteins upon seed imbibition through enzymes such as DNA glycosylase and methionine sulfoxide reductase. In addition to longevity, dormancy is also an important adaptive trait that contributes to seed lifespan. Studies in Arabidopsis have shown that the seed-specific transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) plays a central role in ABA-mediated seed dormancy and longevity. Seed longevity largely relies on the viability of embryos. Nevertheless, characterization of mutants with altered seed coat structure and constituents has demonstrated that although the maternally derived cell layers surrounding the embryos are dead, they have a significant impact on longevity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  9. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is the major phytoecdysteroid of about 6% of plants. Its role in plant physiology has not been fully elucidated. In this work we studied the effects of 20E application on some morphological and biochemical parameters of tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum, seed during germination ...

  10. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ripening in mango and banana and on molecular markets. G V S Saiprasad. Plant propagation using artificial or synthetic seeds devel- oped from somatic and not zygotic embryos opens up new ... Somatic embryos are structurally similar to zygotic embryos ... somatic embryos, are not the limiting factors for development of.

  11. Raising salix caprea from seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suboch, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    A summary account is given of experimental work carried out at the nursery of the Central Siberian Botanical Garden in 1977-79. Data are given on seed production, the rate of growth of seedlings in relation to the substrate, the effect of sowing date on the growth and yield of 1-yr seedlings, and the relative merits of various techniques of production.

  12. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. Artificial Seeds and their Applications. G V S Saiprasad. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 39-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0039-0047. Author Affiliations.

  13. Strangelet seeding from stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, O.G.; Horvath, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a scenario for strangelets seeding in galactic environments based on the ejection of strange matter from type II super nova events. The possibility that these aggregates act in turn as triggers of future explosions of the same type is discussed, together with the expected features of their distribution and abundance

  14. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and nutrition for zygotic embryos in developing seeds. To augment these deficiencies, addition of nutrients and growth regulators to the encapsulation matrix is desired, which serves as an artificial endosperm. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Principle and Conditions for Encapsulation with. Alginate Matrix. Alginate is a straight chain, ...

  15. seed longevity of dominant plant species from degraded savanna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    groups: (1) non-dormant seeds (2) seeds with enforced dormancy and (3) seeds with seed coat imposed dormancy. The low decay constant of some species is an indication of their abilities to form persistent seed banks. The intermittent and extended germination of seeds of the same species from the same batch shown by ...

  16. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  17. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as follows...

  18. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall be...

  19. [Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-04-01

    Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320.3 +/- 23.5 seeds x m(-2)) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7 +/- 24.2 seeds x m(-2)) > Daqiutian protection station (251.6 +/- 24.7 seeds x m(-2)), and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222.0, 34.3, and 22.6 seeds x m(-2), respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc., of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil could hardly be effectively stored beyond one month. The seedlings germinated in December were averagely less than 2 stands x m(-2), and the soil seed reserves in the next January was the least (6.7-11.8 seeds x m(-2)), with the germinated seedlings averagely 0.4-0.6 stands x m(-2), which was consistent with the rare distribution of natural seedlings in the forest. It was concluded that the small seed rain reserves, low seed vigor of soil seed bank, and low seedling establishment were the important factors impacting the natural regeneration of T. ciliata var. pubescens.

  20. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  1. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  2. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  3. Use of molecular marker techniques in seed testing by Brazilian seed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Della Vecchia, P.T.; Silva, C.A.R. da; Terenciano-Sobrinho, P.

    1998-01-01

    Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will be certanly the key issues. High seed quality can only be obtained by a thorough control of the entire seed production process, step by step from planning to final delivery. That requires science, technology, expertise, experience, good management and certanly, the most important, an absolute and unconditional commitment with quality. Seed t...

  4. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  5. Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arlee V [Albuquerque, NM; Armstrong, Darrell J [Albuquerque, NM

    2005-12-27

    An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

  6. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hallie J

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Seed counting system evaluation using arduino microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Escobar Paim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of automated systems has been highlighted in the most diverse productive sectors, among them, the agricultural sector. These systems aim to optimize activities by increasing operational efficiency and quality of work. In this sense, the present work has the objective of evaluating a prototype developed for seed count in laboratory, using Arduino microcontroller. The prototype of the system for seed counting was built using a dosing mechanism commonly used in seeders, electric motor, Arduino Uno, light dependent resistor and light emitting diode. To test the prototype, a completely randomized design (CRD was used in a two-factorial scheme composed of three groups defined according to the number of seeds (500, 1000 and 1500 seeds tested, three speeds of the dosing disc that allowed the distribution in 17, 21 and 32 seeds per second, with 40 repetitions evaluating the seed counting prototype performance in different speeds. The prototype of the bench counter showed a moderate variability of seed number of counted within the nine tests and a high precision in the seed count on the distribution speeds of 17 and 21 seeds per second (s-1 up to 1500 seeds tested. Therefore, based on the observed results, the developed prototype presents itself as an excellent tool for counting seeds in laboratory.

  8. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  9. SEED INDUSTRY IN POLAND AND ITS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the seed industry in Poland and assessment of changes in supply, demand and prices on the market of classified seed of cereals in Poland. The discussion relates to the main groups of participants making up the breeding and seed industry, i.e. the breeding, seed, as well as breeding and seed entities. The characteristics of entities from the breeding and seed industry’s environment has also been presented. The article presents the analyses of the cereal seed market in Poland between the years 2008-2012, including the changes in supply, demand and market prices. The analyses indicated an increase in sales of the certified seeds in Poland by 25.3%. Winter wheat was the dominant seed in terms of trade structure throughout the entire period. The increase in sales of classified seeds in the cereal segment took place in conditions of significant seed prices’ increase in the studied period.

  10. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Upadhyaya, H.D., Kumar, S., Gowda, C.L.L. and. Singh, S. 2006. Two major genes for seed size in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica. 147:311-315. Wallace, D. H., Baudoin, J. P., Beaver, J., Coyne,. D. P., Halseth, D. E., Masaya, P. N., Munger,. H. M., Myers, J.R., Silbernagel, M., Yourstone,. K.S. and Zobel, R.W. 1993.

  11. Natural variation for seed longevity and seed dormancy are negatively correlated in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Keizer, Paul; van Eeuwijk, Fred; Smeekens, Sjef; Bentsink, Leónie

    2012-12-01

    Dormancy is a state of metabolic arrest that facilitates the survival of organisms during environmental conditions incompatible with their regular course of life. Many organisms have deep dormant stages to promote an extended life span (increased longevity). In contrast, plants have seed dormancy and seed longevity described as two traits. Seed dormancy is defined as a temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate in conditions that favor germination, whereas seed longevity is defined as seed viability after dry storage (storability). In plants, the association of seed longevity with seed dormancy has not been studied in detail. This is surprising given the ecological, agronomical, and economic importance of seed longevity. We studied seed longevity to reveal its genetic regulators and its association with seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Integrated quantitative trait locus analyses for seed longevity, in six recombinant inbred line populations, revealed five loci: Germination Ability After Storage1 (GAAS1) to GAAS5. GAAS loci colocated with seed dormancy loci, Delay Of Germination (DOG), earlier identified in the same six recombinant inbred line populations. Both GAAS loci and their colocation with DOG loci were validated by near isogenic lines. A negative correlation was observed, deep seed dormancy correlating with low seed longevity and vice versa. Detailed analysis on the collocating GAAS5 and DOG1 quantitative trait loci revealed that the DOG1-Cape Verde Islands allele both reduces seed longevity and increases seed dormancy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a negative correlation between seed longevity and seed dormancy.

  12. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified seeds are produced by certain institute, under controlled conditions within a specific program, it is the best guarantee of yield. The certified seeds should be renewed every 2 or 4 yearly periods because the seed yield can reduce if they are used every year. 200-600 kg seed amount used per hectare and it can change depending on purpose, the variety, ecological conditions, the size of tubers and planting density. Seed costs are the most important item in production inputs. In Turkey the amount of certified seed production has increased and consequently there has been an increase in meeting the need of seed amount, in recent years. Turkey certified seed production was 175,397 tons and the needed amount was 230,819 tons in 2015. It has met 76% the need amount. In our country, the seed potato sector is commonly worked marketing of reproduced seed of the imported rootstocks stage within the country. in the event of insufficient seed Certified production, as producers are forced to use their seed, procured from their own products or obtained from each other. This practice, in addition to decrease in yield, it also causes the spread of many pathogens that threated the sustainability of our potato production.

  13. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  14. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ata SIADAT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medicinal plants have seed dormancy or poor seed germination. This is due to their natural compounds or their morphological structure. Existence of such mechanisms makes the seeds able to endure harsh environments, stressful conditions or natural ageing. Different seed enhancement treatments were proposed in order to improve seed germination. In this study, it was examined Silybum marianum seed longevity (0, 48 and 72 hour of ageing and the response to seed priming when using different concentrations of cytokinin (50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm and different duration of treatment (8, 12 and 24 hour. Results revealed that ageing could be successfully alleviated using seed priming. Seed ageing significantly affected seed germination and vigour. Application of cytokinin considerably improved seed vigour in aged and non aged seeds. The most effective seed priming treatment was with 500 ppm cytokine, with the duration of 24 hours. In conclusion, it can be recommend the used of plant growth regulators like cytokine, as a good priming agent, to recover losses of seed quality and improve germination characteristics.

  16. Water binding in legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  17. Agrowaste: Phytosterol from Durian Seed

    OpenAIRE

    D. Mohd Nazrul Hisham; J. Mohd Lip; R. Suri; H. Mohamed Shafit; Z.Kharis; K. Shazlin; A. Normah; M.F. Nurul Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Presence of phytosterol compound in Durian seed (Durio zibethinus) or known as King of fruits has been discovered from screening work using reagent test. Further analysis work has been carried out using mass spectrometer in order to support the priliminary finding. Isolation and purification of the major phytosterol has been carried out using an open column chromatography. The separation was monitored using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Major isolated compounds and pur...

  18. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

    OpenAIRE

    Aćimović Milica G.; Kostadinović Ljiljana M.; Popović Sanja J.; Dojčinović Nevena S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplem...

  19. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  20. PHO1 Exports Phosphate from the Chalazal Seed Coat to the Embryo in Developing Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzaki, Evangelia; Baroux, Célia; Jung, Ji-Yul; Poirier, Yves

    2017-10-09

    Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds. PHO1 is additionally expressed in developing ovules. Phosphorus (P) content and Pi flux between the seed coat and embryo were analyzed in seeds from grafts between WT roots and scions from either pho1, phoh1, or the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. Whereas P content and distribution between the seed coat and embryo in fully mature dry seeds of these mutants are similar to the WT, at the mature green stage of seed development the seed coat of the pho1 and pho1 phoh1 mutants, but not of the phoh1 mutant, retains approximately 2-fold more P than its WT control. Expression of PHO1 under a CZSC-specific promoter complemented the seed P distribution phenotype of the pho1 phoh1 double mutant. CZSC-specific down-expression of PHO1 also recapitulated the seed P distribution phenotype of pho1. Together, these experiments show that PHO1 expression in the CZSC is important for the transfer of P from the seed coat to the embryo in developing seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The flight of Ruellia ciliatiflora seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Cooper, Eric; Mosher, Molly; Wang, Yijun; Dalton, Chaelee

    2016-11-01

    The fruits of Ruellia ciliatiflora open explosively and launch mm-sized disks at speeds exceeding 10 m/s a distance of 5 m. Observations with high-speed video reveal that the seeds are launched in a streamline orientation that is maintained with a backspin of 1.5 kHz. Through a careful analysis of the high-speed videos of the seeds' flight we measure the aerodynamic forces on these spinning seeds. We find that the exceptional rotation rate both reduces drag on the seed by keeping its cross section as small as possible and generates a modest ( 0.3 g) lift on the flying seeds. To understand the aerodynamic forces we create photometrically scanned, 3D printed models of the seeds for particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a flume of tow tank. We will discuss our method for producing accurately shaped model seeds as well as preliminary PIV data on the flow of fluid around the flying seed. This work marks the start of a longer-term project that will compare the dynamics of seed launch and flight within the Acanthaceae family, which has over 2000 species in habitats ranging from rainforest to savannah that all use a similar method for launching seeds.

