WorldWideScience

Sample records for birds small mammals

  1. Toward reliable estimates of seed removal by small mammals and birds in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV. Christianini

    Full Text Available Birds are often considered seed predators of less importance when compared to rodents or granivorous ants in studies of seed predation using selective exclosures. However, it is possible that the role of granivorous birds interacting with seeds on the floor of Neotropical forests is being underestimated, if the selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to small rodents do not work properly in the Neotropics. We used an experimental approach to evaluate whether birds could remove seeds from selective exclosures designed to allow exclusive access to rodents. We compared seed removal from two paired treatments in the field: an open treatment (control allowing the access to all vertebrates, and a selective exclosure treatment, where seeds were placed under a cage staked to the ground and covered on top and on the laterals by wire mesh of varying sizes. Treatments were placed in the center of a sand quadrat in order to record the visit of vertebrates from their footprints. Although the selective exclosures are used to tell apart the small mammal seed removal from that of other animals, birds could persistently remove seeds from selective exclosures. Thus, the role of birds interacting with seeds on the floor of tropical forests may be underestimated for some plant species, due to an artifact of the exclosure method employed. Exclosures of 40 x 40 x 40 cm should be efficient to deter the removal of seeds by birds, allowing the consumption of the seeds by small mammals at the same time.

  2. Radiation exposure of the radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Radiography is often used as an advanced examination to ensure a diagnosis in avian, reptiles and small mammal's medicine. The aims of this thesis were: 1. To measure the radiation exposure of radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds. The exposure of relevant body regions were measured during clinical routine. 2. To examine the differences of radiation exposures caused by radiography of different animal species and to determine the influence of dose-dependent parameters. 3. To present the radiation protection measures of the clinic and to discuss possible improvements. 4. To weigh the anaesthetic risk for small mammals, reptiles and birds against the radiation exposure of the radiological staff. The measurements took place during clinical routine of the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The radiation exposure of the radiological staff was measured. The radiological staff included veterinarians, veterinary-medical technical assistants, doctoral candidates and students during their practical year. Furthermore, the radiation exposure was measured at ten representative body regions using thermoluminescence dosimetry. The measuring positions included the eye-lenses, thyroid, thoracic region under the protective clothes, thoracic region above the protective clothes, gonads, fingers and the left foot. Except for one position that was measured under the protective clothes all positions measured above the protective clothes. Moreover at each examination the focus-film-distance, the kV-number, the mAs-product and the weight of the patient was recorded. Additionally the size of the examiner and the examiner's position regarding to the X-ray table were recorded as variable, dose-influencing parameters. Altogether, measurements were taken from 366 individual examiners. In all three divisions 792 X-ray images were made and 3660 dose values recorded. The

  3. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  4. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  5. Do Bird Friendly® Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, S Amanda; Rice, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats. We used Sherman trap-grids to measure small mammal abundance and richness, while camera traps were set for medium-sized and large mammals. We detected 17 species of mammals, representing 11 families. This preliminary study indicates that coffee farms in this region provide an important refuge for mammalian wildlife. Mammal species density ranked significantly higher in Bird Friendly® coffee sites than other coffee habitats, although there was no significant difference for species richness (using Chao2 estimator) among the habitat types. No significant difference was found in small mammal abundance among the habitat types. We found a higher species density of medium and large mammals in sites with larger, more mature shade trees associated with, but not required by Bird Friendly® certification standards. However, lower strata vegetation (5 cm to 1 m tall), the only vegetation parameter found to increase abundance and density for small mammals, is not specified in the Bird Friendly® standards. Our findings suggest that although the standards devised for avian habitat do benefit mammals, further study is needed on the requirements specific for mammals that could be included to enhance the coffee habitat for mammals that inhabit these coffee landscapes.

  6. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83 Section 216.83 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or birds...

  7. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  8. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  9. Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. Scheibler

    Full Text Available We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus. Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras", and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758. The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness.

  10. Scaling of Natal Dispersal Distances in Terrestrial Birds and Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Sutherland

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal is a process that is critical in the spatial dynamics of populations, including population spread, recolonization, and gene flow. It is a central focus of conservation issues for many vertebrate species. Using data for 77 bird and 68 mammal species, we tested whether median and maximum natal dispersal distances were correlated with body mass, diet type, social system, taxonomic family, and migratory status. Body mass and diet type were found to predict both median and maximum natal dispersal distances in mammals: large species dispersed farther than small ones, and carnivorous species dispersed farther than herbivores and omnivores. Similar relationships occurred for carnivorous bird species, but not for herbivorous or omnivorous ones. Natal dispersal distances in birds or mammals were not significantly related to broad categories of social systems. Only in birds were factors such as taxonomic relatedness and migratory status correlated with natal dispersal, and then only for maximum distances. Summary properties of dispersal processes appeared to be derived from interactions among behavioral and morphological characteristics of species and from their linkages to the dynamics of resource availability in landscapes. In all the species we examined, most dispersers moved relatively short distances, and long-distance dispersal was uncommon. On the basis of these findings, we fit an empirical model based on the negative exponential distribution for calculating minimum probabilities that animals disperse particular distances from their natal areas. This model, coupled with knowledge of a species' body mass and diet type, can be used to conservatively predict dispersal distances for different species and examine possible consequences of large-scale habitat alterations on connectedness between populations. Taken together, our results can provide managers with the means to identify species vulnerable to landscape-level habitat changes

  11. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  12. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  13. Ecological aspects of social evolution: birds and mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, D.I; Wrangham, R.W

    1986-01-01

    Seeking common principles of social evolution in different taxonomic groups, the contributors to this volume discuss eighteen groups of birds and mammals for which long-term field studies have been carried...

  14. 135 SPECIES LIST AND STATUS OF MAMMALS AND BIRDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Officer i/c Sambisa Game Reserve Forestry and Wildlife Services Division,. Ministry of ... Key words: Game Reserve, Mammals, Birds, Checklist and Status. INTRODUCTION. Species ..... Ph.D Thesis, University of. Ibadan. pp ...

  15. Small mammals as components of the consumer subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The trophic and species composition of small mammal populations in various environments are related to structural complexity of the plant community. The basis for these relationships is in energetics, abundance, and dependability of food resources determining the potential patterns of exploitation possible. There is evidence for resource partitioning by small mammals in grasslands, but development of suitable strategies are dependent upon demographic characteristics. Energetic efficiency of small mammals and invertebrates is examined as it affects their relative success as consumers in grasslands. The relative importance of small mammals, birds, and arthropods in relation to utilization of plant herbage, seeds, and invertebrate food resources is estimated for five grassland sites. Recommendations are made for topics meriting further investigation

  16. Radiation exposure of the radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds; Untersuchungen zur Strahlenexposition des radiologisch taetigen Personals bei der Radiographie von Heimtieren, Reptilien sowie Zier- und Wildvoegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Yvonne

    2015-05-27

    Radiography is often used as an advanced examination to ensure a diagnosis in avian, reptiles and small mammal's medicine. The aims of this thesis were: 1. To measure the radiation exposure of radiological staff caused by radiography of small mammals, reptiles and birds. The exposure of relevant body regions were measured during clinical routine. 2. To examine the differences of radiation exposures caused by radiography of different animal species and to determine the influence of dose-dependent parameters. 3. To present the radiation protection measures of the clinic and to discuss possible improvements. 4. To weigh the anaesthetic risk for small mammals, reptiles and birds against the radiation exposure of the radiological staff. The measurements took place during clinical routine of the Clinic for Exotic Pets, Reptiles, Pet and Feral Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The radiation exposure of the radiological staff was measured. The radiological staff included veterinarians, veterinary-medical technical assistants, doctoral candidates and students during their practical year. Furthermore, the radiation exposure was measured at ten representative body regions using thermoluminescence dosimetry. The measuring positions included the eye-lenses, thyroid, thoracic region under the protective clothes, thoracic region above the protective clothes, gonads, fingers and the left foot. Except for one position that was measured under the protective clothes all positions measured above the protective clothes. Moreover at each examination the focus-film-distance, the kV-number, the mAs-product and the weight of the patient was recorded. Additionally the size of the examiner and the examiner's position regarding to the X-ray table were recorded as variable, dose-influencing parameters. Altogether, measurements were taken from 366 individual examiners. In all three divisions 792 X-ray images were made and 3660 dose values recorded. The

  17. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially Protected...

  18. The transfer of (137)Cs, Pu isotopes and (90)Sr to bird, bat and ground-dwelling small mammal species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Maksimenko, Andrey; Wood, M D

    2016-03-01

    Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach. In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact. The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally. Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments. The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife. A video abstract for this paper is available from

  19. Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUF, THOMAS; GEISER, FRITZ

    2014-01-01

    Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e., the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e., hypometabolic states associated with low body temperatures (torpor), have been distinguished: Daily torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged however, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent the extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species, 43 birds and 171 mammals form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and daily torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between daily torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms are small on average, but hibernators are significantly heavier than daily heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (~35°) than daily heterotherms (~25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30-g heterotherm differed significantly between daily heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ~13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ~35% of the BMR in daily heterotherms but only 6% of basal metabolic rate in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that

  20. A phenology of the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2017-05-01

    Recent palaeontological data and novel physiological hypotheses now allow a timescaled reconstruction of the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals. A three-phase iterative model describing how endothermy evolved from Permian ectothermic ancestors is presented. In Phase One I propose that the elevation of endothermy - increased metabolism and body temperature (T b ) - complemented large-body-size homeothermy during the Permian and Triassic in response to the fitness benefits of enhanced embryo development (parental care) and the activity demands of conquering dry land. I propose that Phase Two commenced in the Late Triassic and Jurassic and was marked by extreme body-size miniaturization, the evolution of enhanced body insulation (fur and feathers), increased brain size, thermoregulatory control, and increased ecomorphological diversity. I suggest that Phase Three occurred during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic and involved endothermic pulses associated with the evolution of muscle-powered flapping flight in birds, terrestrial cursoriality in mammals, and climate adaptation in response to Late Cenozoic cooling in both birds and mammals. Although the triphasic model argues for an iterative evolution of endothermy in pulses throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, it is also argued that endothermy was potentially abandoned at any time that a bird or mammal did not rely upon its thermal benefits for parental care or breeding success. The abandonment would have taken the form of either hibernation or daily torpor as observed in extant endotherms. Thus torpor and hibernation are argued to be as ancient as the origins of endothermy itself, a plesiomorphic characteristic observed today in many small birds and mammals. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  2. Nutrient-Sensing Biology in Mammals and Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon R

    2018-01-01

    in nondigestive systems has uncovered fascinating potential as pharmacological targets relevant to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 6 is February 15, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal......, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required...

  3. Cardiovascular Drugs in Avian, Small Mammal, and Reptile Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Brenna Colleen; Dias, Sara; Martorell, Jaume

    2018-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure, pericardial disease, and atherosclerosis, is becoming increasingly better recognized in companion birds, small mammals, and reptiles. A wide range of medications is available to treat these conditions, including diuretics, vasodilators, positive and negative inotropes, antiarrhythmic agents, and pentoxifylline. This review systematically discusses each of these drug classes and their potential applications in exotic species. Although treatment approaches remain largely empirical and extrapolated from small animal and human medicine, the management strategies presented here have the potential to both maintain quality of life and extend survival time for the exotic cardiac patient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A system for gathering small mammal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Neely; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    As an aid to studying vertebrate predators of the gypsy moth, a radio telemetry system was designed to detect the death of small mammals and facilitate recovery of the remains. An intraperitoneally implanted radio transmitter is triggered by the drop in body temperature when the animal dies. The device was tested in white-footed mice.

  5. Myoglobin oxygen affinity in aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Traver J; Davis, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen binding protein found in vertebrate skeletal muscle, where it facilitates intracellular transport and storage of oxygen. This protein has evolved to suit unique physiological needs in the muscle of diving vertebrates that express Mb at much greater concentrations than their terrestrial counterparts. In this study, we characterized Mb oxygen affinity (P50) from 25 species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals. Among diving species, we tested for correlations between Mb P50 and routine dive duration. Across all species examined, Mb P50 ranged from 2.40 to 4.85 mmHg. The mean P50 of Mb from terrestrial ungulates was 3.72±0.15 mmHg (range 3.70-3.74 mmHg). The P50 of cetaceans was similar to terrestrial ungulates ranging from 3.54 to 3.82 mmHg, with the exception of the melon-headed whale, which had a significantly higher P50 of 4.85 mmHg. Among pinnipeds, the P50 ranged from 3.23 to 3.81 mmHg and showed a trend for higher oxygen affinity in species with longer dive durations. Among diving birds, the P50 ranged from 2.40 to 3.36 mmHg and also showed a trend of higher affinities in species with longer dive durations. In pinnipeds and birds, low Mb P50 was associated with species whose muscles are metabolically active under hypoxic conditions associated with aerobic dives. Given the broad range of potential globin oxygen affinities, Mb P50 from diverse vertebrate species appears constrained within a relatively narrow range. High Mb oxygen affinity within this range may be adaptive for some vertebrates that make prolonged dives. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Use of models in small mammal population studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, W.; Nichols, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The role of models as contributors to the understanding of natural populations of small mammals is reviewed. A philosophy of model use and projections for future work are also included. Categories of biological phenomena reviewed include models on population dynamics (demographic variables and population regulation, dispersal, sex-ratios, predation, population cycles), population responses to environmental conditions, genetics of small mammal populations, competitive interactions, ecosystems and small mammal functions, and control and management of small mammal populations

  8. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  9. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  10. Universal mechanisms of sound production and control in birds and mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, Coen; Rasmussen, Jeppe Have; Herbst, Christian T.

    2015-01-01

    As animals vocalize, their vocal organ transforms motor commands into vocalizations for social communication. In birds, the physical mechanisms by which vocalizations are produced and controlled remain unresolved because of the extreme difficulty in obtaining in vivo measurements. Here, we...... learning and is common to MEAD sound production across birds and mammals, including humans....

  11. Determinants of Mammal and Bird Species Richness in China Based on Habitat Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Xu

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial patterns in species richness is a central issue in macroecology and biogeography. Analyses that have traditionally focused on overall species richness limit the generality and depth of inference. Spatial patterns of species richness and the mechanisms that underpin them in China remain poorly documented. We created a database of the distribution of 580 mammal species and 849 resident bird species from 2376 counties in China and established spatial linear models to identify the determinants of species richness and test the roles of five hypotheses for overall mammals and resident birds and the 11 habitat groups among the two taxa. Our result showed that elevation variability was the most important determinant of species richness of overall mammal and bird species. It is indicated that the most prominent predictors of species richness varied among different habitat groups: elevation variability for forest and shrub mammals and birds, temperature annual range for grassland and desert mammals and wetland birds, net primary productivity for farmland mammals, maximum temperature of the warmest month for cave mammals, and precipitation of the driest quarter for grassland and desert birds. Noteworthily, main land cover type was also found to obviously influence mammal and bird species richness in forests, shrubs and wetlands under the disturbance of intensified human activities. Our findings revealed a substantial divergence in the species richness patterns among different habitat groups and highlighted the group-specific and disparate environmental associations that underpin them. As we demonstrate, a focus on overall species richness alone might lead to incomplete or misguided understanding of spatial patterns. Conservation priorities that consider a broad spectrum of habitat groups will be more successful in safeguarding the multiple services of biodiversity.

  12. Role of small mammals in ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golley, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Small mammals are one of the groups commonly studied as an ecological unit in ecosystem analysis; the aggregation being justified on taxonomic or methodological grounds. Since small mammals include animals with habits of herbivory, omnivory, and carnivory, nocturnal and diurnal habits, living in a great variety of habitats, and adapted to conditions of life such as burrowing and flight, the collection is a diverse taxonomic aggregation and an unusually bad ecological grouping. For ecosystem analysis, groupings of organisms that have evolved in common with each other in the community seem more reasonable than aggregations based on taxonomic grounds. The depth of the problem is made clear when we examine the record and find that there are almost no studies of energy and material flow in terrestrial food chains. It is incredible that almost every study of a population considers that population as a receiver and donor of energy and materials acting independently. It would appear that aggregation of food chains into ecosystem components might be more fruitful than aggregation of independent populations

  13. Neurobehavioral endocrine regulation of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus

  14. Serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds and mammals from southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Pena, Hilda Fáitima de Jesus; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-03-01

    In this study, serum samples of 53 wild animals from two different states from the southeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off of 1: 5 for birds and of 1: 25 for mammals. Out of the sampled animals, 27 were birds and 26 were mammals, and from this total, 83% (n = 44) were free-living animals. Antibodies were found in 13 mammals, from which 11 were free-living animals, and in five birds, all of which were free-living. In this study, T. gondii antibodies were detected in four bird species (crested seriema, Cariama cristata; buff-necked ibis, Theristicus caudatus; picazuro pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro; and burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia) and in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) for the first time.

  15. Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood 125-250,000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L Hardy

    Full Text Available Neanderthals are most often portrayed as big game hunters who derived the vast majority of their diet from large terrestrial herbivores while birds, fish and plants are seen as relatively unimportant or beyond the capabilities of Neanderthals. Although evidence for exploitation of other resources (small mammals, birds, fish, shellfish, and plants has been found at certain Neanderthal sites, these are typically dismissed as unusual exceptions. The general view suggests that Neanderthal diet may broaden with time, but that this only occurs sometime after 50,000 years ago. We present evidence, in the form of lithic residue and use-wear analyses, for an example of a broad-based subsistence for Neanderthals at the site of Payre, Ardèche, France (beginning of MIS 5/end of MIS 6 to beginning of MIS 7/end of MIS 8; approximately 125-250,000 years ago. In addition to large terrestrial herbivores, Neanderthals at Payre also exploited starchy plants, birds, and fish. These results demonstrate a varied subsistence already in place with early Neanderthals and suggest that our ideas of Neanderthal subsistence are biased by our dependence on the zooarchaeological record and a deep-seated intellectual emphasis on big game hunting.

  16. [Communication and auditory behavior obtained by auditory evoked potentials in mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Collado-Corona, Miguel Angel; Morales-Martínez, José de Jesús

    2004-01-01

    amphibians, Frog catesbiana (frog bull, 30 animals); reptiles, Sceloporus torcuatus (common small lizard, 22 animals); birds: Columba livia (common dove, 20 animals), and mammals, Cavia porcellus, (guinea pig, 20 animals). With regard to lodging, all animals were maintained at the Institute of Human Communication Disorders, were fed with special food for each species, and had water available ad libitum. Regarding procedure, for carrying out analysis of auditory evoked potentials of brain stem SPL amphibians, birds, and mammals were anesthetized with ketamine 20, 25, and 50 mg/kg, by injection. Reptiles were anesthetized by freezing (6 degrees C). Study subjects had needle electrodes placed in an imaginary line on the half sagittal line between both ears and eyes, behind right ear, and behind left ear. Stimulation was carried out inside a no noise site by means of a horn in free field. The sign was filtered at between 100 and 3,000 Hz and analyzed in a computer for provoked potentials (Racia APE 78). In data shown by amphibians, wave-evoked responses showed greater latency than those of the other species. In reptiles, latency was observed as reduced in comparison with amphibians. In the case of birds, lesser latency values were observed, while in the case of guinea pigs latencies were greater than those of doves but they were stimulated by 10 dB, which demonstrated best auditory threshold in the four studied species. Last, it was corroborated that as the auditory threshold of each species it descends conforms to it advances in the phylogenetic scale. Beginning with these registrations, we care able to say that response for evoked brain stem potential showed to be more complex and lesser values of absolute latency as we advance along the phylogenetic scale; thus, the opposing auditory threshold is better agreement with regard to the phylogenetic scale among studied species. These data indicated to us that seeking of auditory information is more complex in more

  17. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  18. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants

  19. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolated from mammals and birds from Guwahati city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafruza S Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding alpha (α toxin. Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding α toxin.

  1. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski, J.; Czarnołęski, M.; François-Krassowska, A.; Maciak, S.; Pis, T.

    2010-01-01

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes...

  2. Large-scale assessment of commensalistic–mutualistic associations between African birds and herbivorous mammals using internet photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrava, Jiří; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Birds sitting or feeding on live large African herbivorous mammals are a visible, yet quite neglected, type of commensalistic–mutualistic association. Here, we investigate general patterns in such relationships at large spatial and taxonomic scales. To obtain large-scale data, an extensive internet-based search for photos was carried out on Google Images. To characterize patterns of the structural organization of commensalistic–mutualistic associations between African birds and herbivorous mammals, we used a network analysis approach. We then employed phylogenetically-informed comparative analysis to explore whether features of bird visitation of mammals, i.e., their mean number, mass and species richness per mammal species, are shaped by a combination of host mammal (body mass and herd size) and environmental (habitat openness) characteristics. We found that the association web structure was only weakly nested for commensalistic as well as for mutualistic birds (oxpeckers Buphagus spp.) and African mammals. Moreover, except for oxpeckers, nestedness did not differ significantly from a null model indicating that birds do not prefer mammal species which are visited by a large number of bird species. In oxpeckers, however, a nested structure suggests a non-random assignment of birds to their mammal hosts. We also identified some new or rare associations between birds and mammals, but we failed to find several previously described associations. Furthermore, we found that mammal body mass positively influenced the number and mass of birds observed sitting on them in the full set of species (i.e., taking oxpeckers together with other bird species). We also found a positive correlation between mammal body mass and mass of non-oxpecker species as well as oxpeckers. Mammal herd size was associated with a higher mass of birds in the full set of species as well as in non-oxpecker species, and mammal species living in larger herds also attracted more bird species in the

  3. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bissonette

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  4. Impact of wild herbivorous mammals and birds on the altitudinal and northern treeline ecotones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbivorous mammals may damage treeline vegetation an cause soil erosion at a local scale. In many high mountain areas of Europe and North America, large numbers of red deer have become a threat to the maintenance of high-elevation forests and attempts to restore the climatic treeline. In northern Fennoscandia, overgrazing by reindeer in combination with mass outbreaks of the autumnal moth are influencing treeline dynamics. Moose are also increasingly involved damaging treeline forest. In the Alps, the re-introduction of ibex is causing local damage to subalpine forests and tree establishment above the forest limit as well as aggravating soil erosion. High-elevation forests and treeline in Europe are susceptible to the deleterious impact of wild ungulate populations because of former extensive pastoral use. Rodents may damage tree seedlings and saplings by girdling, root cutting, bark stripping and burrowing. Hares damage young trees by gnawing. Large numbers of small rodents may occasionally impede tree regeneration by depleting the seed sources. Rodents do not contribute to forest expansion beyond the current treeline. Among birds, nutcrackers are highly effective in influencing tree distribution patterns and treeline dynamics. Without the nutcracker caching of stone pine seeds any upward advance of the trees in response to climatic warming would be impossible. Some bird species such as black grouse, willow grouse and ptarmigan can impair tree growth by feeding on buds, catkins and fresh terminal shoots.

  5. Species List and Status of Mammals and Birds in Sambisa Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the species list and status of mammals and birds in Sambisa Game Reserve. Species list was determined using direct sighting, animal signs and activities, information from hunters and visits to bush meat processing and selling centers. Results indicate that a total of seventeen (17) species of ...

  6. Social Mating System and Sex-Biased Dispersal in Mammals and Birds: A Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Karen E.; Shelley, Erin L.; Davis, Katie E.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that patterns of sex-biased dispersal are related to social mating system in mammals and birds has gained widespread acceptance over the past 30 years. However, two major complications have obscured the relationship between these two behaviors: 1) dispersal frequency and dispersal distance, which measure different aspects of the dispersal process, have often been confounded, and 2) the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in these vertebrate groups has not been examined using modern phylogenetic comparative methods. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in mammals and birds. Results indicate that the evolution of female-biased dispersal in mammals may be more likely on monogamous branches of the phylogeny, and that females may disperse farther than males in socially monogamous mammalian species. However, we found no support for a relationship between social mating system and sex-biased dispersal in birds when the effects of phylogeny are taken into consideration. We caution that although there are larger-scale behavioral differences in mating system and sex-biased dispersal between mammals and birds, mating system and sex-biased dispersal are far from perfectly associated within these taxa. PMID:23483957

  7. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  8. Taxonomic Report on Small Mammals from Two Coastal Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Abstract. Surveys of the small mammal populations of two coastal wetlands in Ghana, .... Captured animals were euthanized with chloroform, according to the American Society of. Mammalogy Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.

  9. 1 Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management practices associated with small mammal distribution and ... human activity diversity; (c) Landform characteristics (plain, escarpment, plateau dissected at .... distributions (Axelsson et al., 2011; SAS Resource on the web, 2012).

  10. Benefits to poorly studied taxa of conservation of bird and mammal diversity on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare; Holmes, Nick; Tershy, Bernie; Spatz, Dena; Croll, Donald A

    2015-02-01

    Protected area delineation and conservation action are urgently needed on marine islands, but the potential biodiversity benefits of these activities can be difficult to assess due to lack of species diversity information for lesser known taxa. We used linear mixed effects modeling and simple spatial analyses to investigate whether conservation activities based on the diversity of well-known insular taxa (birds and mammals) are likely to also capture the diversity of lesser known taxa (reptiles, amphibians, vascular land plants, ants, land snails, butterflies, and tenebrionid beetles). We assembled total, threatened, and endemic diversity data for both well-known and lesser known taxa and combined these with physical island biogeography characteristics for 1190 islands from 109 archipelagos. Among physical island biogeography factors, island area was the best indicator of diversity of both well-known and little-known taxa. Among taxonomic factors, total mammal species richness was the best indicator of total diversity of lesser known taxa, and the combination of threatened mammal and threatened bird diversity was the best indicator of lesser known endemic richness. The results of other intertaxon diversity comparisons were highly variable, however. Based on our results, we suggest that protecting islands above a certain minimum threshold area may be the most efficient use of conservation resources. For example, using our island database, if the threshold were set at 10 km(2) and the smallest 10% of islands greater than this threshold were protected, 119 islands would be protected. The islands would range in size from 10 to 29 km(2) and would include 268 lesser known species endemic to a single island, along with 11 bird and mammal species endemic to a single island. Our results suggest that for islands of equivalent size, prioritization based on total or threatened bird and mammal diversity may also capture opportunities to protect lesser known species endemic to

  11. Deadly hairs, lethal feathers--convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

    2014-07-01

    Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Competition between species of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interspecific competition has often been inferred from its results. In evolutionary time it has been responsible for patterns of regularity in the structure of mammalian communities, and in the morphological and ecological characteristics of the constituent species. In contemporary time it gives rise to reciprocal (complementary) numbers and distributions of two or more species. These inferences are strengthened by recent experimental demonstrations of competition between species of North American rodents. Recent observations and experiments are reviewed. The most thoroughly studied competitors are two species of microtine rodents, Microtus pennsylvanicus and Clethrionomys gapperi. Species which compete for space have been studied experimentally more often than have food competitors. Overt aggression is frequently implicated, but its importance in nature in relation to other means of interaction (e.g. through vocal or scent communication) is not known. The definitive study of competition for food between mammal species has yet to be performed

  13. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.......The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely...

  14. Competition for the fish - fish extraction from the Baltic Sea by humans, aquatic mammals and birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Sture; Bergström, Ulf; Bonsdorff, E.

    2018-01-01

    Populations of fish eating mammals (primarily seals) and birds have increased in the Baltic Sea and there is concern that their consumption reduces fish stocks and has negative impact on the fishery. Based primarily on published data on fisheries’ landings and abundances, consumption and diets...... to be addressed in basic ecosystem research, management and conservation. This requires improved quantitative data on wildlife diets, abundances and fish production...... of birds and seals around year 2010, we compare consumption of commercial fish species by seals (1*105 metric tons per year) and birds (1*105 tons) to the catch in the commercial and recreational fishery (7*105 tons), and when applicable at the geographical resolution of ICES subdivisions. The large...

  15. Records of threatened bird and mammal species in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Torrecilha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a detailed review of threatened bird and mammal occurrence records obtained from surveys across Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern region of Brazil which has an extent of 357,145 km2, aiming to support environmental and biodiversity conservation initiatives, as strategic plans to protect threatened species in this region. We included all records of species categorized as threatened by the Brazilian and global red list of threatened species. We collected 760 records of threatened birds and mammals in Mato Grosso do Sul State, with 319 records of 40 bird’s species and 441 records of 24 mammal’s species. The status of the 40 bird species under de Brazilian threat category were as follow: 1 Critically Threatened (CR, 6 Endangered (EN, 11 Vulnerable (VU, 11 Near Threatened (NT, and 11 species only in the IUCN red list. Under the IUCN category for the bird´s species, were as follow: 3 EN, 13 VU, 18 NT, 5 Least Concern (LC and 1 taxon has not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List. Regarding mammal’s species under the Brazilian threat category were as follow: 2 EN, 18 VU, 2 NT and 1 only in the IUCN red list. Under the IUCN status the species ranged from 2 EN, 6 VU, 10 NT, and 6 LC. Each record identified corresponds to the existence of at least one occurrence of threatened birds or mammals in a particular region. The records of threatened species belongs to the three biomes in the state: 269 mammal’s records and 147 bird’s records from Cerrado (Neotropical Savanna biome, 117 mammal’s records and 162 bird’s records from Pantanal (Wetland biome, and 55 mammal’s records and 10 bird’s records from Atlantic Forest biome. In addition, we also included in the dataset environmental information where each record was obtained. Supplementary Files 1- Records of Threatened Mammals_MS_Brazil and Supplementary File 2. Records of Threatened Birds of_MS_Brazil Keywords: Threatened species, Protected areas, Database, Brazil

  16. Radiocobalt cycling in a small mammal food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    Cobalt-60 seeping from a nearby radioactive liquid waste trench on the Oak Ridge reservation into a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem provided a source of environmental contamination where its dispersion through a small mammal food web could be studied. Maximum radiocobalt concentrations in the soil were found in the upper 5 cm of 15 cm cores. Transient mammals such as the opossum and the raccoon had small amounts of 60 Co in their tissues (0.5 and 1.0 pCi/gm, respectively), while the permanent mammal residents including the short-tailed shrew (80 pCi/g), white-footed mouse (50 pCi/g), golden mouse (50 pCi/g) and the eastern chipmunk (20 pCi/g) had from 27 to more than 100 times that of the transient mammals. The persistent occurrence of 60 Co in the small mammals tissues indicated its importance in the food web. Of the potential mammalian food items present in the area, only earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) contained high levels of 60 Co activity (greater than 56 nCi/gm dry wt.). Earthworms collected from the seepage channel eliminated 70 percent of their body burden (gut contents) of 60 Co during the first 24-hour period, but retained the remaining 30 percent (tissue accumulation) for more than 11 weeks. Tissue retention by earthworms and the utilization of numerous burrows by mammals along the seepage channel during the summer months suggested that earthworms constituted a major link in the small mammal food chain. (U.S.)

  17. Responses of populations of small mammals to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchings, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the responses of small mammals to ionizing radiation have, over the past 30 years, documented numerous effects on direct mortality, reproduction, the hemopoietic systems, and radionuclide metabolism. Three general findings have resulted from past efforts: (1) ionizing radiation is a factor in environmental stress, (2) the response of wild small mammals to ionizing radiation is a mosaic of varying radiosensitivities interacting with environmental variables, and (3) one of the most sensitive organismal processes to radiation is reproduction. While an excellent understanding of the biological effects resulting from high or intermediate-level radiation exposures has been developed, this is not the case for effects of low-level doses

  18. Small mammals of a bitterbrush-cheatgrass community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Small mammals were live-trapped in burned and unburned segments of a bitterbrush-cheatgrass community during the years 1974-1979. Results indicate that the shrub-dominated unburned area supports about three times as many small mammals as the cheatgrass-dominated burned area. Species composition was similar in both areas with the exception of one ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) captured on the unburned area. Other species caught were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), and the western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)

  19. Bartonella Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Small Mammals from Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the Barto......More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp...

  20. Impact of small mammals in ecosystemm structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evaluation of the effects of small mammals on the characteristics of ecosystems, as a matter of basic scientific importance, and of necessity in a humanly managed biosphere. The review emphasizes literature in which there is experimental demonstration of effects of small mammals, strong circumstantial evidence for an effect, and indication of a possible effect in an unstudied relationship. Our knowledge of interactions is very incomplete. Studies are needed that emphasize the responses of vegetation (production, composition, population dynamics) to the measured actions of mammals. Attention needs to be given to ways in which mammals may regulate processes that are important to plants (nutrient cycling, seed dispersal, predation) as well as actions that may directly affect plant populations (feeding, cutting, trampling). More use is indicated for experimental methods in field studies, particularly the removal of mammalian populations, which may reveal unique mutualistic relationships of vegetation and small mammals. Studies need more integration of efforts of various kinds of biologists, and a longer time span, than has occurred in the past

  1. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  2. Reconsidering the evolution of brain, cognition and behaviour in birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eWillemet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, some of the most basic issues concerning the extraordinarily complex brains and behaviour of birds and mammals, such as the factors responsible for the diversity of brain size and composition, are still unclear. This is partly due to a number of conceptual and methodological issues. Determining species and group differences in brain composition requires accounting for the presence of taxon-cerebrotypes and the use of precise statistical methods. The role of allometry in determining brain variables should be revised. In particular, bird and mammalian brains appear to have evolved in response to a variety of selective pressures influencing both brain size and composition. Brain and cognition are indeed meta-variables, made up of the variables that are ecologically relevant and evolutionarily selected. External indicators of species differences in cognition and behaviour are limited by the complexity of these differences. Indeed, behavioural differences between species and individuals are caused by cognitive and affective components. Although intra-species variability forms the basis of species evolution, some of the mechanisms underlying individual differences in brain and behaviour appear to differ from those between species. While many issues have persisted over the years because of a lack of appropriate data or methods to test them; several fallacies, particularly those related to the human brain, reflect scientists’ preconceptions. The theoretical framework on the evolution of brain, cognition and behaviour in birds and mammals should be reconsidered with these biases in mind.