  2. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  3. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Messing, E. [University of Rochester, Departments of Urology and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Rubens, D. [University of Rochester, Departments of Imaging Science and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Sarkar, N. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Ng, W. [Nangyang Technical University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-06-15

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  4. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Willems, Leo; van Arkel, Jeroen; Dekkers, Bas J W; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-05-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increased costs in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive for seed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive correlation between galactinol content and seed longevity in the three species tested, which indicates that this correlation is conserved in the Brassicaceae and beyond. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in tomato revealed a co-locating QTL for galactinol content and seed longevity on chromosome 2. A candidate for this QTL is the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene (Solyc02g084980.2.1) that is located in the QTL interval. GALACTINOL SYNTHASE is a key enzyme of the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) pathway. To investigate the role of enzymes in the RFO pathway in more detail, we applied a reverse genetics approach using T-DNA knock-out lines in genes encoding enzymes of this pathway (GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 1, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE, STACHYOSE SYNTHASE and ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE) and overexpressors of the cucumber GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2 gene in Arabidopsis. The galactinol synthase 2 mutant and the galactinol synthase 1 galactinol synthase 2 double mutant contained the lowest seed galactinol content which coincided with lower seed longevity. These results show that galactinol content of mature dry seed can be used as a biomarker for seed longevity in Brassicaceae and tomato. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  6. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Nyasani, Eunice K.; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A.; Markin, Vladislav S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds. PMID:26926652

  7. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  8. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Macquet, Audrey; Kronholm, Ilkka; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Poulain, Damien; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; Loudet, Olivier; de Meaux, Juliette; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2014-03-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  9. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  10. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass–clover mixture...... (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P

  11. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation

  12. Changes in nutritive value and herbage yield during extended growth intervals in grass-legume mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    . Perennial ryegrass was sown with each of four legumes: red clover, white clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, and white clover was sown with hybrid ryegrass, meadow fescue and timothy. Effects of species composition on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF......There is a lack of information on the effects of companion species in grass–legume mixtures on herbage yield and quality changes during prolonged growth. Such information is relevant for harvest planning and estimation of consequences for feeding value of conserved feed when harvesting is delayed...

  13. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  15. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  16. Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, S.B.; Esque, T.; Haines, D.; Garnett, M.; Waitman, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is a distinctive and charismatic plant of the Mojave Desert. Although floral biology and seed production of Joshua tree and other yuccas are well understood, the fate of Joshua tree seeds has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that Joshua tree seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents. We radioactively labelled Joshua tree seeds and followed their fates at five source plants in Potosi Wash, Clark County, Nevada, USA. Rodents made a mean of 30.6 caches, usually within 30 m of the base of source plants. Caches contained a mean of 5.2 seeds buried 3-30 nun deep. A variety of rodent species appears to have prepared the caches. Three of the 836 Joshua tree seeds (0.4%) cached germinated the following spring. Seed germination using rodent exclosures was nearly 15%. More than 82% of seeds in open plots were removed by granivores, and neither microsite nor supplemental water significantly affected germination. Joshua tree produces seeds in indehiscent pods or capsules, which rodents dismantle to harvest seeds. Because there is no other known means of seed dispersal, it is possible that the Joshua tree-rodent seed dispersal interaction is an obligate mutualism for the plant.

  17. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  18. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A brief history of seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Angela T; Ackerly, David D; Webb, Campbell O; Tweddle, John C; Dickie, John B; Westoby, Mark

    2005-01-28

    Improved phylogenies and the accumulation of broad comparative data sets have opened the way for phylogenetic analyses to trace trait evolution in major groups of organisms. We arrayed seed mass data for 12,987 species on the seed plant phylogeny and show the history of seed size from the emergence of the angiosperms through to the present day. The largest single contributor to the present-day spread of seed mass was the divergence between angiosperms and gymnosperms, whereas the widest divergence was between Celastraceae and Parnassiaceae. Wide divergences in seed size were more often associated with divergences in growth form than with divergences in dispersal syndrome or latitude. Cross-species studies and evolutionary theory are consistent with this evidence that growth form and seed size evolve in a coordinated manner.

  20. Artificial Seeds (Principle, Aspects and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hail Z. Rihan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial seeds are artificially encapsulated somatic embryos (usually or other vegetative parts such as shoot buds, cell aggregates, auxiliary buds, or any other micropropagules which can be sown as a seed and converted into a plant under in vitro or in vivo conditions. An improved artificial seed production technique is considered a valuable alternate technology of propagation in many commercially important crops and a significant method for mass propagation of elite plant genotypes. The production of plant clones multiplied by tissue culture and distributed as artificial seeds could be a useful alternative to the costly F1 hybrids for different plant crops. The delivery of artificial seeds also facilitates issues such as undertaking several ways for scaling up in vitro cultures and acclimatization to ex vitro conditions. The development of an artificial seed technique also provides a great approach for the improvement of various plant species such as trees and crops.

  1. Forest Seed Collection, Processing,and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    apply to different species, seed types, situations, and purposes. Yet the collection and processing toolbox contains a number of “standard” methods for most of these groups. Records and documentation help in evaluating “best practice” for future method improvement, and it helps in linking offspring...... testing aims at quantifying seed quality parameters such as seed weight, moisture content, purity, and germination. The methods contain a set of standard procedures for preparation and evaluation. Special types of evaluation contain, e.g., health teats and indirect methods of measuring seed viability......This chapter pertains to the techniques of capturing the best genetic quality seeds a seed source can produce at the optimal time of high physiological maturity and maintaining these qualities throughout the handling processes, all at a minimum cost. Different collection and processing techniques...

  2. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  3. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  4. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  5. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  6. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  7. Resistance to Phomopsis Seed Decay in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Shuxian Li; Pengyin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. This disease causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. Infected soybean seeds can be symptomless, but are typically shriveled, elongated, cracked, and have a chalky white appearance. Development of PSD is sensitive to environmental conditions. Hot and humid environments favor pathogen growth and disease...

  8. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  9. Replacement value of rubber seed ( Hevea brasiliensis ) meal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rubber seed meal (RSM) contains about 28.63% CP but also high in CF (20%). Rubber seed cake was extruded after the extraction of rubber seed oil from the Rubber Seed oil processing Department of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin-City. The rubber seed cake was then milled to produce RSM. Soya bean ...

  10. Sugar maple seed production in northern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Raymond E. Graber

    1995-01-01

    Large numbers of sugar maple seed are dispersed every second or third year. Very little seed was damaged by insects or mammals prior to dispersal. The trapping methods used prevented major losses following seed fall. Seed production was positively correlated with tree diameter but not with age of seed trees.

  11. Seed abnormalities and associated mycoflora of rain- fed wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    seeds with discoloured embryo (germ) (1.2 – 1.5%) and brush (0.25 – 1.25%) ends. Fusarium graminearum and Helminthosporium sativum were associated with all seeds, ... Key words: Fungi, seed health testing, seed discolouration, wheat. INTRODUCTION. Abnormality in seeds is a major constraint in crop production in ...

  12. Virginia pine seed viable two months before natural cone opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Edward I. Sucoff

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) seed used in nurseries and for forest seeding ordinarily is collected from standing or felled trees in autumn. Some questions that concern the seed collector are: How early in the season does Virginia pine seed ripen? How does seed viability change if the cones are left on the felled trees?

  13. Use of linear discriminant function analysis in seed morphotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in seed morphology of the Lima bean in 31 accessions was studied. Data were collected on 100-seed weight, seed length and seed width. The differences among the accessions were significant, based on the three seed characteristics. K-means cluster analysis grouped the 31 accessions into four distinct groups, ...

  14. Applicator Training Manual for: Seed Treatment Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeKrony, Dennis M.

    This manual gives general information on seed treatment and type of seeds which can be treated. Also discussed are the problems and pests commonly associated with seed diseases and the fungicides and insecticides used for seed treatment. Information is also given on seed treatment equipment such as dust treaters, slurry treaters, and direct…

  15. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  16. Chapter 27. Seed testing requirements and regulatory laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Stevens; Kent R. Jorgensen

    2004-01-01

    Federal and State seed laws require that seed used on range and wildland sites be officially tested and appropriately labeled or tagged. It is the responsibility of the seed distributor (who may be the producer, collector, or broker) toward the end user to properly tag each container of seed to comply with these laws. An analysis tag is always required. If seed has...

  17. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  18. Pigeon pea seed production and delivery system: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Non-availability of seed is one of the main constraints to adoption of improved crop varieties. The cause of this is mainly due to lack of efficient and sustainable seed delivery system and seed production skills in Uganda. The private seed companies are not interested in pigeon pea seed production due to low profit margins ...

  19. 7 CFR 201.31a - Labeling treated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling treated seed. 201.31a Section 201.31a..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.31a Labeling treated seed. (a) Contents of label. Any agricultural seed...

  20. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined by...

  1. Native wildflower seed production with limited subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint C. Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Native wildflower seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native wildflower (forb) seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and...

  2. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.49 Other crop seed. (a) Seeds of plants...

  3. 7 CFR 201.47a - Seed unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed unit. 201.47a Section 201.47a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.47a Seed unit. The seed unit is the...

  4. Seed regulation: choices on the road to reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Louwaars, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    Major changes in national seed systems, including the rapid development of commercial seed enterprises, the growth of non-governmental organization (NGO) seed projects, and the concomitant decline of public sector seed provision, call for a re-examination of seed regulatory frameworks in developing

  5. 7 CFR 201.7a - Treated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treated seed. 201.7a Section 201.7a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7a Treated seed. The complete record for any...

  6. Conference Proceedings: Seed Ecology III - The Third International Society for Seed Science Meeting on Seeds and the Environment - "Seeds and Change"; June 20-June 24, 2010; Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary Pendleton; Susan Meyer; Bitsy Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Seed Ecology III was held in Salt Lake City, Utah in June 2010, sharing the latest research on all aspects of seed ecology. Our meeting was organized around the theme "Seeds and Change." We welcomed contributions in any area of seed ecology. Our agenda also aimed to create bridges between seed ecology and plant conservation, restoration ecology, and global...

  7. Nutritional Value of Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdullahi Muhammad

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 ±. 0.21%) and ash (5.80 ± 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  8. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Aeginetia spp...

  9. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wheat genotypes under different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César Vieira Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wheat tillering capacity defines yield and yield components, being affected by seeding rate. This study aimed at evaluating wheat genotypes under different seeding rates, in Londrina and Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, in 2009 and 2010. A completely randomized blocks design, in a factorial scheme, with four replications, was used. The agronomic traits of three wheat genotypes (PF 014384, BRS Tangará and BRS Pardela were evaluated under the seeding rates of 150 pl m-2, 250 pl m-2, 350 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. In Londrina, the maximum yield was observed at densities close to 270 pl m-2, while in Ponta Grossa (2009 there was a linear fit. There was no adjustment for plant height, concerning seeding rate. The number of ears per area (ears m-2 was higher in Ponta Grossa (2009 and did not differ between the locations, in 2010. In Ponta Grossa (2010, the highest one thousand seeds weight was estimated at the density of 341 pl m-2, while in Londrina (2010 it was estimated at 150 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. The seeding rate affected grain yield, depending on place and year. In Londrina, there was a limit for yield, concerning seeding rate. The one thousand seeds weight was influenced by seeding rate, depending on year and location. Plant height was affected by genotype and growing area.

  11. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  12. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Fisk, Melany C; Lennon, J T

    2016-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs.

  13. Inheritance of seed coat color in sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Laurentin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance mode of seed coat color in sesame. Two crosses and their reciprocals were performed: UCLA37 x UCV3 and UCLA90 x UCV3, of which UCLA37 and UCLA90 are white seed, and UCV3 is brown seed. Results of reciprocal crosses within each cross were identical: F1 seeds had the same phenotype as the maternal parent, and F2 resulted in the phenotype brown color. These results are consistent only with the model in which the maternal effect is the responsible for this trait. This model was validated by recording the seed coat color of 100 F2 plants (F3 seeds from each cross with its reciprocal, in which the 3:1 expected ratio for plants producing brown and white seeds was tested with the chi-square test. Sesame seed color is determined by the maternal genotype. Proposed names for the alleles participating in sesame seed coat color are: Sc1, for brown color; and Sc2, for white color; Sc1 is dominant over Sc2.

  14. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  15. Late seed maturation: drying without dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, Olivier; Pellizzaro, Anthoni; Berriri, Souha; Buitink, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Besides the deposition of storage reserves, seed maturation is characterized by the acquisition of functional traits including germination, desiccation tolerance, dormancy, and longevity. After seed filling, seed longevity increases up to 30-fold, concomitant with desiccation that brings the embryo to a quiescent state. The period that we define as late maturation phase can represent 10-78% of total seed development time, yet it remains overlooked. Its importance is underscored by the fact that in the seed production chain, the stage of maturity at harvest is the primary factor that influences seed longevity and seedling establishment. This review describes the major events and regulatory pathways underlying the acquisition of seed longevity, focusing on key indicators of maturity such as chlorophyll degradation, accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides, late embryogenesis abundant proteins, and heat shock proteins. We discuss how these markers are correlated with or contribute to seed longevity, and highlight questions that merit further attention. We present evidence suggesting that molecular players involved in biotic defence also have a regulatory role in seed longevity. We also explore how the concept of plasticity can help understand the acquisition of longevity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Storage crambe seed treated with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cabral e Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of low quality seeds with a lower physiological reflects one of the major causes of low productivity. Thus the storage conditions of seed must be taken into consideration. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of natural and synthetic insecticides on emergence and seed storage of crambe, as these substances are essential to prevent infestation of seeds of other species by harmful organisms. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 3 x 8 ( 8 substances and 3 storage times with 4 replications. We assessed the following natural insecticides: saffron, lime, ash, neem, diatomaceous earth, and synthetic: chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin; besides the control consisting of seeds without any treatment. We evaluated the percentage of emergence, speed of emergence index and time to reach 50 % of emergency. In all characteristics, it was found that no influence of neem on seed vigor. There are disadvantages in the application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diatomaceous earth, which interfered with the emergence rate of seeds of crambe. The seeds treated with other insecticides had different behavior of untreated seeds after 120 days of storage to assess the time that they take to reach 50 % germination.

  17. Chemical Characteristics of Pumpkin Seed Tempeh From Soybean and Pumpkin Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pujilestari, Shanti; Sandrasari, Diny A; Marida, Rimmaria

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of the combination of soybean and pumpkin seeds on the chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed tempeh. The pumpkin seed tempeh samples were analyzed for its water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and crude fiber. Meanwhile, support data were isoflavone and zinc. Sensory hedonic was conducted by 25 untrained panelists for selecting the best formulation of soybean and pumpkin seeds in tempeh. The result shows the formulation of soybean and pumpki...

  18. Seed longevity: survival and maintenance of high germination ability of dry seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Debeaujon, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    The seed constitutes the main vector of plant propagation and it is a critical development stage with many specificities. Seed longevity is a major challenge for the conservation of plant biodiversity and for crop success. Seeds possess a wide range of systems (protection, detoxification, repair) allowing them to survive in the dry state and to preserve a high germination ability. Therefore, the seed system provides an appropriate model to study longevity and aging.

  19. Assessment of Seed Germination and Dormancy of Thirty Seeds Lots of

    OpenAIRE

    H.R Ehyaee; M Khajeh Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Most seeds of medicinal plants due to ecological adaptation to environmental conditions have several types of dormancy. Hence, it's necessary to recognize ecological factors that affect dormancy and provide optimum conditions for germination in medicinal plant species. Thirty seed lots were used to estimate germination and dormancy of medicinal plants. Treatments were KNO3, (2%) and scarification of seeds by sand paper, hypochlorite sodium and removing the seed coat with four repl...

  20. Evaluation of seed vigor tests for determinig alfalfa seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza tavakoli kakhki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best seed vigor test in laboratory which may provide high correlation between alfalfa seedling stablishment in the field, two experiment were conducted in field as well as in laboratory. Four alfalfa cultivars Bami, Ghareyonjeh, Hamadani and Yazdi were used. Different seed vigor tests including standard germination, germination in low tempretaure (5c , germination rate, osmotic stress, accelerated ageing and electrical conductivity tests were laid out in a randomized completely design (RCD with four replications in laboratory experiment‌. The second experiment was carried out in a randomized completely block design (RCBD and each treatment replicated four times‌. Results revealed significant differences (p≤ 0.01 among different cultivars for establishment percentage and rate. Results also showed that there were significant correlations between electrical conductivity test and establishment percentage (r= -0.65 , p ≤ 0.01 as well as establishment rate (r= -0.80 , p ≤ 0.01. Correlation coefficients for rate and emergence percentage were significant and positive (r= 0.91, p ≤ 0.01 . Stepwise method disclosed that the regression model (y=165.23 – 0.15 x r2=0.64 , (p ≤ 0.01 for predicting rate of emergence could be recommended. In this model x (dependent variable is value of electrical conductivity and y (independent variable is rate of emergence.

  1. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  2. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  3. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya

    1988-01-01

    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  4. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  5. Evaluation of variation in individual seed electrical conductivity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Auma, E.O.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-four seed lots of two common bean cultivars were produced to evaluate the distributions found in individual seed electrical conductivity (EC, pS cm(-1) g(-1)), to determine which parameters would best quantify the observed variation between seeds, and to explore whether cultivar or production

  6. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed

  7. A survey of seed-borne Fungi associated with seeds of rice (oryzae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of seed-borne fungi associated with the seeds of three varieties of rice Faro 12, 15, and 29 both in storage and in the field for three years was undertaken, and their percentage seed germination determined. The result obtained showed that Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Chaetomium ...

  8. In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro Seed-dressing Technique for the Control of Seed-borne Fungi of Rice variety Faro -29. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Fernasan-D, Apron Plus 50 DS and Dithane–M45), and soaking and slurry methods at various concentrations, for the control of seed-borne fungi of rice variety

  9. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  10. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  11. Recent trends in post-wildfire seeding in western US forests: costs and seed mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Jan L. Beyers; Molly E. Hunter; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used post-fire rehabilitation treatments to establish ground cover for erosion control and mitigation of non-native plant species invasions. Little quantitative information is available on overall trends of post-fire seeding expenditures and seed mixes used over time in forested ecosystems in the western USA. We reviewed...

  12. Evaluation of seed health testing methods for the detection of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of four seed health testing techniques namely the blotter, deep- freezing blotter, ragdoll and agar plate methods in detecting seed-borne fungi of African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Harms seeds was evaluated. The blotter method was found to be the most suitable testing technique ...

  13. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  14. Performance of Nymph and Adult of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding on Cultivated Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbino, M S; Altier, N A; Panizzi, A R

    2016-04-01

    Performance of nymphs and adults of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) feeding on different cultivated legumes was studied under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH, 14 h of photophase) on soybean immature pod (SIP; R5.5-R6), birdsfoot trefoil immature pod (BTIP), alfalfa immature pod (AIP), and red clover flower with immature seeds (RCF). Food had significant effects on the life history of P. guildinii. The major differences in nymph survivorship were observed at second and third instars, with similar survivorship on SIP and AIP as hosts and higher than that recorded on BTIP and RCF. Total nymph mortality was much greater on BTIP (87.6%) than on SIP (32.6%) and AIP (54.2%); all nymphs died on RCF. Food did not affect nymph development time (about 20 days). Adult longevity was highest and lowest on AIP and RCF (62 and 32 days), respectively. Percentage of ovipositing females was highest (≈ 80%) on SIP and AIP, and intermediate on BTIP (52.2%); no females reproduced on RCF. Fecundity on SIP and AIP was similar (≈ 9 egg masses/female; and ≈ 141 eggs/female) and twice as higher than on BTIP (4.1 egg masses/female; and 60.2 eggs/female). Egg fertility (58%) did not vary with food sources. Adults fed on SIP and AIP gained weight during 43 days, remained unaltered on BTIP, and decreased on RCF. Data obtained indicated that SIP and AIP are suitable food sources, and emphasize the importance of alfalfa as a host plant of P. guildinii in Uruguay.

  15. Emergence of native plant seeds in response to seed pelleting, planting depth, scarification, and soil anti-crusting treatment, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Seed of native plants is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Reliable commercial seed production is desirable to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. Establishment of native seed crops has been difficult, because fall-planted seed is susceptible to bird damage, soil crusting, and soil erosion. Fall planting is important for...

  16. Relationship between variation in quality of individual seeds and bulk seed quality in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Auma, E.O.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The variation in individual seed electrical conductivity (EC) (µS cm¿¹ g¿¹) of 24 seed lots of two common bean cultivars produced at two locations was quantified using the parameters mean ¿ median, standard deviation (SD), and the range 0¿75%. Also coefficient of variation (CV) was tested, which was

  17. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  18. Long-Term Storage of Yellow and Paper Birch Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knud E. Clausen

    1975-01-01

    Storage of yellow and paper birch seeds for 12 years does not appear practical but seed visibility can usually be maintained for at least 8 years, if the seeds are kept in closed containers at 36? to 40?F.

  19. STATIONARY\\MOBILE SEEDS EXTRACTOR FROM FRUITS OF CUCURBIT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Tokarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical specifications and test data in 2012-2014 of a new fixed-mobile seed extractor of pumpkin and squash seeds (varieties of different ripeness, size and shape of fruit and seeds are presented.

  20. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  1. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  2. Determination of the seed geometry of cup plant as requirement for precision seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schäfer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In search of economically and ecologically interesting alternatives and additions to maize, currently the predominantly used biogas substrate, cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L. has been found as a promising plant species. The perennial composite, which is located in North America, can be established by modified conventional seeders. Due to a long flowering period and different geographic origins of the plant material, seeds of different sizes and shapes can be found in the seed batch, which makes a precise singling of the seeds difficult. For the quantification of the geometric parameters the seeds were recorded and measured. The results of these researches were used to optimize the seeding in precision seeders.

  3. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.P.; Krugman, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls

  4. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  5. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  6. Isolation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Powdered seed of J. gossypifolia was macerated using methanol as extracting solvent. The seed extract of Jatropha gossypifolia was subjected to phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation using standard screening procedures. The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites such as ...

  7. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Orto, F.A.C.; Ojima, M.; Hiroce, R.; Igue, T.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-05-01

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  9. Seed zones for maintaining adapted plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bradley St. Clair; G. Randy Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Seed zones delineate areas within which plant materials can be transferred with little risk that they will be poorly adapted to their new location. They ensure successful restoration and revegetation, and help maintain the integrity of natural genetic structure. The value of seed zones is recognized in numerous policy statements from federal and state agencies. Results...

  10. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut...

  11. Dormancy and growth vigour of seed potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Dormancy is an important property of seed potatoes. Seed tubers planted too soon after their harvest do not produce plants because of dormancy, or produce low yields because of poor growth vigour. Potato tubers from the same cultivar vary in their duration of dormancy. The first aim of the

  12. Preliminary Studies on Piliostigma thonningii seeds: Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral analysis of P. thonningii showed the seed as good source of antioxidant micronutrients such as iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and manganese. The phytochemical screening of the seed showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, anthraquinones as well as cardiac glycosides while tannins, ...

  13. Photoinhibition influences protein utilisation during seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed storage proteins are mobilised during germination, especially at radicle protrusion. The objective of this study was to examine changes in protein expression during germination of Cleome gynandra in the presence or absence of light and at constant or alternating temperatures. Seeds were germinated at alternating ...