  3. Small mammals from Sima de los Huesos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana Conesa, C; Canudo, J I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    A small collection of rodents from Sima de los Huesos helps to clarify the stratigraphic position of this famous human locality. The presence of Allocricetus bursae and Pliomys lenki relictus and the size of A. bursae, Apodemus sylvaticus and Eliomys quercinus suggest a Middle Pleistocene age (Saalian) to the Clays where humans have been found.

  4. Ethnomedicinal and cultural practices of mammals and birds in the vicinity of river Chenab, Punjab-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad; Javid, Arshad; Umair, Muhammad; Iqbal, Khalid Javed; Rasheed, Zahid; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-07-12

    Although, use of animal species in disease treatment and culture practices is as ancient as that of plant species; however ethnomedicinal uses and cultural values of animal species have rarely been reported. Present study is the first report on the medicinal uses of mammals and bird species in Pakistan. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were applied to collect qualitative and quantitative data from local informants (N = 109). Relative frequency of mention (RFM), fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level (RPL), similarity index (SI) and rank order priority (ROP) indices were used to analyzed the data. One hundred and eight species of animals, which include: 83% birds and 17% mammals were documented. In total 30 mammalian and 28 birds' species were used to treat various diseases such as rheumatic disorders, skin infections and sexual weakness among several others. Fats, flesh, blood, milk and eggs were the most commonly utilized body parts. Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Capra aegagrus hircus, Felis domesticus, Lepus nigricollis dayanus and Ovis aries (mammals) and Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Columba livia, Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus and Passer domesticus (birds) were the highly utilized species. Medicinal and cultural uses of 30% mammals and 46% birds were reported for the first time, whereas 33% mammals and 79% birds depicted zero similarity with previous reports. Present study exhibits significant ethnozoological knowledge of local inhabitants and their strong association with animal species, which could be helpful in sustainable use of biodiversity of the region. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of biological activities in the mammalian and birds' species with maximum fidelity level and frequency of mention could be important to discover animal based novel drugs. Some commonly used mammals and birds species of the study area.

  5. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand ...

  6. Land use determinants of small mammals abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season ...

  7. Seasonality of reproduction and production in farm fishes, birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B; Brillard, J P; Fostier, A

    2007-03-01

    A very large majority of farm animals express seasonal variations in their production traits, thus inducing seasonal availability of fresh derived animal products (meat, milk, cheese and eggs). This pattern is in part the consequence of the farmer's objective to market his products in the most economically favourable period. It may also be imposed by the season-dependent access to feed resources, as in ruminants, or by the specific requirements derived from adaptation to environmental conditions such as water temperature in fish. But seasonal variations in animal products are also the consequence of constraints resulting from the occurrence of a more or less marked seasonal reproductive season in most farm animal species including fish, poultry and mammals. Like their wild counterparts, at mid and high latitudes, most farm animals normally give birth at the end of winter-early spring, the most favourable period for the progeny to survive and thus promote the next generation. As a consequence, most species show seasonal variations in their ovulation frequency (mammals and fish: presence or absence of ovulation; birds: variations or suppression of laying rates), spermatogenic activity (from moderate to complete absence of sperm production), gamete quality (variations in fertilisation rates and embryo survival), and also sexual behaviour. Among species of interest for animal production, fishes and birds are generally considered as more directly sensitive to external factors (mainly temperature in fish, photoperiod in birds). In all species, it is therefore advisable that artificial photoperiodic treatments consisting of extra-light during natural short days (in chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, sheep and goats) or melatonin during long days (in goats, sheep) be extensively used to either adjust the breeding season to animal producer needs and/or to completely overcome seasonal variations of sperm production in artificial insemination centres (mammals) and breeder flock

  8. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  9. Characterization and expression analysis of AH receptors in aquatic mammals and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Young [Ehime Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Matsuyama (Japan); Yasui, Tomoko; Hisato, Iwata; Shinsuke, Tanabe [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The magnitude of the risk that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) pose to the health of aquatic birds and mammals is uncertain, because of the lack of direct information on the sensitivity and toxicity to these chemicals. Exposure to PHAHs is speculated to produce toxicity through changes in the expression of genes involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. These changes are initiated by the binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor. The AHR and its dimerization partner ARNT belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcriptional regulation proteins. The bHLH domain was involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions, and the PAS domain forms a secondary dimerization surface for heteromeric interactions between AHR and ARNT. Although the presence and basic function of AHR are known to be conserved in most vertebrates, only a limited number of studies on the structure and functional diversity of AHR in aquatic mammals and birds have been reported, in spite of their high exposure to dioxins and other related chemicals. To understand the molecular mechanism of susceptibility to dioxin exposure and toxic effects that PHAHs pose in wild animals, we investigated the molecular and functional characterization of AHRs from aquatic mammals and birds. Initially, the AHR cDNAs from the livers of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica), black-footed albatross (Diomedea nigripes) and common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were cloned and sequenced. We also clarified the tissue-specific expression pattern of AHR mRNA and the relationships among PHAHs, AHR and CYP expression levels in the liver of Baikal seals and common cormorants.

  10. An allometric approach to quantify the extinction vulnerability of birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbers, J P; Schipper, A M; Hendriks, A J; Verones, F; Pereira, H M; Huijbregts, M A J

    2016-03-01

    Methods to quantify the vulnerability of species to extinction are typically limited by the availability of species-specific input data pertaining to life-history characteristics and population dynamics. This lack of data hampers global biodiversity assessments and conservation planning. Here, we developed a new framework that systematically quantifies extinction risk based on allometric relationships between various wildlife demographic parameters and body size. These allometric relationships have a solid theoretical and ecological foundation. Extinction risk indicators included are (1) the probability of extinction, (2) the mean time to extinction, and (3) the critical patch size. We applied our framework to assess the global extinction vulnerability of terrestrial carnivorous and non-carnivorous birds and mammals. Irrespective of the indicator used, large-bodied species were found to be more vulnerable to extinction than their smaller counterparts. The patterns with body size were confirmed for all species groups by a comparison with IUCN data on the proportion of extant threatened species: the models correctly predicted a multimodal distribution with body size for carnivorous birds and a monotonic distribution for mammals and non-carnivorous birds. Carnivorous mammals were found to have higher extinction risks than non-carnivores, while birds were more prone to extinction than mammals. These results are explained by the allometric relationships, predicting the vulnerable species groups to have lower intrinsic population growth rates, smaller population sizes, lower carrying capacities, or larger dispersal distances, which, in turn, increase the importance of losses due to environmental stochastic effects and dispersal activities. Our study is the first to integrate population viability analysis and allometry into a novel, process-based framework that is able to quantify extinction risk of a large number of species without requiring data-intensive, species

  11. Validity of fish, birds and mammals as surrogates for amphibians and reptiles in pesticide toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Maia, Joao P; Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Lopes, Isabel

    2018-02-28

    Amphibians and reptiles are the two most endangered groups of vertebrates. Environmental pollution by pesticides is recognised as one of the major factors threatening populations of these groups. However, the effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles have been studied for few substances, which is partly related to the fact that these animals are not included in the mandatory toxicity testing conducted as part of environmental risk assessments of pesticides. Whether risks of pesticides to amphibians and reptiles are addressed by surrogate taxa used in risk assessment is currently under debate. In order to develop a scientifically sound and robust risk assessment scheme, information needs to be gathered to examine whether fish, birds and mammals are valid surrogates for amphibians and reptiles. We updated a systematic review of scientific literature that was recently published compiling toxicity data on amphibians and reptiles. The outcome of this review was analysed with the purposes to (1) compare endpoints from amphibians and reptiles with the available information from fish, birds and mammals, and (2) develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for those substances tested in at least six amphibian species (no substances were found tested in at least six reptile species) to identify a candidate amphibian model species to be used as surrogate in risk assessment. A positive correlation was found between toxicity recorded on fish and amphibians, the former revealing, in general, to be more sensitive than the latter to waterborne pollutants. In the terrestrial environment, although birds and mammals were more sensitive than amphibians and reptiles to at least 60% of tested substances, just a few weak significant correlations were observed. As a general rule, homoeothermic vertebrates are not good surrogates for reptiles and terrestrial amphibians in pesticide risk assessment. However, some chemical-dependent trends were detected, with pyrethroids and

  12. Edge, height and visibility effects on nest predation by birds and mammals in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, Pavel; Paneczko, Ingrid Toledo; Telles, Marina

    2017-08-01

    Edge influence is one of the main impacts in fragmented landscapes; yet, most of studies on edge influence have focused on high-contrast edges, and the impacts of low-contrast edges and narrow linear openings are less understood. Edge influence often affects bird nest predation, but these effects are not ubiquitous and may depend on characteristics such as nest height and visibility. We performed an experiment on nest predation in a migratory passerine, Elaenia chiriquensis (Lesser Elaenia; Passeriformes: Tyrannidae), in a savanna vegetation of the Brazilian Cerrado biome in South-Eastern Brazil. We used 89 real E. chiriquensis nests, collected during previous reproductive seasons, with two plasticine eggs in each, and randomly distributed them at two locations (edge - up to 20 m from a firebreak edge and interior - approx. 150-350 m from the edge) and two heights (low - 60-175 cm and high - 190-315 cm above ground). We also measured leaf and branch density around each nest. We performed this study on two 15-days campaigns, checking the nests every 2-3 days and removing those with predation marks. We sorted the predation marks into those made by birds, mammals, or unidentified predators, and used generalized linear models to assess the effects of location, height and leaf density on survival time and predator type. Only four nests had not been predated during the experiment; 55 nests were predated by birds, 7 by mammals, and 23 by unidentified predators. Low nests in the interior tended to have larger survival times whereas high nests at the edge tended to be more predated by birds and less predated by mammals. Thus, even a low-contrast (firebreak) edge may significantly increase nest predation, which is also affected by the nest's height, mainly due to predation by birds. These effects may be due to predator movement along the edge as well as to edge-related changes in vegetation structure. We suggest that higher-contrast edges which may also be used as movement

  13. Local sleep homeostasis in the avian brain: convergence of sleep function in mammals and birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesku, John A; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Wilzeck, Christiane; Rattenborg, Niels C

    2011-08-22

    The function of the brain activity that defines slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in mammals is unknown. During SWS, the level of electroencephalogram slow wave activity (SWA or 0.5-4.5 Hz power density) increases and decreases as a function of prior time spent awake and asleep, respectively. Such dynamics occur in response to waking brain use, as SWA increases locally in brain regions used more extensively during prior wakefulness. Thus, SWA is thought to reflect homeostatically regulated processes potentially tied to maintaining optimal brain functioning. Interestingly, birds also engage in SWS and REM sleep, a similarity that arose via convergent evolution, as sleeping reptiles and amphibians do not show similar brain activity. Although birds deprived of sleep show global increases in SWA during subsequent sleep, it is unclear whether avian sleep is likewise regulated locally. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first electrophysiological evidence for local sleep homeostasis in the avian brain. After staying awake watching David Attenborough's The Life of Birds with only one eye, SWA and the slope of slow waves (a purported marker of synaptic strength) increased only in the hyperpallium--a primary visual processing region--neurologically connected to the stimulated eye. Asymmetries were specific to the hyperpallium, as the non-visual mesopallium showed a symmetric increase in SWA and wave slope. Thus, hypotheses for the function of mammalian SWS that rely on local sleep homeostasis may apply also to birds.

  14. Is arsenobetaine the major arsenic compound in the liver of birds marine mammals, and sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, R.; Kunito, T.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    Concentrations of total arsenic and individual arsenic compounds were determined in the livers of birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles by using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) and high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). Marine mammals feeding on cephalopods and crustaceans accumulated higher arsenic concentrations than the species feeding on fishes. No significant age and gender differences in arsenic concentrations were observed for most of the species of marine mammals. Elevated total arsenic concentrations were found in livers of black-footed albatross and loggerhead turtles and these values were comparable to those of lower trophic marine animals. Arsenobetaine was the major arsenical in the livers of most of the species examined. Particularly, in seabirds, mean proportions of arsenobetaine was more than90% of total extractable arsenic In contast, arsenobetaine was a minor constituent in dugong. The compositions of arsenic compounds were different among the species examined. These results might be due to the differences in the metabolic capacity among species and/or the different compositions of arsenic compounds in their preys.

  15. Lead contamination of small mammals from abandoned metalliferous mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R D [Liverpool Univ.; Johnson, M S; Hutton, M

    1978-01-01

    Spoil tips associated with abandoned non-ferrous mines contain anomalously high levels of heavy metals compared with other contaminated environments. Little attention has been given to the impact of such contaminated environments on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, lead in soil, vegetation, ground-living invertebrates and indigenous small mammal populations are reported for two derelict mines in Wales. Small mammal body and tissue lead concentrations were markedly elevated compared with control populations and with published data for other lead-contaminated areas. Oedema, intranuclear inclusion bodies and mitochondrial abnormalities--symptoms of clinical plumbism--were identified in kidney tissue in populations with highest tissue lead concentrations. The results and their relevance to other lead-contaminated areas, including roadside verges, are discussed.

  16. Small mammal radioecology: natural reproductive patterns of seven species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, S.L.; Turner, B.N.

    1976-07-01

    To provide basic information required to interpret subsequent radiation studies, autopsy results pertinent to litter size and reproductive season of 7 small-mammal species are presented. The data are from about 6400 individuals captured at Pinawa, Manitoba during a 6 year trapping period (1967-1972). Sex ratios, percentages of young in the population, and body weights of the sex and age classes are tabulated on monthly basis for each species. (author)

  17. Habitat, food, and small mammal community structure in Namaqualand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Deventer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of habitat differences and food availability on small mammal (rodent and elephant shrew species richness, diversity, density and biomass was investigated in Namaqualand, South Africa. Species richness in the three habitats sampled, namely Upland Succulent Karoo, Dry Riverine Shrub and North-western Mountain Renosterveld was low, with only 2–4 species per habitat. Rodents trapped were predominantly Gerbillurus paeba and Aethomys namaquensis, with fewer Mus minutoides and Petromyscus sp. The only non-rodent was the elephant shrew Elephantulus edwardii. Ten habitat features, the percentage of total plant cover, tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover, plant litter, total basal cover, sand, gravel or rock cover, and the dominant plant height were recorded at 30 randomly chosen points on five sampling grids in each habitat. Small mammal density and biomass was significantly correlated with food availability (green foliage cover, seeds, and relative density and biomass of insects. Species richness and diversity of small mammals were significantly correlated with shrub cover. Numbers and biomass of specific species correlated significantly with different habitat features in each case.

  18. Fruit removal of a wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, by birds, bats and non-flying mammals in an urban Brazilian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.

  19. Energy Metabolism and Transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in Mammals and Birds - Energy metabolism and transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in mammals, birds, and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melintescu, Anca; Galeriu, Dan [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Environmental Physics and Life, 30 Reactorului St., POB MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in environment needs to be modelled differently than that of other radionuclides released from nuclear facilities because hydrogen and carbon are key components of biological tissues and the carbon and hydrogen life cycles. A detailed understanding of the behaviour of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in the food chain is essential because {sup 3}H may be released in large quantities from CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors and future thermonuclear reactors, and {sup 14}C accumulates in the environment because of its long half-life. In recent years, the authors published both a simple and a complex dynamic metabolic model for {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C transfer to farm and wild animals. The models applications for wild animals were restricted to few examples. There is an increased interest to extend the models for a larger selection of wild animals, birds and fish to support developments such as the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) environmental protection framework. In this paper we describe activities to expand {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C models to cover a wider range of wildlife. The updated model of the dynamics of tritium transfer in aquatic food chains (AQUATRIT model) developed by the authors was successfully tested for small and large (trout) fish. Wild mammals and birds generally have a lower fat content than domestic species and must adapt to variable environmental conditions. The body mass is an important parameter involved in radionuclide transfer. The environmental temperature, type of animal, and diet must also be considered. The model input parameters for wild mammals are poorly defined because the experimental data are too few and the intraspecific variability is higher than that for farm and laboratory mammals. In the present study, our previously published approach considering the use of energy metabolism and the link between energy and organic matter turnover rate at the whole body and organ

  20. SP Transcription Factor Paralogs and DNA-Binding Sites Coevolve and Adaptively Converge in Mammals and Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ken Daigoro; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Functional modification of regulatory proteins can affect hundreds of genes throughout the genome, and is therefore thought to be almost universally deleterious. This belief, however, has recently been challenged. A potential example comes from transcription factor SP1, for which statistical evidence indicates that motif preferences were altered in eutherian mammals. Here, we set out to discover possible structural and theoretical explanations, evaluate the role of selection in SP1 evolution, and discover effects on coregulatory proteins. We show that SP1 motif preferences were convergently altered in birds as well as mammals, inducing coevolutionary changes in over 800 regulatory regions. Structural and phylogenic evidence implicates a single causative amino acid replacement at the same SP1 position along both lineages. Furthermore, paralogs SP3 and SP4, which coregulate SP1 target genes through competitive binding to the same sites, have accumulated convergent replacements at the homologous position multiple times during eutherian and bird evolution, presumably to preserve competitive binding. To determine plausibility, we developed and implemented a simple model of transcription factor and binding site coevolution. This model predicts that, in contrast to prevailing beliefs, even small selective benefits per locus can drive concurrent fixation of transcription factor and binding site mutants under a broad range of conditions. Novel binding sites tend to arise de novo, rather than by mutation from ancestral sites, a prediction substantiated by SP1-binding site alignments. Thus, multiple lines of evidence indicate that selection has driven convergent evolution of transcription factors along with their binding sites and coregulatory proteins. PMID:23019068

  1. Small mammal populations and ecology in the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Jr. Laudenslayer; Roberta J. Fargo

    2002-01-01

    Small mammals are important components of woodlands and forests. Since 1992, we have been studying several aspects of small mammal ecology in oak woodlands in western foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada. Assemblages of small, nocturnal mammal species are dominated by the brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), California mouse (P. californicus...

  2. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  3. The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Isaac, Nick J B; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-09-01

    1. The power-law dependence of metabolic rate on body mass has major implications at every level of ecological organization. However, the overwhelming majority of studies examining this relationship have used basal or resting metabolic rates, and/or have used data consisting of species-averaged masses and metabolic rates. Field metabolic rates are more ecologically relevant and are probably more directly subject to natural selection than basal rates. Individual rates might be more important than species-average rates in determining the outcome of ecological interactions, and hence selection. 2. We here provide the first comprehensive database of published field metabolic rates and body masses of individual birds and mammals, containing measurements of 1498 animals of 133 species in 28 orders. We used linear mixed-effects models to answer questions about the body mass scaling of metabolic rate and its taxonomic universality/heterogeneity that have become classic areas of controversy. Our statistical approach allows mean scaling exponents and taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling to be analysed in a unified way while simultaneously accounting for nonindependence in the data due to shared evolutionary history of related species. 3. The mean power-law scaling exponents of metabolic rate vs. body mass relationships were 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.625-0.795] for birds and 0.64 (95% CI 0.564-0.716) for mammals. However, these central tendencies obscured meaningful taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling exponents. The primary taxonomic level at which heterogeneity occurred was the order level. Substantial heterogeneity also occurred at the species level, a fact that cannot be revealed by species-averaged data sets used in prior work. Variability in scaling exponents at both order and species levels was comparable to or exceeded the differences 3/4-2/3 = 1/12 and 0.71-0.64. 4. Results are interpreted in the light of a variety of existing theories. In particular, results

  4. The erratic mitochondrial clock: variations of mutation rate, not population size, affect mtDNA diversity across birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galtier Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last ten years, major advances have been made in characterizing and understanding the evolution of mitochondrial DNA, the most popular marker of molecular biodiversity. Several important results were recently reported using mammals as model organisms, including (i the absence of relationship between mitochondrial DNA diversity and life-history or ecological variables, (ii the absence of prominent adaptive selection, contrary to what was found in invertebrates, and (iii the unexpectedly large variation in neutral substitution rate among lineages, revealing a possible link with species maximal longevity. We propose to challenge these results thanks to the bird/mammal comparison. Direct estimates of population size are available in birds, and this group presents striking life-history trait differences with mammals (higher mass-specific metabolic rate and longevity. These properties make birds the ideal model to directly test for population size effects, and to discriminate between competing hypotheses about the causes of substitution rate variation. Results A phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b third-codon position confirms that the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate is quite variable in birds, passerines being the fastest evolving order. On average, mitochondrial DNA evolves slower in birds than in mammals of similar body size. This result is in agreement with the longevity hypothesis, and contradicts the hypothesis of a metabolic rate-dependent mutation rate. Birds show no footprint of adaptive selection on cytochrome b evolutionary patterns, but no link between direct estimates of population size and cytochrome b diversity. The mutation rate is the best predictor we have of within-species mitochondrial diversity in birds. It partly explains the differences in mitochondrial DNA diversity patterns observed between mammals and birds, previously interpreted as reflecting Hill-Robertson interferences with the W

  5. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathy Bennett; Sherri Sherwood; Rhonda Robinson

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  6. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  7. Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristoe, Trevor S; Burger, Joseph R; Balk, Meghan A; Khaliq, Imran; Hof, Christian; Brown, James H

    2015-12-29

    The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the face of wide variation in environmental temperature. The S-I model shows how body temperature is regulated by balancing the rates of heat production and heat loss. Both rates scale with body size, suggesting that larger animals should be better adapted to cold environments than smaller animals, and vice versa. However, the global distributions of ∼9,000 species of terrestrial birds and mammals show that the entire range of body sizes occurs in nearly all climatic regimes. Using physiological and environmental temperature data for 211 bird and 178 mammal species, we test for mass-independent adaptive changes in two key parameters of the S-I model: basal metabolic rate (BMR) and thermal conductance. We derive an axis of thermal adaptation that is independent of body size, extends the S-I model, and highlights interactions among physiological and morphological traits that allow endotherms to persist in a wide range of temperatures. Our macrophysiological and macroecological analyses support our predictions that shifts in BMR and thermal conductance confer important adaptations to environmental temperature in both birds and mammals.

  8. Hippocampal memory consolidation during sleep: a comparison of mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2011-08-01

    taxonomic group other than mammals to exhibit SWS and REM sleep. Based on our review of research on avian sleep, neuroanatomy, and memory, although involved in some forms of memory consolidation, avian sleep does not appear to be involved in transferring hippocampal memories to other brain regions. Despite exhibiting the slow-oscillation, SWRs and spindles have not been found in birds. Moreover, although birds independently evolved a brain region--the caudolateral nidopallium (NCL)--involved in performing high-order cognitive functions similar to those performed by the PFC, direct connections between the NCL and hippocampus have not been found in birds, and evidence for the transfer of information from the hippocampus to the NCL or other extra-hippocampal regions is lacking. Although based on the absence of evidence for various traits, collectively, these findings suggest that unlike mammalian SWS, avian SWS may not be involved in transferring memories from the hippocampus. Furthermore, it suggests that the slow-oscillation, the defining feature of mammalian and avian SWS, may serve a more general function independent of that related to coordinating the transfer of information from the hippocampus to the PFC in mammals. Given that SWS is homeostatically regulated (a process intimately related to the slow-oscillation) in mammals and birds, functional hypotheses linked to this process may apply to both taxonomic groups. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor M; Lukashev, Alexander N; van den Brand, Judith M A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Brünink, Sebastian; Rasche, Andrea; Seggewiβ, Nicole; Feng, Hui; Leijten, Lonneke M; Vallo, Peter; Kuiken, Thijs; Dotzauer, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G; Lemon, Stanley M; Drosten, Christian

    2015-12-08

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian picornaviruses, HAV is enigmatic in its origins. We conducted a targeted search for hepatoviruses in 15,987 specimens collected from 209 small mammal species globally and discovered highly diversified viruses in bats, rodents, hedgehogs, and shrews, which by pairwise sequence distance comprise 13 novel Hepatovirus species. Near-complete genomes from nine of these species show conservation of unique hepatovirus features, including predicted internal ribosome entry site structure, a truncated VP4 capsid protein lacking N-terminal myristoylation, a carboxyl-terminal pX extension of VP1, VP2 late domains involved in membrane envelopment, and a cis-acting replication element within the 3D(pol) sequence. Antibodies in some bat sera immunoprecipitated and neutralized human HAV, suggesting conservation of critical antigenic determinants. Limited phylogenetic cosegregation among hepatoviruses and their hosts and recombination patterns are indicative of major hepatovirus host shifts in the past. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest a Hepatovirus origin in small insectivorous mammals and a rodent origin of human HAV. Patterns of infection in small mammals mimicked those of human HAV in hepatotropism, fecal shedding, acute nature, and extinction of the virus in a closed host population. The evolutionary conservation of hepatovirus structure and pathogenesis provide novel insight into the origins of HAV and highlight the utility of analyzing animal reservoirs for risk assessment of emerging viruses.

  10. Small exotic companion mammal wellness management and environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilny, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Wellness management and environmental enrichment are important components of preventative veterinary medical care. Small exotic mammals represent a diverse group of pets with widely varying types of care, diet, and husbandry considerations; thus, environmental enrichment must go beyond the cage or tank design in order to provide proper mental fitness in meeting any pet's psychological needs. Addressing the pet's environmental, dietary, exercise, and social needs is vital to keeping these animals healthier and more disease resistant. The key to accomplishing this is largely impacted by the annual or biannual veterinary wellness visit and a commitment from the pet's owner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental variation and habitat separation among small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickery, W.L.; Iverson, S.L.; Mihok, S.; Schwartz, B.

    1989-01-01

    Habitat use and population density of five species of forest small mammals were monitored by annual spring snap-trap censuses at Pinawa, Manitoba, over 14 years. Population sizes were positively correlated among species and showed no evidence of density-dependent effects. Species were habitat selectors. Habitat use by species did not vary among years. Habitat separation between the dominant species was not correlated with environmental variables or with population size. We suggest that habitat selection and positive covariance among species abundances are the principal factors characterizing the dynamics of this community

  12. Measurements of uranium in soils and small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of uranium to a single species of small mammal, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus (Merriam), white-footed deer mouse, from two different source terms: a Los Alamos National Laboratory dynamic weapons testing site in north central New Mexico, where an estimated 70,000 kg of uranium have been expended over a 31-y period; and an inactive uranium mill tailings pile located in west central New Mexico near Grants, which received wastes over a 5-y period from the milling of 2.7 x 10 9 kg of uranium ore

  13. Measurements of uranium in soils and small mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of uranium to a single species of small mammal, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus (Merriam), white-footed deer mouse, from two different source terms: a Los Alamos National Laboratory dynamic weapons testing site in north central New Mexico, where an estimated 70,000 kg of uranium have been expended over a 31-y period; and an inactive uranium mill tailings pile located in west central New Mexico near Grants, which received wastes over a 5-y period from the milling of 2.7 x 10/sup 9/ kg of uranium ore.

  14. Birds of isolated small forests in Uganda | Dranzoa | Scopus: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is also a strong indication of species turnover amongst the forest interior birds in these forests. The fact that, together and over time these small forests supported 37 forest interior species, suggests that, collectively, small forests (of which there are many in Uganda) do have conservation value. The evidence of species ...

  15. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled

  16. The influence of small urban parks characteristics on bird diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasmani, Zanariah; Ravn, Hans Peter; van den Bosch, Cecil C.Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    using the combined field survey method of structured observation and field measurements. The measured variables were divided into three broad categories of physical characteristics, species richness and human factors. Bird species richness and abundance were used as the indicators for assessing...... biodiversity. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were conducted to analyse the relationships between variables and to identify which variables had a significant effect on bird species richness and abundance. The results demonstrated that park area and vegetation variables (e.g. the percentage...... of tree canopy cover, open grass/ground, native-exotic plants) are the important predictors of bird species richness and abundance. The percentage of canopy covers (negative relation) and park area (positive relation) are the best predictors of bird species richness in small urban parks. Meanwhile...

  17. Sexual segregation in marine fish, reptiles, birds and mammals behaviour patterns, mechanisms and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearmouth, Victoria J; Sims, David W

    2008-01-01

    Sexual segregation occurs when members of a species separate such that the sexes live apart, either singly or in single-sex groups. It can be broadly categorised into two types: habitat segregation and social segregation. Sexual segregation is a behavioural phenomenon that is widespread in the animal kingdom yet the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Sexual segregation has been widely studied among terrestrial mammals such as ungulates, but it has been less well documented in the marine environment. This chapter clarifies terms and concepts which have emerged from the investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ecology and examines how a similar methodological approach may be complicated by differences of marine species. Here we discuss the behavioural patterns of sexual segregation among marine fish, reptile, bird and mammal species. Five hypotheses have been forwarded to account for sexual segregation, largely emerging from investigation of sexual segregation in terrestrial ungulates: the predation risk, forage selection, activity budget, thermal niche-fecundity and social factors hypotheses. These mechanisms are reviewed following careful assessment of their applicability to marine vertebrate species and case studies of marine vertebrates which support each mechanism recounted. Rigorous testing of all hypotheses is lacking from both the terrestrial and marine vertebrate literature and those analyses which have been attempted are often confounded by factors such as sexual body-size dimorphism. In this context, we indicate the value of studying model species which are monomorphic with respect to body size and discuss possible underlying causes for sexual segregation in this species. We also discuss why it is important to understand sexual segregation, for example, by illustrating how differential exploitation of the sexes by humans can lead to population decline.

  18. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunger, John A. [Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers were 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in diets. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for £.. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on .f.. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  19. Habitats of small mammals at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, S L; Turner, B N

    1973-12-01

    The small mammals in the area around the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in southeastern Manitoba were sampled by approximately 110,000 snap- trap nights in a 5 year period. Habitats trapped were divided into major types on the basis of the tree species present, and occurrences of the different species of shrubs and herbs in each habitat type were noted. The major habitats were mixed deciduous, aspen, ash, mixed coniferous, The small mammal component of the mixed deciduous forest was dominated by Peromyscus maniculatus and Clethrionomys gapperi but all of the other species included in this study were also present. In both aspen and ash forests, Microtus pennsylvanicus and C. gapperi were the most numerous species, with Sorex arcticus reaching its greatest abundance in the latter. In the open field, M. pennsylvanicus was most abundant, followed by Zapus hudsonius, C. gapperi, M. pennsylvanicus and Sorex cinereus were the most numerous mammals in the black spruce bog community, and also extended into the black spruce forest. All of the species studied, except Napaeozapus insignis and S. arcticus, were present in the mixed coniferous forest. S. arcticus and S. cinereus, although captured in habitats ranging from heavy forest to open field, appeared to be most numerous in young forests and other intermediate habitats. Blarina brevicauda was most numerous in older forests. P. maniculatus and N. insignis were most common in the mixed deciduous forest, but P. maniculatus occurred more frequently than N. insignis in the younger forests. P. maniculatus showed a significant positive relationship with large tree diameter and low percentages of ground cover. C. gapperi was captured in highest numbers in the mixed deciduous and coniferous forests, but was also found in the other types of forest in greater numbers than P. maniculaius. M. pennsylvanicus and Zapus hudsonius were most common in the open field, but both species were present in the forests. Analysis of data

  20. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  1. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities.

  2. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 2: Small mammal food chains and bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Food chain transfer through the soil-vegetation-small mammal food chain was measured by concentration ratios (CRs) for uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po at three sites near the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Plant/soil CRs, animal carcass/GI tract CRs, and animal/soil CRs were depressed at sites impacted by mill and tailings dusts relative to a nearby control site. Thus, radionuclides associated with large particulates in tailings and/or ore dusts may be less bioavailable to terrestrial plants and animals than natural sources of radioactive dust. These results show that reliance on default food chain transfer parameters, obtained from uncontaminated terrestrial ecosystems, may overpredict impacts at uranium mine and mill sites. Given the omnivorous diet of small mammals and birds, animal/soil CRs are recommended as the most cost-effective and robust means of predicting animal concentrations from environmental monitoring data at uranium mill facilities

  3. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

  4. Limited carbon and biodiversity co-benefits for tropical forest mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Kroetz, Kailin; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Amaral, Eda; Breuer, Thomas; Fletcher, Christine; Jansen, Patrick A; Kenfack, David; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Marshall, Andrew R; Martin, Emanuel H; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; O'Brien, Timothy; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Roy, Cisquet Hector; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Carlos E F; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Valencia, Renato; Zvoleff, Alex; Ahumada, Jorge; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-06-01

    The conservation of tropical forest carbon stocks offers the opportunity to curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and simultaneously conserve biodiversity. However, there has been considerable debate about the extent to which carbon stock conservation will provide benefits to biodiversity in part because whether forests that contain high carbon density in their aboveground biomass also contain high animal diversity is unknown. Here, we empirically examined medium to large bodied ground-dwelling mammal and bird (hereafter "wildlife") diversity and carbon stock levels within the tropics using camera trap and vegetation data from a pantropical network of sites. Specifically, we tested whether tropical forests that stored more carbon contained higher wildlife species richness, taxonomic diversity, and trait diversity. We found that carbon stocks were not a significant predictor for any of these three measures of diversity, which suggests that benefits for wildlife diversity will not be maximized unless wildlife diversity is explicitly taken into account; prioritizing carbon stocks alone will not necessarily meet biodiversity conservation goals. We recommend conservation planning that considers both objectives because there is the potential for more wildlife diversity and carbon stock conservation to be achieved for the same total budget if both objectives are pursued in tandem rather than independently. Tropical forests with low elevation variability and low tree density supported significantly higher wildlife diversity. These tropical forest characteristics may provide more affordable proxies of wildlife diversity for future multi-objective conservation planning when fine scale data on wildlife are lacking.