  14. Nutritional composition of Zizyphus lotus L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaibi, Moncef; Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Rezig, Leila; Donsì, Francesco; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem

    2012-04-01

    Zizyphus lotus seeds are an unutilized source of vegetable oil and protein and nothing has been reported on their physicochemical characteristics which would indicate the potential uses of these seeds. The percentage composition of the Zizyphus lotus seeds is (on a dry-weight basis): ash 1.05%, oil 32.92%, protein 19.11%, total carbohydrate 40.87% and moisture 6.05%. Calcium, potassium and magnesium constitute the major minerals of Zizyphus lotus seeds. The seed proteins are rich in threonine, glutamic acid, leucine, arginine and aspartic acid (26.73%, 17.28%, 13.11%, 9.47% and 7.76%, respectively). The main fatty acids of the oil are oleic (61.93%), linoleic (18.31%) and palmitic (9.14%) acids. Glycerol trioleate (OOO; O: oleic acid) was the most abundant triacylglycerol, representing 26.48% of the total triacyglycerols. β-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (130.47 mg 100 g(-1) ). This oil was rich in Δ7-campestrol and β-sitosterol (147.82 and 82.10 mg 100 g(-1) oil), respectively. Zizyphus lotus seeds are rich in fat and protein which are of potential industrial significance. In addition, Zizyphus lotus L. seed oil contained many bioactive compounds. This fact is of great economic interest owing to several applications of Zizyphus lotus L. seeds in the food, cosmetics and medicinal industries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Mitochondrial Proteome Studies in Seeds during Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Czarna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is considered to be one of the most critical phases in the plant life cycle, establishing the next generation of a plant species. It is an energy-demanding process that requires functioning mitochondria. One of the earliest events of seed germination is progressive development of structurally simple and metabolically quiescent promitochondria into fully active and cristae-containing mitochondria, known as mitochondrial biogenesis. This is a complex and tightly regulated process, which is accompanied by sequential and dynamic gene expression, protein synthesis, and post-translational modifications. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive summary of seed mitochondrial proteome studies during germination of various plant model organisms. We describe different gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches used to characterize mitochondrial proteomes of germinating seeds as well as challenges and limitations of these proteomic studies. Furthermore, the dynamic changes in the abundance of the mitochondrial proteomes of germinating seeds are illustrated, highlighting numerous mitochondrial proteins involved in respiration, tricarboxycylic acid (TCA cycle, metabolism, import, and stress response as potentially important for seed germination. We then review seed mitochondrial protein carbonylation, phosphorylation, and S-nitrosylation as well as discuss the possible link between these post-translational modifications (PTMs and the regulation of seed germination.

  16. (Hevea brasiliensis) SEED PERICARP-ACTIVATED CARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. The objective of this study was to produce activated carbon from rubber seed pericarp and to evaluate its performance with commercial activated carbon in the treatment of abattoir wastewater as well as its potential in the adsorption of iron (III) ions from aqueous solution. The rubber seed pericarp ...

  17. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation and seed proximate analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The nutrient value of Surib seed is negligible for its low content of proteins and fatty substances and thus it is of no use as animal or human food. The qualitatively determined antinutrient phytoconstituents as tannins, alkaloids, saponins and flavanoids in the seed could be considered as another main limitation ...

  18. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, BA. Seeds were conditioned in paper and plastic and were maintained in the atmosphere and refrigerator. The evaluation times were 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the beginning of the experiment. The following were evaluated: seed water content, germination, and vigor. Among the main results it was proved that the maximum storage time of sugar apple seeds was six months. Paper bags were best for the conservation of seed viability, regardless of the environment. The highest percentages of germination were obtained using paper bags in environmental conditions.

  19. MHD heat and seed recovery technology project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Johnson, T. R.

    1980-08-01

    The MHD Heat and Seed Recovery Technology Project at Argonne National Laboratory is obtaining information for the design and operation of the steam plant downstream of the MHD channel-diffuser, and of the seed regeneration process. The project goal is to supply the engineering data required in the design of components for prototype and demonstration MHD facilities. The work is being done in close cooperation with the Heat Recovery-Seed Recovery facility, which will be a 20-MW pilot plant of the MHD steam bottoming system. The primary effort of the HSR Technology Project is directed toward experimental investigations of critical issues, such as 1) NO/sub x/ behavior in the radiant boiler and secondary combustor; 2) radiant boiler design to meet the multiple requirements of steam generation, NO/sub x/ decomposition, and seed slag separation; 3) effects of solid or liquid seed deposits on heat transfer and gas flow in the steam and air heaters; 4) formation, growth, and deposition of seed-slag particles, 5) character of the combustion gas effluents, and 6) the corrosion and erosion of ceramic and metallic materials of construction. These investigations are performed primarily in a 2-MW test facility, Argonne MHD Process Engineering Laboratory (AMPEL). Other project activities are related to studies of the thermochemistry of the seed-slag combustion gas system, identification of ceramic and metallic materials for service in the MHD-steam plant, and evaluation of seed regeneration processes. Progress is reported.

  20. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  1. Electromagnetic Treatment of Loblolly Pine Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Stanley L. Krugman

    1989-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed...

  2. Physicochemical Properties of Mango Seed Flour | Okpala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition, functional and antinutritional properties of flour produced from seeds of mangoes grown in Ebonyi State were studied. Two cultivars: India and Indochinese were used for the study. The aim of the study was to determine any possible potential that flour obtained from these seeds might possess.

  3. Membrane chemical stability and seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; As, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we investigate the relationships between the chemical stability of the membrane surface and seed longevity. Dry embryos of long-lived tomato and short-lived onion seeds were labeled with 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DS). Temperature-induced loss of the electron spin resonance signal caused by

  4. Direct seeding in northern forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    Two direct-seeding experiments were established to determine the effect of time of seeding (spring 1962 versus fall 1962), type of seedbed (prepared versus unprepared), and species (red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) versus white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss)) upon the success attained in the reforestation of a pine-barren site...

  5. Some insects affecting Penstemon seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Beardtongue (Penstemon Schmidel [Scrophulariaceae)) seeds are often produced without apparent damage from pests, but several species of native insects can adversely impact seed production fields. Tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot)) and western plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight [Hemiptera: Miridae]), penstemon weevil (Hesperobaris sp. Casey [Coleoptera:...

  6. How nut and seed butters are processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's food processing column follows the theme "How Is It Porcessed?". It will explore how nut and seed butters are processed. In recent years a variety of new nut and seed butters have entered the marketplace. Their predecessor, peanut butter, as well as these new products and the process...

  7. CRUDE PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS OF SEEDS OF TEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A Essiett

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  8. Puncturevine seed response to postemergence herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) continues to plague growers, vegetation managers, and home gardeners. Puncturevine is a summer annual weed with spiny fruits that split into five segments, each containing one to four seeds. The seed nearest the pointed end of the bur is the largest and usually ge...

  9. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  10. Simultaneous Transesterification of Baobab Seed (Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of the Baobab seed methyl ester gave the following: specific gravity, 0.87, pour point, -6 oC, cloud point, 2 oC, flash point, 150 oC, Cetane number , 49, which is comparable with the ASTM D6751 standards for methyl esters. Keywords: Heterogeneous catalyst, Simultaneous transesterification, Baobab seed, ...

  11. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  12. Towards a better monitoring of seed ageing under ex situ seed conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Ahmed, Zaheer; Diederichsen, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Long-term conservation of 7.4 million ex situ seed accessions held in agricultural genebanks and botanic gardens worldwide is a challenging mission for human food security and ecosystem services. Recent advances in seed biology and genomics may have opened new opportunities for effective management of seed germplasm under long-term storage. Here, we review the current development of tools for assessing seed ageing and research advances in seed biology and genomics, with a focus on exploring their potential as better tools for monitoring of seed ageing. Seed ageing is found to be associated with the changes reflected in reactive oxygen species and mitochondria-triggered programmed cell deaths, expression of antioxidative genes and DNA and protein repair genes, chromosome telomere lengths, epigenetic regulation of related genes (microRNA and methylation) and altered organelle and nuclear genomes. Among these changes, the signals from mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may show the most promise for use in the development of tools to predict seed ageing. Non-destructive and non-invasive analyses of stored seeds through calorimetry or imaging techniques are also promising. It is clear that research into developing advanced tools for monitoring seed ageing to supplement traditional germination tests will be fruitful for effective conservation of ex situ seed germplasm.

  13. Use of molecular marker techniques in seed testing by Brazilian seed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Vecchia P.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will be certanly the key issues. High seed quality can only be obtained by a thorough control of the entire seed production process, step by step from planning to final delivery. That requires science, technology, expertise, experience, good management and certanly, the most important, an absolute and unconditional commitment with quality. Seed testing for quality assurance is one important step in the process of production of high quality seed. In the late years a considerable amount of research has been published, particularly on the use of some Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA based new technologies (RAPD, microsatelites, AFLP for genetic purity determinations in seed testing. As far as we know, no Brazilian seed company is using, on regular basis, RAPD or other molecular marker techniques in the determination of genetic purity in seed testing. Most of these are using morphological or physiological traits expressed by seed, seedling or mature plant and/or electrophoresis of seed or seedling proteins/isoenzymes for that purpose. Main reasons for that are: DNA molecular marker techniques are relatively new; lack of specialized personnel to run DNA molecular marker assays on routine basis; higher cost/sample when compared to proteins/isoenzymes electrophoresis.

  14. A Methodological Approach for Testing the Viability of Seeds Stored in Short-Term Seed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. FORTE GIL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of ‘active’ seed banks – specifically aimed at the short-term storage at room temperature of seeds to be used locally in conservation/regeneration programmes of endemic or endangered plant species – requires establishing the optimal storage time to maintain high seed viability, for each stored species. In this work, germination of seeds of the halophytes Thalictrum maritimum, Centaurea dracunculifolia and Linum maritimum has been investigated. The seeds had been stored for different periods of time in the seed bank of ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park (Valencia, SE Spain after collection in salt marshes of the Park, where small populations of the three species are present. Seeds of T. maritimum and C. dracunculifolia have a relatively short period of viability at room temperature, and should not be stored for more than three years. On the other hand, L. maritimum seeds maintain a high germination percentage and can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 years. T. maritimum seeds, in contrast to those of the other two species, did not germinate in in vitro tests nor when sown directly on a standard substrate, unless a pre-treatment of the seeds was applied, mechanical scarification being the most effective. These results will help to improve the management of the seed bank, to generate more efficiently new plants for reintroduction and reinforcement of populations of these species in their natural ecosystems within the Natural Park.

  15. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  16. Seed Coating: Science or Marketing Spin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Simone; Merritt, David J; Stevens, Jason; Dixon, Kingsley

    2017-02-01

    Seed coating is the practice of covering seeds with external materials to improve handling, protection, and, to a lesser extent, germination enhancement and plant establishment. With an annual value exceeding US$1 billion dollars, this technology is mostly the preserve of the private research sector, with few links to the scientific community. Here, we analyse the science and industry of seed coating and its contribution to seed establishment and plant performance. We posit that a closer collaboration between academia and industry is critical to realising the potential of seed coating both as a tool for enhancing plant establishment in the face of the challenges posed to agricultural systems and to propel the multibillion-dollar global push for ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  18. Refining prostate seed brachytherapy: Comparing high-, intermediate-, and low-activity seeds for I-125 permanent seed prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delouya, Guila; Bahary, Pascal; Carrier, Jean-François; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Hervieux, Yannick; Béliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the difference in prostate coverage and dose to the rectum in men with prostate carcinoma treated with permanent seed brachytherapy with different seed activities. Forty-nine patients treated with iodine-125 permanent seed prostate brachytherapy with low-activity seeds of 0.30-0.37 mCi were identified. For each of these patients, 2 patients with similar prostate volume (±2 cc) were paired: one treated with intermediate seed activity (0.44-0.46 mCi) and one with high seed activity (0.60-0.66 mCi). The doses to prostate and rectum were compared using CT on Day 30. A total of 147 patients divided into the three seed activity groups were analyzed. Mean prostate volume was 35.7 cc (standard deviation [SD], 11.70). Compared with low-activity seeds, implants with high-activity seeds consisted of an average of 22 seeds and 4.7 needles less. The dose to the prostate (prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose [V100], prostate volume receiving 150% of the prescribed dose, and minimal dose covering 90% of the prostate volume expressed in Gy) was not higher on Day 30 (p = 0.58-0.97). The mean volume (in cubic centimeters) of rectal wall receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) increased with activity: low activity, 0.34 cc (SD, 0.49), intermediate activity, 0.47 cc (SD, 0.48), and high activity, 0.72 cc (SD, 0.79) (p = 0.009). There was a trend (p = 0.073) toward a higher frequency of clinically unfavorable rectal dosimetry (V100 > 1.3 cc) in patients with high-activity seeds (16.7%) compared with low-activity (6.3%) or intermediate-activity (4.2%) seeds. High-activity seeds do not result in a higher dose to the prostate but in a higher dose to the rectum. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  20. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  1. Timing of seed dispersal and seed dormancy in Brazilian savanna: two solutions to face seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Diego F E; Silveira, Fernando A O; Morellato, Leonor Patricia C

    2018-02-07

    The relationship between fruiting phenology and seed dispersal syndrome is widely recognized; however, the interaction of dormancy classes and plant life-history traits in relation to fruiting phenology and seed dispersal is understudied. Here we examined the relationship between fruiting season and seed dormancy and how this relationship is modulated by dormancy classes, dispersal syndromes, seed mass and seed moisture content in a Brazilian savanna (cerrado). Dormancy classes (non-dormancy and physical, morphological, morphophysiological, physiological and physiophysical dormancy) of 34 cerrado species were experimentally determined. Their seed dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory, zoochory), dispersal season (rainy, dry, rainy-to-dry and dry-to-rainy transitions), seed mass and moisture contents, and the estimated germination date were also determined. Log-linear models were used to evaluate how dormancy and dormancy classes are related to dispersal season and syndrome. The proportions of dormant and non-dormant species were similar in cerrado. The community-estimated germination date was seasonal, occurring at the onset of rainy season. Overall, anemochorous non-dormant species released seeds during the dry-to-rainy transition; autochorous physically dormant species dispersed seeds during the dry season and rainy-to-dry transition; zoochorous species dispersed non-dormant seeds during the dry and rainy seasons, while species with morphological, morphophysiological or physiological dormancy dispersed seeds in the transitional seasons. Seed mass differed among dispersal seasons and dormancy classes, but seed moisture content did not vary with dispersal syndrome, season or dormancy class. The beginning of the rainy season was the most favourable period for seed germination in cerrado, and the germination phenology was controlled by both the timing of seed dispersal and seed dormancy. Dormancy class was influenced by dispersal syndrome and season. Moreover

  2. Seed dispersal potential of Asian elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna C.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Roberts, John E.; Savini, Chution; Bauer, Jan M.; Savini, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial mega-herbivores, play an important ecological role in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity. While several plant species strongly rely on African elephants (Loxodonta africana; L. cyclotis) as seed dispersers, little is known about the dispersal potential of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut passage times (GPT). In total, 1200 ingested and non-ingested control seeds were planted in soil and in elephant dung to quantify differences in germination rates in terms of GPT and dung treatment. We used survival analysis as a novel approach to account for the right-censored nature of the data obtained from germination experiments. The average seed survival rate was 79% and the mean GPT was 35 h. The minimum and maximum GPT were 20 h and 72 h, respectively. Ingested seeds were significantly more likely to germinate and to do so earlier than non-ingested control seeds (P = 0.0002). Seeds with the longest GPT displayed the highest germination success over time. Unexpectedly, seeds planted with dung had longer germination times than those planted without. We conclude that D. indica does not solely depend on but benefits from dispersal by elephants. The declining numbers of these mega-faunal seed dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species.

  3. Weed seeds on clothing: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity including in areas of high conservation value. Unfortunately, people may be unintentionally introducing and dispersing weed seeds on their clothing when they visit these areas. To inform the management of these areas, we conducted a systematic quantitative literature review to determine the diversity and characteristics of species with seeds that can attach and be dispersed from clothing. Across 21 studies identified from systematic literature searches on this topic, seeds from 449 species have been recorded on clothing, more than double the diversity found in a previous review. Nearly all of them, 391 species, are listed weeds in one or more countries, with 58 classified as internationally-recognised environmental weeds. When our database was compared with weed lists from different countries and continents we found that clothing can carry the seeds of important regional weeds. A total of 287 of the species are listed as aliens in one or more countries in Europe, 156 are invasive species/noxious weeds in North America, 211 are naturalized alien plants in Australia, 97 are alien species in India, 33 are invasive species in China and 5 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. Seeds on the clothing of hikers can be carried to an average distance of 13 km, and where people travel in cars, trains, planes and boats, the seeds on their clothing can be carried much further. Factors that affect this type of seed dispersal include the type of clothing, the type of material the clothing is made from, the number and location of the seeds on plants, and seed traits such as adhesive and attachment structures. With increasing use of protected areas by tourists, including in remote regions, popular protected areas may be at great risk of biological invasions by weeds with seeds carried on clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-12-01

    Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds.

  5. Seeds of hope, seeds of despair: towards a political economy of the seed industry in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, N

    2001-01-01

    The seed industry in Southern Africa has been radically transformed by a policy of liberalisation and privatisation started under structural adjustment. Traditionally under the domain of parastatals, seed research, production and distribution has been criticised for failing to provide modern variety seed to smallholder farmers. However, the private companies which have stepped in to replace seed parastatals in southern Africa have proven no more effective in meeting the demands of smallholders. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement, concluded in 1994 as part of the Uruguay Rounds of GATT negotiations, as well as certain biotechnological innovations such as Terminator or Traitor technologies, threaten to further undermine local seed production and consumption by destroying the informal seed sector so central to agricultural production in the region. What alternatives exist? The success of Zimbabwe's maize seed network offers some insight. Resting on a unique relationship between government and nationally based producer co-operatives, Zimbabwe's maize programme was able to provide nearly every farmer in the country with hybrid maize suited for local growing conditions.

  6. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  7. DLF Seeds – strategiske udfordringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2017-01-01

    DLF Seeds er en globalt orienteret markfrøvirksomhed, som gennem de seneste årtier har stået over for en række afgørende strategiske valg, og selskabet har været gennem en omfattende strukturel udvikling. I denne artikel ses der nærmere på fem udvalgte strategiske problemstillinger i DLF: * ”Big...... Bang” – Stor fusion og konsolidering: Hvorfor og hvordan lykkedes fusionen? * Succesfuldt hybridselskab med andelsselskab og institutionelle investorer. Hvorfor lykkedes samarbejdet? * Vækst, markedsleder og fokusering på én gang. Hvordan kan man vokse og fokusere på én gang? * Internationalisering via...

  8. Climate Change: Seed Production and Options for Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hampton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

  9. [Variation of dormancy characteristic of different Pinus bungeana seed sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Liu, J; Wang, J

    2000-02-01

    Studies on the dormancy characteristics of Pinus bungeana seeds from 7 representative seed sources show that the difference of water permeability of seed capsule was very significant among seed sources. The seeds from northern part of distribution area had a much higher water permeability than from the south. According to water permeability, the seven seed sources were divided into 2 geographical groups, with Qinling Mountain as the division line. The difference of seed ventilation was caused firstly by outer seed capsule, and secondly by inner one. The variation of permeability had a similar trend with the ventilation. The inhibition ability of seed extracts was significantly different among different seed sources, which was increased with the concentration of seed extracts. Based on the inhibition ability of extracts from seed capsule and endosperm, the seven seed sources were divided into 2 and 3 geographical groups, respectively. The germination capacity decreased with increasing latitude, and seeds with poor germination capacity took relatively more time for germination. All population groups based on different division criteria showed such a character, i.e., the difference of seed characteristics was more significant among groups than in same group, and the distance of seed source was longer among groups than in a group. The difference of dormancy characteristics of different P. bungeana seed sources was the result of interaction between climatic and geographical factors.

  10. Seed morphology characteristics in relation to seed loss by water erosion in the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Juying; Han, Luyan; Jia, Yanfeng; Lei, Dong; Wang, Ning; Li, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    The role of water erosion on seed loss and on plant establishment and distribution is unknown on the Chinese Loess Plateau, which suffers serious soil erosion. The seed susceptibility of 16 local species to removal by water erosion from loess slopes was determined by rainfall simulation experiments. The experiments were performed on slopes with gradients of 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° for a 60-min duration at an intensity of 50 mm/h, 100 mm/h and 150 mm/h, respectively. The total seed removal rate obviously increased with rainfall intensity but did not obviously change with slope gradient, and the responses were varied among the species. The morphological characteristics affecting seed loss of the various species are quite different. Our experiments showed that the seed removal from some species are mainly due to seed weight, some species are mainly affected by seed shape, some are affected by appendage, some by surface structure, some by the comprehensive effects of the different morphological characteristics, while seeds having mucilage secretion are not easily moved by water erosion. We argued that the seed removal during water erosion can clearly effect seed redistribution and deposition, and consequently, species composition and vegetation spatial distribution.

  11. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  12. Ecological longevity of Polaskia chende (Cactaceae) seeds in the soil seed bank, seedling emergence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Salanueva, C A; Orozco-Segovia, A; Canales-Martínez, M; Seal, C E; Pritchard, H W; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2017-11-01

    Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, over a 5-year period we studied the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of Polaskia chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico. Freshly collected seeds were sown at 25 °C and 12-h photoperiod under white light, far-red light and darkness. The collected seeds were divided in two lots, the first was stored in the laboratory and the second was use to bury seeds in open areas and beneath a shrub canopy. Seeds were exhumed periodically over 5 years. At the same time seeds were sown in open areas and beneath shrub canopies; seedling emergence and survival were recorded over different periods of time for 5 years. The species forms long-term persistent soil seed banks. The timing of seedling emergence via germination in the field was regulated by interaction between light, temperature and soil moisture. Seeds entered secondary dormancy at specific times according to the expression of environmental factors, demonstrating irregular dormancy cycling. Seedling survival of P. chende was improved under Acacia constricta nurse plants. Finally, plant facilitation affected the soil seed bank dynamics as it promoted the formation of a soil seed bank, but not its persistence. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  14. Studies in Wild Oat Seed Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Stephen W.; Ross, James D.

    1981-01-01

    Seed of Avena fatua were shown to exhibit a characteristic loss of dormancy during dry storage at 25 C, whereas similar seed stored at 5 C maintained dormancy. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid was shown to increase germination of partly dormant seed imbibed under certain temperature regimes; a similar effect could not be established for fully dormant or fully nondormant seed. Using gas-liquid chromatography, natural ethylene levels were followed during imbibition of fully dormant and nondormant seed. A large peak in production was observed in the period prior to radicle emergence in the case of the nondormant seed. Measurements of ethylene production taken at 15 C, following periods of after-ripening in moist soil at either 5 or 25 C, indicated that endogenous production was unlikely to be a main cause of dormancy breakage in this species. The possibility that endogenous ethylene could play a role in natural dormancy breakage in aged seeds is discussed. The practical possibilities of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid as a dormancy breaking agent in a field situation are outlined. PMID:16661675

  15. The efficient flight of Ruellia ciliatiflora seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Marsh, Franklin; Chen, Peter; Vejar, David; Babb, Patrick; Castillo, Josue; Cordero, Sabrina; Lumban-Gaol, Maharani; Mora, Irlanda; Partida, Tania; Pineda, Julian; Rodriguez, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    The seeds of Ruellia ciliatiflora are small disks measuring approximately 3 mm in diameter and 0.3 mm in height, which are launched from exploding fruits at speeds exceeding 10 m/s. The seeds fly with backspin such that the axis of symmetry is parallel to the ground. With rotation rates that exceed 1 kHz they keep an aerodynamic profile and move through the air with a extremely low drag. Using high-speed video we have learned that the drag coefficients for these flying seeds can measure less than 0.01 for those launched with the least wobble. To understand the role of seed morphology and rotation rate on the flight of the seeds, we will also present work using 3D printed models of the seeds for studies in wind tunnels. Three-dimensional models are created by photographing seeds from many angles and inferring a shape using commercial software, which also creates a printable model. These studies should help guide work that compares explosions from fruits within the Acanthaceae family to which R. ciliatiflora belongs. This family consists of over 2000 species with exploding fruit with diverse habitats and morphologies.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira; Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B.

    2015-01-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  17. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  18. Seed ecology of Bromus sterilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žďárková, Veronika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus sterilis L. (barren brome has become a troublesome weed of winter cereals in reduced tillage systems, mainly in South and North America, middle and Western Europe. In the Czech Republic, its importance has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Barren brome is reported as a problem weed in other winter crops such as oil seed rape, in vineyards and in other cultivated places. In this study, the dormancy and germination under different temperatures, water and light regimes were investigated. Emergence from different depths and persistence in the soil profile were investigated under field conditions. The seeds of Bromus sterilis showed broad ecological valence to hydrothermal factors germinating in the wide range of 5 to 35 °C. Similarly, no strong effect on the germination in an environment with low water potential was observed. The response to light at various temperatures showed that seeds germinated better in darkness. The emergence declined significantly with burial depth (under 40 mm. The loss of primary dormancy was rapid in time and only 50% of the seeds germinated within 8 weeks after collecting from maternal plants. The seeds were not able to survive in the soil seed bank for a longer time and fall seeds lost viability 1 year after burial in a soil profile.