  5. Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüebler, Martin U.; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

    2014-07-01

    The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified Δ T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive Δ T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality.

  6. Notes on two small collections of Birds from new Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the past few years the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie has received, from different sources, several small collections of birds from various parts of New Guinea. This is a report on two of these. No ornithologist accompanied the expedition to the Sterren-gebergte (Star

  7. Ethnozoological Study of Native Birds and Mammals Associated to Fruit Orchards of Zacualpan de Amilpas, Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Flores

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is an ethnozoologic study based on the analysis of the traditional knowledge that the autochthonous inhabitants of the community of Zacualpan de Amilpas, Morelos, Mexico, have in what refers to the native birds and mammals associated with groves. The methodology was applied in four stages: contact with the pertinent authorities, identification of key informants, grove survey, interviewing and sampling to observe and corroborate the species identified by the informants. Thus, 34 bird common names pertaining to 26 species, 6 orders and 15 families were registered. Passeriformes was the order with the highest species number, and Tyrannidae and Icteridae were the most representative families. For mammals, 16 common names were recognized pertaining to 18 species, 6 orders and 10 families; the order Carnivora and the family Mephitidae had the largest species number. The use values registered were: alimentary, medicinal, ornamental and as good-luck charms. Species are hunted using shotguns and slingshots. Community members recognize three environmental services (seed dispersion, insect predation and pollination that 16 species carry out. We conclude that the reassessment of local traditional knowledge is important for the use, management and conservation of birds and mammals associated with traditional groves.

  8. Living in the dark does not mean a blind life: bird and mammal visual communication in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María Del Mar

    2017-04-05

    For many years, it was believed that bird and mammal communication 'in the dark of the night' relied exclusively on vocal and chemical signalling. However, in recent decades, several case studies have conveyed the idea that the nocturnal world is rich in visual information. Clearly, a visual signal needs a source of light to work, but diurnal light (twilight included, i.e. any light directly dependent on the sun) is not the only source of luminosity on this planet. Actually, moonlight represents a powerful source of illumination that cannot be neglected from the perspective of visual communication. White patches of feathers and fur on a dark background have the potential to be used to communicate with conspecifics and heterospecifics in dim light across different contexts and for a variety of reasons. Here: (i) we review current knowledge on visual signalling in crepuscular and nocturnal birds and mammals; and (ii) we also present some possible cases of birds and mammals that, due to the characteristics of their feather and fur coloration pattern, might use visual signals in dim light. Visual signalling in nocturnal animals is still an emerging field and, to date, it has received less attention than many other means of communication, including visual communication under daylight. For this reason, many questions remain unanswered and, sometimes, even unasked.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Effects of Precommercial Thinning and Midstory Control on Avian and Small Mammal Communities during Longleaf Pine Savanna Restoration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Vanessa R [Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College; Kilgo, John C [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savanna is a goal of many southern land managers, and longleaf plantations may provide a mechanism for savanna restoration. However, the effects of silvicultural treatments used in the management of longleaf pine plantations on wildlife communities are relatively unknown. Beginning in 1994, we examined effects of longleaf pine restoration with plantation silviculture on avian and small mammal communities using four treatments in four 8- to 11- year-old plantations within the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Treatments included prescribed burning every 3 to 5 years, plus: (1) no additional treatment (burn-only control); (2) precommercial thinning; (3) non-pine woody control with herbicides; and (4) combined thinning and woody control. We surveyed birds (1996-2003) using 50-m point counts and small mammals with removal trapping. Thinning and woody control alone had short-lived effects on avian communities, and the combination treatment increased avian parameters over the burn-only control in all years. Small mammal abundance showed similar trends as avian abundance for all three treatments when compared with the burn-only control, but only for 2 years post-treatment. Both avian and small mammal communities were temporarily enhanced by controlling woody vegetation with chemicals in addition to prescribed fire and thinning. Therefore, precommercial thinning in longleaf plantations, particularly when combined with woody control and prescribed fire, may benefit early-successional avian and small mammal communities by developing stand conditions more typical of natural longleaf stands maintained by periodic fire.

  10. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes) and mammals (Rodentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosz-Kluska, Dominika; Pis, Tomasz; Pawlik, Katarzyna; Kapustka, Filip; Kilarski, Wincenty M.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity. PMID:29540429

  11. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes and mammals (Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Czarnoleski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs. In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity.

  12. An assessment of non-volant terrestrial vertebrates response to wind farms--a study of small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Mróz, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    The majority of studies on the effects of wind energy development on wildlife have been focused on birds and bats, whereas knowledge of the response of terrestrial, non-flying vertebrates is very scarce. In this paper, the impact of three functioning wind farms on terrestrial small mammal communities (rodents and shrews) and the population parameters of the most abundant species were studied. The study was carried out in southeastern Poland within the foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians. Small mammals were captured at 12 sites around wind turbines and at 12 control sites. In total, from 1200 trap-days, 885 individuals of 14 studied mammal species were captured. There was no difference in the characteristics of communities of small mammals near wind turbines and within control sites; i.e. these types of sites were inhabited by a similar number of species of similar abundance, similar species composition, species diversity (H' index) and species evenness (J') (Pielou's index). For the two species with the highest proportion in the communities (Apodemus agrarius and Microtus arvalis), the parameters of their populations (mean body mass, sex ratio, the proportion of adult individuals and the proportion of reproductive female) were analysed. In both species, none of the analysed parameters differed significantly between sites in the vicinity of turbines and control sites. For future studies on the impact of wind turbines on small terrestrial mammals in different geographical areas and different species communities, we recommend the method of paired 'turbine-control sites' as appropriate for animal species with pronounced fluctuations in population numbers.

  13. Control of breathing and the circulation in high-altitude mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Catherine M; Scott, Graham R

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia is an unremitting stressor at high altitudes that places a premium on oxygen transport by the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Phenotypic plasticity and genotypic adaptation at various steps in the O2 cascade could help offset the effects of hypoxia on cellular O2 supply in high-altitude natives. In this review, we will discuss the unique mechanisms by which ventilation, cardiac output, and blood flow are controlled in high-altitude mammals and birds. Acclimatization to high altitudes leads to some changes in respiratory and cardiovascular control that increase O2 transport in hypoxia (e.g., ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia). However, acclimatization or development in hypoxia can also modify cardiorespiratory control in ways that are maladaptive for O2 transport. Hypoxia responses that arose as short-term solutions to O2 deprivation (e.g., peripheral vasoconstriction) or regional variation in O2 levels in the lungs (i.e., hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction) are detrimental at in chronic high-altitude hypoxia. Evolved changes in cardiorespiratory control have arisen in many high-altitude taxa, including increases in effective ventilation, attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and changes in catecholamine sensitivity of the heart and systemic vasculature. Parallel evolution of some of these changes in independent highland lineages supports their adaptive significance. Much less is known about the genomic bases and potential interactive effects of adaptation, acclimatization, developmental plasticity, and trans-generational epigenetic transfer on cardiorespiratory control. Future work to understand these various influences on breathing and circulation in high-altitude natives will help elucidate how complex physiological systems can be pushed to their limits to maintain cellular function in hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate variability and the energetic pathways of evolution: the origin of endothermy in mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, Hans O

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale climate oscillations in earth's history have influenced the directions of evolution, last but not least, through mass extinction events. This analysis tries to identify some unifying forces behind the course of evolution that favored an increase in organismic complexity and performance, paralleled by an increase in energy turnover, and finally led to endothermy. The analysis builds on the recent concept of oxygen-limited thermal tolerance and on the hypothesis that unifying principles exist in the temperature-dependent biochemical design of the eukaryotic cell in animals. The comparison of extant water-breathing and air-breathing animal species from various climates provides a cause-and-effect understanding of the trade-offs and constraints in thermal adaptation and their energetic consequences. It is hypothesized that the high costs of functional adaptation to fluctuating temperatures, especially in the cold (cold eurythermy), cause an increase in energy turnover and, at the same time, mobility and agility. These costs are associated with elevated mitochondrial capacities at minimized levels of activation enthalpies for proton leakage. Cold eurythermy is seen as a precondition for the survival of evolutionary crises elicited by repeated cooling events during extreme climate fluctuations. The costs of cold eurythermy appear as the single most important reason why metazoan evolution led to life forms with high energy turnover. They also explain why dinosaurs were able to live in subpolar climates. Finally, they give insight into the pathways, benefits, and trade-offs involved in the evolution of constant, elevated body temperature maintained by endothermy. Eurythermy, which encompasses cold tolerance, is thus hypothesized to be the "missing link" between ectothermy and endothermy. Body temperatures between 32 degrees and 42 degrees C in mammals and birds then result from trade-offs between the limiting capacities of ventilation and circulation and the

  15. Notes on two brief surveys of the small mammal fauna on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two brief (31~ days each) trapping surveys of the small mammal fauna in fynbos ... three shrew and one small carnivore species were captured. Estimates of .... related with the amount of grass cover. Table 6 shows that ..... population densities of mammals in fynbos and the results of ... to be close to their peak. Trapping in ...

  16. Effects of grazing intensity on small mammal population ecology in wet meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Bildsøe, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing is common management practice in wet grasslands. However, knowledge of its effects on small mammals is limited. We studied the influence of grazing intensity on small mammals in general and field voles Microtus agrestis in particular in two Danish wet meadows, 1998-2000. General...

  17. Rules of attraction: The role of bait in small mammal sampling at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baits or lures are commonly used for surveying small mammal communities, not only because they attract large numbers of these animals, but also because they provide sustenance for trapped individuals. In this study we used Sherman live traps with five bait treatments to sample small mammal populations at three ...

  18. Trap-induced mass declines in small mammals: Mass as a population index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2003-01-01

    Body mass is routinely used as an index of physical condition for comparing small-mammal populations. However, trapping effects on animals may undermine the effectiveness of body mass as an index of population health. We examined the effects of live-trapping on body mass of 3 small-mammal species: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), southern red-...

  19. Radioactive marking in the study of locomotion in small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rage, P.; Monnier, S.; Lanoir, J.; Joanny, P.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described for continuous recording of locomotor activity in small mammals. A radioactive source (Ag 110sup(m)), enclosed in a drop of resin, is fixed to the animal's cranium. The experimental chamber is a Plexiglas cylinder in the center of which is a radiation detector, whose electrical signals are integrated and recorded on moving paper. Each displacement of the animal gives rise to a variation in the intensity of radiation and thus to a variation in recording amplitude. Locomotor activity is quantified by counting the number of significant displacements in unit time. The technique is sufficiently sensitive to bring out the differences in locomotor activity between two strains of mice. In the rat, the effects of tryptophan deprivation on locomotor activity and time spent feeding have been studied. The applicability of this method is very wide, because it allows the measurement of movement of any animal in air, water, or on dry land. It is at the moment even being applied to the study of the vertical migration of plankton. (author)

  20. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  1. The Immune Responses of the Animal Hosts of West Nile Virus: A Comparison of Insects, Birds, and Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. H. Ahlers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses, pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Arboviruses of the flavivirus genus, such as Zika virus (ZIKV, dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV, and West Nile virus (WNV, are transmitted to humans from insect vectors and can cause serious disease. In 2017, over 2,000 reported cases of WNV virus infection occurred in the United States, with two-thirds of cases classified as neuroinvasive. WNV transmission cycles through two different animal populations: birds and mosquitoes. Mammals, particularly humans and horses, can become infected through mosquito bites and represent dead-end hosts of WNV infection. Because WNV can infect diverse species, research on this arbovirus has investigated the host response in mosquitoes, birds, humans, and horses. With the growing geographical range of the WNV mosquito vector and increased human exposure, improved surveillance and treatment of the infection will enhance public health in areas where WNV is endemic. In this review, we survey the bionomics of mosquito species involved in Nearctic WNV transmission. Subsequently, we describe the known immune response pathways that counter WNV infection in insects, birds, and mammals, as well as the mechanisms known to curb viral infection. Moreover, we discuss the bacterium Wolbachia and its involvement in reducing flavivirus titer in insects. Finally, we highlight the similarities of the known immune pathways and identify potential targets for future studies aimed at improving antiviral therapeutic and vaccination design.

  2. Size and shape stasis in late Pleistocene mammals and birds from Rancho La Brea during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Syverson, Valerie J.; Raymond, Kristina R.; Madan, Meena; Molina, Sarah; Fragomeni, Ashley; DeSantis, Sylvana; Sutyagina, Anastasiya; Gage, Gina L.

    2012-11-01

    stasis (stabilizing selection, canalization) fail in this setting where climate is changing. One possible explanation is that most large birds and mammals are very broadly adapted and relatively insensitive to changes in their environments, although even the small mammals of the Pleistocene show stasis during climate change, too.

  3. Radiation exposure and dose to small mammals in radon-rich soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, C.R.; Laverock, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    estimated from published dose conversion factors (DCFs) of 1.4 mGy per mJ · h/m 3 for whole lung. For the ground squirrel, the DCF approach gives an estimated dose of 300 mGy/a versus 270 using the respiratory flow rate method. Based on these results, doses exceeding 500 mGy/a may be common in mammals and birds (ie. the burrowing owl) living in radon-rich soils. Published risk coefficients for small mammals suggest that about 17 cancers would occur in 1,000 animals at these exposure rates. Although the potential effects from these exposures were not examined in this study, the study raises questions about how the animals may respond physiologically to this largely natural stress. (author)

  4. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Hentall

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 milliamp-hours were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm but taller (6 mm were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat’s raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-minute (50% duty cycle trains of 30 µA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n=128. Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n=16 were achieved with larger batteries (44 milliamp-hours in longer (18 mm, taller (6 mm capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat’s sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.

  5. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: annotated list and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Bego

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta così come alcuni dati già pubblicati. L'esame di 161 località distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie  (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.

  6. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-01-01

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ"1"5N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ"1"5N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ"1"3C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ"1"5N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were higher in rodents inhabiting

  7. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balčiauskas, Linas, E-mail: linasbal@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Skipitytė, Raminta, E-mail: raminta.skipityte@ftmc.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Jasiulionis, Marius, E-mail: mjasiulionis@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Trakimas, Giedrius, E-mail: giedrius.trakimas@gf.vu.lt [Center for Ecology and Environmental Research, Vilnius University, Vilnius (Lithuania); Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Daugavpils University, Parades Str. 1a, Daugavpils, LV-5401 (Latvia); Balčiauskienė, Laima, E-mail: laiba@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Remeikis, Vidmantas, E-mail: vidrem@fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ{sup 15}N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ{sup 15}N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ{sup 13}C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ{sup 15}N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ{sup 13}C and

  8. [Fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Men, Xing-Yuan; Gong, Zheng-Da; Wu, Dian; Zhang, Zheng-Kun; Zhang, Li-Yun

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the distribution pattern, species diversity and community structure of fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake, and the relationship between fleas and their hosts. Different geographical areas surrounding the Erhai Lake in Yunnan were selected as investigated spots. Small mammals were captured with baited cages. The cage-traps were examined and re-baited each morning. All fleas on the hosts were collected and identified. The richness (S), evenness (J'), diversity index (H'), dominance index (C'), total ectoparasite infestation rate (Rpt), total ectoparasite infestation index (Ipt), and constituent ratio (Cr) were used to measure the community structure. Altogether, 3,303 small mammals and 3,243 fleas were collected. From the 21 species of small mammal hosts, 13 species of fleas were identified. In southern area of the Lake, the species richness (21 species of small mammals & 12 species of fleas) was highest among the three selected areas. Seventeen species of small mammals and 8 species of fleas were found in eastern area, and only 13 species of small mammals and 7 species of fleas found in the west. This implied the probable influences of ecological environments on the fleas and their corresponding hosts. The community structure of fleas on small mammals was complex. The species diversity, species composition, community structure and distribution pattern of fleas were simultaneously influenced by the hosts' body surface microenvironment and the macroenvironment (habitat). The fleas are commonly distributed in small mammals in the areas and their communities are related to host species and the habitats.

  9. Small-mammal responses to pine regeneration treatments in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2005-01-01

    We compared the initial effects of four forest regeneration treatments (single-tree selection, group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut), and unharvested controls (mature, second-growth forest) on relative abundance of small mammals and small-mammal habitat throughout the Ouachita Mountains of western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. We compared small-mammal capture...

  10. Small mammal diversity loss in response to late-Pleistocene climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Jessica L; McGuire, Jenny L; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2010-06-10

    Communities have been shaped in numerous ways by past climatic change; this process continues today. At the end of the Pleistocene epoch about 11,700 years ago, North American communities were substantially altered by the interplay of two events. The climate shifted from the cold, arid Last Glacial Maximum to the warm, mesic Holocene interglacial, causing many mammal species to shift their geographic distributions substantially. Populations were further stressed as humans arrived on the continent. The resulting megafaunal extinction event, in which 70 of the roughly 220 largest mammals in North America (32%) became extinct, has received much attention. However, responses of small mammals to events at the end of the Pleistocene have been much less studied, despite the sensitivity of these animals to current and future environmental change. Here we examine community changes in small mammals in northern California during the last 'natural' global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and show that even though no small mammals in the local community became extinct, species losses and gains, combined with changes in abundance, caused declines in both the evenness and richness of communities. Modern mammalian communities are thus depauperate not only as a result of megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene but also because of diversity loss among small mammals. Our results suggest that across future landscapes there will be some unanticipated effects of global change on diversity: restructuring of small mammal communities, significant loss of richness, and perhaps the rising dominance of native 'weedy' species.

  11. Antibodies to West Nile virus in asymptomatic mammals, birds, and reptiles in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán-Ale, José A; Blitvich, Bradley J; Marlenee, Nicole L; Loroño-Pino, María A; Puerto-Manzano, Fernando; García-Rejón, Julián E; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P; Flores-Flores, Luis F; Ortega-Salazar, Andres; Chávez-Medina, Jaidy; Cremieux-Grimaldi, Juan C; Correa-Morales, Favián; Hernández-Gaona, Gerson; Méndez-Galván, Jorge F; Beaty, Barry J

    2006-05-01

    Surveillance for evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in taxonomically diverse vertebrates was conducted in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 2003 and 2004. Sera from 144 horses on Cozumel Island, Quintana Roo State, 415 vertebrates (257 birds, 52 mammals, and 106 reptiles) belonging to 61 species from the Merida Zoo, Yucatan State, and 7 farmed crocodiles in Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche State were assayed for antibodies to flaviviruses. Ninety (62%) horses on Cozumel Island had epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to flaviviruses, of which 75 (52%) were seropositive for WNV by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Blocking ELISA antibodies to flaviviruses also were detected in 13 (3%) animals in the Merida Zoo, including 7 birds and 2 mammals (a jaguar and coyote) seropositive for WNV by PRNT. Six (86%) crocodiles in Campeche State had PRNT-confirmed WNV infections. All animals were healthy at the time of serum collections and none had a history of WNV-like illness.

  12. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  13. 2002 Small Mammal Inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, E; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    To assist the University of California in obtaining biological assessment information for the ''2004 Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'', Jones & Stokes conducted an inventory of small mammals in six major vegetation communities at Site 300. These communities were annual grassland, native grassland, oak savanna, riparian corridor, coastal scrub, and seep/spring wetlands. The principal objective of this study was to assess the diversity and abundance of small mammal species in these communities, as well as the current status of any special-status small mammal species found in these communities. Surveys in the native grassland community were conducted before and after a controlled fire management burn of the grasslands to qualitatively evaluate any potential effects of fire on small mammals in the area.

  14. Spatial distribution of an infectious disease in a small mammal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Juana P.; Bacigalupo, Antonella; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Oda, Esteban; Cattan, Pedro E.; Solari, Aldo; Botto-Mahan, Carezza

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect vectors to several mammals, but little is known about its spatial epidemiology. We assessed the spatial distribution of T. cruzi infection in vectors and small mammals to test if mammal infection status is related to the proximity to vector colonies. During four consecutive years we captured and georeferenced the locations of mammal species and colonies of Mepraia spinolai, a restricted-movement vector. Infection status on mammals and vectors was evaluated by molecular techniques. To examine the effect of vector colonies on mammal infection status, we constructed an infection distance index using the distance between the location of each captured mammal to each vector colony and the average T. cruzi prevalence of each vector colony, weighted by the number of colonies assessed. We collected and evaluated T. cruzi infection in 944 mammals and 1976 M. spinolai. We found a significant effect of the infection distance index in explaining their infection status, when considering all mammal species together. By examining the most abundant species separately, we found this effect only for the diurnal and gregarious rodent Octodon degus. Spatially explicit models involving the prevalence and location of infected vectors and hosts had not been reported previously for a wild disease.

  15. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rabbits under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and comparative assessment between mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I

    2016-01-22

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rabbits under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085μg/kg per day, and the observed differences between rabbits and chickens. The best fitting for both species was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, and accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. Elimination was more rapid in rabbits, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 88 days compared to the 230 days observed for chickens. By contrast, the calculated assimilation efficiency for rabbits was almost 1, very close to full absorption, significantly higher than the 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68 observed for chickens. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in rabbits, as previously described for humans and other mammals; suggesting the role of a capacity-limited saturable process resulting in different kinetic behaviours for PFOS in high dose versus environmentally relevant low dose exposure conditions. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, and that the different kinetics between birds and mammals should may play a significant role in the biomagnifications assessment and potential exposure for humans and predators. For the same dose regime, the steady state concentration was estimated at about 36μg PFOS/L serum for rabbits, slightly above one-half of the 65μg PFOS/L serum estimated for chickens. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in rabbits and chickens as starting point for human health exposure assessments and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild mammals and bird in exposure assessment of predatory

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in small mammals from the Ardennes region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Eve; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Lemoine, Mélissa; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2007-11-01

    Serum samples from 218 small mammals trapped in forest and grassland in the Ardennes region (North-eastern France) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Using the modified agglutination test, positive results were found in 4/92 Apodemus sp., 3/64 Clethrionomys glareolus, 0/26 Microtus agrestis, 0/4 Micromys minutus, 3/5 Sorex sp., 2/9 Arvicola terrestris, and 7/18 Talpa europaea. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the heart of seropositive individuals after bioassay in mice. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in large fossorial mammals living in grassland than in small forest mammals, probably related to ecological factors.

  17. System of small mammals holes as related to variation of expositional dose in forest litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that small mammals play a sufficient role in radionuclide migration in natural biogeocenosis and agrocenosis. The system of underground communications of small mammals increases the rate of radionuclide migration deep in soil and promotes their accumulated around holes. Such migration is characterized by directivity-vertically down. The revealed regularities demostrate biogeocenotic role of voles in processes of directed migration of substances, contaminating soil surface

  18. SIMILARITY COMPARISON AND CLASSIFICATION OF SUCKING LOUSE COMMUNITIES ON SOME SMALL MAMMALS IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong

    2004-01-01

    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  19. Some concepts in the management and control of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    This review discusses some broadly ecological aspects of small mammal management and some positive values of their populations. Although small mammals consume a minor fraction of the total primary production in terrestrial ecosystems, they may by preferential feeding on a few plant species suppress those species within a community. The overall lifeform of the vegetation may not be changed. In cases where severe disturbance (e.g., grazing) reduces climax vegetation (e.g., grasses), and these are replaced by seral species of a different life form (e.g., shrubs), the vegetation may be held in a seral stage by heavy, small mammal pressure on the now subdominant, climax species. They may thus maintain a different vegetation life form than would exist in the absence of their pressure, and restoration of a near-climax state may depend on intensive control. There is a large accumulation of information on small mammal species composition and densities in different vegetation types. Some of it discusses the mechanisms which relate these densities to the habitat. If this information were compiled and generalized, it would provide a basis for predicting the impact on small mammal populations of contemplated land-use programs and possible small mammal management, either control or enhancement, through vegetation manipulation. There is considerable evidence that prey abundance is an important determinant of predator densities. Concern for predator conservation needs to consider abundance of prey species and the factors which affect it

  20. Impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia

    1998-09-01

    The impacts of ungulates on small mammals in an East African savanna habitat were investigated by monitoring the population and community responses of small mammals on replicated 4-ha plots from which ungulates had been excluded. The dominant small mammal in this habitat is the pouched mouse, Saccostomusmearnsi, a medium-sized murid rodent. Eight other small mammal species, including Arvicanthis sp., Mus sp., Mastomys sp., Dendromus sp., Crocidura sp., and, rarely, Tatera sp., Aethomys sp., and Acomys sp., were also captured. The dominant ungulates are elephant (Loxodonta africana), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), Grevy's and common zebra (Equus grevyi and E. burchelli), buffalo (Syncerus cafer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), and domestic cattle. Within 1 year, S. mearnsi populations had responded dramatically to the exclusion of large mammals by a two-fold increase in density, a difference that was maintained through pronounced seasonal fluctuations in the second year. Though individual pouched mice showed no significant differences in their use of space with and without ungulates, male S. mearnsi maintained significantly higher body weights in the absence of ungulates, indicating that habitat quality had increased. One other species, Mastomys sp., also increased in the absence of ungulates. Overall, the small mammal community maintained relatively constant species diversity on the plots to which ungulates did not have access. On the plots to which ungulates did have access, on the other hand, there was a rapid 75% decrease in diversity in the control plots during one trapping session. Ungulates are most likely affecting small mammals through their effects on food quality, since there were no detectable differences in their exposure to predators, as determined by vegetative cover, in the absence of ungulates. These results demonstrate that ungulates can have strong and rapid impacts on small mammal abundance and diversity in East

  1. Alignment between values of dryland pastoralists and conservation needs for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Jane; Pavey, Chris R

    2017-04-01

    Policies for conservation outside protected areas, such as those designed to address the decline in Australian mammals, will not result in net improvements unless they address barriers to proenvironmental behavior. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore potential value-action gaps (disconnects between values and subsequent action) for small mammal conservation behaviors among pastoralists in dryland Australia. Using semistructured surveys and open-ended interviews (n = 43), we explored values toward small mammals; uptake of a range of current and intended actions that may provide benefit to small mammals; and potential perceived barriers to their uptake. Pastoralists assigned great conservation value to small mammals; over 80% (n = 36) agreed to strongly agreed that small mammals on their property were important. These values did not translate into stated willingness to engage in voluntary cessation of wild-dog control (r 2 = 0.187, p = 0.142, n = 43). However, assigning great conservation value to small mammals was strongly related to stated voluntary willingness to engage in the proenvironmental behavior most likely to result in benefits to small mammals: cat and fox control (r 2 = 0.558, p = 0.000, n = 43). There was no significant difference between stated voluntarily and incentivized willingness to engage in cat and fox control (p = 0.862, n = 43). The high levels of willingness to engage in voluntary cat and fox control highlight a potential entry point for addressing Australia's mammal declines because the engagement of pastoralists in conservation programs targeting cat and fox control is unlikely to be prevented by attitudinal constraints. Qualitative data suggest there is likely a subpopulation of pastoralists who value small mammals but do not wish to engage in formal conservation programs due to relational barriers with potential implementers. A long-term commitment to engagement with pastoralists by implementers will thus be necessary for

  2. Implications of a conceptual model for the allocation of energy resources by small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunder, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model describing the manner in which small mammals utilize energy and the ways in which the physical environment influences allocation of energy resources. It is suggested that for homeothermic mammals, thermoregulation is a first priority for energy utilization and feeding a second priority. Once these needs are met additional energy gathered may be allocated to production or other behaviors. Deductions from the model, coupled with conclusions from field studies of weather effects on small mammal reproduction and the effects of supplemental feeding experiments on reproduction, suggest that many difficulties in interpreting such studies may be due to inattention to the interactive effects of food and weather on reproduction. The paper then describes the manner in which three sorts of environments (subarctic-boreal, north temperate grassland, and deserts) vary seasonally in their productivity and level of cold stress for small mammals

  3. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  4. Mammal and bird road mortalities on the Upington to Twee Rivieren ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mammal hotspot was identified along the 91 km of road that traversed the Gordonia duneveld. Since the nine roadside traffic warning signs erected on the R360 road had no measurable impact on road mortalities, it is recommend that three rumble strip sections with accompanying signage be erected in the hotspot to ...

  5. Wide Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Babesia microti in Small Mammals from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zi-Hou; Huang, Tao-Hua; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; Liu, Zheng-Xiang; Shao, Zong-Ti; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Liu, Hong-Bo; Wei, Ran; Li, Yu-Qiong; Yao, Hong-Wu; von Fricken, Michael E; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Du, Chun-Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Babesia, usually found in wild and domestic mammals worldwide, have recently been responsible for emerging malaria-like zoonosis in infected patients. Human B. microti infection has been identified in China, primarily in the Southwest along the Myanmar border but little direct surveillance of B. microti infection in rodents has been carried out here (Yunnan province). In this region, a diverse topographic range combined with tropical moisture sustains a high biodiversity of small mammals, which might play important role on Babesia transmission. Small mammals were captured in 141 sample locations from 18 counties located Yunnan Province, and screened for B. microti-like parasites infection by a nested PCR to target 18S rRNA gene of Babesia, plus directly sequencing for positive samples. Univariate and multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to access the association between infections and some related risk factors. Infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in 2.4% (53/ 2204) of small mammals. Significant differences in prevalence rates of B. microti were observed based on variations in forest, agricultural, and residential landscapes. Furthermore, adult small mammals had higher prevalence rates than younger, pubertal mammals. The near full-length 18S rRNA gene revealed that there were two types of B. microti, Kobe and Otsu, which demonstrate the genetic diversity and regional distribution. There exists a wide distribution and genetic diversity of endemic B. microti in Southwestern China, warranting further investigations and monitoring of clinical disease in individuals presenting with Babesia like symptoms in these areas.

  6. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  7. Small mammal populations in zoonotic disease and toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muul, I.

    1978-01-01

    Examples of zoonotic diseases are discussed in relation to their distribution in mammalian hosts. Various ecological factors influence disease distribution patterns so that only a certain portion of the mammalian populations are subject to infections. Emphasis was placed on some of these ecological factors in studying the mainstream of infections in endemic hosts and vectors. This approach might be called medical ecology and would be supplemental to epidemiological studies which characteristically emphasize human involvement in zoonotic disease transmission. For example, occurrence in certain habitats and vertical distribution within forest habitats predisposed various mammalian species to infections. Arboreal species did not have scrub typhus infections while terrestrial species had high infection rates. Malaria parasites were common in arboreal mammals but uncommon in terrestrial species. Additionally, disease surveys in the absence of population data pertaining to potential host species sometimes yield misleading results, especially if age structure within populations changes through time. In field studies use of sentinel animals of known immunological history provide valuable supplemental information to surveys of free living animals which may have been infected at some unknown time in the past. As many different species should be studied as is practical since some species may not be susceptible to certain diseases under study. In laboratory studies, inclusion of non-standard mammals may provide opportunities to culture disease organisms which do not proliferate in standard laboratory species, or to replace diminishing resources of such species as primates

  8. The effects of temperature on nest predation by mammals, birds, and snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; F.R. Thompson III; J.L. Reidy

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how weather influences survival and reproduction is an important component of forecasting how climate change will influence wildlife population viability. Nest predation is the primary source of reproductive failure for passerine birds and can change in response to temperature. However, it is unclear which predator species are responsible for such...

  9. Assessment of the potential for long-term toxicological effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on birds and mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential for direct long-term toxicological effects of exposures to oils in birds and mammals by tracing exposures and effects form the initial cute phases through the sub-chronic to the eventual long-term exposures. The immediate effects of oil spills are physical, the oil acting on the plumage of birds or the fur of mammals. This causes a loss of entrained air and a concomitant reduction in buoyancy and thermal insulation. Animals that escape the immediate impacts may be isolated from their food supply and often ingest large amounts of oil while attempting to clean themselves. At the comparatively high dose levels involved, these exposures can result in toxicologically significant responses in many organ systems. In the course of an oil pollution incident, the amounts of biologically available oils decrease steadily, and simultaneously the composition of the oils shifts towards those components that have low volatility, and that resist photo- and bio-degradation. As this occurs, the primary pathways of exposure change from direct intakes to indirect routes involving the food supply. Although laboratory studies often report finding some adverse effects, the dose rates employed in many of these studies are extremely high when compared with those that are potentially available to animals in the wild, and very few actually use weathered oils. An assessment of the toxicological literature and of the available empirical data on the Exxon Valdez oil spill leads to the conclusion that long-term sub-lethal toxic effects of crude oils on wildlife in such marine spills appear to be very unlikely. 111 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Opening the treasure chest: A DNA-barcoding primer set for most higher taxa of Central European birds and mammals from museum collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Schäffer

    Full Text Available DNA-barcoding is a rapidly developing method for efficiently identifying samples to species level by means of short standard DNA sequences. However, reliable species assignment requires the availability of a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library, and hence numerous initiatives aim at generating such barcode databases for particular taxa or geographic regions. Historical museum collections represent a potentially invaluable source for the DNA-barcoding of many taxa. This is particularly true for birds and mammals, for which collecting fresh (voucher material is often very difficult to (nearly impossible due to the special animal welfare and conservation regulations that apply to vertebrates in general, and birds and mammals in particular. Moreover, even great efforts might not guarantee sufficiently complete sampling of fresh material in a short period of time. DNA extracted from historical samples is usually degraded, such that only short fragments can be amplified, rendering the recovery of the barcoding region as a single fragment impossible. Here, we present a new set of primers that allows the efficient amplification and sequencing of the entire barcoding region in most higher taxa of Central European birds and mammals in six overlapping fragments, thus greatly increasing the value of historical museum collections for generating DNA barcode reference libraries. Applying our new primer set in recently established NGS protocols promises to further increase the efficiency of barcoding old bird and mammal specimens.