  19. [Quality classification standard of Dipsacus asperoides seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Longyun; Chen, Daxia; Wang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    To establish seed quality classification standard of Dipsacus asperoides. Through the detection on seed purity, 1 000-grain weight, water content, germination rate of D. asperoides from different areas, and observation on seed external characters, the primary seed quality classification standard of D. asperoides was preliminarily formulated. The first level D. asperoides seed germination rate was over 85%, 1 000-grain weight above 3.94 g, purity above 90.95%, water content lower than 9.08%. The second level D. asperoides seed germination rate was over 64%, 1 000-grain weight was above 3.57 g, purity was over 83.66%, water content was above 10.23%. The third level seed germination rate was above 35%, 1 000-grain weight was above 3.04 g, purity was above 75.51%, water content was lower than 11.37%. Germination rate and 1 000-grain weight were the main indexes of quality classification standard, and purity and water content provide the important reference. This quality classification standard of D. asperoides was scientific and feasible, and can be used as the quality control standard of D. asperoides.

  20. The conservation physiology of seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Graeme D.; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when plant species are experiencing increasing challenges from climate change, land-use change, harvesting and invasive species, dispersal has become a very important aspect of plant conservation. Seed dispersal by animals is particularly important because some animals disperse seeds to suitable sites in a directed fashion. Our review has two aims: (i) to highlight the various ways plant dispersal by animals can be affected by current anthropogenic change and (ii) to show the important role of plant and (particularly) animal physiology in shaping seed–dispersal interactions. We argue that large-bodied seed dispersers may be particularly important for plant conservation because seed dispersal of large-seeded plants is often more specialized and because large-bodied animals are targeted by human exploitation and have smaller population sizes. We further argue that more specialized seed-dispersal systems on island ecosystems might be particularly at risk from climate change both owing to small population sizes involved but also owing to the likely thermal specialization, particularly on tropical islands. More generally, the inherent vulnerability of seed-dispersal mutualisms to disruption driven by environmental change (as well as their ubiquity) demands that we continue to improve our understanding of their conservation physiology. PMID:22566677

  1. Seed shape quantification in the order Cucurbitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed shape quantification in diverse species of the families belonging to the order Cucurbitales is done based on the comparison of seed images with geometric figures. Quantification of seed shape is a useful tool in plant description for phenotypic characterization and taxonomic analysis. J index gives the percent of similarity of the image of a seed with a geometric figure and it is useful in taxonomy for the study of relationships between plant groups. Geometric figures used as models in the Cucurbitales are the ovoid, two ellipses with different x/y ratios and the outline of the Fibonacci spiral. The images of seeds have been compared with these figures and values of J index obtained. The results obtained for 29 species in the family Cucurbitaceae support a relationship between seed shape and species ecology. Simple seed shape, with images resembling simple geometric figures like the ovoid, ellipse or the Fibonacci spiral, may be a feature in the basal clades of taxonomic groups.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira, E-mail: camilo.urucum@hotmail.com [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Bicombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B., E-mail: jorgecazefilho@yahoo.com.br [Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Paraiba (EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  3. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

    2003-12-01

    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  4. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 5}HO{sub 8} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}, which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band ({approx} 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe{sup 3+} present in the goethite at g {approx} 2, and in the seeds

  5. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice. (author)

  6. EPR in characterization of seeds paramagnetic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.P.C.; Mauro, M.F.F.L.; Portugal, K.O.; Barbana, V.M.; Guedes, C.L.B.; Mauro, E. di; Carneiro, C.E.A.; Zaia, D.A.M.; Prete, C.E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In Brazil, since 1970s, renewable fuel programs has been developed in order to replace petroleum. Today a program that has been discussed is the bio diesel, which intend to replace diesel fuel, fossil oil, to bio diesel, renewal fuel. As seeds are the basis for production of oil and consequently processed into bio diesel, the goal of this work is to characterize and compare paramagnetic species present in the seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Samples used in this study were seeds of sorghum, barley, corn, peanuts, soy beans, cotton, wheat, oats, mustard, rice, sunflower and turnip. Some paramagnetic species present in soil was also investigated as goethite (FeOOH), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrihydrite (Fe 5 HO 8 · 4H 2 O), since, these species present in appreciable quantities in the soil can be present in the seeds and analyzed for comparison. The characterization of these species is essential to understand the EPR seeds spectra. Each sample is placed in a thin quartz tube 4 mm in diameter, and it is inserted into the cavity of the spectrometer at room temperature, at low temperature (77 K) and variable temperature using liquid nitrogen flow and hot flow through a compressor air. It was used as standard Mg O:Mn 2+ , which is also inserted into the cavity. Shortly after the potency is regulated, frequency, amplitude and sweep the field. The spectroscopic analysis by EPR X-band (∼ 9:5GHz), were performed at the Fluorescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Laboratory, Exact Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Parana state, Brazil, through an EPR spectrometer JEOL brand (JES-PE-3X). In the EPR spectra, spectroscopic factor or g factor and line width were determined in paramagnetic species. Studies from several seeds with EPR technique detected in all of them presence of same complex of Fe 3+ present in the goethite at g ∼ 2, and in the seeds exist free radicals at g = 2:004, at room temperature

  7. Nutrient value of leaf versus seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Marvin; Holt, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin and mineral concentrations and omega 6 / omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea) are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed). An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on “So why do we eat mainly seeds?”

  8. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Starr, A.; Bibi, N.

    1992-07-01

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  9. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Beraković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing occurrence of major pests ON corn, hybrid seed is necessary to be protected against pests and seed corn should be treated with appropriately insecticides. Choosing better technological solutions and choosing and appropriate insecticide seed treatment for corn can significantly reduce pest attack and thus enhance the production of corn. The aim of this research was to obtain based upon result information on the impact of treatment on quality of maize seed as well as the means to improve the conditions of storage and preservation of semen quality. Investigation and checking if insecticide treated seed adverse phytotoxic effect on plant growth and development in field conditions. The results indicate a significant effect of insecticide seed treatments on germination energy and non standard germination. A very significant influence of treated seed storage was also found on quality seeds. Looking at the impact of the treated hybrid on germination vigor and standard germination, a very significant hybrid impact was found out. The highest quality of the seed semen during the study was noticed with the seed of hybrid “H2”, followed by hybrid “H1”, while the hybrids “H3” and “H4” possessed less. The research shows that hybrids “H2” and “H1” are more suitable for seed treatment with insecticides than “H3” and “H4” hybrids. The field observations and research results obtained indicate a very significant impact of the treated seed on the above ground parts of plants, above ground mass, stem thickness and a very significant impact on plant spacing. The positive effect of treatment with “T1” and “T3” insecticides is visible in all conducted field researches. Plants treated with common fungicides and insecticides “T1” and “T3” had a greater height of the above ground plant parts, a larger mass of the above ground stems, greater stem thickness and better plant density treatments, compared to

  10. Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Berghout, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds The growth in the world population requires an increase in the production of protein-rich foods from plant-based materials. Lupin seeds have potential to become a novel plant protein source for food products because they are rich in protein (about 37 wt%) and they can be grown in moderate temperature climates as in north-western Europe. Besides a high protein content, lupin seeds are rich in dietary fibres (soluble and insoluble), contain abou...

  11. Gender inequality in predispersal seed predation contributes to female seed set advantage in a gynodioecious species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gretel L; Brody, Alison K

    2015-05-01

    Most flowering plants are hermaphrodites. However, in gynodioecious species, some members of the population are male-sterile and reproduce only by setting seed, while others gain fitness through both male and female function. How females compensate for the loss of male function remains unresolved for most gynodioecious species. Here, as with many plants, fitness differences may be influenced by interactions with multiple species. However, whether multiple species interactions result in gender-specific fitness differences remains unknown. Using observational data from 2009-2010, we quantified seed set of the two sex morphs of Polemonium foliosissimu and asked how it is affected by pollination, and seed predation from a dipteran predispersal seed predator (Anthomyiidae: Hylemya sp.). We assessed seed production and losses to predation in 27 populations for one year and in six populations for a second year. Females set significantly more seed than did hermaphrodites in both years. Of the fitness components we assessed, including the number of flowers per plant, fruit set, seeds/fruit, and proportion of fruits destroyed by Hylemya, only fruit destruction differed significantly between the sexes. In one year, seeds/fruit and predation had a stronger effect on seed set for hermaphrodites than for females. Because predispersal seed predators do not pollinate flowers, their effects may depend on successful pollination of flowers on which they oviposit. To examine if genders differed in pollen limitation and seed predation and/or their interactive effects, in 2011 we hand-pollinated flowers and removed seed predator eggs in a fully factorial design. Both sexes were pollen limited, but their degree of pollen limitation did not differ. However, predation reduced.seed set more for hermaphrodites than for females. We found no significant interaction between hand pollen and seed predation, and no interaction between hand pollination and gender. Our results suggest that while

  12. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  13. Physiological-biochemical parameters and characteristics of seed coat structure in lupin seeds subjected to long storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigour, viability, the contents of soluble carbohydrates, total protein, albumins, and globulins, as well as seed coat structure, were analysed in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Iryd seeds stored for 20 years at -14oC, 0oC or at room temperature (approx. +20oC. Seed storage at room temperature reduced viability (to 2% and increased seed leachate electroconductivity. Determinations of total proteins showed that protein content was significantly reduced in seeds stored at +20oC compared to the other storage regimens. Raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main soluble carbohydrates in seeds stored at 0oC and -14oC, whereas sucrose dominated in seeds stored at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of seed surface and seed coat sections revealed appearance of an amorphic layer on the surface of seeds stored at room temperature (not observed in other seeds and distinct shrinking of macrosclereid layer in seeds stored at -14oC. Macrosclereids layer in all seeds was 100 um thick and accounted for 60% of seed coat thickness. The obtained results suggest that for long term storage of lupin seeds at 0oC is the most advisable temperature if both costs of storage and seed storability are considered.

  14. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p seed size. Removal rates were significantly

  15. Automated seed detection and three-dimensional reconstruction. I. Seed localization from fluoroscopic images or radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubic, Dragan; Zaccarin, Andre; Pouliot, Jean; Beaulieu, Luc

    2001-01-01

    An automated procedure for the detection of the position and the orientation of radioactive seeds on fluoroscopic images or scanned radiographs is presented. The extracted positions of seed centers and the orientations are used for three-dimensional reconstruction of permanent prostate implants. The extraction procedure requires several steps: correction of image intensifier distortions, normalization, background removal, automatic threshold selection, thresholding, and finally, moment analysis and classification of the connected components. The algorithm was tested on 75 fluoroscopic images. The results show that, on average, 92% of the seeds are detected automatically. The orientation is found with an error smaller than 5 deg. for 75% of the seeds. The orientation of overlapping seeds (10%) should be considered as an estimate at best. The image processing procedure can also be used for seed or catheter detection in CT images, with minor modifications

  16. Screening for resistance to purple seed stain Cercospora kikuchii by seed inoculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.H.; Oh, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish a mass-screening technique for resistance to purple seed stain disease in soybean. Seeds sterilized in 1 : 10,000 mercuric chloride for 1 minute and transferred to Petridishes containing 20ml water agar plus 50 ppM of the sodium salt of 2,4-D were inoculated by placing a small agar cube containing fungal mycelium on the seed coat of each seed. A positive correlation betweeen natural infection of purple seed stain and purple discoloration by seed inoculation technique was highly significant and by this technique, some native soybean collections and introduced varieties were tested for resistance to the disease. Most of the soybean varieties tested were susceptible except for the varieties Hill, Harosoy and Sac, resistant comparatively.

  17. Assessment of Seed Germination and Dormancy of Thirty Seeds Lots of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Ehyaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of medicinal plants due to ecological adaptation to environmental conditions have several types of dormancy. Hence, it's necessary to recognize ecological factors that affect dormancy and provide optimum conditions for germination in medicinal plant species. Thirty seed lots were used to estimate germination and dormancy of medicinal plants. Treatments were KNO3, (2% and scarification of seeds by sand paper, hypochlorite sodium and removing the seed coat with four replicates of 25 seeds. Maximum and minimum germination observed in H2O for Digitalis purpure 100% and Saponaria officinalis 0%. In KNO3 treatment, Portulaca oleracea had the highest germination of 91% and Hyocyamus niger had no any germinated seeds. In sand paper treatment, the Saponaria officinalis and Datura stramonium had maximum, 33% and minimum 0% germination respectively.

  18. Regenerative role of seed banks following an intense soil disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.; Escudero, Adrián; Olano, José Miguel; Loidi, Javier

    2005-02-01

    Our main aim was to determine the contribution of the seed bank to vegetation regeneration following a disturbance consisting in a deep ploughing and a thorough homogenisation of a perennial grassland. In the seed bank prior to disturbance, seed distribution through the vertical soil profile was evaluated to determine the initial seed species structure. Then, several characteristics of the shallow seed bank and the extant vegetation were evaluated prior and following field disturbance: seed species composition and abundance, and species composition of the aboveground vegetation. The contribution of seed rain versus seed bank was evaluated by means of the comparison of the vegetation developed in plots filled with sterilised soil (seed bank removal) and the vegetation developed in non-sterilised plots in the field. The distribution of seeds through the profile indicated a sharp decline in abundance with depth, and it was probably linked to propagule morphology, with small and rounded seeds proner to being buried deeper than larger seeds. In the grassland prior to disturbance, the aboveground vegetation and seed bank species composition showed very low similarity index, most likely because during the 5 years following field abandonment, sheep pressure had caused a faster change in aboveground vegetation species composition than in seed bank species composition. Ploughing and homogenisation of the grassland led to low seed abundance in the shallow soil layer caused by dilution of the seed bank. Regardless of impoverishment in seed abundance and species richness, comparison between sterilised and non-sterilised plots showed that the seed bank acted as an effective source of colonising species and determined the aboveground species composition. To summarise, this study outlines the importance of considering several characteristics of the seed bank, such as species composition and seed abundance, in the understanding of the function of seed bank and dynamics of the

  19. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  20. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by an...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  2. 21 CFR 176.350 - Tamarind seed kernel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tamarind seed kernel powder. 176.350 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.350 Tamarind seed kernel powder. Tamarind... the provisions of this section. (a) Tamarind seed kernel powder is the ground kernel of tamarind seed...

  3. Seed anatomy, moisture content and scarification influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imbibition activates germination process and the rate of water uptake during imbibition is influenced by seed molecular composition and internal and external morphological structures. The present study aimed at examining the effect of seed anatomy and seed moisture content on water uptake by wild banana seeds.

  4. Seed ageing and field performance of maize under water stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, plant biomass and grain yield per unit area for plants from aged seeds were considerably lower than those from non-aged seeds. No significant interaction of irrigation × seed ageing was observed for grain yield, suggesting that aged seeds had low yield under both well and limited irrigation conditions. Therefore ...

  5. The impact of groundwater level on soil seed bank survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Oomes, MJM; Bakker, JP

    Seed longevity of plant species is an important topic in restoration management, and little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on seed survival and longevity under natural conditions. Therefore, the effect of groundwater level on the survival of seeds in the soil seed bank of a

  6. Seed ageing and field performance of maize under water stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... As a result, plant biomass and grain yield per unit area for plants from aged seeds were considerably lower than those from non-aged seeds. No significant interaction of irrigation × seed ageing was observed for grain yield, suggesting that aged seeds had low yield under both well and limited irrigation ...

  7. Competing seed consumers drive the evolution of scatter-hoarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We determined cache sizes in the field as well as seed cache recovery ability of a scatter-hoarding mouse, Acomys subspinosus, and compared these results to its seed competitor, the seed predator Rhabdomys pumilio.We found that up to 76% of A. subspinosus caches in the field contained one seed and that A.

  8. Soybean seed viability and changes of fatty acids content as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of soybean seed chemical composition are related to specific processes occurring in seed during storage. These changes lead to seed aging during storage and affect seed vigour and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigour tests were applied: Standard ...

  9. Promoting potato seed tuber management for increased ware yields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Pest Symptom Class Risk Analysis Sheets. The project envisages that the Primary Seed Multipliers will implement some form of collective monitoring of pests symptom classes and look to accept or reject potato stand production as suitable for seed for further multiplication as seed or as seed for table production. For this ...

  10. Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár, S

    2010-01-01

    Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar.

  11. Gene regulation in seeds : insights into translational dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, B.

    2016-01-01

    Seeds are unique structures in the plant life cycle. The variation in the timing of seed maturation, dispersion, and the establishment of seed dormancy and longevity, increases the chances of plant survival and enlarge the distance that plants could disperse in the natural habitat. Seeds contain

  12. Abscisic acid and assimilate partitioning during seed development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on the transport of assimilates to seeds and the deposition of reserves in seeds. It is well-known from literature that ABA accumulates in seeds during development, and that ABA concentrations in seeds correlate rather well with

  13. 7 CFR 361.5 - Sampling of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., husk 35 5 10 Turnip 50 5 10 Watermelon 500 25 50 AGRICULTURAL SEED: Agrotricum 500 100 500 Alfalfa 50... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling of seeds. 361.5 Section 361.5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.5 Sampling of...

  14. Effects of hydropriming on seed germination and seedling growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. Seed priming is an efficient technique for improvement of seed vigor, increasing germination and seedling growth. Little information has been reported on seedling development ...

  15. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375–970 nm were captured of all the s...

  16. DETERMINATION OF INHIBITORS, DORMANCY BREAKING AND SEED HEALTH IN CUTIEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Gomes Neves2

    2013-12-01

    was completely randomized, factorial 2 x 5, with two types of seed from freshly harvested fruits and remnants and five pre-germination treatments. The seed coat removal promotes increased germination and seed vigor derived from harvested fruits. Fungi identified in the cutieira seeds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.

  17. Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research was carried out to determine the effects of seed size on germination and early growth rate of Gmelina arborea. Mature seeds of. Gmelina arborea were collected from the mother trees in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. They were grouped into 3 categories as large seed size (LSS), medium seed ...

  18. Dependence of rate of germination of teak ( Tectona grandis ) seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine suitable sources of teak (Tectona grandis) seeds and methods of treating the seeds to promote higher rate of germination, with the objective to supply large quantities of seedlings for developing commercial teak plantations in Ghana. The field work involved seed collection, seed pericarp ...

  19. 7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall be tested for germination; except that in mixtures, 200 seeds of each of those...

  20. Comparative studies of drying methods on the seed quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed moisture content (MC) is a key component that determines storability of germplasm conserved in seed genebanks. The purpose of this research was to compare the efficiency of sun-, shade-, silica geland conventional room drying in terms of rice seed MC and viability using seeds of two interspecific progenies ...

  1. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... planted irrespective of the location on seed weight/plant, 100 seed weight and seed yield/ha. Average .... Mean squares derived from combined analysis of variance for seed yield and yield components in 20 kenaf genotypes. Source of .... environment interaction and yield stability in winter wheat. Ph.D.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  3. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls.Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  4. Seed Handling Highlights Storage of Acorns and Other Large Hardwood Seeds - Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1971-01-01

    Extended storage of heavy, high-moisture seeds is a problem the world over. Conifers and most hardwoods bear small seeds that can be stored for considerable periods at low moisture contents and low temperatures. But some of the big hardwood seeds can at best be kept overwinter; they are damaged or killed if dried to the levels commonly utilized for long-term storage....

  5. Gastropod seed dispersal: an invasive slug destroys far more seeds in its gut than native gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Tamara; Boch, Steffen; Türke, Manfred; Knop, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal is one of the most important mechanisms shaping biodiversity, and animals are one of the key dispersal vectors. Animal seed dispersal can directly or indirectly be altered by invasive organisms through the establishment of new or the disruption of existing seed dispersal interactions. So far it is known for a few gastropod species that they ingest and defecate viable plant seeds and consequently act as seed dispersers, referred to as gastropodochory. In a multi-species experiment, consisting of five different plant species and four different gastropod species, we tested with a fully crossed design whether gastropodochory is a general mechanism across native gastropod species, and whether it is altered by the invasive alien slug species Arion lusitanicus. Specifically, we hypothesized that a) native gastropod species consume the seeds from all tested plant species in equal numbers (have no preference), b) the voracious invasive alien slug A. lusitanicus--similarly to its herbivore behaviour--consumes a higher amount of seeds than native gastropods, and that c) seed viability is equal among different gastropod species after gut passage. As expected all tested gastropod species consumed all tested plant species. Against our expectation there was a difference in the amount of consumed seeds, with the largest and native mollusk Helix pomatia consuming most seeds, followed by the invasive slug and the other gastropods. Seed damage and germination rates did not differ after gut passage through different native species, but seed damage was significantly higher after gut passage through the invasive slug A. lusitanicus, and their germination rates were significantly reduced.

  6. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  7. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  8. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  9. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  10. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  11. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guohua, Hu; Yanhua, Lu; Rengang, Mao; Dongzhi, Wei; Zhengzhi, Ma; Hua, Zhang

    2009-04-21

    In the present study, we examined the effect of Allium tuberosum seeds extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Allium tuberosum seeds extract possess aphrodisiac property. The aphrodisiac activity of Allium tuberosum seeds n-BuOH extract was investigated in male rats. The extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day) and L-dopa (100 mg/kg body weight/day) were administered orally by gavages for 40 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL),mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40. The n-BuOH extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p male rats. Present findings provide experimental evidence that the n-BuOH extract preparation of Allium tuberosum seeds possesses aphrodisiac property.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  13. Seeding considerations in restoring big sagebrush habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods of managing or seeding to restore big sagebrush communities for wildlife habitat. The focus is on three big sagebrush subspecies, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), and mountain...

  14. Phylogenetic diversification of Early Cretaceous seed plants: The compound seed cone of Doylea tetrahedrasperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

    2016-05-01

    Discovery of cupulate ovules of Doylea tetrahedrasperma within a compact, compound seed cone highlights the rich diversity of fructification morphologies, pollination biologies, postpollination enclosure of seeds, and systematic diversity of Early Cretaceous gymnosperms. Specimens were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique, three-dimensional reconstructions (in AVIZO), and morphological phylogenetic analyses (in TNT). Doylea tetrahedrasperma has bract/fertile short shoot complexes helically arranged within a compact, compound seed cone. Complexes diverge from the axis as a single unit and separate distally into a free bract tip and two sporophylls. Each sporophyll bears a single, abaxial seed, recurved toward the cone axis, that is enveloped after pollinaton by sporophyll tissue, forming a closed cupule. Ovules are pollinated by bisaccate grains captured by micropylar pollination horns. The unique combination of characters shown by D. tetrahedrasperma includes the presence of cupulate seeds borne in conifer-like compound seed cones, an ovuliferous scale analogue structurally equivalent to the ovulate stalk of Ginkgo biloba, gymnospermous pollination, and nearly complete enclosure of mature seeds. These features characterize the Doyleales ord. nov., clearly distinguish it from the seed fern order Corystospermales, and allow for recognition of another recently described Early Cretaceous seed plant as a second species in genus Doylea. A morphological phylogenetic analysis highlights systematic relationships of the Doyleales ord. nov. and emphasizes the explosive phylogenetic diversification of gymnosperms that was underway at the time when flowering plants may have originated and/or first began to radiate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  16. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  17. Seed yield components and seed yield of winter vetch species (Vicia spp. depending on row spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagić Đura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of row spacing (12,5 cm and 50 cm on seed yield components and seed yield of winter-sown hairy, Hungarian and common vetches (V. villosa Roth, V. pannonica Crantz and V. sativa L. were investigated in this paper. Number of plants per m2, number of stems per plant and per m2, crop height, plant length, lodging index, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1,000 seed weight and seed yield were determined. Increased row spacing resulted in increased crop height by 13.6 %, decreased plant length by 8.5 %, increased lodging index by 22.3 %, increased number of stems per plant by 57.0 %, number of pods per plant by 43.5 %, number of seeds per pod by 14.7 %, 1,000 seed weight by 4.7 % and seed yield by 29.0 %. The highest and the lowest seed yields were obtained in Hungarian and hairy vetch, 1,380 kg ha-1 and 784 kg ha-1 respectively. .