  11. Environmental hazard/risk assessment of pesticides used in agriculture for birds and mammals. The Dutch concept. Part 2. Avian food avoidance behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report (the second one of a series in which the methodology for hazard/risk assessment of the use of pesticides for birds and mammals will be presented) is to give a method for taking into account the avoidance behaviour in the evaluation of LC50 studies and to provide a concept

  12. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkleman, Travis, M.; Orrock, John, L.; Loeb, Susan, C.

    2011-10-01

    Anti-predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs,but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used givingup densities to quantify the degree to which downed woody debris alters perceived predation risk by small mammals in southeastern pineforests. We placed 14 foraging trays next to large downed woody debris,shrubs, and in open areas for 12 consecutive nights. Moon illumination, a common indicator of predation risk, led to a similar reduction in small mammal foraging in all three microhabitats (open, downed woody debris,and shrub). Small mammals perceived open microhabitats as riskier than shrub microhabitats, with downed woody debris habitats perceived as being of intermediate risk between shrub and open microhabitats. Despite the presumed benefits of the protective cover of downed woody debris, small mammals may perceive downed woody debris as a relatively risky foraging site in southeastern pine forests where the high diversity and abundance of rodent-eating snakes may provide a primary predatory threat.

  13. Woodland reserves within an urban agglomeration as important refuges for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryz Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species richness (S, Chao- 1 index and diversity (Shannon-Wiener H’ index, diversity profiles of small mammal assemblages in woodland reserves in an urban agglomeration and to compare the similarity of assemblages (with the use of Ward’s method in terms of proportions of small mammals connected to the habitats of different level of naturalness. The work was conducted from 2004-2015 at 9 woodland reserves in Warsaw (Poland. On the basis of the analysis of pellets of tawny owls Strix aluco, 2792 individuals were identified (24 species. Reserves supported from 7 to 16 of the small mammal species, the highest overall number of species estimated (Chao-1 was 19. Species present in every reserve were Apodemus flavicollis, A. agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, Sorex araneus and Talpa europaea. Least frequent were Microtus agrestis and M. subterraneus. Seven species of bats were detected. Species diversity was lower in the biggest forest complexes, where forest rodents dominated small mammal assemblage. The heterogeneity of habitats within reserve and in the surroundings, in combination with limited human-interference, resulted in an increase in the species diversity. Overall, the reserves under study were an important refuge for small mammals within the Warsaw agglomeration. However, safeguarding of adjacent areas against excessive anthropogenic change is needed and ecological corridors that link different areas need to be retained.

  14. Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

  15. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawisa Jiyipong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  16. Relation between small-mammal species composition and anthropic variables in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olifiers

    Full Text Available Anthropic activities are frequently related in many ways to forest fragmentation and alteration of natural communities. In this study, we correlate the presence of hunting, tourism activity, agriculture/pasturing, and the distance of the study sites to the nearest human residences with the species composition of small Atlantic forest mammals. To do this, we utilize a multiple regression analysis of similarity matrices. The presence of both agriculture/pasturing and human residences near the study sites proved to be determinant factors in species composition of small mammals of the studied areas. Working with socioeconomic variables related directly with the study site could be a reliable and a direct way to predict the influence of human presence and entailed activity on small mammal communities.

  17. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marine; Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri). We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task) and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit) on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  18. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  19. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezel, V S [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Koutzenogii, K P [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mukhacheva, S V [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chankina, O V [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Savchenko, T I [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of 'geochemical selection' of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous (bank vole) and carnivorous (Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  20. Predicting effects of rainforest fragmentation from live trapping studies of small mammals in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Wijesinghe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of forest fragmentation on small mammals inhabiting the rainforests of Sri Lanka. Fifteen forests ranging in size from 145 to 11000 ha were live-trapped for five to eight nights each in both interior and edge habitats, yielding a total of 18400 trap nights. A total of 444 individuals belonging to 10 species of small mammals were captured. Multiple-regression analysis incorporating three indicators of fragmentation: patch area, shape index (perimeter/area and degree of isolation, showed no significant effects on overall species richness of small mammals. This is likely because the decline of forest-adapted species from small forest fragments was accompanied by an increase in more tolerant and adaptive species. Patch size, however, had a significant positive effect on the abundance of small mammals. Of the two dominant species, the endemic Mus mayori was positively affected by patch area whilst Rattus rattus was not affected. Although no differences were evident between interior and edge habitats with respect to total species richness and abundance, endemics were more abundant in core areas while the reverse was true for the non-endemics. Core forest areas were significantly different from forest edges with respect to canopy cover, density of herbaceous vegetation, large trees and litter cover. These results suggest that forest fragmentation is detrimental to some forest specialists and beneficial to some generalists.

  1. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  2. Overview of helminths in small mammals in the Zhiguli State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminths from a total of 24 species of small mammals, representing three orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia were examined in Zhiguli State Reserve (Russia. 90 species of helminthes were identified: Trematoda – 24, Cestoidea – 21, Nematoda – 43 and Acanthocephala – 2. For each helminth species the following traits are specified: systematic position, hosts, localization, host specificity, sites of findings and geographical distribution. Rodents, in which 33 helminth species were noted, were proven to have the richest parasite fauna. In chiropterans and insectivores 32 and 28 species of helminths were registered, respectively. Only one parasite species was common for all three orders of mammals – the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis. 14 species of parasites were discovered in mammals of Russia for the first time: Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Rodentolepis erinacei, Staphylocystis syrdariensis, Aonchotheca erinacei, Crenosoma striatum, Tricholinstowia linstowi, T. talpae, Molinistrongylus alatus, M. spasskii, M. vespertilionis, Pterothominx neopulchra, Pterygodermatites bovieri, Syphacia nigeriana, Centrorhynchus aluconis, larvae, Moniliformis moniliformis, larvae. 21 species of parasitic worms were found for the first time in mammals of the Volga River basin. Nine helminth species, discovered in small mammals of the Zhiguli State Reserve, are of epidemiological and epizootiological importance.

  3. Vegetation patterns and abundances of amphibians and small mammals along small streams in a northwestern California watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Waters; Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; Hartwell H. Welsh

    2001-01-01

    Our goal was to describe and evaluate patterns of association between stream size and abundances of amphibians and small mammals in a northwestern California watershed. We sampled populations at 42 stream sites and eight upland sites within a 100- watershed in 1995 and 1996. Stream reaches sampled ranged from poorly defined channels that rarely flowed to 10-m-wide...

  4. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Woll, Dietlinde; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus.

  5. Preliminary results of a survey of small mammals in Ruaha National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifications and natural history data are presented for each of the species encountered. Particular attention was paid to the Isunkaviola Plateau, a forest habitat at higher altitudes within the Park, which had no previous study of small mammals. The fauna of Isunkaviola Plateau bears little resemblance to that of the Eastern ...

  6. Structure of small mammal communities on clearings in managed Central European forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Homolka, Miloslav; Barančeková, Miroslava; Heroldová, Marta; Baňař, P.; Kamler, Jiří; Purchart, L.; Suchomel, J.; Zejda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 367, 1 May 2016 (2016), s. 41-51 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Clear-cuts * Forestry practice * Insectivores * Rodents * Small mammals * Species diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  7. Heavy metals content in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of chronic chemical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Davydova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research by example of bank vole the heavy metals concentrations (cadmium, copper and zinc) in reproductive organs of small mammals inhabiting in condition of environmental pollution with wastes from copper-smelting industry have been considered. The levels of radionuclides accumulation in testes, seminal vesicle and ovaries of voles with radionuclide concentration in others organs and tissues of animals have been compared.

  8. The riparian ecosystem management study: response of small mammals to streamside buffers in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin G. Raphael; Randall J. Wilk

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts behind the conservation strategy in the U.S. federal Northwest Forest Plan is the importance of habitat buff ers in providing functional stream and streamside ecosystems. To better understand the importance of riparian buff ers in providing habitat for associated organisms, we investigated responses of small mammals to various streamside...

  9. Small mammals in saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) - invaded and native riparian habitats of the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive saltcedar species have replaced native riparian trees on numerous river systems throughout the western US, raising concerns about how this habitat conversion may affect wildlife. For periods ranging from 1-10 years, small mammal populations were monitored at six riparian sites impacted by s...

  10. Small mammal - heavy metal interactions in contaminated floodplains. Bioturbation and accumulation in periodically flooded ebvironments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of interactions between biota and contaminants in floodplains is needed as it is uncertain whether ecological rehabilitation of floodplains is possible at the current contaminant levels. This study investigates where and when contacts between small mammals (voles, mice, shrews

  11. Small mammal density and movement on the SL-1 disposal area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovich, M.A.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine the population composition, density and food habits of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area. Population parameters of small mammals were studied at 3-month intervals on and adjacent to the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area (1.4 ha) and a 0.3 ha control area between August 1981 and February 1982 with mark-release methods. Both areas have crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) stands surrounded by sagebrush steppe. Species composition on the SL-1 and control area was similar to that found on the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Considerable use by small mammals of the perimeter of the crested wheatgrass stands was found on both the SL-1 and control area. Additionally, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) that frequent the crested wheatgrass stands of the SL-1 and control area were often captured over 100 m from the crested wheatgrass stands. Thus, future research efforts will focus on examining the intensity of perimeter use and food habits of rodents residing on and adjacent to the SL-1. Results of this study will be used to evaluate ecological conditions that affect small mammal use of radioactive waste disposal areas

  12. Influence of heavy metals body burden on biochemical peculiarities of small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technogenic pollution on the protein and lipid content in small mammals from different ecosystems is observed in the paper. It was defined that its content increased in organs, which take an active part in the metabolic processes.

  13. A pheasantry as the habitat of small terrestrial mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2007), s. 185-191 ISSN 1212-4834 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP526/03/P051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : pheasantry * diversity * small terrestrial mammals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/00162.pdf/

  14. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis M. Hinkelman; John L. Orrock; Susan C Loeb

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs, but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used giving-up densities to quantify...

  15. Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Verbeeren, S.; Vervaeke, P; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for

  16. Clear as daylight: analysis of diurnal raptor pellets for small mammal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos, M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Non–invasive approaches are increasingly investigated and applied in studies of small mammal assemblages because they are more cost–effective and bypass conservation and animal welfare issues. However, pellets of diurnal raptors have rarely been used for these purposes. We evaluated the potential of marsh harrier pellets (Circus aeruginosus as a non–invasive method to sample small mammal assemblages, by comparing the results with those of sampling using Sherman live–traps and pitfalls. The three methods were applied simultaneously in an agricultural–wetland complex in NW Portugal. Estimates of species richness, diversity, evenness, abundance, and proportion of each species within the assemblage showed significant differences between the three methods. Our results suggest that the use of marsh harrier pellets is more effective in inventorying small mammal species than either of the two kinds of traps, while also avoiding any involuntary fatalities associated with the sampling of small non–volant mammals. Moreover, the analysis of pellets was the most cost–effective method. Comparison of the two trapping methodologies showed involuntary fatalities were higher in pitfalls than in Sherman traps. We discuss the advantages and flaws of the three methods, both from technical and conservational perspectives.

  17. Long-term changes of small mammal communities in heterogenous landscapes of Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárybnická, M.; Riegert, J.; Bejček, V.; Sedláček, F.; Šťastný, K.; Šindelář, J.; Heroldová, M.; Vilímová, J.; Zima, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 89. ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Habitat diversity * Population dynamics * Community structure * Small mammal * Weather * Masting Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  18. Biota dose assessment of small mammals sampled near uranium mines in northern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Minter, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-09

    In 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected approximately 50 small mammal carcasses from Northern Arizona uranium mines and other background locations. Based on the highest gross alpha results, 11 small mammal samples were selected for radioisotopic analyses. None of the background samples had significant gross alpha results. The 11 small mammals were identified relative to the three ‘indicator’ mines located south of Fredonia, AZ on the Kanab Plateau (Kanab North Mine, Pinenut Mine, and Arizona 1 Mine) (Figure 1-1) and are operated by Energy Fuels Resources Inc. (EFRI). EFRI annually reports soil analysis for uranium and radium-226 using Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ)-approved Standard Operating Procedures for Soil Sampling (EFRI 2016a, 2016b, 2017). In combination with the USGS small mammal radioiosotopic tissue analyses, a biota dose assessment was completed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using the RESidual RADioactivity-BIOTA (RESRAD-BIOTA, V. 1.8) dose assessment tool provided by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL 2017).

  19. Cadmium Accumulation in Small Mammals: Species Traits, Soil Properties, and Spatial Habitat Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Dimmers, W.J.; Boerwinkel, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of species-specific spatial habitat use, diet preferences, and soil concentrations and properties on the accumulation of cadmium in small mammals was investigated. The results show that for the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), a mobile species with a large range in diet

  20. Thinning effects on spotted owl prey and other forest-dwelling small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Willson; Eric D. Forsman

    2013-01-01

    Th inning has been promoted as a method for accelerating the development of late-seral habitat and improving the overall health and function of young forests in the Pacifi c Northwest. Population studies have shown early and positive responses to thinning by some small forest-floor mammals (primarily mice, terrestrial voles, and shrews). However, thinning reduces the...

  1. Drivers of Echinococcus multilocularis transmission in China: small mammal diversity, landscape or climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Giraudoux

    Full Text Available Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on E. multilocularis egg survival. We examined the distribution of human AE across two spatial scales, (i for continental China and (ii over the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We tested the hypotheses that human disease distribution can be explained by either the biodiversity of small mammal intermediate host species, or by environmental factors such as climate or landscape characteristics.The distributions of 274 small mammal species were mapped to 967 point locations on a grid covering continental China. Land cover, elevation, monthly rainfall and temperature were mapped using remotely sensed imagery and compared to the distribution of human AE disease at continental scale and over the eastern Tibetan plateau. Infection status of 17,589 people screened by abdominal ultrasound in 2002-2008 in 94 villages of Tibetan areas of western Sichuan and Qinghai provinces was analyzed using generalized additive mixed models and related to epidemiological and environmental covariates. We found that human AE was not directly correlated with small mammal reservoir host species richness, but rather was spatially correlated with landscape features and climate which could confirm and predict human disease hotspots over a 200,000 km(2 region.E. multilocularis transmission and resultant human disease risk was better predicted from landscape features that could support increases of small mammal host species prone to population outbreaks, rather than host species richness. We anticipate that our study may be a starting point for further research wherein landscape management could be used to predict human disease risk and for

  2. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  3. Radionuclides in small mammals of the Saskatchewan prairie, including implications for the boreal forest and Arctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the study reported was to collect and examine baseline data on radionuclides in small prairie mammal food chains and to assess the feasibility of using small mammals as radionuclide monitors in terrestrial ecosystems, in anticipation of possible future nuclear developments in northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. The study report begins with a literature review that summarizes existing data on radionuclides in small mammals, their food, the ambient environment in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, principles of terrestrial radioecology, soil and vegetation studies, and food chain studies. It then describes a field study conducted to investigate small mammal food chains at three southwestern Saskatchewan prairie sites. Activities included collection and analysis of water, soil, grains, and foliage samples; trapping of small mammals such as mice and voles, and analysis of gastrointestinal tract samples; and determination of food chain transfer of selected radionuclides from soil to plants and to small mammals. Recommendations are made for future analyses and monitoring of small mammals. Appendices include information on radiochemical methods, soil/vegetation studies and small mammal studies conducted at northern Saskatchewan mine sites, and analyses of variance

  4. Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Wilkinson, David A; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and associated endemism are ideal systems for the study of parasite diversity within host communities. Here, we investigated the ecological and evolutionary forces acting on the diversification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, Leptospira spp., in communities of endemic Malagasy small mammals. We determined the infection rate with pathogenic Leptospira in 20 species of sympatric rodents (subfamily Nesomyinae) and tenrecids (family Tenrecidae) at two eastern humid forest localities. A multilocus genotyping analysis allowed the characterization of bacterial diversity within small mammals and gave insights into their genetic relationships with Leptospira infecting endemic Malagasy bats (family Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae). We report for the first time the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in Malagasy endemic small mammals, with an overall prevalence of 13%. In addition, these hosts harbour species of Leptospira (L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii and L. borgpetersenii group B) which are different from those reported in introduced rats (L. interrogans) on Madagascar. The diversification of Leptospira on Madagascar can be traced millions of years into evolutionary history, resulting in the divergence of endemic lineages and strong host specificity. These observations are discussed in relation to the relative roles of endemic vs. introduced mammal species in the evolution and epidemiology of Leptospira on Madagascar, specifically how biodiversity and biogeographical processes can shape community ecology of an emerging pathogen and lead to its diversification within native animal communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. Infections in Small Mammals in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surveillance for Rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in Taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. We surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout Taiwan. Fragments of ompB and gltA genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polymerase chain reaction. We trapped 1375 individuals of 10 species, among which Rattus losea was the most common (54.6%), followed by Suncus murinus (20.6%) and Mus caroli (10.6%). The overall rate of Rickettsia infections in the liver, spleen, or kidney of 309 assayed small mammals was 60.5%, with a rate of infection ≥50% for each mammal species. DNA nucleotide sequences of 184 successfully sequenced genes were most similar to nine Rickettsia species: Rickettsia conorii, R. felis, R. japonica, R. raoultii, R. rickettsii, Rickettsia sp. IG-1, Rickettsia sp. TwKM01, Rickettsia sp. TwKM02, and R. typhi. Our results suggest that several novel Rickettsia spp. are common and widespread across various habitats throughout Taiwan and suggest the need for further study of emerging rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:25629776

  6. Cutaneous wound healing in aging small mammals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Mustoe, Thomas; Clark, Richard A F

    2015-01-01

    As the elderly population grows, so do the clinical and socioeconomic burdens of nonhealing cutaneous wounds, the majority of which are seen among persons over 60 years of age. Human studies on how aging effects wound healing will always be the gold standard, but studies have ethical and practical hurdles. Choosing an animal model is dictated by costs and animal lifespan that preclude large animal use. Here, we review the current literature on how aging effects cutaneous wound healing in small animal models and, when possible, compare healing across studies. Using a literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed databases, studies were limited to those that utilized full-thickness wounds and compared the wound-healing parameters of wound closure, reepithelialization, granulation tissue fill, and tensile strength between young and aged cohorts. Overall, wound closure, reepithelialization, and granulation tissue fill were delayed or decreased with aging across different strains of mice and rats. Aging in mice was associated with lower tensile strength early in the wound healing process, but greater tensile strength later in the wound healing process. Similarly, aging in rats was associated with lower tensile strength early in the wound healing process, but no significant tensile strength difference between young and old rats later in healing wounds. From studies in New Zealand White rabbits, we found that reepithelialization and granulation tissue fill were delayed or decreased overall with aging. While similarities and differences in key wound healing parameters were noted between different strains and species, the comparability across the studies was highly questionable, highlighted by wide variability in experimental design and reporting. In future studies, standardized experimental design and reporting would help to establish comparable study groups, and advance the overall knowledge base, facilitating the translatability of animal data to the human clinical condition.

  7. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area.

  8. Contribution to the distribution of terrestrial small mammals in the Sǎlaj county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubányi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the research period (2014-2015 287 small mammals, five species of shrews and eight species of rodents (Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys anomalus, Microtus agrestis M. arvalis, M. subterraneus, Myodes glareolus. Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis were detected in the Sǎlaj County. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius and the common vole (Microtus arvalis proved to be the characteristic dominant species of the small mammal communities investigated in this area. The number of terrestrial small mammalian species lagged behind our expectations. Micromys minutus was not collected during the research period in the habitats characterized by reed-bed and/or tall sedge vegetation.

  9. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi

  10. Population ecology of small mammals on the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, C.R.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Species composition, diversity, biomass, population dynamics, absolute density, and movements of small mammal populations were examined on and adjacent to a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. The 15-month live-trapping study resulted in marking 2384 individuals representing 10 species of small mammals. Three vegetation types were sampled: crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali) habitats on the disposal area and native sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) habitat surrounding the disposal area. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most common rodent in both disposal area habitats as well as the adjacent sagebrush habitat; Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) was also an abundant rodent in all vegetation types. The montane vole (Microtus montanus) was common only in crested wheatgrass stands on the disposal area. The annual total small mammal biomass of 346 kg for the entire disposal area represents a potentially large vector for movement of radionuclides off the disposal area. However, the number of animals known to contact waste areas and traverse at least 50 m beyond the perimeter of the SDA appears to be small (8.7%)

  11. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  12. Competition and habitat selection in a forest-floor small mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueser, R D [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville; Hallett, J G

    1980-01-01

    In a study of habitat exploitation in a forest-floor small mammal community, we have collected habitat and population data for Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Tamias striatus. Using multiple regression analysis, researchers estimate the effects of habitat selection and competition on the local distributions of these species during three seasons. Each of the partial regression coefficients relating the density of an independent species to the density of the dependent species is negative. This result indicates that competition is pervasive among these species. Competitive ability and habitat selectivity both increase in the order Peromyscus-Tamias-Ochrotomys. Peromyscus is a poorly competitive habitat generalist, Ochrotomys is a strongly competitive habitat specialist, and Tamias is intermediate in both respects. The competitive hierarchy is stable between seasons. These results both confirm the conclusions reached in previous studies of this small mammal community and suggest the design of experiments to further clarify the mode and consequences of interaction between these species.

  13. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley

  14. Temporal, spatial and ecological dynamics of speciation among amphi-Beringian small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Galbreath, Kurt E.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in promoting diversification across the Northern Hemisphere, although details of the mechanisms driving evolutionary change are still poorly resolved. In a comparative phylogeographical framework, we investigate temporal, spatial and ecological components of evolution within a suite of Holarctic small mammals. We test a hypothesis of simultaneous divergence among multiple taxon pairs, investigating time to coalescence and demographic change for each taxon in response to a combination of climate and geography.

  15. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (Site 1-recently disturbed and Site 2-partially disturbed) at Area G, Technical Area 54 and a control site on Frijoles Mesa (Site 4) in 1995. Our objectives were (1) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify if the primary mode of contamination to small mammals is by surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least rive animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr , 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Significantly higher (parametric West at p=0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu and 239 Pu were detected in pelts than in carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Our results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses, which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0125) mean tritium concentration in carcasses than Site 2 or Site 4. In addition Site 1 also had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, p=0.0024) mean tritium concentration in pelts than Site 2 or Site 4. Site 2 had a significantly higher (alpha=0.05, P=0.0499) mean 239 Pu concentration in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 4

  16. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, TA-54, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.

    1995-09-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites (1 and 2) at Area G, TA-54 and a control site outside Area G (Site 3) to identify radionuclides that are present within surface and subsurface soils at waste burial sites, to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, and gamma spectroscopy (including 137 Cs). Significantly higher (parametric t-test at p = 0.05) levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 40 K were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. The authors results show higher concentrations in pelts compared to carcasses which is similar to what has been found at waste burial/contaminated sites outside of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Site 1 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0095) total U concentrations in carcasses than Sites 2 and 3. Site 2 had significantly higher (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0195) 239 Pu concentrations in carcasses than either Site 1 or Site 3. A significant difference in 90 Sr concentration existed between Sites 1 and 2 (alpha = 0.05, F = 0.0681) and concentrations of 40 K at Site 1 were significantly different from Site 3

  17. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Geruza L; Miotto, Barbara; Peres, Brisa; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2013-01-01

    Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus) and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus) were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003), particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.

  18. Molecular identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in small mammals from Northeast, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Beiromvand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many species of small mammals, including arvicolid rodents or Ochotona spp., are natural intermediate hosts of the cestode. The main aim of this study was to identify natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, where the prevalence of infected wild and domestic carnivores is high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A program of trapping was carried out in five villages in which this cestode was reported in carnivores. The livers of 85 small mammals were investigated for the presence of E. multilocularis infection using multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. Infections were identified in 30 specimens: 23 Microtus transcaspicus, three Ochotona rufescens, two Mus musculus, one Crocidura gmelini, and one Apodemus witherbyi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of small mammals therefore act as natural intermediate hosts for the transmission of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, and the prevalence suggested that E. multilocularis infection is endemic in this region. The existence of the life cycle of this potentially lethal cestode in the vicinity of human habitats provides a significant risk of human infection.

  19. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  20. Population and community profiles of small mammals inhabiting an abandoned oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, S.T.; Lochmiller, R.L.; McBee, K.; Burks, S.L.; Quails, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques were used to assess population and community dynamics of resident small mammals on three contaminated and three reference sites located on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Contaminated sites included areas adjacent to oil sludge containment and sedimentation pits and a land farm for treating oily sludges. Reference sites were selected based on their ecological similarity to contaminated sites. Small mammals were trapped from January 1991 to August 1992 at eight week intervals except during summer and winter during which traps were checked at 3 week intervals. Diversity was typically highest on toxic sites due primarily to the presence of house mice (Mus musculus). Similarity in small mammal community composition between sites differed most in summer. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were the most abundant species on all sites. Reproductive activity of adult female cotton rats and survival of trappable cotton rats did not differ between sites. However, minimum number known alive and recruitment of juveniles was highest on references sites, indicating that in-utero and neonatal survival may differ between reference and contaminated sites

  1. Does small mammal prey guild affect the exposure of predators to anticoagulant rodenticides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosh, D.G.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Lllewellyn, N.R.; Fee, S.; Sharp, E.A.; Barnett, E.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ireland has a restricted small mammal prey guild but still includes species most likely to consume anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) baits. This may enhance secondary exposure of predators to ARs. We compared liver AR residues in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Northern Ireland (NI) with those in foxes from Great Britain which has a more diverse prey guild but similar agricultural use of ARs. Liver ARs were detected in 84% of NI foxes, more than in a comparable sample of foxes from Scotland and similar to that of suspected AR poisoned animals from England and Wales. High exposure in NI foxes is probably due to greater predation of commensal rodents and non-target species most likely to take AR baits, and may also partly reflect greater exposure to highly persistent brodifacoum and flocoumafen. High exposure is likely to enhance risk and Ireland may be a sentinel for potential effects on predator populations. - Highlights: → Exposure of a predator to anticoagulant rodenticides was compared in Britain and Ireland. → Exposure was higher in Ireland. → Differences driven by small mammal prey guilds. → Ireland a potential sentinel for predator exposure to anticoagulants. - Restriction of the small mammal prey guild is associated with enhanced exposure of predators to anticoagulant rodenticides.

  2. Characterization of small mammal populations inhabiting the B-C cribs environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, J.D.; Rogers, L.E.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of small mammal populations inhibiting the 200 Area plateau near the B-C Crib management area and to compare them with populations inhabiting a protected (control) area within the confines of the Hanford ALE Reserve. Sampling sessions were conducted over two field seasons (1974 and 1975). A total of five species was detected within intensive study areas. These included the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), sagebrush vole (Lagurus curtatus), and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). These species are probably representative of those found throughout the area at this particular elevation. Townsends ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) also occurs in this area but did not occur on the sampling plots during the study duration. The pocket mouse was the only species present in sufficient numbers to permit a detailed analysis of population parameters. A discussion concerning the role small mammals play in mineral cycling and energy transfer processes is included along with a diagram depicting food web interrelationships for consumers inhabiting the 200 Area plateau region. Estimates of small mammal density and biomass provided in this document are needed for an overall understanding of the role biota play in the transfer of waste nuclides

  3. Impact of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y

    2017-05-01

    Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.

  4. Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and distribution in a plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals are considered to be involved in the transmission cycle of bubonic plague, still occurring in different parts of the world, including the Lushoto District in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season (August-October 2012). Analysis of variance and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling technique were used to establish the relationship between land use and small mammal abundance and distribution. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) of small mammal abundance among land use types were identified. Plantation forest with farming, natural forest and fallow had higher populations of small mammals than the other aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on small mammal abundance level showed that, in both dry and wet seasons, miraba and fallow tended to favour small mammals' habitation whereas land tillage practices had the opposite effect. In addition, during the wet season crop types such as potato and maize appeared to positively influence the distribution and abundance of small mammals which was attributed to both shelter and food availability. Based on the findings from this study it is recommended that future efforts to predict and map spatial and temporal human plague infection risk at fine scale should consider the role played by land use and associated human activities on small mammal abundance and distribution.

  5. The importance of polynyas, ice edges, and leads to marine mammals and birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Ian

    1997-01-01

    The correlation between areas of open water in ice-covered seas and increased biological productivity has been noted for some time. To date, most attention has been focused on larger polynyas, such as the Northeast Water and the Northwater. Although spectacular in their own right, these large polynyas represent only part of a vitally important continuum of biological productivity that varies significantly between geographic areas and ice habitats, that includes the multi-year pack of the polar ocean and small localized polynyas in annual ice. Surveys of the distribution and abundance of ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have shown differences in density that are correlated with the presence or absence of polynyas. There is also significant variation in the biological productivity of polynya areas of the Canadian High Arctic Archipelago and northern Greenland, all of which receive inflow from the polar basin. Long-term studies of polar bears and ringed seals in western Hudson Bay and the eastern Beaufort Sea show significant but dissimilar patterns of change in condition and reproductive rates between the two regions and suggest that fundamentally different climatic or oceanographic processes may be involved. Projections of climate models suggest that, if warming occurs, then the extent of ice cover in Hudson Bay may be among the first things affected. Long-term studies of polar bears and ringed seals in the eastern Beaufort Sea and Hudson Bay would suggest these two species to be suitable indicators of significant climatic or oceanographic changes in the marine ecosystem.

  6. An improved camera trap for amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and large invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Michael T.; Brehme, Cheryl S.

    2017-01-01

    Camera traps are valuable sampling tools commonly used to inventory and monitor wildlife communities but are challenged to reliably sample small animals. We introduce a novel active camera trap system enabling the reliable and efficient use of wildlife cameras for sampling small animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, small mammals and large invertebrates. It surpasses the detection ability of commonly used passive infrared (PIR) cameras for this application and eliminates problems such as high rates of false triggers and high variability in detection rates among cameras and study locations. Our system, which employs a HALT trigger, is capable of coupling to digital PIR cameras and is designed for detecting small animals traversing small tunnels, narrow trails, small clearings and along walls or drift fencing.

  7. An improved camera trap for amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and large invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Michael T; Brehme, Cheryl S

    2017-01-01

    Camera traps are valuable sampling tools commonly used to inventory and monitor wildlife communities but are challenged to reliably sample small animals. We introduce a novel active camera trap system enabling the reliable and efficient use of wildlife cameras for sampling small animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, small mammals and large invertebrates. It surpasses the detection ability of commonly used passive infrared (PIR) cameras for this application and eliminates problems such as high rates of false triggers and high variability in detection rates among cameras and study locations. Our system, which employs a HALT trigger, is capable of coupling to digital PIR cameras and is designed for detecting small animals traversing small tunnels, narrow trails, small clearings and along walls or drift fencing.

  8. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  9. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  10. Absence of Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Hypometabolism in Pigs: A Mechanistic Explanation in Relation to Small Nonhibernating Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkes, Marcel C.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Heger, Michal; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificially induced hypometabolism in nonhibernating mammals may have considerable clinical implications. Numerous studies in small rodent models have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) induces hypometabolism, supposedly as a result of histotoxic hypoxia. However, the induction of

  11. The impact of small terrestrial mammals on beech (Fagus sylvatica plantations in spruce monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of small terrestrial mammals on forest regeneration as yet. In order to determine the level of small rodent impact on artificial forest regeneration, 508 saplings have been researched in a spruce monoculture in the Drahany Uplands. With the objective to hone the interpretation of the data, small terrestrial rodents were trapped to help determine species spectrum. The occurrence of Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Sorex araneus was verified. In 52 cases damage to the trunk caused by small rodents was monitored (10.1% of all saplings. 8 specimens (1.6% had their branches nibbled and 9 saplings (1.8% had tips of branches or trunk tops browsed. Browsing by Lepus europaeus – 423 (83.3% of all damaged specimens was significant.

  12. Distribution of chromium in vegetation and small mammals adjacent to cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.G. Jr.; Parr, P.D.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Surface contamination of vegetation by aerosol pollutants and subsequent ingestion by grazing vertebrates is a pathway for incorporation of toxic elements into food chains. Small mammals (herbivores) were live-trapped in a fescue-dominated field adjacent to large, mechanical draft cooling towers comparable to those utilized by power generation facilities. Cooling waters of the towers contain a chromate, zinc-phosphate compound to inhibit corrosion and fouling within the cooling system. A fraction of the cooling water becomes entrained within the exit air flow and is deposited as drift on the landscape. Resident mammals are chronically subjected to increased chromium exposures through both ingestion and inhalation pathways. Concentrations in vegetation ranged from 342 to 15 ppM at 15 and 130 meters down wind. Concentration levels in litter exceeded those of live plant materials by a factor of 5. Chromium distribution in mammals adjacent to the cooling towers is compared by organ analyses to corresponding organs and tissues of mammals collected remote from drift. Concentrations of chromium in pelt, hair, and bone of animals trapped near the cooling towers were significantly higher (P is less than 0.01) than tissues from control animals. Air concentrations ranged from 15 to 8 μg/m 3 at 15 and 100 meters, and thus provided a potential pathway for increased chromium levels through inhalation. Biological accumulation and retention following ingestion are discussed in a subsequent paper in this symposium (Van Hook et al.). Elevated levels of hexavalent chromium in air have been identified as a potential health hazard. Pathological studies of lung tissues were performed and were negative for lesions. (U.S.)