  18. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Virginia; Ruchi .; Paul Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10) served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organole...

  19. Use of multispectral images and chemometrics in tomato seed studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral......, respectively. Similarly, dead seeds were predicted with 98% of accuracy. Results also showed that 23 and 14 seeds from green tomatoes in the training and test sets respectively were viable, while only one viable seed in the test set was misclassified. The results indicate that green tomatoes might be mature...

  20. Quantized Matrix Algebras and Quantum Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner; Pagani, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees.......We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees....

  1. Seed shattering: from models to crops

    OpenAIRE

    Yang eDong; Yin-Zheng eWang

    2015-01-01

    Seed shattering (or pod dehiscence, or fruit shedding) is essential for the propagation of their offspring in wild plants but is a major cause of yield loss in crops. In the dicot model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, pod dehiscence necessitates a development of the abscission zones along the pod valve margins. In monocots, such as cereals, an abscission layer in the pedicle is required for the seed shattering process. In the past decade, great advances have been made in characterizing the gen...

  2. Promotion of seed germination by cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylorson, R B; Hendricks, S B

    1973-07-01

    Potassium cyanide at 3 mum to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form beta-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. beta-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 alpha-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from beta-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-(14)C is much lower than of cyanide.Radioactive tracer in K(14)CN shows uptake of about 1.5 mumoles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high (14)C activity in beta-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN(3) at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN(3) inhibit O(2) consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form beta-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis.

  3. Primordial magnetic seeds from string cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, M

    2005-01-01

    After a discussion of the inflationary production of primordial magnetic seeds, and a short review of various possible mechanisms, we concentrate on the analysis of the photon-dilaton coupling typical of string theory models. Particular attention is paid to the constraints to be imposed on the primordial seed spectrum, and to the possibility of obtaining phenomenological signatures of heterotic and Type I superstrings, in principle accessible to present (or near-future) observations.

  4. Seed germination and sowing options [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Kim Wilkinson; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of many native species are challenging to germinate. One important thing a grower can do is learn as much as possible about the life history, ecology, and habitat of the species they wish to grow.What processes do seeds of this species go through in nature? Any observations will be valuable when trying to germinate and grow species that have little or no...

  5. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Rosana Marta; Pilon, Natashi Aparecida Lima; Durigan, Giselda

    2016-01-01

    Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i) recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii) under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii)...

  6. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A.A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under

  7. Global changes in DNA methylation in seeds and seedlings of Pyrus communis after seed desiccation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Marcin; Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Barciszewski, Jan; Plitta, Beata P; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage and deep desiccation on structural changes of DNA in orthodox seeds are poorly characterized. In this study we analyzed the 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) global content of DNA isolated from seeds of common pear (Pyrus communis L.) that had been subjected to extreme desiccation, and the seedlings derived from these seeds. Germination and seedling emergence tests were applied to determine seed viability after their desiccation. In parallel, analysis of the global content of m(5)C in dried seeds and DNA of seedlings obtained from such seeds was performed with a 2D TLC method. Desiccation of fresh seeds to 5.3% moisture content (mc) resulted in a slight reduction of DNA methylation, whereas severe desiccation down to 2-3% mc increased DNA methylation. Strong desiccation of seeds resulted in the subsequent generation of seedlings of shorter height. A 1-year period of seed storage induced a significant increase in the level of DNA methylation in seeds. It is possible that alterations in the m(5)C content of DNA in strongly desiccated pear seeds reflect a reaction of desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds to severe desiccation. Epigenetic changes were observed not only in severely desiccated seeds but also in 3-month old seedlings obtained from these seeds. With regard to seed storage practices, epigenetic assessment could be used by gene banks for early detection of structural changes in the DNA of stored seeds.

  8. Seed fall in an oldgrowth northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond E. Graber; William B. Leak; William B. Leak

    1992-01-01

    Seed fall was measured for 11 years in a 200-year-old stand of sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech in New Hampshire. Yellow birch had 5 good seed years, sugar maple had 3, and beech had none. Viable seed fall of yellow birch began in August and continued through autumn and winter. Most of the viable sugar maple seed fell during a short period in October. Beech seed...

  9. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing.

    OpenAIRE

    DIAS, M. A. N.; MONDO, V. H. V.; CICERO, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  10. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marcos Altomani Neves; Mondo, Vitor Henrique Vaz; Cicero, Silvio Moure

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  11. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  12. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and the...

  13. Gravitational stress on germinating Pinus pinea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaldi, Francesco; Giachetti, Eugenio; Guerin, Elizabeth; Bacci, Stefano; Paoletti, Elena; Boddi, Vieri; Vanni, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    In the germination of lipid-rich seeds, the glyoxylate cycle plays a control role in that, bypassing the two decarboxylative steps of the Krebs cycle; it allows the net synthesis of carbohydrates from lipids. The activity of isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is an indicator of the state of seed germination: stage of germination, growth of embryo, activation and progress of protein synthesis, depletion of lipidic supplies. In order to investigate the effects of gravity on seed germination, we carried out a study on the time pattern of germination of Pinus pinea seeds that were subjected to a hypergravitational stress (1000 g for 64 h at 4 degrees C), either in a dry or in a wet environment, before to be placed in germination plates. During the whole time of germination, we monitored the state of embryo growth and the most representative enzymes of the main metabolic pathways. In treated wet seeds, we observed an average germination of only 20% with a slowdown of the enzyme activities assayed and a noticeable degradation of lipidic reserves with respect to the controls. These differences in germination are not found for dry seeds.

  14. Physiological quality of sesame seeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is one of the oldest oilseed plants used by man, and has great economic potential due to the possibilities for its exploitation in both the domestic and international markets. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sesame seeds stored in different environments and packaging, with a view to their conservation. The seeds were packed into paper bags, multiwall paper, black polyethylene and PETE bottles, and stored for a period of 12 months in different environments: dry cold room (10 °C and 55% RH, natural environment (30-32 °C and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 °C and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 °C. Every three months the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design employed was completely randomised, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. The results showed that sesame seeds remain viable for up to twelve months when stored in a dry cold room or refrigerator, regardless of the type of packaging used. In a natural environment, the seeds remain viable for up to six months in storage. Paper packaging is the most suitable for sesame seeds stored in a freezer for up to twelve months.

  15. Precipitation formation from orographic cloud seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey R; Friedrich, Katja; Tessendorf, Sarah A; Rauber, Robert M; Geerts, Bart; Rasmussen, Roy M; Xue, Lulin; Kunkel, Melvin L; Blestrud, Derek R

    2018-02-06

    Throughout the western United States and other semiarid mountainous regions across the globe, water supplies are fed primarily through the melting of snowpack. Growing populations place higher demands on water, while warmer winters and earlier springs reduce its supply. Water managers are tantalized by the prospect of cloud seeding as a way to increase winter snowfall, thereby shifting the balance between water supply and demand. Little direct scientific evidence exists that confirms even the basic physical hypothesis upon which cloud seeding relies. The intent of glaciogenic seeding of orographic clouds is to introduce aerosol into a cloud to alter the natural development of cloud particles and enhance wintertime precipitation in a targeted region. The hypothesized chain of events begins with the introduction of silver iodide aerosol into cloud regions containing supercooled liquid water, leading to the nucleation of ice crystals, followed by ice particle growth to sizes sufficiently large such that snow falls to the ground. Despite numerous experiments spanning several decades, no direct observations of this process exist. Here, measurements from radars and aircraft-mounted cloud physics probes are presented that together show the initiation, growth, and fallout to the mountain surface of ice crystals resulting from glaciogenic seeding. These data, by themselves, do not address the question of cloud seeding efficacy, but rather form a critical set of observations necessary for such investigations. These observations are unambiguous and provide details of the physical chain of events following the introduction of glaciogenic cloud seeding aerosol into supercooled liquid orographic clouds.

  16. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Herbal Fortification of Bread with Fennel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fennel seeds are a source of many nutrients, i.e. sugars, minerals, essential fatty acids, vital vitamins, protein and fibre. They are also rich in essential oil and many flavonoids. The sweet-flavoured fennel seeds are very popular worldwide and are extensively used in culinary and therapeutic fields. Bread fortified with fennel seed powder is thus likely to have higher consumer acceptability than white or other fortified bread. In this study, bread samples were prepared by supplementing white flour with fennel seed powder at the levels of 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and their physical, sensory, antioxidant and staling characteristics were determined. Crumb moisture increased and reached the maximum at 7.0 % level of supplementation with gradual increase in crumb firmness. An attempt has been made to understand the role of fennel seed powder in the bread samples during storage. Antioxidant activity (i.e. total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2,2- -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging showed an increase up to 7.0 % level of supplementation. Bread with fennel seed content between 5.0 and 7.0 % showed the highest acceptability among the fortified bread samples.

  18. Protein syntehsis during soybean seed maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.A.; Rinne, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previous work has demonstrated that physiological and biochemical changes specifically associated with soybean seed maturation can be separated from events associated with seed development. The objective of this study was to determine if soybean seed metabolism is altered during maturation drying at the level of protein synthesis. Seed harvested 35 days after flowering (0% seedling growth) were induced to mature (100% seedling growth) through controlled dehydration. Proteins labeled with [ 35 S]-methionine were extracted and analyzed by 1-D PAGE coupled with autoradiography and densitometry. Results show a 31 kD and 128 kD polypeptide synthesized de novo during dehydration and precocious maturation. The same two polypeptides are synthesized during natural dehydration and maturation (>60 days after flowering). Furthermore, these polypeptides persist during rehydration and germination of both precociously and naturally matured seed, but specifically disappear during early seedling growth. The authors are currently investigating the role of protein synthesis during soybean seed maturation and if it is required for establishment of a soybean seedling

  19. Survival of seeds in hypervelocity impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerling, Aaron; Burchell, Mark J.; Tepfer, David

    2008-10-01

    Panspermia (‘seeds everywhere’) postulates that life naturally migrates through space. Laboratory studies of Panspermia often examine the survival of Earth's species under the conditions thought to occur during transfer through space. Much of this research has centred on bacteria, but here we consider seeds themselves. We simulated the extreme accelerations necessary for their hypothetical ejection from a planetary surface and the impacts associated with their arrival on another planet. Seeds of tobacco, alfalfa and cress were fired into water at speeds in the range 1 3 km s-1, corresponding to impact shock pressures of circa 0.24 2.4 GPa. No seeds remained intact and able to germinate, even at the lowest speeds. Although fragmentation occurred, even at 3 km s-1 the size of some of the fragments was about 25% that of the seeds. Thus, whilst the seeds themselves did not survive extreme shocks, a substantial fraction of their mass did and might successfully deliver complex organic materials after impact. These results are discussed with respect to ancient Panspermia and the potential of contemporary impacts to eject living organisms into space.

  20. Yields and quality of forage legumes under imbalanced year precipitation conditions on south Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, yield and quality of forage following species of forage legumes were evaluated with regard to precipitations: lucerne (Medicago sativa L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L., white clover (Trifolium repens L., kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M., alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L. and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. The trial was sown in the spring of 2008, evaluated in the period 2009–2011. Analysis of samples was performed with the apparatus NIRS 6500. Following parameters were evaluated: production of dry matter, energy concentration (NEL, contents of fibre and crude protein. The highest three year yield average was measured for lucerne (15.01 t.ha−1, followed by red clover group (9.3–11.8 t.ha−1. Kura clover gained the lowest yield (1.97 t.ha−1. The average crude protein contents (g.kg−1 were: lucerne 211.47, red clover group (184.3–194.8, white clover group (229.1–238.7 and birdsfoot trefoil (204.2. The obtained results indicated that lucerne responded at best to periods of drought. Although the production of dry matter decreased in periods of drought, the canopy of stands remained to be complete in contradistinction to white clover, which partly disappeared from the stand. Red clover and alsike clover disappeared from the stand during the trial.