  13. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ''natural'' monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ''cryptogams'' describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants

  14. Comparison of small mammal species diversity near wastewater outfalls, natural streams, and dry canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymer, D.F.; Biggs, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilizes water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to compare nocturnal small mammal communities at wet areas created by wastewater outfalls with communities in naturally created wet and dry areas. Thirteen locations within LANL boundaries were selected for small mammal mark-recapture trapping. Three of these locations lacked surface water sources and were classified as open-quotes dry,close quotes while seven sites were associated with wastewater outfalls (open-quotes outfallclose quotes sites), and three were located near natural sources of surface water (open-quotes naturalclose quotes sites). Data was collected on site type (dry, outfall or natural), location, species trapped, and the tag number of each individual captured. This data was used to calculate mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity at each type of site. When data from each type of site was pooled, there were no significant differences in these variables between dry, outfall, and natural types. However, when data from individual sites was compared, tests revealed significant differences. All sites in natural areas were significantly higher than dry areas in daily mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity. Most outfall sites were significantly higher than dry areas in all three variables tested. When volume of water from each outfall site was considered, these data indicated that the number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity of nocturnal small mammals were directly related to the volume of water at a given outfall

  15. Morphological and molecular analyses of larval taeniid species in small mammals from contrasting habitats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Jensen, P. M.; Chrestensen, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    according to habitat type, potentially identifying a ‘sylvatic’ transmission and an ‘urban’ transmission with marked variation among different taeniid species. Versteria mustelae and T. polyacantha were more prevalent in rural forests, while infections with H. taeniaeformis were dominant in urban parks......) for species determination. Small mammals (N=719) were trapped in three different types of habitats in north-east Zealand, Denmark. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR (90.5%) exceeded that of morphological examination (57.9%) for identifying 95 taeniid infections. The use of the multiplex PCR resulted...

  16. Species’ traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species’ responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species’ traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species’ responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species’ traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species’ habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid

  17. Records of seven small mammal species (Insectivora, Chiroptera new to the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Rautenbach

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.

  18. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  19. Differential effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in Valdivian temperate rainforests Efectos diferenciales de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre aves y mamíferos del bosque valdiviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOUGLAS A. KELT

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Four recent studies on Chilean vertebrates underscore the very different effects that habitat fragmentation may have under different conditions. In southern Chile, birds exhibited significant species-area relationships, whereas the more depauperate small mammal community did not. The avifauna of highly isolated rainforest remnants in Fray Jorge National Park (IV Región presented steeper species-area relations than those in southern Chile, reminiscent of land-bridge islands after faunal relaxation. The small mammal results were unexpected but may reflect the reduced vagility and immigration potential of this group. Additionally, the inter-remnant matrix habitat may support large populations of only some species, allowing them to capitalize on resources that are available in forest remnants. Such an effect is less likely for birds due to their greater vagility. Although the influence of remnant area is more clearly demonstrated for birds in Chile, it appears that small mammal assemblages may be more immediately impacted by habitat fragmentation than are birds, and that further fragmentation of temperate rainforests will seriously impoverish the small mammal assemblage, many of whose members are endemic to this region. Further research should emphasize the role of the inter-remnant matrix, of habitat corridors, and of the relative sensitivity of different species to matrix/corridor quality and remnant isolationCuatro estudios recientes en vertebrados chilenos subrayan los efectos muy diversos que la fragmentación del hábitat puede tener bajo diversas condiciones. En el sur de Chile, las aves exhibieron relaciones significativas entre la riqueza de especies y el área de hábitat ("especies-area", mientras que tal relación no se observó en la comunidad de pequeños mamíferos, la cual tiene menos especies. La avifauna de los fragmentos remanentes altamente aislados del Parque Nacional Fray Jorge (IV Región presentaron relaciones especies

  20. Replication Capacity of Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Virus in Pet Birds and Mammals, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenny, Brian J; Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Alam, S M Rabiul; Hasan, M Kamrul; Jones-Engel, Lisa; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webster, Robert G; Jones, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    Avian influenza A(H9N2) is an agricultural and public health threat. We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. Results implicated pet birds in the potential dissemination and zoonotic transmission of this virus.

  1. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Switalski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic water sources (AWS are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse (Chaetodipus penicillatus which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey’s pocket mouse (C. baileyi and white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula, had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  2. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalski, Aaron B; Bateman, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse ( Chaetodipus penicillatus ) which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey's pocket mouse ( C. baileyi ) and white-throated woodrat ( Neotoma albigula) , had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  3. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  4. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan

  5. Responses of wild small mammals to a pollution gradient: Host factors influence metal and metallothionein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Clementine; Cosson, Richard P.; Coeurdassier, Michael; Raoul, Francis; Giraudoux, Patrick; Crini, Nadia; Vaufleury, Annette de; Scheifler, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how host factors (species, age, gender) modulated Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations, metallothionein levels (MTs) and their relationships in 7 sympatric small mammal species along a pollution gradient. Cd concentrations in liver and kidneys increased with age in all species. Age effect on other metals and MTs differs among species. Gender did not influence metal and MT levels except in the bank vole. Three patterns linking internal metal concentrations and MTs were observed along the gradient: a low metal accumulation with a (i) high (wood mouse) or (ii) low (bank vole) level of MTs accompanied by a slight or no increase of MTs with Cd accumulation; (iii) an elevated metal accumulation with a sharp increase of MTs (common and pygmy shrews). In risk assessment and biomonitoring perspectives, we conclude that measurements of MTs and metals might be associated because they cannot be interpreted properly when considered separately. - Age more than gender and species more than trophic group influence metallic trace element and metallothionein levels and their relationships in wild small mammals exposed to metals.

  6. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in wild small mammals in ecotourism area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Stumpp, Rodolfo; Ássimos, Gabriela Ribeiro; Campos, Aldenise Martins; Lima, Ana Cristina Viana Mariano da Rocha; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand fly vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae). Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in urban centers, their transmission still occur primarily in wild environments and may be associated with professional activities and recreation, such as ecotourism. The Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is one of the largest ecotourism attractions in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and comprises an area of environmental preservation with 11,233 hectares presenting a transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. The present study describes the abundance of small mammals in RPPNSC, the isolation and identification of Leishmania in five wild animals. Small mammals were bimonthly trapped along 6 trails within the RPPNSC with 10 Tomahawk traps each. Two trails were located in peridomiciliary areas near tourist lodging facilities, and four trails were located at sites visited by tourists in forest areas. The most prevalent species were Akodon cursor, Cerradomys subflavus and Oligoryzomys nigripes. Six isolates of Leishmania were obtained from these animals and identified as Leishmania braziliensis through HSP70-PCR RFLP method. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected by kDNA-PCR method and isolated by biphasic culture. Studies point to some of the captured species as potential wild reservoirs of Leishmania, suggesting they may be involved in the transmission cycle in these wild environments.

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Lovera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels.Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported.Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid

  9. Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammal reservoirs in Kentucky, a traditionally non-endemic state for Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Matthew J; Davis, Cheryl; Rowland, Naomi S; Dick, Carl W

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. This study examined ecological relationships of the B. burgdorferi/vector/reservoir system in order to understand the dynamics of Lyme disease risk in Kentucky. Small mammals were captured using live traps from November 2014 to October 2015. Ticks were removed and blood and tissue collected from small mammals were screened for B. burgdorferi DNA by PCR with primers specific to the OspA gene. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi (21.8%) in Kentucky small mammals was comparable to the lowest recorded prevalence in regions where Lyme disease is endemic. Moreover, infestation of small mammals by Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, was rare, while Dermacentor variabilis comprised the majority of ticks collected. These findings provide ecological insight into the relative paucity of Lyme disease in Kentucky.

  10. Skeletal injuries in small mammals: a multispecies assessment of prevalence and location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ryan B.; Burke, Christopher B.; Woodman, Neal; Poland, Lily B.; Rowe, Rebecca J.

    2018-01-01

    Wild mammals are known to survive injuries that result in skeletal abnormalities. Quantifying and comparing skeletal injuries among species can provide insight into the factors that cause skeletal injuries and enable survival following an injury. We documented the prevalence and location of structural bone abnormalities in a community of 7 small mammal species inhabiting the White Mountains of New Hampshire. These species differ in locomotion type and levels of intraspecific aggression. Overall, the majority of injuries were to the ribs or caudal vertebrae. Incidence of skeletal injuries was highest in older animals, indicating that injuries accumulate over a lifetime. Compared to species with ambulatory locomotion, those with more specialized (semi-fossorial, saltatorial, and scansorial) locomotion exhibited fewer skeletal abnormalities in the arms and legs, which we hypothesize is a result of a lesser ability to survive limb injuries. Patterns of skeletal injuries in shrews (Soricidae) were consistent with intraspecific aggression, particularly in males, whereas skeletal injuries in rodents (Rodentia) were more likely accidental or resulting from interactions with predators. Our results demonstrate that both the incidence and pattern of skeletal injuries vary by species and suggest that the ability of an individual to survive a specific skeletal injury depends on its severity and location as well as the locomotor mode of the species involved.

  11. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  12. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  13. Spatial capture-recapture design and modelling for the study of small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Romairone

    Full Text Available Spatial capture-recapture modelling (SCR is a powerful analytical tool to estimate density and derive information on space use and behaviour of elusive animals. Yet, SCR has been seldom applied to the study of ecologically keystone small mammals. Here we highlight its potential and requirements with a case study on common voles (Microtus arvalis. First, we address mortality associated with live-trapping, which can be high in small mammals, and must be kept minimal. We designed and tested a nest box coupled with a classic Sherman trap and show that it allows a 5-fold reduction of mortality in traps. Second, we address the need to adjust the trapping grid to the individual home range to maximize spatial recaptures. In May-June 2016, we captured and tagged with transponders 227 voles in a 1.2-ha area during two monthly sessions. Using a Bayesian SCR with a multinomial approach, we estimated: (1 the baseline detection rate and investigated variation according to sex, time or behaviour (aversion/attraction after a previous capture; (2 the parameter sigma that describes how detection probability declines as a function of the distance to an individual´s activity centre, and investigated variation according to sex; and (3 density and population sex-ratio. We show that reducing the maximum distance between traps from 12 to 9.6m doubled spatial recaptures and improved model predictions. Baseline detection rate increased over time (after overcoming a likely aversion to entering new odourless traps and was greater for females than males in June. The sigma parameter of males was twice that of females, indicating larger home ranges. Density estimates were of 142.92±38.50 and 168.25±15.79 voles/ha in May and June, respectively, with 2-3 times more females than males. We highlight the potential and broad applicability that SCR offers and provide specific recommendations for using it to study small mammals like voles.

  14. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Small Mammals the Background and Polluted Territories of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk L. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd in hemopoietic-competent organs of ecologically contrast species of small mammals (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Apodemus uralensis from natural populations of the Middle and South Urals were considered. The content of exogenous and essential trace elements in animal tissues (a liver, kidney, a spleen was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. It has been shown that bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of insectivores significantly differs from it of bank voles and wood mice. The smallest total content of heavy metals is shown in wood mice in technogenic territories of the Middle Urals. The submitted data demonstrate the competitive mechanism of the Cu, Zn, Cd. The increased concentrations of endogenous trace elements (copper, zinc in relation to a toxicant (cadmium, other things being equal, reduce cadmium accumulation level in the tissues Sorex araneus.

  15. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  17. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Lada

    Full Text Available Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change and indirect (climate change human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  18. Attempted molecular detection of the thermally dimorphic human fungal pathogen Emergomyces africanus in terrestrial small mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronjé, Nadine; Schwartz, Ilan S; Retief, Liezl; Bastos, Armanda D S; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Bennett, Nigel C; Maphanga, Tsidiso; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Kenyon, Chris

    2018-06-01

    The ecological niche of Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), a dimorphic fungus that causes an AIDS-related mycosis in South Africa, is unknown. We hypothesized that natural infection with E. africanus occurs in wild small mammals. Using molecular detection with primers specific for E. africanus, we examined 1402 DNA samples from 26 species of mole-rats, rodents, and insectivores trapped in South Africa that included 1324 lung, 37 kidney, and 41 liver specimens. DNA of E. africanus was not detected in any animals. We conclude that natural infection of wild small mammals in South Africa with E. africanus has not been proven.

  19. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: prevalences and investigations on a new transmission path in small mammals and ixodid ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Pfeffer, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Tiedemann, Tim; Thiel, Claudia; Balling, Anneliese; Karnath, Carolin; Woll, Dietlinde; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-12-04

    Small mammals are crucial for the life history of ixodid ticks, but their role and importance in the transmission cycle of tick-borne pathogens is mostly unknown. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are both tick-borne pathogens, and rodents are discussed to serve as main reservoir hosts for CNM but not for the latter especially in Germany. Analysing the prevalence of both pathogens in small mammals and their ticks in endemic regions may help to elucidate possible transmission paths in small mammal populations and between small mammals and ticks. In 2012 and 2013, small mammals were trapped at three different sites in Germany. DNA was extracted from different small mammal tissues, from rodent neonates, foetuses and from questing and attached ticks. DNA samples were tested for CNM and A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further characterized at the 16S rRNA gene locus. CNM was detected in 28.6% of small mammals and in 2.2% of questing and 3.8% of attached ticks. Altogether 33 positive ticks were attached to 17 different hosts, while positive ticks per host ranged between one and seven. The prevalences for this pathogen differed significantly within small mammal populations comparing sites (χ(2): 13.3987; p: 0.0004) and between sexes. Male rodents had an approximately two times higher chance of infection than females (OR: 1.9652; 95% CI: 1.32-2.92). The prevalence for CNM was 31.8% (95% CI: 22-44) in rodent foetuses and neonates (23 of 67) from positive dams, and 60% (95% CI: 35.7-80.25) of positive gravid or recently parturient rodents (9 out of 15) had at least one positive foetus or neonate. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected at a low percentage in rodents (0-5.6%) and host-attached ticks (0.5-2.9%) with no significant differences between rodent species. However, attached nymphs were significantly more often infected than attached larvae (χ(2): 25.091; p: <0.0001). This study

  20. The expression and function of hsp30-like small heat shock protein genes in amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, John J

    2017-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a superfamily of molecular chaperones with important roles in protein homeostasis and other cellular functions. Amphibians, reptiles, fish and birds have a shsp gene called hsp30, which was also referred to as hspb11 or hsp25 in some fish and bird species. Hsp30 genes, which are not found in mammals, are transcribed in response to heat shock or other stresses by means of the heat shock factor that is activated in response to an accumulation of unfolded protein. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that representative HSP30s from different classes of non-mammalian vertebrates were distinct from other sHSPs including HSPB1/HSP27. Studies with amphibian and fish recombinant HSP30 determined that they were molecular chaperones since they inhibited heat- or chemically-induced aggregation of unfolded protein. During non-mammalian vertebrate development, hsp30 genes were differentially expressed in selected tissues. Also, heat shock-induced stage-specific expression of hsp30 genes in frog embryos was regulated at the level of chromatin structure. In adults and/or tissue culture cells, hsp30 gene expression was induced by heat shock, arsenite, cadmium or proteasomal inhibitors, all of which enhanced the production of unfolded/damaged protein. Finally, immunocytochemical analysis of frog and chicken tissue culture cells revealed that proteotoxic stress-induced HSP30 accumulation co-localized with aggresome-like inclusion bodies. The congregation of damaged protein in aggresomes minimizes the toxic effect of aggregated protein dispersed throughout the cell. The current availability of probes to detect the presence of hsp30 mRNA or encoded protein has resulted in the increased use of hsp30 gene expression as a marker of proteotoxic stress in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Status and challenges for conservation of small mammal assemblages in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L

    2014-08-01

    South America spans about 44° latitude, covers almost 18 million km(2) , and is second only to Africa in continental mammal species richness. In spite of this richness, research on the status of this fauna and on the nature and magnitude of contemporary threats remains limited. Distilling threats to this diverse fauna at a continental scale is challenging, in part because of the limited availability of rigorous studies. Recognizing this constraint, we summarize key threats to small mammals in South America, emphasizing the roles of habitat loss and degradation, direct persecution, and the increasing threat of climate change. We focus on three regional 'case studies': the tropical Andes, Amazonia and adjacent lowland regions, and the southern temperate region. We close with a brief summary of recent findings at our long-term research site in north-central Chile as they pertain to projected threats to this fauna. Habitat alteration is a pervasive threat that has been magnified by market forces and globalization (e.g. extensive agricultural development in Amazonia), and threatens increasing numbers of populations and species. Climate change poses even greater threats, from changes in rainfall and runoff regimes and resulting changes in vegetative structure and composition to secondary influences on fire dynamics. It is likely that many changes have yet to be recognized, but existing threats suggest that the future may bring dramatic changes in the distribution of many mammal taxa, although it is not clear if key habitat elements (vegetation) will respond as rapidly as climatic factors, leading to substantial uncertainty. Climate change is likely to result in 'winners' and 'losers' but available information precludes detailed assessment of which species are likely to fall into which category. In the absence of long-term monitoring and applied research to characterize these threats more accurately, and to develop strategies to reduce their impacts, managers already are

  2. Evaluating small mammal response to natural disturbance and restoration in oak ecosystems in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Carl G; Hamel Paul B; Fuzaro Gullo, Manoelle

    2010-01-01

    Oak species form a conspicuous and often dominant component of bottom land forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The extent of these forests has been drastically reduced as a result of clearing for agriculture in the past two centuries. Patterns of clearing have reduced the distribution of remaining forest patches to a much more flood-prone subset of the landscape than was historically the case, reducing the diversity of oak species currently present on the landscape. Intensive harvesting has further changed the composition of the remaining stands. Small remnant patches of primary forest continue to exist as Research Natural Areas on the Delta National Forest in Sharkey County, Mississippi. In particular, the Over cup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Redgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Research Natural Areas pres ent substantial components of the trees for which the areas were named, as well as Quercus nuttallii and smaller components of other species. Recent interest in afforestation has produced a resurgence of interest in restoration of oak forest to abandoned farmland in the region. We have studied small mammal response to restoration on an extensive experiment near the Delta National Forest since 1995. We have also examined small mammal response to a tornado that disturbed approximately half of the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area in 2008. We use these studies to demonstrate how population estimates of small mammals can be obtained from capture-recapture studies, employing different designs, and utilizing Program Capture for population estimation. Small mammal communities in these stands are more species-rich in early succession than in primary forest. The study of response to tornado damage to the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area is complicated by the fact that this particular forest type is very flood-prone, creating obstacles to colonization by small mammals. Analysis of capture-recapture data with robust methods illustrated in this study permits extraction

  3. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil

  4. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo[a]pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs

  5. Reptile, amphibian, and small mammal species associated with natural gas development in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Mary B. Adams

    2010-01-01

    Burgeoning energy demand in the United States has led to increased natural gas exploration in the Appalachian Basin. Despite increasing natural gas development in the region, data about its impacts to wildlife are lacking. Our objective was to assess past and ongoing natural gas development impacts on reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals in the Monongahela National...

  6. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.

  7. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Response of small mammal populations to fuel treatment and precipitation in a ponderosa pine forest, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Bagne; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical and fire treatments are commonly used to reduce fuels where land use practices have encouraged accumulation of woody debris and high densities of trees. Treatments focus on restoration of vegetation structure, but will also affect wildlife populations. Small mammal populations were monitored before and after dense tree stands were thinned on 2,800 ha in NM,...

  9. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1996 (with cumulative summary for 1994--1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-07-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites at Area G, Technical Area (TA) 54 and a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area in 1996 to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Higher levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Due to low sample sizes in total number of animals captured, statistical analysis to compare site to site could not be conducted. However, mean concentrations of total U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 137 Cs in rodent carcasses were higher at Site 1 than site 2 or the Control Site and 241 Am was higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or the Control Site

  10. Lack of a distinct gradient in biomarker responses in small mammals collected at different distances from a highway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Smit, L.A.M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes biomarker effects in small mammals exposed to traffic emissions. Animals were collected at 10-50 m (site 1), 150-200 m (site 2), and 5 km (site 3) from a very busy highway (A2). To distinguish between routes of exposure, strictly carnivorous common shrews (Sorex araneus) and

  11. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn

    2016-01-01

    effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report...... assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios....

  12. Radioactive Cs accumulations in wildlife (some species of birds and mammals). Collected from eastern part of Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Izumi; Nomura, Azumi; Masukawa, Takeshi; Ozaki, Hirokazu; Watai, Chie; Hayashidani, Hideki; Gomi, Takashi; Yoshida, Makoto; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive Cs ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations were measured in various organs and tissues of wild animals (Four species of mammals and 3 species of birds) collected from eastern part of Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture, during 2011 to 2013. Muscular concentrations of radioactive Cs were higher than the other organs and tissues such as liver and kidney. However, the tissues which has important role such as brain and reproductive gland showed comparative concentrations of radioactive Cs. Decreasing trends of radioactive Cs in body of wildlife were observed from in April of 2011 to end of 2013. In the other hand, species inhabiting in forest tended to keep relatively high levels of radioactive Cs. Concentrations of radioactive Cs in great cover of birds were higher than those in other parts of feather such as breast feathers. Clearly high concentrations were observed in vane of feather when comparing with those of shaft. These findings suggest that feather samples of birds are effective parts as indicator of exterior pollution of their habitat and also suggest that air pollution of radioactive Cs still continued during on 2012 and 2013. Relative higher concentrations of radioactive Cs were detected in the body of piglets than those of mother of Japanese wild boar and comparative concentrations were observed in the egg albumen and yolk of spot-billed duck. These were suggested that radioactive Cs can transfer to fetus and eggs from mother's body and pollution may continue through generations. Therefore, the continual monitoring using wildlife is require strongly for evaluation of ecological risks and human health. (author)

  13. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERUZA L. MELO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each animal species selects specific microhabitats for protection, foraging, or micro-climate. To understand the distribution patterns of small mammals on the ground and in the understorey, we investigated the use of microhabitats by small mammals in a deciduous forest of southern Brazil. Ten trap stations with seven capture points were used to sample the following microhabitats: liana, fallen log, ground litter, terrestrial ferns, simple-trunk tree, forked tree, and Piper sp. shrubs. Seven field phases were conducted, each for eight consecutive days, from September 2006 through January 2008. Four species of rodents (Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Mus musculus and two species of marsupials (Didelphis albiventris and Gracilinanus microtarsus were captured. Captured species presented significant differences on their microhabitat use (ANOVA, p = 0.003, particularly between ground and understorey sites. Akodon montensis selected positively terrestrial ferns and trunks, S. angouya selected lianas, D. albiventris selected fallen trunks and Piper sp., and G. microtarsus choose tree trunks and lianas. We demonstrated that the local small-mammal assemblage does select microhabitats, with different types of associations between species and habitats. Besides, there is a strong evidence of habitat selection in order to diminish predation.Cada espécie animal pode apresentar seletividade por micro-habitats priorizando proteção, forrageio ou microclima. Para compreender os padrões de distribuição de pequenos mamíferos ao nível do solo e de sub-bosque, nós analisamos o uso de micro-habitat por pequenos mamíferos em uma floresta estacional no sul do Brasil. Dez estações amostrais com sete pontos de captura foram usadas para amostragem dos seguintes microhabitats: liana, tronco caído, solo apenas coberto por folhiço, solo coberto por samambaias, árvore com tronco simples, árvore com bifurcações e arbustos do g

  14. Landscapes with different biodiversity influence distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites: A comparative study from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Dong, Wen-Ge; Qian, Ti-Jun; Qin, Feng; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Fan, Rong

    2018-01-01

    From a previous field investigation in Yunnan, southwest China between 2001 and 2015, we selected two types of landscapes to make a retrospectively comparative study on the distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites. One landscape is "mountainous uncultivated land (MUL)" with higher biodiversity, which is located in a famous "World Nature Heritage Site", the Three-Parallel-Rivers Region in the northwest of Yunnan. The other is "cultivated flatland landscape (CFL)" with lower biodiversity, which is located in the south of Yunnan. The landscapes with different biodiversity apparently influenced the distribution of small mammals and their ectoparasitic chigger mites. Much more species of small mammals and mites were found in MUL than in CFL. A total of 3,177 small mammals captured from MUL were identified as 55 species, 30 genera and 10 families in five orders. From these small mammal hosts, 5,882 chigger mites were collected and identified as 127 species, 15 genera and 3 subfamilies in two families. A total of 1,112 small mammals captured from CFL were identified as 19 species, 12 genera and 5 families in three orders. From these hosts, 17,742 chiggers were collected and identified as 86 species, 12 genera and 3 subfamilies in two families. Both the species diversity (S = 55) and community diversity (H = 2.673) of small mammals in MUL were much higher than those in CFL (S = 19; H = 0.926). There were also higher values of β diversity in MUL than in CFL. Different main reservoir rodent hosts of zoonoses (including tsutsugamushi disease) were found in two types of landscapes. Rattus tanezumi (one main reservoir host) was most abundant in CFL, which accounted for 80.22% of all the small mammals. Another two main reservoir hosts, Eothenomys miletus and Apodemus chevrieri were the dominant species in MUL, but they were not as abundant as R. tanezumi in CFL. Different vector species of chigger mites also existed in MUL and CFL. Leptotrombidium

  15. Serologic evidence of the exposure of small mammals to spotted-fever Rickettsia and Rickettsia bellii in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcella Gonçalves; Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Guterres, Alexandro; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Rozental, Tatiana; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2016-03-31

    Sources of pathogenic Rickettsia in wildlife are largely unknown in Brazil. In this work, potential tick vectors and seroreactivity of small mammals against four spotted-fever group Rickettsia (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii and R. rhipicephali) and Rickettsia bellii from peri-urban areas of Uberlândia, a major town in Brazil, are described for the first time. Small mammals were captured and blood samples collected. Ticks were collected from the surface of the host and the environment and posteriorly identified. Reactivity of small mammal sera to Rickettsia was tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using crude antigens from five Brazilian Rickettsia isolates. Information was obtained from 416 small mammals (48 Marsupialia and 368 Rodentia). Forty-eight animals were parasitized and two tick species, Ixodes loricatus and Amblyomma dubitatum, were found on several host species, with a few tick-host relationships described for the first time. From the 416 tested sera, 70 reacted to at least one Rickettsia antigen (prevalence of 16.8%) and from these, 19 (27.1%) reacted to two or more antigens. Seroprevalence was higher for marsupials (39.6%) than for rodents (13.8%). Marsupial and Rhipidomys spp. sera reacted mainly (highest seroprevalence and titers) to R. bellii, and that of Necromys lasiurus mainly to R. rickettsii. Although the serologic assays poorly discriminate between closely related spotted-fever group Rickettsia, the observed small mammal seroreactivity suggests the circulation of Rickettsia in the peri-urban area of Uberlândia, albeit at low levels.

  16. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy: energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, V.; Gorter, J.A.; Riede, S.J.; Hut, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  17. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy : energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Gorter, Jenke A; Riede, Sjaak J; Hut, Roelof A

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  18. Post-dam vegetation changes and small mammal populations in the Peace-Athabasca delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, O.

    1993-01-01

    Research aimed at monitoring wildlife populations is a useful way to estimate the impact and consequences of hydroelectric projects on northern deltas. Such studies could provide valuable insights on the potential effect of the drying of deltas in the context of global climate change. The Peace-Athabasca River Delta, one of the most extensive northern inland deltas in the western hemisphere, represents a unique site to study such effects. Construction of the Bennett Dam in 1968 has had serious effects on the delta's ecological integrity; the resulting lower water levels and colonization of grass meadow communities by willows and the movement of shorelines has affected wildlife distribution and population levels. A study was conducted to estimate the impact of the invasion of grass meadows by willows on small rodent populations in the delta. Live trapping grids were established at three sites. Population estimates were obtained by the minimum number known method and used to calculate biomass of small mammals in willow and meadow grids. Mean trapping estimates (MTEs) of adult meadow voles ranged from under 1 per hectare on willow grids to 28 per hectare on meadow grids. On willow grids only, MTEs for adult populations of deer mice, red-backed voles, and meadow jumping mice reached 6, 6, and less than 1 per hectare respectively. It is estimated that the development of grass meadows into willow shrublands over the next 20-40 y could result in a loss of over 50% of the biomass of small rodents present in 1976. This should have a negative effect on the foraging efficiency and productivity of secondary consumers such as weasel and owl. 109 refs., 16 figs., 29 tabs

  19. FireBird - a small satellite fire monitoring mission: Status and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eckehard; Rücker, Gernot; Terzibaschian, Thomas; Klein, Doris; Tiemann, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The scientific mission FireBird is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and consists of two small satellites. The first satellite - TET-1 - was successfully launched from Baikonur, Russia in July 2012. Its first year in orbit was dedicated to a number of experiments within the framework of the DLR On Orbit Verification (OOV) program which is dedicated to technology testing in space. After successful completion of its OOV phase, TET-1 was handed over to the DLR FireBird mission and is now a dedicated Earth Observation mission. Its primary goal is sensing of hot phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, gas flares and industrial hotspots. The second satellite, BiROS is scheduled for launch in the second or third quarter of 2015. The satellite builds on the heritage of the DLR BIRD (BIspectral Infrared Detection) mission and delivers quantitative information (such as Fire Radiative Power, FRP) at a spatial resolution of 350 m, superior to any current fire enabled satellite system such as NPP VIIRS, MODIS or Meteosat SEVIRI. The satellite is undergoing a four month validation phase during which satellite operations are adapted to the new mission goals of FireBIRD and processing capacities are established to guarantee swift processing and delivery of high quality data. The validation phase started with an informal Operational Readiness Review and will be completed with a formal review, covering all aspects of the space and ground segments. The satellite is equipped with a camera with a 42 m ground pixel size in the red, green and near infrared spectral range, and a 370 m ground pixel size camera in the mid and thermal infrared with a swath of 185 km. The satellite can be pointed towards a target in order to enhance observation frequency. First results of the FireBird mission include a ground validation experiment and acquisitions over fires across the world. Once the validation phase is finished the data will be made available to a wide scientific community.

  20. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  1. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Craniological Features of Small Mammals as a Reflection of Heterogeneity of Natural Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Shadrina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA in nine species of small mammals (Insectivora and Rodentia was estimated using 10 cranial features (foramina for nerves and blood vessels. The main criterion was the occurrence of the fluctuating asymmetry manifestations (OFAM. A total of 2300 skulls collected in the taiga and forest-tundra of Yakutia (Northeast Asia were examined. The examined species are characterized by comparable OFAM values in the vast territories of the taiga zone; on the ecological periphery of the range an increased FA level is registered. Asymmetric manifestations in analyzed features are equally likely to occur in males and females. OFAM values in juveniles are higher than in adults; this difference is more pronounced on the periphery of the geographic range. Among juveniles, lower FA levels are observed in individuals that have bred. It can be surmised that the risk of elimination of individuals with high FA levels increases in stressful periods (active reproduction and winter. In conditions that are close to optimal, populations demonstrate relatively homogeneous FA levels, while on the periphery of the area an increase in occurrence of disturbances in developmental stability is observed, which leads, on one hand, to higher average FA for the population and, on the other hand, to heterogeneity of the population in this parameter.

  2. Molecular Survey of Zoonotic Agents in Rodents and Other Small Mammals in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Ante; Tokarz, Rafal; Markotić, Alemka; Margaletić, Josip; Turk, Nenad; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Vucelja, Marko; Desai, Aaloki; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-02-01

    Croatia is a focus for many rodent-borne zoonosis. Here, we report a survey of 242 rodents and small mammals, including 43 Myodes glareolus, 131 Apodemus flavicollis, 53 Apodemus agrarius, three Apodemus sylvaticus, six Sorex araneus, four Microtus arvalis, one Microtus agrestis, and one Muscardinus avellanarius, collected at eight sites in Croatia over an 8-year period. Multiplex MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Francisella tularensis, and Coxiella burnetii. Individual PCR assays were used for detection of Leptospira, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopoxviruses, flaviviruses, hantaviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii. Of the rodents, 52 (21.5%) were infected with Leptospira, 9 (3.7%) with Borrelia miyamotoi, 5 (2%) with Borrelia afzelii, 29 (12.0%) with Bartonella, 8 (3.3%) with Babesia microti, 2 (0.8%) with Ehrlichia, 4 (1.7%) with Anaplasma, 2 (0.8%) with F. tularensis, 43 (17.8%) with hantaviruses, and 1 (0.4%) with an orthopoxvirus. Other agents were not detected. Multiple infections were found in 32 rodents (13.2%): dual infections in 26 rodents (10.7%), triple infections in four rodents (2.9%), and quadruple infections in two rodents (0.8%). Our findings indicate that rodents in Croatia harbor a wide range of bacteria and viruses that are pathogenic to humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS. D’Andrea

    Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  4. Coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in carnivores and small mammals at Dhaka zoo, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.R.U. Raja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the coprological prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites using 94 faecal samples from different carnivores (n=32 and small mammals (n=15 was undertaken from January to May 2012 at Dhaka Zoo. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 78.72%, with a prevalence of 51.06% for helminths and 27.66% for protozoa. The identified parasites included—Toxascaris leonina (9.57%, Balantidium coli (25.53% Spirometra sp. (10.64%, Toxocara cati (12.76%, Hook worm (4.26%, unidentified strongyles (3.19%, Trichuris sp. (7.45%, Coccidia sp. (2.12%, Capillaria sp. (1.06%, Trichostrongylus sp. (1.06%, and Physaloptera sp. (1.06%. Mixed infection was observed in Indian Lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp., Royal Bengal Tiger (Balantidium coli and Toxocara cati, Spotted Hyena (Balantidium coli and hook worm, Leopard (Balantidium coli and Spirometra/I> sp., Rhesus Macaque (Trichuris sp. and Coccidia sp., Pig-tailed Macaque (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Hamadryas Baboon (Balantidium coli and Trichuris sp., Golden Mangabey (Trichuris sp., Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Large Indian Civet (Balantidium coli and unidentified strongyles, Torior Dog (Balantidium coli and Physaloptera, Rabbit (Balantidium coli and Hook worm, Hanuman Langur (Balantidium coli and Capillaria sp.. Due to the high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, the present study suggests to apply control measures against these parasites in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals, especially in case of threatened species.

  5. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the genetic organization of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Manlove, M.N.; Joule, J.

    1978-01-01

    A functional population is a group of organisms and their offspring that contributes to a common gene pool within a certain area and time period. It is also the unit of evolution and should be viewed both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Selection, drift, dispersal, and mutation can alter the composition of populations. Spatial heterogeneity in allele frequencies argues for a conceptual model that has a series of relatively small populations semi-isolated from one another. Because of the relatively high levels of genetic variability characteristic of most mammalian species, significant amounts of gene flow between these spatially subdivided populations must occur when longer time periods are considered. Fluctuations in the genetic structure of populations seem to be important in altering the fitness of the individuals within the populations. The interaction of populations through gene flow is important in changing the levels of intrapopulational genetic variability. Populations can be characterized as existing on a continuum from relatively stable to unstable numbers and by other associated changes in their characteristics. Temporal changes in allele frequency occur in a variety of mammals. Conceptually, a species can be viewed as a series of dynamic populations that vary in numbers and quality in both a spatial and temporal context even over short distances and time periods. Short term changes in the quality of individuals in a population can be important in altering the short term dynamics of a population

  6. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected. Keywords: Cryptic species, Diversity, Endemic, Indicator species, Octodon degus, Plant

  7. Role of edge effect on small mammal populations in a forest fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    In many cases, edge effect may determine the distribution and densities of small mammal populations. In 1995 and 1998, a mark and recapture study was conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC, to evaluate the role of forest edge habitat. The area studied was an abandoned home site that had been recently isolated by a timber harvest. Harvest activities left a distinct edge of old field and planted pine contrasting with a relatively xeric, mixed hardwood stand. Trapping was conducted for 17 days in 1995 and 14 days in 1998. Three 30 m by 150 m grids were placed in the clear-cut, edge, and hardwood interior habitats. For both years the principal species captured were Peromyscus gossypinus, P. polionotus, and Neotoma floridana. The edge habitat accounted for approximately 55 percent of all captures and nearly four times as many recaptures as the interior and clear-cut habitats. In 1998, greater numbers of N. floridana were trapped than in 1995. The results indicate that the use of edge habitat can be pronounced even within simple communities. Stewards of managed or restored habitats need to carefully consider the role of edge in these systems. In managed areas such as waste sites, movement of material within the food chain could be reduced by minimizing edge habitat around the points of contamination

  8. Post-fire recovery of torpor and activity patterns of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Hume, Taylor; Körtner, Gerhard; Currie, Shannon E; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the post-fire challenges of decreased availability of food and shelter, brown antechinus ( Antechinus stuartii ), a small marsupial mammal, increase the use of energy-conserving torpor and reduce activity. However, it is not known how long it takes for animals to resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns during the recovery of burnt habitat. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antechinus will adjust torpor use and activity after a fire depending on vegetation recovery. We simultaneously quantified torpor and activity patterns for female antechinus from three adjacent areas: (i) the area of a management burn 1 year post-fire, (ii) an area that was burned 2 years prior, and (iii) a control area. In comparison to shortly after the management burn, antechinus in all three groups displayed less frequent and less pronounced torpor while being more active. We provide the first evidence that only 1 year post-fire antechinus resume pre-fire torpor and activity patterns, probably in response to the return of herbaceous ground cover and foraging opportunities. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-04-29

    Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070-2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be highly vulnerable to a warming climate and highlight the fact that assisted migration has

  10. Climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naia Morueta-Holme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus, which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070-2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be

  11. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Reasor, R. Scott [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Campbell, Claire L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  12. A brief summary of the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of avian influenza H9N2 virus in birds and mammals in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Mettenleiter, T C; Abdelwhab, E M

    2017-12-01

    H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The virus has been isolated from humans in Egypt and serosurveys indicated widespread infection particularly among poultry workers and pigs in some countries. Some isolates replicated well in experimentally inoculated dogs, mice, hamsters and ferrets. Insufficient protection of immunised poultry was frequently reported most likely due to concurrent viral or bacterial infections and antigenic drift of the field viruses from outdated vaccine strains. Genetic analysis indicated several distinct phylogroups including a panzootic genotype in the Asian and African parts of the ME, which may be useful for the development of vaccines. The extensive circulation of H9N2 for about 20 years in this region where the H5N1 virus is also endemic in some countries, poses a serious public health threat. Regional surveillance and control strategy are highly recommended.

  13. UPPER PLEISTOCENE SMALL MAMMAL FAUNA FROM SALNOVA QUARRY (SALTRIO-VARESE-NORTHWESTERN LOMBARDY: PALEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION AND CHIONOMYS NIVALIS POPULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO BONA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The small mammals collection described in the present paper has been collected during three field small excavation at the Upper Pleistocene site of Cava Salnova (Saltrio - VA -. The collection consists of 501 determined remains of small mammals coming from all 17 stratigraphical levels and belonging at least to 26 species. Two 14C datings (AMS has been made on small mammals bones belonging to the lev. 1b: 1- 34315 ± 200 yr BP; 2- 35101± 250 yr BP. The interpretation of faunal data enables us to propose the following palaeoenvironmental framework: lower levels, lev. b and liv. c, are characterized by a cool weather with a high degree of plant cover. The deposition of lev. e to the lev. g coincided with an important reforestation occurred at the same time of the hottest Wurmian interpleniglacial. In lev. m, n, o, the snow vole, although rare, reappears. This may indicate the beginning of the climatic cooling, which is the prelude to the Last Glacial Maximum. 

  14. Ancient urban ecology reconstructed from archaeozoological remains of small mammals in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data.

  15. Ancient Urban Ecology Reconstructed from Archaeozoological Remains of Small Mammals in the Near East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data. PMID:24622726

  16. When perception reflects reality: Non-native grass invasion alters small mammal risk landscapes and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceradnini, Joseph P.; Chalfoun, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Modification of habitat structure due to invasive plants can alter the risk landscape for wildlife by, for example, changing the quality or availability of refuge habitat. Whether perceived risk corresponds with actual fitness outcomes, however, remains an important open question. We simultaneously measured how habitat changes due to a common invasive grass (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum) affected the perceived risk, habitat selection, and apparent survival of a small mammal, enabling us to assess how well perceived risk influenced important behaviors and reflected actual risk. We measured perceived risk by nocturnal rodents using a giving-up density foraging experiment with paired shrub (safe) and open (risky) foraging trays in cheatgrass and native habitats. We also evaluated microhabitat selection across a cheatgrass gradient as an additional assay of perceived risk and behavioral responses for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) at two spatial scales of habitat availability. Finally, we used mark-recapture analysis to quantify deer mouse apparent survival across a cheatgrass gradient while accounting for detection probability and other habitat features. In the foraging experiment, shrubs were more important as protective cover in cheatgrass-dominated habitats, suggesting that cheatgrass increased perceived predation risk. Additionally, deer mice avoided cheatgrass and selected shrubs, and marginally avoided native grass, at two spatial scales. Deer mouse apparent survival varied with a cheatgrass–shrub interaction, corresponding with our foraging experiment results, and providing a rare example of a native plant mediating the effects of an invasive plant on wildlife. By synthesizing the results of three individual lines of evidence (foraging behavior, habitat selection, and apparent survival), we provide a rare example of linkage between behavioral responses of animals indicative of perceived predation risk and actual fitness outcomes. Moreover, our results

  17. Effects of chronic radiation exposure on small mammals in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of some 2 x 10 6 TBq, or more, of total fission/activation products. Estimates of deposition vary, although it is probable that about half the activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of up to 150 000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, recolonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites investigated in this study, during 2001-2003, exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6 x 10 2 to 3 x 10 6 Bq kg -1 dw (dry weight). Little impact is evident on populations of small mammals in these areas, either for species diversity or overall abundance, although there is a slight (not statistically significant) trend for increasing spleen weight in the bank vole with increasing levels of contamination. Previous suggestions that populations contain a preponderance of juveniles and sub-adults at the highest contaminated sites are not supported. (author)

  18. A model to optimize trap systems used for small mammal (Rodentia, Insectivora density estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Preatoni

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The environment found in the upper and lower Padane Plain and the adjoining hills isn't very homogeneous. In fact it is impossible to find biotopes extended enough to satisfy the necessary criteria for density estimate of small mammals based on the Removal method. This limitation has been partially overcome by adopting a reduced grid, counting 39 traps whose spacing depends on the studied species. Aim of this work was to verify - and eventually measure - the efficiency of a sampling method based on a "reduced" number of catch points. The efficiency of 18 trapping cycles, realized from 1991 to 1993, was evaluated as percent bias. For each of the trapping cycles, 100 computer simulations were performed, so obtaining a Monte-Carlo estimate of bias in density values. Then later, the efficiency of different trap arrangements was examined by varying the criteria. The numbers of traps ranged from 9 to 49, with trap spacing varying from 5 to 15 m and a trapping period duration from 5 to 9 nights. In this way an optimal grid system was found both for dimensions and time duration. The simulation processes involved, as a whole, 1511 different grid types, for 11347 virtual trapping cycles. Our results indicate that density estimates based on "reduced" grids are affected by an average -16% bias, that is an underestimate, and that an optimally sized grid must consist of 6x6 traps square, with about 8.7 m spacing. and be in operation for 7 nights.

  19. Conflictive management of small mammals considered as pests: A long way to evidence-based policy making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catarina FERREIRA; Miguel DELIBES-MATEOS

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the controversial management decisions made by policy-makers worldwide regarding poisoning campaigns aimed to control small mammal populations,often considered harmful economic pests.Aside from considerations regarding the biological consequences of these campaigns,we argue that when society rejects all values of science and expertise then only badly supported and negligent decisions will be made about conservation and management issues.The extermination of small mammal species,some of which play crucial ecological roles in several regions of the world,is just an example of such discredit and misinformation.Without a strong commitment towards evidence-based policy-making,economic investments in research and development could be entirely compromised [Current Zoology 58 (2):353-357,2012].

  20. Long-term data set of small mammals from owl pellets in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Nora; Galicia, David; Ariño, Arturo H; Escala, Carmen

    2016-09-27

    We describe the pellet sampling data set from the Vertebrate Collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra. This data set compiles all information about small mammals obtained from the analysis of owl pellets. The collection consists on skulls, mandibles, and some skeletons of 36 species of more than 72,000 georeferenced specimens. These specimens come from the Iberian Peninsula although most samples were collected in Navarra, a highly diverse transitional area of 10,000 kilometre square sitting across three biogeographical regions. The collection spans more than forty years and is still growing as a result of the establishment of a barn owl pellet monitoring network in 2015. The program will provide critical information about the evolution of the small mammals' community in this transition zone as it changes over time.

  1. Home range and local movement of small mammals on the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    In April 1978, a study of local movement of small mammals on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was undertaken in conjunction with a study of rodent dispersal. Live trapping in May and June revealed a strong potential for the detection of local movement of at least four species of rodents. Information on this movement is important as each species, during burrowing, may transport radioactive waste from the point of interment to the surface. The area over which contamination may be spread, as fecal deposits or as metabolically incorporated elements, is a function of the daily movement of each animal. At least eight factors may effect size and shape of home range. These factors are discussed, techniques employed in the calculation of home range are outlined, and problems associated with live trapping and studying local movement of small mammals are considered

  2. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  3. Density, movement, and transuranic tissue inventory of small mammals at a liquid-radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear movement, density, and transuranic radionuclide inventory were estimated for small mammals residing at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), and Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) were the predominant species. The total small mammal population within the 3.0-ha waste area was estimated to be 93. The distance between consecutive captures for all species combined averaged 41 m and ranged from 7 to 201 m. About 30% of the rodents captured inside the waste area were also captured outside its boundaries. The total population inventory of 238 Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 244 Cm was 44 pCi, 30 pCi, 19 pCi, 21 pCi, and <1 pCi, respectively. One-third, or about 35 pCi of transuranics, could be removed from the waste area by small mammals during the summer of 1981. 16 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. Complete avian malaria parasite genomes reveal features associated with lineage-specific evolution in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Ulrike; Otto, Thomas D.; Cotton, James A.; Steinbiss, Sascha; Sanders, Mandy; Oyola, Samuel O.; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Patra, Kailash P.; Herd, Colin; Bushell, Ellen; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K.; Billker, Oliver; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Rivero, Ana; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of high-quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species, and using amino acid divergence between species, we estimate the avian- and mammalian-infective lineages diverged in the order of 10 million years ago. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the species with the greatest impact on human health. From these orthologs, we explore differential diversifying selection across the genus and show that the avian lineage is remarkable in the extent to which invasion-related genes are evolving. The subtelomeres of the P. relictum and P. gallinaceum genomes contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum, and within these proteins, we detect distinct regions that are specific to nonhuman primate, humans, rodent, and avian hosts. For the first time in the Plasmodium lineage, we find evidence of transposable elements, including several hundred fragments of LTR-retrotransposons in both species and an apparently complete LTR-retrotransposon in the genome of P. gallinaceum. PMID:29500236

  5. Rapid area change in pitch-up manoeuvres of small perching birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, D T; Rival, D E

    2015-10-26

    Rapid pitch-up has been highlighted as a mechanism to generate large lift and drag during landing manoeuvres. However, pitching rates had not been measured previously in perching birds, and so the direct applicability of computations and experiments to observed behaviour was not known. We measure pitch rates in a small, wild bird (the black-capped chickadee; Poecile atricapillus), and show that these rates are within the parameter range used in experiments. Pitching rates were characterized by the shape change number, a metric comparing the rate of frontal area increase to acceleration. Black-capped chickadees increase the shape change number during perching in direct proportion to their total kinetic and potential energy at the start of the manoeuvre. The linear relationship between dissipated energy and shape change number is in accordance with a simple analytical model developed for two-dimensional pitching and decelerating airfoils. Black-capped chickadees use a wing pitch-up manoeuvre during perching to dissipate energy quickly while maintaining lift and drag through rapid area change. It is suggested that similar pitch-and-decelerate manoeuvres could be used to aid in the controlled, precise landings of small manoeuvrable air vehicles.

  6. Small terrestrial mammals in two types of forest complexes in intensively managed landscape of South Moravia (the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2004), s. 377-384 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP526/03/P051; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : small mammal community * windbreaks * small woods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.078, year: 2004 http://ecology.aepress.sk/01AV_absinfo.php?h@t=&v=084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4&rok=2004&mesiac=04&fileinfo=2004_04_377&find=

  7. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human–Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Doty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax. Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0% of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus; one Cricetomys emini; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus, and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus; no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  8. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human-Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jeffrey B; Malekani, Jean M; Kalemba, Lem's N; Stanley, William T; Monroe, Benjamin P; Nakazawa, Yoshinori U; Mauldin, Matthew R; Bakambana, Trésor L; Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Tobit; Braden, Zachary H; Wallace, Ryan M; Malekani, Divin V; McCollum, Andrea M; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Kondas, Ashley; Peterson, A Townsend; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E; Karem, Kevin L; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S

    2017-10-03

    During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0%) of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus ; one Cricetomys emini ; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus , and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus ); no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  9. {sup 90}SR and {sup 137}CS distribution in organisms of wild small mammals (Chernobyl zone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryanaya, J.U.; Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, Slavutych (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in tissues of small rodent mammals has been studied in detail. It was determined that for a vole Microtus the largest ratio values of {sup 137}Cs concentration in organs to one in muscles are in skin (2.02{+-}0.45) and kidneys (1.57{+-}0.29), in other tissues they are much lower. The comparison of {sup 137}Cs specific concentration in tissues with their size (mass index) has shown that the major portion of the total radionuclide concentration in the animal body is in the bone and muscle tissues aggregate (44.1 {+-} 2.8%) and in skin (24.8 {+-} 2.5%). The total content of {sup 137}Cs in a gastrointestinal tract is about 20-25%, but nevertheless, it may be assumed that it is strongly dependent on the radioactivity of food. Preliminary data show that other species of genus Microtus can have another pattern of distribution. A more detailed research was conducted for the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs contents in tissues were calculated. {sup 137}Cs distribution corresponds with the tissues portion in the animal's body mass (% of total content): the most in muscles 38.3, gastrointestinal tract 21.3, skin 16.7; the least in eyes 0.23, spleen 0.33, heart 0.74. The comparison of the activity concentration in each tissue with the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the whole body presented more evident differences between the tissues. The highest radionuclide concentration is in skin (1.48), in a slightly less degree in spleen (1.22) and eyes (1.20). The {sup 90}Sr distribution in the vole body is uneven up to 83.4% of the overall content is in bone tissues, in muscle -6.8, gastrointestinal tract - 4.2, skin - 3.9, in other tissues - 0.2-0.5%. In comparison with {sup 90}Sr average activity in the body: skeleton -10.9, eyes -1.3, spleen -1.02, and their values are much higher than in other tissues and organs. (author)

  10. Diets of two syntopic small mammals in the Inyanga National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habits of two coexisting rodents, Rhabdomys pumilio and Otomys irroratus in relation to rainfall and reproduction. Acta Oecol. Oecol. Gener. 1: 71 - 89. RAUTENBACH, I.L. 1976. A survey of the mammals occurring in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park. Koedoe 19: 133 -143. RAUTENBACH, I.L. 1982.

  11. 78 FR 19217 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... or related to the activities authorized in the IHA (e.g., previously wounded animal, carcass with... marine mammal moves outside of the exclusion zone or if the animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes... animal has not been resighted for 60 minutes. Soft-start Procedures A ``soft-start'' technique will be...

  12. Seasonal and habitat dependence of fleas parasitic on small mammals in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    in both host and flea species composition varied seasonally. Despite the relatively rich mammal and flea fauna of the study region, the major contribution to variation in species composition between seasons and among habitats was due to a few species only. Flea assemblages on Lophuromys kilonzoi Verheyen...

  13. Short-term response of small mammals following oak regeneration silviculture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Raybuck; Christopher E. Moorman; Christopher S. DePerno; Kevin Gross; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2012-01-01

    Upland, mixed-oak forests in the eastern United States have experienced widespread oak regeneration failure, largely due to cessation of anthropogenic disturbance. Silvicultural practices used to promote advance oak regeneration may affect ground-dwelling mammals. From May to August 2008 (pre-treatment), 2010 (first year post-treatment), and 2011 (second year post-...

  14. Performance of Encounternet Tags: Field Tests of Miniaturized Proximity Loggers for Use on Small Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris I Levin

    Full Text Available Proximity logging is a new tool for understanding social behavior as it allows for accurate quantification of social networks. We report results from field calibration and deployment tests of miniaturized proximity tags (Encounternet, digital transceivers that log encounters between tagged individuals. We examined radio signal behavior in relation to tag attachment (tag, tag on bird, tag on saline-filled balloon to understand how radio signal strength is affected by the tag mounting technique used for calibration tests. We investigated inter-tag and inter-receiver station variability, and in each calibration test we accounted for the effects of antennae orientation. Additionally, we used data from a live deployment on breeding barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster to analyze the quality of the logs, including reciprocal agreement in dyadic logs. We evaluated the impact (in terms of mass changes of tag attachment on the birds. We were able to statistically distinguish between RSSI values associated with different close-proximity (<5 m tag-tag distances regardless of antennae orientation. Inter-tag variability was low, but we did find significant inter-receiver station variability. Reciprocal agreement of dyadic logs was high and social networks were constructed from proximity tag logs based on two different RSSI thresholds. There was no evidence of significant mass loss in the time birds were wearing tags. We conclude that proximity loggers are accurate and effective for quantifying social behavior. However, because RSSI and distance cannot be perfectly resolved, data from proximity loggers are most appropriate for comparing networks based on specific RSSI thresholds. The Encounternet system is flexible and customizable, and tags are now light enough for use on small animals (<50 g.

  15. Performance of Encounternet Tags: Field Tests of Miniaturized Proximity Loggers for Use on Small Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris I.; Zonana, David M.; Burt, John M.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Proximity logging is a new tool for understanding social behavior as it allows for accurate quantification of social networks. We report results from field calibration and deployment tests of miniaturized proximity tags (Encounternet), digital transceivers that log encounters between tagged individuals. We examined radio signal behavior in relation to tag attachment (tag, tag on bird, tag on saline-filled balloon) to understand how radio signal strength is affected by the tag mounting technique used for calibration tests. We investigated inter-tag and inter-receiver station variability, and in each calibration test we accounted for the effects of antennae orientation. Additionally, we used data from a live deployment on breeding barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) to analyze the quality of the logs, including reciprocal agreement in dyadic logs. We evaluated the impact (in terms of mass changes) of tag attachment on the birds. We were able to statistically distinguish between RSSI values associated with different close-proximity (station variability. Reciprocal agreement of dyadic logs was high and social networks were constructed from proximity tag logs based on two different RSSI thresholds. There was no evidence of significant mass loss in the time birds were wearing tags. We conclude that proximity loggers are accurate and effective for quantifying social behavior. However, because RSSI and distance cannot be perfectly resolved, data from proximity loggers are most appropriate for comparing networks based on specific RSSI thresholds. The Encounternet system is flexible and customizable, and tags are now light enough for use on small animals (<50g). PMID:26348329

  16. Wilderness ecology: the upland plant communities, woody browse production, and small mammals of two adjacent 33-year-old wildfire areas of northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Ohmann; Charles T. Cushwa; Roger E. Lake; James R. Beer; Robert B. Brander

    1973-01-01

    In three parts, classifies the upland vegetation into four community types; describes the measurements of browse and gives yields by different species; and describes the relation of small mammal populations to vegetative community types.

  17. Increasing Winter Maximal Metabolic Rate Improves Intrawinter Survival in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Vézina, François

    Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (M s ), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters. Results showed that survival probability was high and constant both within (0.92) and among (0.96) winters. They also showed that while M s , Hct, and BMR had no significant influence, survival was positively related to Msum-following a sigmoid relationship-within but not among winter. Birds expressing an Msum below 1.26 W (i.e., similar to summer levels) had a winter. Our data therefore suggest that black-capped chickadees that are either too slow or unable to adjust their phenotype from summer to winter have little chances of survival and thus that seasonal upregulation of metabolic performance is highly beneficial. This study is the first to document in an avian system the relationship between thermogenic capacity and winter survival, a proxy of fitness.

  18. Standardization of Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Features and Measurements in Two Small Mammal Pet-Species: Domestic Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and Mixed Breed Dwarf Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Balıkçı Dorotea, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Exotic animal practice is one of the fastest growing disciplines in veterinary medicine. The importance of small exotic mammals as veterinary patients has continued to grow and in some practices these animals form a significant percentage of the clientele. At the same time, knowledge regarding the anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological characteristics of these species has rapidly increased. In addition, the demands by many small exotic mammal owners for quality medical care for the...

  19. Long-term data from a small mammal community reveal loss of diversity and potential effects of local climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Simone; Sanchez-Suarez, Cristina; Rouco, Carlos; Palomo, L Javier; Fernández, M Carmen; Kufner, Maura B; Moreno, Sacramento

    2017-10-01

    Climate change affects distribution and persistence of species. However, forecasting species' responses to these changes requires long-term data series that are often lacking in ecological studies. We used 15 years of small mammal trapping data collected between 1978 and 2015 in 3 areas at Doñana National Park (southwest Spain) to (i) describe changes in species composition and (ii) test the association between local climate conditions and size of small mammal populations. Overall, 5 species were captured: wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus , algerian mouse Mus spretus , greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula , garden dormouse Eliomys quercinus , and black rat Rattus rattus . The temporal pattern in the proportion of captures of each species suggests that the small mammal diversity declined with time. Although the larger species (e.g., E. quercinus ), better adapted to colder climate, have disappeared from our trapping records, M. spretus , a small species inhabiting southwest Europe and the Mediterranean coast of Africa, currently is almost the only trapped species. We used 2-level hierarchical models to separate changes in abundance from changes in probability of capture using records of A. sylvaticus in all 3 areas and of M. spretus in 1. We found that heavy rainfall and low temperatures were positively related to abundance of A. sylvaticus , and that the number of extremely hot days was negatively related to abundance of M. spretus . Despite other mechanisms are likely to be involved, our findings support the importance of climate for the distribution and persistence of these species and raise conservation concerns about potential cascading effects in the Doñana ecosystem.

  20. The impacts of Cenozoic climate and habitat changes on small mammal diversity of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X.; Hopkins, Samantha S. B.

    2017-02-01

    Through the Cenozoic, paleoclimate records show general trends of global cooling and increased aridity, and environments in North America shifted from predominantly forests to more open habitats. Paleobotanical records indicate grasses were present on the continent in the Eocene; however, paleosol and phytolith studies indicate that open habitats did not arise until the late Eocene or even later in the Oligocene. Studies of large mammalian herbivores have documented changes in ecomorphology and community structure through time, revealing that shifts in mammalian morphology occurred millions of years after the environmental changes thought to have triggered them. Smaller mammals, like rodents and lagomorphs, should more closely track climate and habitat changes due to their shorter generation times and smaller ranges, but these animals have received much less study. To examine changes in smaller mammals through time, we have assembled and analyzed an ecomorphological database of all North American rodent and lagomorph species. Analyses of these data found that rodent and lagomorph community structure changed dramatically through the Cenozoic, and shifts in diversity and ecology correspond closely with the timing of habitat changes. Cenozoic rodent and lagomorph species diversity is strongly biased by sampling of localities, but sampling-corrected diversity reveals diversity dynamics that, after an initial density-dependent diversification in the Eocene, track habitat changes and the appearance of new ecological adaptations. As habitats became more open and arid through time, rodent and lagomorph crown heights increased while burrowing, jumping, and cursorial adaptations became more prevalent. Through time, open-habitat specialists were added during periods of diversification, while closed-habitat taxa were disproportionately lost in subsequent diversity declines. While shifts among rodents and lagomorphs parallel changes in ungulate communities, they started

  1. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  3. Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.

  4. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Greenwood

    Full Text Available The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant.

  5. Responses of wild small mammals to arsenic pollution at a partially remediated mining site in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouhot, Séverine; Raoul, Francis; Crini, Nadia; Tougard, Christelle; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Druart, Coline; Rieffel, Dominique; Lambert, Jean-Claude; Tête, Nicolas; Giraudoux, Patrick; Scheifler, Renaud

    2014-02-01

    Partial remediation actions at a former gold mine in Southern France led to a mosaic of contaminated and rehabilitated zones. In this study, the distribution of arsenic and its potential adverse effects on small mammals were investigated. The effectiveness of remediation for reducing the transfer of this element into wildlife was also discussed. Arsenic levels were measured in the soil and in the stomach contents, livers, kidneys, and lungs of four small mammal species (the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus), the common vole (Microtus arvalis), and the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula)). The animals were caught at the former extraction site, in zones with three different levels of remediation treatments, and at a control site. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were highly spatially heterogeneous (ranging from 29 to 18,900 μg g(-1)). Despite the decrease in arsenic concentrations in the remediated soils, both wood mice and Algerian mice experienced higher oral exposure to arsenic in remediated zones than in the control area. The accumulated arsenic in their organs showed higher intra-zonal variability than the arsenic distribution in the soil, suggesting that, in addition to remediation processes, other variables can help explain arsenic transfer to wildlife, such as the habitat and diet preferences of the animals or their mobility. A weak but significant correlation between arsenic concentration and body condition was observed, and weak relationships between the liver/kidney/lung mass and arsenic levels were also detected, suggesting possible histological alterations. © 2013.

  6. Land fauna composition of small mammals of a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.

  7. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  8. Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals Collected from Military Training Sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and Analysis of the Relative Abundance of Chiggers from Mammals Examined

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Korean J Paras/to/. Vol. 48, No. 3: 237-243, September 2010 DOl: JO.J3471kjp.2010.48.J.237 Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals...65th Medical BrigadeAJSAMEDDAC-Korea, Unit# 15281, APO AP 96205-5281, USA Abstract: Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small...rarely observed (prevalence < 1 0%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4

  9. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Hermannsen

    Full Text Available Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3 at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration, and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.

  10. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.

  11. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs and small mammals in Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Silva, Lucio; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Zárate-Ramos, José J; Molina-Garza, Zinnia J

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important public health concern in areas extending from South America northward into the southern United States of America. Although this hemoflagellate has many wild and domestic mammalians reported as reservoir hosts, studies on this subject are scarce in Nuevo León state, a region located in northeastern Mexico. This cross-sectional study showed that the general prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Nuevo León state was 14.5% (35/241), this percentage matching the ones determined by PCR and traditional diagnostics. Localities and infected mammals did not significantly differ (χ 2 =6.098, p=0.192); however the number of infected animals was highly correlated with mammalian species (p=0.009). Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were found to be the most infected overall (11/34, 32.3%), while dogs (Canis familiaris) had the lowest prevalence. In conclusion, although the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in small mammals was lower in Nuevo León than in other states of Mexico, our results provide new locality records, including striped skunks, opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) and dogs, and extend the recorded area to woodrats (Neotoma micropus). Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  13. An energy-based body temperature threshold between torpor and normothermia for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2007-01-01

    Field studies of use of torpor by heterothermic endotherms suffer from the lack of a standardized threshold differentiating torpid body temperatures (T(b)) from normothermic T(b)'s. This threshold can be more readily observed if metabolic rate (MR) is measured in the laboratory. I digitized figures from the literature that depicted simultaneous traces of MR and T(b) from 32 respirometry runs for 14 mammal species. For each graph, I quantified the T(b) measured when MR first began to drop at the onset of torpor (T(b-onset)). I used a general linear model to quantify the effect of ambient temperature (T(a)) and body mass (BM) on T(b-onset). For species lighter than 70 g, the model was highly significant and was described by the equation Tb-onset=(0.055+/-0.014)BM+(0.071+/-0.031)Ta+(31.823+/-0.740). To be conservative, I recommend use of these model parameters minus 1 standard error, which modifies the equation to Tb-onset-1 SE=(0.041)BM+(0.040)Ta+31.083. This approach provides a standardized threshold for differentiating torpor from normothermia that is based on use of energy, the actual currency of interest for studies of torpor in the wild. Few laboratory studies have presented the time-course data required to quantify T(b-onset), so more data are needed to validate this relationship.

  14. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.La fragmentación del hábitat conduce al aislamiento y la reducción de los hábitats, además provoca una serie de efectos negativos sobre las poblaciones naturales, afectando la riqueza, abundancia y distribución de las especies de animales. Dentro de este contexto, los corredores biológicos sirven

  15. The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedloff, Adam C.; Wilson, John C.; Engeman, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    The influences of wildfire through population dynamics and life history for two species of small mammals in a south-east Queensland heathland on Bribie Island are presented. Trapping results provided information on breeding, immigration and movement of Melomys burtoni (Grassland melomys) and Rattus lutreolus (Swamp rat). We first investigated and optimized the design of trapping methodology for producing mark-recapture population estimates to compare two adjacent populations, one of which was subjected to an extensive wildfire during the two year study. We consider how well rodents survive wildfire and whether the immediate impacts of fire or altered habitat have the greatest impact on each species. We found the R. lutreolus population was far more influenced by the fire than the M. burtoni population both immediately after the fire and over 18 months of vegetation recovery.

  16. Abundance of small mammals in the Atlantic Forest (ASMAF): a data set for analyzing tropical community patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marcos S L; Barros, Camila S; Delciellos, Ana C; Guerra, Edú B; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Kajin, Maja; Alvarez, Martin R; Asfora, Paulo H; Astúa, Diego; Bergallo, Helena G; Cerqueira, Rui; Geise, Lena; Gentile, Rosana; Grelle, Carlos Eduardo V; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Oliveira, Leonardo C; Weksler, Marcelo; Vieira, Marcus V

    2017-11-01

    Local abundance results from the interaction between populational and environmental processes. The abundance of the species in a community is also one of the most basic descriptors of its structure. Despite its importance, information about species abundances is fragmentary, creating a knowledge gap about species abundances known as the Prestonian Shortfall. Here we present a comprehensive data set of small mammal abundance in the Atlantic Forest. Data were extracted from 114 published sources and from unpublished data collected by our research groups spanning from 1943 to 2017. The data set includes 1,902 records of at least 111 species in 155 localities, totaling 42,617 individuals represented. We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forested habitats of the Atlantic Forest, (2) had a minimum sampling effort of at least 500 trap-nights, and (3) contained species abundance data in detail. For each study, we recorded (1) latitude and longitude, (2) name of the locality, (3) employed sampling effort, (4) type of traps used, (5) study year, (6) country, and (7) species name with (8) its respective abundances. For every locality, we also obtained information regarding its (9) ecoregion, (10) predominant vegetation type, and (11) biogeographic subdivision. Whenever necessary, we also (12) updated the species names as new species were described and some genera suffered taxonomic revision since the publication. The localities are spread across the Atlantic Forest and most of the small mammal species known to occur in Atlantic Forest are present in the data set, making it representative of communities of the entire biome. This data set can be used to address various patterns in community ecology and geographical ecology, as the relation between local abundance and environmental suitability, hypothesis regarding local and regional factors on community structuring, species abundance distributions (SAD), functional and phylogenetic mechanisms on community assembling

  17. Using small mammals to understand the effects of urbanization in Southern California over the last 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Smiley, T. M.; Terry, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental and climate change due to urbanization has been occurring for the last 100 years, but we do not yet know the full extent of these impacts on ecosystems at local to regional scales. To investigate these impacts, we leverage extensive historical collections of small mammals, which can serve as indicators of past and modern ecosystem change. Here, we use the stable isotopic composition of hair from Peromyscus maniculatus, a widespread generalist rodent, to better understand the influence of urbanization over the last 100 years. The stable isotopic composition of small-mammal diets are recorded in the hair of these historical specimens, thereby providing a long-term record of climate and environmental change. Carbon isotopes (δ13C) can inform about the vegetation composition of an animal's diet, while nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) offer a view into agriculture signatures and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen-based pollutants through time. We focus on Los Angeles and southern California, which has experienced a population increase of 15 million people and dramatic land-use change over the past century. We have collected hair from historical P. maniculatus specimens found in natural history museums across the county to investigate spatial and temporal changes in δ13C and δ15N in southern California. We also use specimens from nearby and relatively pristine Channel Islands as a comparison to assess the impacts of anthropogenic land-use change on the mainland. We will present `isoscapes', or isotope landscape models for the δ13C and δ15N of P. maniculatus, in southern California through time. Understanding the isotopic signatures of urbanization provides better insight to the ecosystem response to urbanization and climate change and is useful for guiding future conservation and management decisions.

  18. Responses of small mammals to clear-cutting in temperate and boreal forests of Europe: a meta-analysis and review

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Zwolak, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the responses of small mammals to clear-cutting in temperate and boreal forests in Europe. We conducted a meta-analysis of published research on most often studied small mammal species (the striped field mouse, the yellow-necked mouse, the wood mouse, the field vole, the common vole, the bank vole, the Eurasian harvest mouse, the common shrew and the Eurasian pygmy shrew), comparing their abundance on clear-cuts and in unharvested stands. For four other species (the gray-sided vol...

  19. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  20. Reconstructing the Phylogenetic History of Long-Term Effective Population Size and Life-History Traits Using Patterns of Amino Acid Replacement in Mitochondrial Genomes of Mammals and Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabholz, Benoit; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The nearly neutral theory, which proposes that most mutations are deleterious or close to neutral, predicts that the ratio of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), and potentially also the ratio of radical over conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kr/Kc), are negatively correlated with effective population size. Previous empirical tests, using life-history traits (LHT) such as body-size or generation-time as proxies for population size, have been consistent with these predictions. This suggests that large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of dN/dS or Kr/Kc might reveal interesting macroevolutionary patterns in the variation in effective population size among lineages. In this work, we further develop an integrative probabilistic framework for phylogenetic covariance analysis introduced previously, so as to estimate the correlation patterns between dN/dS, Kr/Kc, and three LHT, in mitochondrial genomes of birds and mammals. Kr/Kc displays stronger and more stable correlations with LHT than does dN/dS, which we interpret as a greater robustness of Kr/Kc, compared with dN/dS, the latter being confounded by the high saturation of the synonymous substitution rate in mitochondrial genomes. The correlation of Kr/Kc with LHT was robust when controlling for the potentially confounding effects of nucleotide compositional variation between taxa. The positive correlation of the mitochondrial Kr/Kc with LHT is compatible with previous reports, and with a nearly neutral interpretation, although alternative explanations are also possible. The Kr/Kc model was finally used for reconstructing life-history evolution in birds and mammals. This analysis suggests a fairly large-bodied ancestor in both groups. In birds, life-history evolution seems to have occurred mainly through size reduction in Neoavian birds, whereas in placental mammals, body mass evolution shows disparate trends across subclades. Altogether, our work represents a further step toward a more

  1. Impacts of forest farm practice on small to medium-sized mammals at Kemasul forest reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nor Bazilah; Abdul-Rahim, Ahmad Rizal; Md-Nor, Shukor; Mohd-Taib, Farah Shafawati

    2018-04-01

    Exploitation of forest for commercial agriculture has taken toll on wildlife species worldwide. A forest farm project with the aim of compensating the forest loss has been implemented in Kemasul Forest Reserve, of Pahang State, Malaysia through plantation of fast growing and adaptable plant species. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of this practice on diversity. The study was conducted in a long strip of forest fragment, where two study sites with different landscape matrix types were chosen; oil palm plantation (JR) and Acacia mangium plantations (CM). A total of 75 individuals from 13 species and six families were collected at both sites. The result shows forest with A. mangium plantations matrix types yield higher species diversity. There are 10 shared species that can be found at both study sites including Callosciurus notatus, Hystrix brachyura, Macaca nemestrina, and Tupaia glis. However, some species only existed at selected sites such as Leopoldamys sabanus which can only be found at JR. On the other hand, Callosciurus nigrovittatus, Viverra tangalunga and Paradoxurus hermaphroditus were only recorded at CM. Out of all individuals collected, four of them are protected species as reported by IUCN. Callosciurus nigrovittatus is listed as Near Threatened while the other three species (Maxomys rajah, Maxomys whiteheadi, and Macaca nemestrina) are Vulnerable. If conservation efforts in Kemasul Forest Reserved are neglected, these four species would be exposed to critical threats that might cause them facing extinction in the future. Mann Whitney U test shows no significant difference of distribution and species richness of small to medium-sized mammals in both study sites (U=51.5, p=0.59). This study therefore reveals that although the compensatory forest plantation initiatives yield positive effect on diversity of mammal's species, it does not necessarily provide ample food resources to the wildlife, instead it serves as important buffer

  2. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  3. Initial response of small ground-dwelling mammals to forest alternative buffers along headwater streams in the Washington Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Martin G. Raphael; Christopher S. Nations; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of alternative designs of forested buffer treatments along headwater streams on small ground-dwelling mammals in managed forests in western Washington, USA. Over three summers (one pretreatment and two posttreatment), we trapped 19 mammalian species along 23 streams in the northern Coast Range. We compared faunal communities in...

  4. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S.; Tracey, Jeff A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoidpaved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads,but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  5. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  6. Radiobiological effects in small mammals populations dwelled at radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sypin, V.D.; Osipov, A.N.; Pol'skij, O.G.; Elakov, A.L.; Egorov, V.G.; Synsynys, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in evaluating the ecological acceptability of a disposal system for radioactive waste is in preventing the ecological risk that may arise from exposures in the distant future. There is uncertainty surrounding any estimate of these doses or risks due to lack of knowledge about future conditions. Therefore, the adequate estimation of the ecological acceptability of a radioactive waste disposal system required a complex radioecological and radiobiological approach. Environmental surveillance at the Sergievo-Posadsky radioactive waste disposal system of the Scientific and Industrial Association Radon in additional to a standard complex radiological testing includes also the study of the radiobiological effects in different biological objects sampled from the contaminated areas. In present report the results obtained on small rodents (mice and voles) sampled from the strict mode and fence zones of this disposal system are displayed and discussed. (author)

  7. Ecological studies of small mammals in a nuclear site on Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Ecological studies of small vertebrates in nuclear event sites in NTS began in spring 1977 with the establishment of a permanent live-trapping grid in Little Feller II. These study areas are located in Area 18, a relatively homogeneous area vegetatively and topographically. Most of the flora and fauna are typical of the Great Basin desert found in southern Nevada. Dominant vegetation includes Artemesia spp. and to a lesser extent Atriplex. Salsola is an abundant weed in areas that have been mechanically disturbed such as the vicinity of GZ. A 400-station live-trapping grid was established in Little Feller II, April 1977. Sixteen lines of live traps (25 traps per line, each trap 50 feet apart) comprise the 8.4 hectare grid encompassing GZ. Nine trapping periods have been completed to date totaling over 10,000 trap nights. Over 400 small vertebrates have been marked for permanent identification in the grid. Over 60 known residents (animals marked 3 months previously and recaptured in the same vicinity) have been collected and prepared for shipping; however, radioanalytical results were not available to include in this report. Both census and field note observations were used to develop an inventory of the vertebrates found in the study areas. Sufficient data have been generated from Little Feller II to estimate density of rodents. These data and comparative data from Area 5 (Mohave Desert), Area 11 (Transition), and Area 13 (Great Basin) are presented. It was readily apparent that rodents in general were more numerous in Little Feller II. In addition, Dipodomys ordii, a Great Basin species, was an important new addition to the rodent fauna

  8. Assessment of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis and first report of natural infection with Leishmania braziliensis in two sigmodontines in northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María S; Fraschina, Jimena; Acardi, Soraya; Liotta, Domingo J; Lestani, Eduardo; Giuliani, Magalí; Busch, María; Salomón, O Daniel

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to the knowledge of the role of small mammals in the transmission cycle of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis, we studied the small mammal community and its temporal and spatial association with phlebotominae, as well as small mammal infection by Leishmania spp. by PCR-RFLP analyses in an endemic area of northeastern Argentina. Ten small mammal samplings were conducted (2007-2009, 7506 Sherman trap nights and 422 cage trap nights). In two of these samplings, 16 capture stations each one consisting of a CDC light trap to capture phlebotominae, two to four Sherman traps and two cage traps were placed. We found co-occurrence of phlebotominae and small mammal captures in four stations, which were all the stations with small mammal captures and yielded 97% (2295 specimens, including 21 gravid females) of the total phlebotominae captures, suggesting that small mammals may provide a potential source of blood for phlebotominae females. One Didelphis albiventris and two Rattus rattus were associated with high captures of Nyssomyia whitmani, vector of L. braziliensis in the study area. The PCR-RFLP analyses confirm the presence of L. braziliensis in two sigmodontine small mammals (Akodon sp. and Euryoryzomys russatus) for the first time in Argentina, to our knowledge.

  9. Feeding success of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae) experimentally exposed to small mammal hosts in an endemic focus of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Gregory H; Becerra, María Teresa; Travi, Bruno L

    2003-12-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is the vector of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia. Differences in feeding success were revealed, when this phlebotomine sand fly was fed on five species of small mammal hosts from an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis. In each trial, 50 female sand flies were provided access to similar-sized depilated areas of the hind foot of each of 44 individual mammals and allowed to feed for 30 minutes. The number of engorged sand flies was counted at the end of each trial and compared among host species by analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Sand flies fed least successfully on Sciurus granatensis, a common squirrel in the endemic area. It has not been found infected with L. chagasi. Intermediate numbers of sand flies engorged on Heteromys anomalus and Zygodontomys brevicauda, but these two mammals have not been found infected with L. chagasi and are not expected to be important in transmission. Sand flies fed most successfully on Didelphis marsupialis and Proechimys canicollis. These are the two most abundant mammals in the endemic area and frequently are infected. Results provided further evidence that these two species are the wild mammals with the greatest impact on transmission of L. chagasi in northern Colombia.

  10. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Mora, Miguel A; May, Thomas W; Phalen, David N

    2010-11-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  11. Change in genetic size of small-closed populations: lessons from a domestic mammal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghafouri-Kesbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor changes in genetic size of a small-closed population of Iranian Zandi sheep, by using pedigree information from animals born between 1991 and 2005. The genetic size was assessed by using measures based on the probability of identity-by-descend of genes (coancestry, f, and effective population size, Ne, as well as measures based on probability of gene origin (effective number of founders, f e, effective number of founder genomes, f g, and effective number of non-founder genomes, f ne. Average coancestry, or the degree of genetic similarity of individuals, increased from 0.81% to 1.44% during the period 1993 to 2005, at the same time that Ne decreased from 263 to 93. The observed trend for f e was irregular throughout the experiment in a way that f e was 68, 87, 77, 92, and 80 in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005, respectively. Simultaneously, f g, the most informative effective number, decreased from 61 to 35. The index of genetic diversity (GD which was obtained from estimates of f g,decreased about 2% throughout the period studied. In addition, a noticeable reduction was observed in the estimates of f ne from 595 in 1993 to 61 in 2005. The higher than 1 ratio of f e to f g indicated the presence of bottlenecks and genetic drift in the development of this population of Zandi sheep. From 1993 to 1999, f ne was much higher than f e, thereby indicating that with respect to loss of genetic diversity, the unequal contribution of founders was more important than the random genetic drift in non-founder generations. Subsequently, random genetic drift in non-founder generations was the major reason for f e> f ne. The minimization of average coancestry in new reproductive individuals was recommended as a means of preserving the population against a further loss in genetic diversity.

  12. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting some small mammals from Northern Turkey with new tick-host associations and locality records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Selçuk, Ahmet Yesari; Kefelioğlu, Haluk

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations. A total of 273 (74 larvae, 194 nymphs, 5 females) hard ticks were collected from 88 mammalian samples. Ticks were identified as Ixodes laguri (1 nymph), I. redikorzevi (22 larvae, 186 nymphs, 5 females), I. ricinus (52 larvae, 4 nymphs) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (3 nymphs). Here, we also provided new tick mammalian host associations for Turkey. In addition, I. laguri and I. redikorzevi ticks were recorded for the first time in Samsun province of Turkey.

  13. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  14. Change in genetic size of small-closed populations: Lessons from a domestic mammal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri-Kesbi, Farhad

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor changes in genetic size of a small-closed population of Iranian Zandi sheep, by using pedigree information from animals born between 1991 and 2005. The genetic size was assessed by using measures based on the probability of identity-by-descend of genes (coancestry, f, and effective population size, N(e) ), as well as measures based on probability of gene origin (effective number of founders, f(e) , effective number of founder genomes, f(g) , and effective number of non-founder genomes, f(ne) ). Average coancestry, or the degree of genetic similarity of individuals, increased from 0.81% to 1.44% during the period 1993 to 2005, at the same time that N(e) decreased from 263 to 93. The observed trend for f(e) was irregular throughout the experiment in a way that f(e) was 68, 87, 77, 92, and 80 in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005, respectively. Simultaneously, f(g) , the most informative effective number, decreased from 61 to 35. The index of genetic diversity (GD) which was obtained from estimates of f(g) , decreased about 2% throughout the period studied. In addition, a noticeable reduction was observed in the estimates of f(ne) from 595 in 1993 to 61 in 2005. The higher than 1 ratio of f(e) to f(g) indicated the presence of bottlenecks and genetic drift in the development of this population of Zandi sheep. From 1993 to 1999, f(ne) was much higher than f(e) , thereby indicating that with respect to loss of genetic diversity, the unequal contribution of founders was more important than the random genetic drift in non-founder generations. Subsequently, random genetic drift in non-founder generations was the major reason for f(e) > f(ne) . The minimization of average coancestry in new reproductive individuals was recommended as a means of preserving the population against a further loss in genetic diversity.

  15. The impact of humidity on evaporative cooling in small desert birds exposed to high air temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2014-01-01

    Environmental temperatures that exceed body temperature (Tb) force endothermic animals to rely solely on evaporative cooling to dissipate heat. However, evaporative heat dissipation can be drastically reduced by environmental humidity, imposing a thermoregulatory challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of humidity on the thermoregulation of desert birds and to compare the sensitivity of cutaneous and respiratory evaporation to reduced vapor density gradients. Rates of evaporative water loss, metabolic rate, and Tb were measured in birds exposed to humidities ranging from ∼2 to 30 g H2O m(-3) (0%-100% relative humidity at 30°C) at air temperatures between 44° and 56°C. In sociable weavers, a species that dissipates heat primarily through panting, rates of evaporative water loss were inhibited by as much as 36% by high humidity at 48°C, and these birds showed a high degree of hyperthermia. At lower temperatures (40°-44°C), evaporative water loss was largely unaffected by humidity in this species. In Namaqua doves, which primarily use cutaneous evaporation, increasing humidity reduced rates of evaporative water loss, but overall rates of water loss were lower than those observed in sociable weavers. Our data suggest that cutaneous evaporation is more efficient than panting, requiring less water to maintain Tb at a given temperature, but panting appears less sensitive to humidity over the air temperature range investigated here.

  16. Silvicolous on a small scale: possibilities and limitations of habitat suitability models for small, elusive mammals in conservation management and landscape planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nina I; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution and endangerment can be assessed by habitat-suitability modelling. This study addresses methodical aspects of habitat suitability modelling and includes an application example in actual species conservation and landscape planning. Models using species presence-absence data are preferable to presence-only models. In contrast to species presence data, absences are rarely recorded. Therefore, many studies generate pseudo-absence data for modelling. However, in this study model quality was higher with null samples collected in the field. Next to species data the choice of landscape data is crucial for suitability modelling. Landscape data with high resolution and ecological relevance for the study species improve model reliability and quality for small elusive mammals like Muscardinus avellanarius. For large scale assessment of species distribution, models with low-detailed data are sufficient. For regional site-specific conservation issues like a conflict-free site for new wind turbines, high-detailed regional models are needed. Even though the overlap with optimally suitable habitat for M. avellanarius was low, the installation of wind plants can pose a threat due to habitat loss and fragmentation. To conclude, modellers should clearly state the purpose of their models and choose the according level of detail for species and environmental data.

  17. Small-mammal density estimation: A field comparison of grid-based vs. web-based density estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, R.R.; Yates, Terry L.; Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Dunnum, J.L.; Franklin, A.B.; Friggens, M.T.; Lubow, B.C.; Miller, M.; Olson, G.S.; Parmenter, Cheryl A.; Pollard, J.; Rexstad, E.; Shenk, T.M.; Stanley, T.R.; White, Gary C.

    2003-01-01

    blind” test allowed us to evaluate the influence of expertise and experience in calculating density estimates in comparison to simply using default values in programs CAPTURE and DISTANCE. While the rodent sample sizes were considerably smaller than the recommended minimum for good model results, we found that several models performed well empirically, including the web-based uniform and half-normal models in program DISTANCE, and the grid-based models Mb and Mbh in program CAPTURE (with AÌ‚ adjusted by species-specific full mean maximum distance moved (MMDM) values). These models produced accurate DÌ‚ values (with 95% confidence intervals that included the true D values) and exhibited acceptable bias but poor precision. However, in linear regression analyses comparing each model's DÌ‚ values to the true D values over the range of observed test densities, only the web-based uniform model exhibited a regression slope near 1.0; all other models showed substantial slope deviations, indicating biased estimates at higher or lower density values. In addition, the grid-based DÌ‚ analyses using full MMDM values for WÌ‚ area adjustments required a number of theoretical assumptions of uncertain validity, and we therefore viewed their empirical successes with caution. Finally, density estimates from the independent analysts were highly variable, but estimates from web-based approaches had smaller mean square errors and better achieved confidence-interval coverage of D than did grid-based approaches. Our results support the contention that web-based approaches for density estimation of small-mammal populations are both theoretically and empirically superior to grid-based approaches, even when sample size is far less than often recommended. In view of the increasing need for standardized environmental measures for comparisons among ecosystems and through time, analytical models based on distance sampling appear to offer accurate density estimation approaches for research

  18. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E. [New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  19. Climate and landscape in Italy during Late Epigravettian. The Late Glacial small mammal sequence of Riparo Tagliente (Stallavena di Grezzana, Verona, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Claudio; Luzi, Elisa; Canini, Guido Montanari; Guerreschi, Antonio; Fontana, Federica

    2018-03-01

    The site of Riparo Tagliente (north-eastern Italy) contains one of the main Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequences of south-western Europe. It also represents a key site for the study of human adaptation to Late Glacial environmental changes in the southern Alpine area. These climatic and environmental conditions are here reconstructed based on small mammal assemblages, using the Bioclimatic model and Habitat Weighting methods. Climate proxies indicate a rise in temperature during the transition between HE1 and the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, while the landscape surrounding the shelter was still dominated by open grasslands. By comparing the data obtained from Riparo Tagliente with other coeval small mammal faunas from the Italian Peninsula and Europe we contribute to the reconstruction of the processes of faunal renewal registered during the Late Glacial across the continent and of the climatic and environmental context in which the Late Epigravettian hunter-gatherer groups lived.

  20. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Smith, Nick G C

    2005-11-10

    Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC), which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) to be under positive selection in mammals. We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8). The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  1. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  2. Using stable isotopes to track the effects of deforestation on small-mammal ecology in the Pacific Northwest over the last 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, N. R.; Cotton, J. M.; Smiley, T. M.; Terry, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape, land-use, and climate change are important factors in determining ecosystem change over a range of spatio-temporal scales. For example, within small-mammal communities, the spread of agriculture, rapid urbanization, and deforestation have been shown to alter species composition and diet, thus potentially disrupting ecological interactions and reshaping ecosystems. Small mammals integrate the isotopic composition of their diet and drinking water into their hair and therefore serve as useful proxies for vegetation and water resources in their habitat. To better understand how forest loss and land-cover change influence small-mammal ecology in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), we analyzed the hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of hair from historical Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse) specimens housed in natural history museums across the country. While deforestation along the east coast occurred hundreds of years ago, the loss of forests on the west coast occurred more recently, beginning around 1930. We use early 20th century specimens of this widespread and abundant generalist species to better understand ecosystem changes that occurred over the past 100 years of local and regional deforestation. Changing forest composition and structure during deforestation can influence both broad-scale hydrological cycling and local ecosystems. Variation in O and H isotopic composition corresponds to changes in the hydrological cycle, such as changes in the source and amount of precipitation, and changes in the moisture conditions in local ecosystems. We will present this spatial and temporal variability in the form of isoscapes, or δ18O and δD isotope landscape models, of P. maniculatus hair in the western forests of the PNW through time. Investigating isotopic signatures in small mammals can help us better understand ecosystem response to anthropogenic land-use and climate change.

  3. Artificial nests as an alternative to studies of arboreal small mammal populations: a five-year study in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Loretto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great diversity of Brazilian Atlantic forest small mammals, natural history of most species is unknown due to their cryptic and nocturnal habits, but also due to the inadequacy of methods to capture some species, especially those of arboreal habits. A new technique, based on the use of artificial nests (AN to record arboreal marsupials, is presented. Artificial nests were combined with traditional live traps to study the population ecology of four didelphid marsupial species. After 62 months of monitoring, 119 individuals were recorded 243 times (total success = 5.2%. Only 26 individuals (22% were recorded by both AN and live trap methods, and two of the four species were never captured by live traps, only by AN. Live traps alone would have provided biased data of the structure of small mammal assemblages, creating artificial tendencies in population dynamics of many species. Detectability estimates based on mark-recapture data could correct bias resulting from the use only live traps, but these estimates require that at least some individuals of each age class or stage are captured. Only the combination of AN and live traps can produce more accurate data on population dynamics and assemblage structure. This study demonstrates that artificial nests represent a new method that should be combined with live traps in studies of small mammal assemblages and populations.

  4. Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, Timo; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus. - In polluted floodplain areas, dietary exposure to metals poses a larger risk for small mammals in a carnivorous than in a herbivorous food chain

  5. Fossilized skin reveals coevolution with feathers and metabolism in feathered dinosaurs and early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Zhang, Fucheng; Kearns, Stuart L; Orr, Patrick J; Toulouse, André; Foley, Tara; Hone, David W E; Rogers, Chris S; Benton, Michael J; Johnson, Diane; Xu, Xing; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2018-05-25

    Feathers are remarkable evolutionary innovations that are associated with complex adaptations of the skin in modern birds. Fossilised feathers in non-avian dinosaurs and basal birds provide insights into feather evolution, but how associated integumentary adaptations evolved is unclear. Here we report the discovery of fossil skin, preserved with remarkable nanoscale fidelity, in three non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs and a basal bird from the Cretaceous Jehol biota (China). The skin comprises patches of desquamating epidermal corneocytes that preserve a cytoskeletal array of helically coiled α-keratin tonofibrils. This structure confirms that basal birds and non-avian dinosaurs shed small epidermal flakes as in modern mammals and birds, but structural differences imply that these Cretaceous taxa had lower body heat production than modern birds. Feathered epidermis acquired many, but not all, anatomically modern attributes close to the base of the Maniraptora by the Middle Jurassic.

  6. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall) of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian) forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian) forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods) and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because of

  7. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard David Mason-Romo

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving the functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages in dry tropical forests using both traits recorded from literature and a demographic database. We assessed the drivers (abundance and biomass, temperature and rainfall of taxonomic richness and functional diversity for two rain-driven seasons in two adjacent but distinct forests-upland and lowland (arroyo or riparian forests. Our analysis found that rainfall, both seasonal and atypical, was the primary factor driving functional and taxonomic diversity of small-mammal assemblages. Functional responses differed between the two types of forests, however, with effects being stronger in the harsher conditions of the upland forests than in the less severe conditions prevailing in the arroyo (riparian forest. The latter also supports a richer, more diverse, and more stable small-mammal assemblage. These findings highlight the importance of climate to tropical biological diversity, as extreme climate events (hurricanes, droughts and floods and disruption of rainfall patterns were shown to decrease biodiversity. They also support the need to preserve these habitats, as their high taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy makes them resilient against global climate disruption and local extreme events. Tropical dry forests constitute a potential reservoir for biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Unfortunately, these forests are among the most endangered terrestrial ecosystems because

  8. Diversity and Impacts of Mining on the Non-Volant Small Mammal Communities of Two Vegetation Types in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, Natália Carneiro; Ferreguetti, Átilla Colombo; Gettinger, Donald; Leal, Pricila; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Bergallo, Helena Godoy

    2016-01-01

    The Carajás National Forest contains some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. The majority of the minerals are found below a plant community known as Savana Metalófila, or "Canga", which represents only 3% of the landscape within the Carajás National Forest (CNF). The aim of our study was to understand the diversity of community of non-volant small mammals in the two predominant vegetation types: Ombrophilous Forest and Canga, and to examine how mining impacts these communities. Sampling was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011 in 11 sampling sites divided by the total area of Canga and 12 sampling sites in the forest, totalizing 23 sites. Of these, 12 sites (Canga and Forest) were considered impacted areas located close to the mine (mine. We recorded 28 species, 11 from the Order Didelphimorphia and 17 from the Order Rodentia. The two forest types shared 68.42% of the species found in the CNF. A gradient analysis (Non-metric multidimensional scaling) revealed that the first axis clearly separated the non-flying small mammal communities by vegetation type. Occupancy models showed that the detectability of species was affected by the distance from the mining activities. Of all the small mammals analyzed, 10 species were positively affected by the distance from mining in areas impacted (e.g. more likely to be detected farther from mining areas) and detectability was lower in impacted areas. However, three species were negatively affected by the distance from mining, with higher detectability in the impacted areas, and seven species showed no effect of their proximity to mining operations. To date, there are no studies in Brazil about the impact of mining on mammals or other vertebrates. This study reveals that the effect of mining may go beyond the forest destruction caused by the opening of the mining pits, but also may negatively affect sensitive wildlife species.

  9. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Minderman

    Full Text Available The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m, bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour decreases from 84% (71-91% to 28% (11-54% as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89% to 59% (32-81%, and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  10. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Park, Kirsty J

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour) decreases from 84% (71-91%) to 28% (11-54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89%) to 59% (32-81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  11. Salmonella spp. and antibiotic-resistant strains in wild mammals and birds in north-western Italy from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen of economic importance. In Europe, salmonellosis is the second food-borne infection, in Italy, Salmonella is still the major cause of food-borne outbreaks. In Europe, there are many Salmonella surveillance plans on farmed animals, while Salmonella survey of wild animals is occasionally performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella including the antibiotic-resistant strains in wild animals. Between 2002 and 2010, 2,713 wild animals (canids, mustelids, birds, rodents, ungulates, were collected in north-western Italy and tested for Salmonella by classical microbiological culture method followed by serological and biochemical typing. One hundred and seventeen wild animals (63 canids, 25 mustelids, 24 birds, 5 ungulates were found positive for Salmonella (4.3%. One hundred and thirty strains, belonging to several serotypes were isolated, and S. Typhimurium was the most common serotype found. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk-diffusion test on 88 strains. Almost all the analyzed strains (97.7% showed resistance/intermediate resistance to at least one class of antibiotics and the highest resistance values were observed for the tetracycline class. In conclusion, zoonotic and antibiotic-resistant serotypes were found in many species of wildlife.

  12. Seasonal fluctuations of small mammal and flea communities in a Ugandan plague focus: evidence to implicate Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp. as key hosts in Yersinia pestis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Monaghan, Andrew; Borchert, Jeff N; Mpanga, Joseph T; Atiku, Linda A; Boegler, Karen A; Montenieri, John; MacMillan, Katherine; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2015-01-08

    The distribution of human plague risk is strongly associated with rainfall in the tropical plague foci of East Africa, but little is known about how the plague bacterium is maintained during periods between outbreaks or whether environmental drivers trigger these outbreaks. We collected small mammals and fleas over a two year period in the West Nile region of Uganda to examine how the ecological community varies seasonally in a region with areas of both high and low risk of human plague cases. Seasonal changes in the small mammal and flea communities were examined along an elevation gradient to determine whether small mammal and flea populations exhibit differences in their response to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation, temperature, and crop harvests in areas within (above 1300 m) and outside (below 1300 m) of a model-defined plague focus. The abundance of two potential enzootic host species (Arvicanthis niloticus and Crocidura spp.) increased during the plague season within the plague focus, but did not show the same increase at lower elevations outside this focus. In contrast, the abundance of the domestic rat population (Rattus rattus) did not show significant seasonal fluctuations regardless of locality. Arvicanthis niloticus abundance was negatively associated with monthly precipitation at a six month lag and positively associated with current monthly temperatures, and Crocidura spp. abundance was positively associated with precipitation at a three month lag and negatively associated with current monthly temperatures. The abundance of A. niloticus and Crocidura spp. were both positively correlated with the harvest of millet and maize. The association between the abundance of several small mammal species and rainfall is consistent with previous models of the timing of human plague cases in relation to precipitation in the West Nile region. The seasonal increase in the abundance of key potential host species within the plague focus, but not outside of

  13. Mechanistic drivers of flexibility in summit metabolic rates of small birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Swanson

    Full Text Available Flexible metabolic phenotypes allow animals to adjust physiology to better fit ecological or environmental demands, thereby influencing fitness. Summit metabolic rate (Msum = maximal thermogenic capacity is one such flexible trait. Skeletal muscle and heart masses and myocyte metabolic intensity are potential drivers of Msum flexibility in birds. We examined correlations of skeletal muscle and heart masses and pectoralis muscle citrate synthase (CS activity (an indicator of cellular metabolic intensity with Msum in house sparrows (Passer domesticus and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis to determine whether these traits are associated with Msum variation. Pectoralis mass was positively correlated with Msum for both species, but no significant correlation remained for either species after accounting for body mass (Mb variation. Combined flight and leg muscle masses were also not significantly correlated with Msum for either species. In contrast, heart mass was significantly positively correlated with Msum for juncos and nearly so (P = 0.054 for sparrows. Mass-specific and total pectoralis CS activities were significantly positively correlated with Msum for sparrows, but not for juncos. Thus, myocyte metabolic intensity influences Msum variation in house sparrows, although the stronger correlation of total (r = 0.495 than mass-specific (r = 0.378 CS activity with Msum suggests that both pectoralis mass and metabolic intensity impact Msum. In contrast, neither skeletal muscle masses nor pectoralis metabolic intensity varied with Msum in juncos. However, heart mass was associated with Msum variation in both species. These data suggest that drivers of metabolic flexibility are not uniform among bird species.

  14. Effects of prescribed burning on small mammal, reptile, and tick populations on the Talladega National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Adams; Chris Edmondson; Damien Willis; Robert Carter

    2013-01-01

    A study of the relationship between prescribed burning and tick populations was conducted in the Talladega National Forest, AL. The study area for mammal and tick sampling consisted of 12 plots ranging from the unburned control site to sites burned within the previous 5 years. The study area for reptile sampling consisted of four plots ranging from the unburned control...

  15. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  16. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C. Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(−)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  17. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. From mammals back to birds: Host-switch of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma australe from pinnipeds to the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Brandão, Martha; Georgieva, Simona; Raga, Juan Antonio; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Luque, José Luis; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when 'donor' and 'target' hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations). This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data from acanthocephalans from penguins indicates that they belong to Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. Partial fragments of the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes were amplified from isolates from penguins and two pinniped species (i.e. South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis) to confirm this identification. Infection parameters clearly differ between penguins and the two pinniped species, which were significantly lower in S. magellanicus. The sex ratio of C. australe also differed between penguins and pinnipeds; in S. magellanicus was strongly biased against males, while in pinnipeds it was close to 1:1. Females of C. australe from O. flavescens were smaller than those from S. magellanicus and A. australis. However, fecundity (i.e. the proportion of fully developed eggs) was lower and more variable in females collected from S. magellanicus. At first glance, the occurrence of reproductive individuals of C. australe in Magellanic penguins could be interpreted as an adaptive colonization of a novel avian host through favourable mutations. However, it could also be considered, perhaps more likely, as an example of ecological fitting through the use of a plesimorphic (host) resource, since the ancestors of Corynosoma infected aquatic birds.

  19. From mammals back to birds: Host-switch of the acanthocephalan Corynosoma australe from pinnipeds to the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Servando Hernández-Orts

    Full Text Available Trophically-transmitted parasites are regularly exposed to potential new hosts through food web interactions. Successful colonization, or switching, to novel hosts, occur readily when 'donor' and 'target' hosts are phylogenetically related, whereas switching between distantly related hosts is rare and may result from stochastic factors (i.e. rare favourable mutations. This study investigates a host-switching event between a marine acanthocephalan specific to pinnipeds that is apparently able to reproduce in Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus from Brazil. Detailed analysis of morphological and morphometrical data from acanthocephalans from penguins indicates that they belong to Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. Partial fragments of the 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes were amplified from isolates from penguins and two pinniped species (i.e. South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis to confirm this identification. Infection parameters clearly differ between penguins and the two pinniped species, which were significantly lower in S. magellanicus. The sex ratio of C. australe also differed between penguins and pinnipeds; in S. magellanicus was strongly biased against males, while in pinnipeds it was close to 1:1. Females of C. australe from O. flavescens were smaller than those from S. magellanicus and A. australis. However, fecundity (i.e. the proportion of fully developed eggs was lower and more variable in females collected from S. magellanicus. At first glance, the occurrence of reproductive individuals of C. australe in Magellanic penguins could be interpreted as an adaptive colonization of a novel avian host through favourable mutations. However, it could also be considered, perhaps more likely, as an example of ecological fitting through the use of a plesimorphic (host resource, since the ancestors of Corynosoma infected aquatic birds.

  20. Small mammals in the diet of barn owls, Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes along the mid-Araguaia river in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G. Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed 286 Barn owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769, pellets from two nests in different environments along the mid-Araguaia River in central Brazil. Our analyses revealed that these owls feed mainly on small mammals, especially rodents. Owls from the riverbanks at Fazenda Santa Fé had a more diverse diet, preying mainly on rodents that typically inhabit riparian grasslands - Holochilus sciureus Wagner, 1842 - and forests - Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Oecomys spp., which probably also occur in forest borders or clearings. On the other hand, owls from an agroecosystem at Fazenda Lago Verde preyed mostly on rodent species common in these agrarian fields, Calomys tocantinsi Bonvicino, Lima & Almeida, 2003. Additionally, we compared small mammal richness estimates based on the analysis of owl pellets with estimates from live-trapping in the same areas. Owl pellets revealed two rodent species undetected by live traps - Euryoryzomys sp. and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 - and four rodent species were trapped, but not found in owl pellets - Oecomys roberti Thomas, 1904, Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887, Rhipidomys ipukensis Rocha, B.M.A. Costa & L.P. Costa, 2011, and Makalata didelphoides (Desmarest, 1817. Traps yielded higher species richness, but these two methods complement each other for surveying small rodents.

  1. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  2. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  3. Lead concentrations in small mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus) in urban and rural regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, M.; Streit, B.

    1989-01-01

    Lead concentrations in liver and femurs of 188 rodent and insectivorous mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus) were measured using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer for the analysis of solid materials. The animals were caught in two separate habitats: I. a large suburban mixed forest, adjoining a heavily-used highway; and II. a rural habitat with a seasonally-used nearby automobile racetrack. Environmental influences such as lead emissions from automobiles are important in determining lead concentrations as well as species specific and organspecific differences in accumulating lead, resource differences among habitats, and differences in metabolic rate. (orig.)

  4. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross Black-browed—Diomedea...

  5. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  6. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  7. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Convention and the subsequent 1936 Mexico Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian...

  8. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  9. Lentiviral vectors containing mouse Csf1r control elements direct macrophage-restricted expression in multiple species of birds and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Pridans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of macrophages requires signaling through the lineage-restricted receptor Csf1r. Macrophage-restricted expression of transgenic reporters based upon Csf1r requires the highly conserved Fms-intronic regulatory element (FIRE. We have created a lentiviral construct containing mouse FIRE and promoter. The lentivirus is capable of directing macrophage-restricted reporter gene expression in mouse, rat, human, pig, cow, sheep, and even chicken. Rat bone marrow cells transduced with the lentivirus were capable of differentiating into macrophages expressing the reporter gene in vitro. Macrophage-restricted expression may be desirable for immunization or immune response modulation, and for gene therapy for lysosomal storage diseases and some immunodeficiencies. The small size of the Csf1r transcription control elements will allow the insertion of large “cargo” for applications in gene therapy and vaccine delivery.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: Differences between small and large mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper tests Vrba's resource-use hypothesis, which predicts that generalist species have lower specialization and extinction rates than specialists, using the 879 species of South American mammals. We tested several predictions about this hypothesis using the biomic specialization index (BSI for each species, which is based on its geographical range within different climate-zones. The four predictions tested are: (1 there is a high frequency of species restricted to a single biome, which henceforth are referred to as stenobiomic species, (2 certain clades are more stenobiomic than others, (3 there is a higher proportion of biomic specialists in biomes that underwent through major expansion-contraction alternation due to the glacial-interglacial cycles, (4 certain combinations of inhabited biomes occur more frequently among species than do others. Results Our results are consistent with these predictions. (1 We found that 42 % of the species inhabit only one biome. (2 There are more generalists among species of Carnivora than in clades of herbivores. However, Artiodactyla, shows a distribution along the specialization gradient different from the one expected. (3 Biomic specialists are predominant in tropical rainforest and desert biomes. Nevertheless, we found some differences between small and large mammals in relation to these results. Stenobiomic species of micromammalian clades are more abundant in most biomes than expected by chance, while in the case of macromammalian clades stenobiomic species are more frequent than expected in tropical rainforest, tropical deciduous woodland and desert biomes only. (4 The most frequent combinations of inhabited biomes among the South American mammals are those with few biomes, i.e., the ones that suffered a higher rate of vicariance due to climatic cycles. Conclusion Our results agree with the resource-use hypothesis and, therefore, with a major role of the past climatic changes as

  12. Ecología energética y nutricional en aves herbívoras pequeñas Energetics and nutritional ecology of small herbivorous birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VICTORIA LOPEZ-CALLEJA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La herbivoría en aves es una estrategia poco común. Solo el 3% de las aves actuales consumen plantas como fuente de energía. Tanto la composición química de las plantas como las restricciones asociadas al vuelo y digestión en aves pueden explicar el reducido número de pequeños endotermos, como las aves, que son herbívoros. Nuestro objetivo es explicar como las aves herbívoras satisfacen sus requerimientos nutricionales y energéticos cuando consumen dietas extremadamente pobres. Para lo cual nos centramos en Phytotoma rara (Phytotomidae, posiblemente el ave herbívora más pequeña. Phytotoma rara presenta numerosas características, como el rápido tiempo de transito, un efectivo rompimiento de la pared celular, y la alta y constante actividad de las enzimas digestivas, que le permiten disponer de nutrientes y energía celulares, sin los costos energéticos asociados al desarrollo de estructuras anatómicas de fermentación bacteriana o lentos tiempos de transito. Estos son posiblemente adaptaciones cruciales en la evolución de la herbivoría en aves pequeñas.Herbivory is a rare strategy in birds. Only 3% of extant birds exploit plant material as an energy source. Both plant chemical composition and bird constraints associated to flight and digestion may explain why herbivory is so scarce in small endotherms such as birds. Here we tackle the question of how herbivorous birds meet energy/nutrient requirements when feeding on extremely poor diets. We focus on Phytotoma rara (Phytotomidae, possibly the smallest herbivorous bird. From our mini-review we conclude that several features such as the fast passage rates, an effective physical breakdown of cell walls, and constant and high activities of digestive enzymes make available the highly nutritious cell contents to the small herbivore, without the energy costs of anatomical structures for bacterial fermentation or slow passage rates. These are possible crucial adaptations in the

  13. Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado: comments on their potencial use for monitoring environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONVICINO C. R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks, were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue.

  14. Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado: comments on their potencial use for monitoring environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. BONVICINO

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks, were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue.

  15. Ecology, distribution, and predictive occurrence modeling of Palmers chipmunk (Tamias palmeri): a high-elevation small mammal endemic to the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Riddle, Brett R.; Mantooth, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Although montane sky islands surrounded by desert scrub and shrub steppe comprise a large part of the biological diversity of the Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America, comprehensive ecological and population demographic studies for high-elevation small mammals within these areas are rare. Here, we examine the ecology and population parameters of the Palmer’s chipmunk (Tamias palmeri) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, and present a predictive GIS-based distribution and probability of occurrence model at both home range and geographic spatial scales. Logistic regression analyses and Akaike Information Criterion model selection found variables of forest type, slope, and distance to water sources as predictive of chipmunk occurrence at the geographic scale. At the home range scale, increasing population density, decreasing overstory canopy cover, and decreasing understory canopy cover contributed to increased survival rates.

  16. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  17. Determinants of capture-recapture success: an evaluation of trapping methods to estimate population and community parameters for Atlantic forest small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila S. Barros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efficiently obtaining high-quality data on animal populations and communities is paramount for ecological and conservation studies. In many instances these data come from live-trapping, the success of which depends on various factors, such as the interaction between the trap's mechanisms and the morphological or ecological characteristics of the animals, and weather conditions that can affect both trap efficiency and animal behavior. Integrative approaches that address the simultaneous effects of these factors on capture-recapture success are rare. Here we contribute to close this knowledge gap by focusing on a large capture-recapture dataset from three 2-ha grids monitored for approximately two years (totaling 55.000 traps-night in the Morro Grande Forest Reserve, São Paulo, Brazil. The dataset contains data on 3608 captures of 1273 individuals from 24 species of Atlantic forest small mammals. We evaluated if mortality rates and the capture-recapture success of small mammals varied between two types of trap (Sherman and pitfall, and if the capture success of each type varied with age and sex of individuals, and with weather conditions. Our findings highlight that trap efficiency depends not only on the quantities considered (species, individuals or recaptures, but also on animal characteristics and weather conditions. Large pitfall traps should be used whenever the focus is on biodiversity and community parameters, since they captured more individuals and species. Studies focusing on demographic parameters require the combined use of pitfall and Sherman traps. While pitfall traps captured a larger number of individuals and a higher proportion of juveniles, Sherman traps provided higher recapture rates for most species.

  18. Predicting the effect of ionising radiation on biological populations: testing of a non-linear Leslie model applied to a small mammal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the application of a non-linear Leslie model for predicting the effects of ionising radiation on wild populations. The model assumes that, for protracted chronic irradiation, the effect-dose relationship is linear. In particular, the effects of radiation are modelled by relating the increase in the mortality rates of the individuals to the dose rates through a proportionality factor C. The model was tested using independent data and information from a series of experiments that were aimed at assessing the response to radiation of wild populations of meadow voles and whose results were described in the international literature. The comparison of the model results with the data selected from the above mentioned experiments showed that the model overestimated the detrimental effects of radiation on the size of irradiated populations when the values of C were within the range derived from the median lethal dose (L 50 ) for small mammals. The described non-linear model suggests that the non-expressed biotic potential of the species whose growth is limited by processes of environmental resistance, such as the competition among the individuals of the same or of different species for the exploitation of the available resources, can be a factor that determines a more effective response of population to the radiation effects. -- Highlights: • A model to assess the radiation effects on wild population is described. • The model is based on non-linear Leslie matrix. • The model is applied to small mammals living in an irradiated meadow. • Model output is conservative if effect-dose factor estimated from L 50 is used. • Systemic response to stress of populations in competitive conditions may be more effective

  19. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  20. Phylogeography of the Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, in East Asia: role of the Korean Peninsula as refugium for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Jin; Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lin, Liang-Kong; Lin, Y Kirk; Li, Yuchun; Shin, E-Hyun; Han, Sang-Hoon; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2018-04-01

    Many peninsulas in the temperate zone played an important role as refugia of various flora and fauna, and the southern Korean Peninsula also served as a refugium for many small mammals in East Asia during the Pleistocene. The Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, is a widely distributed species in East Asia, and is an appropriate model organism for exploring the role of the Korean Peninsula as a refugium of small mammals. Here, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity based on the entire sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). A Bayesian tree for 98 haplotypes detected in 228 C. shantungensis specimens from East Asia revealed the presence of three major groups with at least 5 subgroups. Most haplotypes were distributed according to their geographic proximity. Pairwise F ST 's and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation and variance among regions as well as among populations within region, implying little gene flow among local populations. Genetic evidence from South Korean islands, Jeju-do Island of South Korea, and Taiwan leads us to reject the hypothesis of recent population expansion. We observed unique island-type genetic characteristics consistent with geographic isolation and resultant genetic drift. Phylogeographic inference, together with estimates of genetic differentiation and diversity, suggest that the southern most part the Korean Peninsula, including offshore islands, played an important role as a refugium for C. shantungensis during the Pleistocene. However, the presence of several refugia on the mainland of northeast Asia is also proposed.

  1. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  2. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  3. Data ingegration - birds, mammals, fish, and invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  4. Marine bird and mammal data integration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  5. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  6. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  7. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  8. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the late Pleistocene to middle Holocene small mammal succession of El Harhoura 2 cave (Rabat-Témara, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Marion, Lucile; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohammed Abdeljalil; Denys, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between local and global climatic variations and the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens in Africa is complex, and North Africa may have played a major role in these events. In Morocco, very few studies are specifically dedicated to small fossil vertebrates, and neither taphonomic nor palaeoecological studies have been undertaken on these taxa, particularly in archaeological contexts. The late Pleistocene to middle Holocene succession of El Harhoura 2 cave, situated in the region of Témara, yields an exceptionally rich small vertebrate assemblage. We present the results of a first systematic, taphonomic, and palaeoecological study of the small mammals from Levels 1 to 8 of El Harhoura 2. The absence of bone sorting and polishing, as well as the presence of significant traces of digestion indicate that the small mammal bones were accumulated in the cave by predators and that no water transport occurred. Other traces observed on the surface of bones consist mainly of root marks and black traces (micro-organisms or more probably manganese) which affected the majority of the material. The percentage of fragmentation is very high in all stratigraphic levels, and the post-depositional breakage (geologic and anthropogenic phenomena) obscure the original breakage patterns of bones by predators. According to the ecology of the different species present in the levels of El Harhoura 2, and by taking into account possible biases highlighted by the taphonomic analysis, we reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution in the region. For quantitative reconstructions we used two indices: the Taxonomic Habitat Index (THI) and the Gerbillinae/Murinae ratio. Late Pleistocene accumulations were characterised by a succession of humid (Levels 3, 4a, 6, and 8) and arid (Levels 2?, 5, and 7) periods, with more or less open landscapes, ending in an ultimate humid and wooded period during the middle Holocene (Level 1). We discuss particular limits of our results and

  9. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  10. Arthropod consumption by small mammals on prairie dog colonies and adjacent ungrazed mixed grass prairie in western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Agnew; Daniel W. Uresk; R. M. Hansen

    1988-01-01

    The percentage of arthropods and plants in the diets of seven small rodents captured on prairie dog colonies and adjacent mixed grasslands were estimated by microhistological techniques. Arthropod composition over the two year study averaged 51% and 37% on prairie dog colonies and mixed grasslands, respectively. Composition of arthropods on prairie dog colonies was...

  11. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian; Deeming, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in a...

  12. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  13. Giardia survey in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals in four regions in the southwest region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a survey on Giardia in the live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals was perfomed in four regions of state of the São Paulo, Brazil, with special attention to the parasitism of Rattus rattus rattus by Giardia. This species was found infected in all studied sites: Botucatu (15.4%, Conchas (28.5%, Itaporanga (38.7% and São Roque (100 %. Two new hosts and their frequency of infection were described for Giardia in Nectomys squamipes, an aquatic rodent and in Bolomys lasiurus, a forest rodent (100 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Both G. muris and G. duodenalis groups were found in scrapings of intestinal mucosa of those rodents. Mixed infection was observed in some animals. It is important to emphasize the infection by G. duodenalis in the black rat as this species lives as a comensal with man and in N. squamipes as it may contaminate small streams used for domestic consumption. Therefore, further investigation will be necessary to elucidate the potential of these rodents to act as reservoirs of Giardia for man.

  14. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  15. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  16. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Osella

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  17. LiteBIRD: a small satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and inflation from cosmic background radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazumi, M.; Borrill, J.; Chinone, Y.; Dobbs, M. A.; Fuke, H.; Ghribi, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Inoue, Y.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishino, H.; Karatsu, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kimura, N.; Koga, K.; Komatsu, E.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumura, T.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Morii, H.; Murayama, S.; Nagai, M.; Nagata, R.; Nakamura, S.; Natsume, K.; Nishino, H.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ohta, I.; Otani, C.; Richards, P. L.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, T.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takagi, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, K.

    2012-09-01

    LiteBIRD [Lite (Light) satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection] is a small satellite to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the full sky at large angular scales with unprecedented precision. Cosmological inflation, which is the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era. Measurements of polarization of the CMB radiation are known as the best probe to detect the primordial gravitational waves. The LiteBIRD working group is authorized by the Japanese Steering Committee for Space Science (SCSS) and is supported by JAXA. It has more than 50 members from Japan, USA and Canada. The scientific objective of LiteBIRD is to test all the representative inflation models that satisfy single-field slow-roll conditions and lie in the large-field regime. To this end, the requirement on the precision of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at LiteBIRD is equal to or less than 0.001. Our baseline design adopts an array of multi-chroic superconducting polarimeters that are read out with high multiplexing factors in the frequency domain for a compact focal plane. The required sensitivity of 1.8μKarcmin is achieved with 2000 TES bolometers at 100mK. The cryogenic system is based on the Stirling/JT technology developed for SPICA, and the continuous ADR system shares the design with future X-ray satellites.

  18. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Landscape resistance and habitat combine to provide an optimal model of genetic structure and connectivity at the range margin of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrotte, R R; Gonzalez, A; Millien, V

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of habitat and landscape characteristics on the population genetic structure of the white-footed mouse. We develop a new approach that uses numerical optimization to define a model that combines site differences and landscape resistance to explain the genetic differentiation between mouse populations inhabiting forest patches in southern Québec. We used ecological distance computed from resistance surfaces with Circuitscape to infer the effect of the landscape matrix on gene flow. We calculated site differences using a site index of habitat characteristics. A model that combined site differences and resistance distances explained a high proportion of the variance in genetic differentiation and outperformed models that used geographical distance alone. Urban and agriculture-related land uses were, respectively, the most and the least resistant landscape features influencing gene flow. Our method detected the effect of rivers and highways as highly resistant linear barriers. The density of grass and shrubs on the ground best explained the variation in the site index of habitat characteristics. Our model indicates that movement of white-footed mouse in this region is constrained along routes of low resistance. Our approach can generate models that may improve predictions of future northward range expansion of this small mammal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A semiarid fruit agroecosystem as a conservation-friendly option for small mammals in an anthropized landscape in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-López, Mónica E; Mellink, Eric; Luévano, Jaime

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have addressed the potential of low-input agroecosystems for biological conservation. However, most have been carried out on annual agroecosystems in temperate, developed countries. As agricultural surface will increase and natural protected areas alone will not warrant the conservation of biodiversity, it is crucial to include different types of agroecosystems in research and conservation efforts. In Mexico, perennial, low-input, fruit-oriented nopal orchards (Opuntia spp.), one of the few crops suitable for semiarid areas, are the 10th out of 61 most important fruit crops grown in the country. We assessed their value for conservation in an anthropized landscape by comparing their rodent assemblages with those in adjacent habitats and determined the influence of the latter on the rodent communities inside them. We live-trapped rodents in 12 orchards and adjacent natural xeric shrubland, grassland, and cropland. We captured 19 different species, of which 17 used the orchards. Four are Mexican endemics. Orchards have higher α diversity, species richness, and abundance than cropland and grassland and are not different from shrubland. The dominant rodent species are the same in orchards and shrubland, and where these two meet they integrate into one habitat. Within-habitat quality is a critical driver of the composition and diversity of rodent communities in the orchards studied, and the neighboring habitats do not modify them substantially. Increasing within-patch heterogeneity beyond a certain level is at the expense of habitat integrity and produces small-scale fragmentation reducing habitat quality. At a landscape scale, orchards contribute importantly to regional rodent diversity compared with other land use types, and appear to increase habitat connectivity between patches of shrubland. Orchards' higher α diversity would give them higher ecological resilience and make them better suited than grassland and cropland to contribute to the conservation

  1. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  2. Evolution of the patellar sesamoid bone in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Samuels

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella is highly variable. Among extant (crown clade groups it is found in most birds, most lizards, the monotreme mammals and almost all placental mammals, but it is absent in most marsupial mammals as well as many reptiles. Here, we integrate data from the literature and first-hand studies of fossil and recent skeletal remains to reconstruct the evolution of the mammalian patella. We infer that bony patellae most likely evolved between four and six times in crown group Mammalia: in monotremes, in the extinct multituberculates, in one or more stem-mammal genera outside of therian or eutherian mammals and up to three times in therian mammals. Furthermore, an ossified patella was lost several times in mammals, not including those with absent hindlimbs: once or more in marsupials (with some re-acquisition and at least once in bats. Our inferences about patellar evolution in mammals are reciprocally informed by the existence of several human genetic conditions in which the patella is either absent or severely reduced. Clearly, development of the patella is under close genomic control, although its responsiveness to its mechanical environment is also important (and perhaps variable among taxa. Where a bony patella is present it plays an important role in hindlimb function, especially in resisting gravity by providing an enhanced lever system for the knee joint. Yet the evolutionary origins, persistence and modifications of a patella in diverse groups with widely varying habits and habitats—from digging to running to aquatic, small or large body sizes, bipeds or quadrupeds—remain complex and perplexing, impeding a conclusive synthesis of form, function, development and genetics across

  3. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  4. (Proteaceae) seeds by small mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-02-16

    Feb 16, 1993 ... numbers with changes in certian ecological conditions. M.Sc. dissertation, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 73 pp. .... One live trap was set at each station on four consecutive nights. Traps were baited with a mixture of peanut butter, lard and candle wax (1:1:1 by mass) melted together and.

  5. Exotic Small Mammals and Bartonella

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent that’s prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences.

  6. Exotic Small Mammals and Bartonella

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent that’s prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  7. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. This week?s Citation Classic: 'Stickel, L. F. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mammalogy 35: 1-15, 1954.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    During my first employment as a junior biologist conducting food habits analyses at the Patuxent Research Refuge (now Patuxent Wildlife Research Center) of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the first station director, Arnold L. Nelson, gave each staff biologist the opportunity to spend a little time conducting field studies on the 2,600-acre research area. These studies were to help in ecological evaluation of the area, but also, no doubt, functioned as a morale builder for biologists daily engaged in difficult, demanding and confining laboratory work. I undertook to measure the population density of small mammals in different habitats. The state-of-the-art methods recommended to me and prevalent in the literature worried me, especially after preliminary field work. Reading the classic, paper by W.H. Burt [Terrioriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J. Mammalogy 24:346-352, 1943] was a turning point for me in seeing that knowledge of home-range size was the key to measuring population density. My first papers employed these concepts in field evaluations. However, they could give-only limited attention to the question of how home ranges could be measured. Furthermore, the importance of knowledge of the home range to habitat evaluation and to understanding animal behavior was becoming increasingly apparent. Advocacy of many different methods of measuring home ranges appeared in the literature. It did not seem possible to evaluate them objectively. It occurred to me that artificial populations could be used to help in understanding the mechanisms of measuring home ranges. The effects of random trap-visiting, bias toward central traps, trap-spacing, range shape, and other factors could be considered. So grids of traps were inked onto oversize graph paper, and simulated ranges were cut from plastic to be tossed as randomly as possible on the trap-grids. It was a slow, laborious job. Analysis showed that random captures in artificial populations produced

  9. Isotopic and anatomical evidence of an herbivorous diet in the Early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis. Implications for the structure of Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, D.; Lécuyer, C.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Fourel, F.; Martineau, F.; Legendre, S.; Abourachid, A.; Herrel, A.

    2014-04-01

    The mode of life of the early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis has long been a matter of controversy. Although it has often been reconstructed as an apex predator feeding on small mammals, according to other interpretations, it was in fact a large herbivore. To determine the diet of this bird, we analyze here the carbon isotope composition of the bone apatite from Gastornis and contemporaneous herbivorous mammals. Based on 13C-enrichment measured between carbonate and diet of carnivorous and herbivorous modern birds, the carbonate δ13C values of Gastornis bone remains, recovered from four Paleocene and Eocene French localities, indicate that this bird fed on plants. This is confirmed by a morphofunctional study showing that the reconstructed jaw musculature of Gastornis was similar to that of living herbivorous birds and unlike that of carnivorous forms. The herbivorous Gastornis was the largest terrestrial tetrapod in the Paleocene biota of Europe, unlike the situation in North America and Asia, where Gastornis is first recorded in the early Eocene, and the largest Paleocene animals were herbivorous mammals. The structure of the Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems of Europe may have been similar to that of some large islands, notably Madagascar, prior to the arrival of humans.

  10. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  11. Lithuanian mammal fauna review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Balciauskas

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on Lithuania mammal fauna are presented. From 78 mammal species recorded in Lithuania, 7 were seen only in the 17-18th centuries, two species are extinct. Recent Lithuanian mammal fauna contains 68 species. Five of them are observed occasionally. 63 mammal species are permant inhabitants, 18 included in the Red Data Book, mostly bats and dormice. 8 mammal species were introduced or reintroduced. Population tendencies of game animals are also considered.

  12. Early Paleocene landbird supports rapid phylogenetic and morphological diversification of crown birds after the K-Pg mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T.; Stidham, Thomas A.; Williamson, Thomas E.

    2017-07-01

    Evidence is accumulating for a rapid diversification of birds following the K-Pg extinction. Recent molecular divergence dating studies suggest that birds radiated explosively during the first few million years of the Paleocene; however, fossils from this interval remain poorly represented, hindering our understanding of morphological and ecological specialization in early neoavian birds. Here we report a small fossil bird from the Nacimiento Formation of New Mexico, constrained to 62.221-62.517 Ma. This partial skeleton represents the oldest arboreal crown group bird known. Phylogenetic analyses recovered Tsidiiyazhi abini gen. et sp. nov. as a member of the Sandcoleidae, an extinct basal clade of stem mousebirds (Coliiformes). The discovery of Tsidiiyazhi pushes the minimum divergence ages of as many as nine additional major neoavian lineages into the earliest Paleocene, compressing the duration of the proposed explosive post-K-Pg radiation of modern birds into a very narrow temporal window parallel to that suggested for placental mammals. Simultaneously, Tsidiiyazhi provides evidence for the rapid morphological (and likely ecological) diversification of crown birds. Features of the foot indicate semizygodactyly (the ability to facultatively reverse the fourth pedal digit), and the arcuate arrangement of the pedal trochleae bears a striking resemblance to the conformation in owls (Strigiformes). Inclusion of fossil taxa and branch length estimates impacts ancestral state reconstructions, revealing support for the independent evolution of semizygodactyly in Coliiformes, Leptosomiformes, and Strigiformes, none of which is closely related to extant clades exhibiting full zygodactyly.

  13. Two decades of climate driving the dynamics of functional and taxonomic diversity of a tropical small mammal community in western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mason-Romo, Edgard David; Farías, Ariel A.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate disruption on biodiversity is important to future conservation efforts. While taxonomic diversity is widely studied, functional diversity of plants, and recently animals, is receiving increasing attention. Most studies of mammals are short-term, focus on temperate habitats, and rely on traits described in the literature rather than generating traits from observations. Unlike previous studies, this long-term field study assessed the factors driving t...

  14. Complex evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes across bird taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Jilin; Bachtrog, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific chromosomes, like the W of most female birds and the Y of male mammals, usually have lost most genes owing to a lack of recombination.We analyze newly available genomes of 17 bird species representing the avian phylogenetic range, and find that more than half of them do not have...

  15. Small mammal taxonomy, taphonomy, and the paleoenvironmental record during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic at Geißenklösterle Cave (Ach Valley, southwestern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sara E.; Ziegler, Reinhard; Starkovich, Britt M.; Conard, Nicholas J.

    2018-04-01

    the proportion of cold tundra adapted species, suggesting that the tundra expanded leading up to the Neanderthal depopulation, but no period of drastic climatic change is recognizable. The Aurignacian was significantly colder and drier than the preceding period, with cold tundra expansion reaching its apex (for the time period studied). Based on these results the Swabian landscape first encountered by Aurignacian groups was significantly less hospitable than that known to the earlier Middle Paleolithic populations. These results correlate well with past paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on sedimentary, botanical, and faunal assemblages. There is no evidence in the small mammal record that climatic pressure drove Neanderthals from the Ach Valley, instead it seems likely they enjoyed a more temperate environment than later Aurignacian groups. Ongoing work focused on greater resolution of these climatic oscillations at similarly well-dated Swabian sites will shed further light on the timing and speed of this climatic shift and the response of the biological communities affected, including early human groups.

  16. The Oak Woodland Bird Conservation Plan: A Strategy for Protecting and Managing Oak Woodland Habitats and Associated Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Zack; Mary K. Chase; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Diana Stralberg

    2005-01-01

    Over 330 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California (fig. 1) at some stage in their life cycle (Barrett 1980; Verner 1980; Block and Morrison 1998). These woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious food supply. The birds of California?s...

  17. Global mammal distributions, biodiversity hotspots, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2006-12-19

    Hotspots, which have played a central role in the selection of sites for reserves, require careful rethinking. We carried out a global examination of distributions of all nonmarine mammals to determine patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment, and to evaluate the degree of congruence among hotspots of these three measures of diversity in mammals. We then compare congruence of hotspots in two animal groups (mammals and birds) to assess the generality of these patterns. We defined hotspots as the richest 2.5% of cells in a global equal-area grid comparable to 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude. Hotspots of species richness, "endemism," and extinction threat were noncongruent. Only 1% of cells and 16% of species were common to the three types of mammalian hotspots. Congruence increased with increases in both the geographic scope of the analysis and the percentage of cells defined as being hotspots. The within-mammal hotspot noncongruence was similar to the pattern recently found for birds. Thus, assigning global conservation priorities based on hotspots is at best a limited strategy.

  18. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  19. Tuberculous and tuberculoid lesions in free living small terrestrial mammals and the risk of infection to humans and animals: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skorič, M.; Shitaye, E. J.; Halouzka, R.; Fictum, P.; Trčka, I.; Heroldová, Marta; Tkadlec, Emil; Pavlík, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 144-161 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/2003 Grant - others:MZE(CZ) 1B53009 Program:1B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bovine tuberculosis * paratuberculosis * avian tuberculosis * mycobacteriosis * terrestrial mammals * zoonoses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/52-4-144.pdf

  20. The brown adipocyte differentiation pathway in birds: An evolutionary road not taken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentseva, Nadejda V; Kumaratilake, Jaliya S; Newman, Stuart A

    2008-01-01

    Background Thermogenic brown adipose tissue has never been described in birds or other non-mammalian vertebrates. Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one, elevated numbers of mitochondria, and mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene UCP1, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis. Results We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs) with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. Avian, and as we show here, lizard species lack the gene for UCP1, although it is present in amphibian and fish species. While ABALCs are therefore not functional brown adipocytes, they are generated by a developmental pathway virtually identical to brown fat differentiation in mammals: both the common adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and a coactivator of that factor specific to brown fat differentiation in mammals, PGC1α, are elevated in expression, as are mitochondrial volume and DNA. Furthermore, ABALCs induction resulted in strong transcription from a transfected mouse UCP1 promoter. Conclusion These findings strongly suggest that the brown fat differentiation pathway evolved in a common ancestor of birds and mammals and its thermogenicity was lost in the avian lineage, with the degradation of UCP1, after it separated from the mammalian lineage. Since this event occurred no later than the saurian ancestor of birds and lizards, an implication of this is that dinosaurs had neither UCP1 nor canonically thermogenic brown fat. PMID:18426587

  1. Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Macías-Sánchez, Samuel; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Muñoz-Robles, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Energy produced by wind farms has diverse positive environmental effects, but can also be related to negative impacts, including wildlife mortality through collisions with wind turbines. Bird and bat mortality caused by collisions with wind turbines can be estimated indirectly by counting carcasses within wind farms. However, carcass removal by scavengers often biases such measurements. In this study, we identified the main scavengers removing bird and bat carcasses in a tropical wind farm. A known fate analysis was done to assess the effect of carcass type (i.e., small bird, large bird, bat), vegetation type (i.e., secondary vegetation, croplands) and season (dry and rainy seasons of 2009) on carcass persistence rates. We identified three main scavenger groups, with mammals being the most abundant group. Our results show high rates of carcass removal relative to previous studies, especially for bats; there were fewer remaining carcasses after 20 days in our tropical site than in non-tropical environments reported elsewhere. We found a higher carcass persistence rate during the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to a greater abundance of food resources for scavenger organisms in the rainy season. Although we found some evidence for higher persistence rates for large bird carcasses than for small bird and bat carcasses during the rainy season, overall carcass type was not a strong predictor of persistence rates. Similarly, we did not find a strong effect of vegetation type on carcass persistence rates. Results suggest that in order to estimate accurate bird and bat mortality in tropical wind farm areas, seasonality should be incorporated to correction factors of carcass removal rates.

  2. How Quaternary geologic and climatic events in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau influence the genetic structure of small mammals: inferences from phylogeography of two rodents, Neodon irene and Apodemus latronum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenxin; Liu, Shaoying; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2011-03-01

    Phylogeographical studies that focus on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are limited. The complex terrain and unique geological history make it a particularly unusual region of the Tibetan Plateau. We carried out a phylogeographical study of two rodent species Neodon irene and Apodemus latronum using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. High genetic diversities and deep phylogenetic splits were detected in both rodents. Some haplotypes from one sampling region fell into different evolutionary clades, but most haplotypes from the same sampling regions were clustered together with each other. The results of isolation by distance analysis further substantiated that their genetic diversities were structured along geography. Thus, there were high levels of geographical structure for both rodents. Demographic analyses implied a relatively constant population size for all samples of N. irene and A. latronum in history. However, clade B of N. irene and clade 3 of A. latronum experienced population expansions at 105-32 and 156-47 Kya, respectively. Through comparison with previous studies, we suggest the high mitochondrial DNA diversities in them are probably not a species-specific feature, but a common pattern for small mammals in this unique area. Details of the historical demography of these rodents revealed in this study could provide new insights into how rodents and possibly other small mammals in this region responded to the geological and climatic events.

  3. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  4. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  5. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  6. Analysis of environmental studies of the mammals in small hydroelectrics power in the Espirito Santo; Analise dos estudos ambientais da mastofauna em pequenas centrais hidreletricas do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesi, Patricia Conde

    2011-10-15

    The hydroelectric projects have been the main form to supply the energy demand in Brazil. Although it has been considered a way of clean generation, it brings many environmental impacts. Due to the fact that inconsistencies in environmental impact studies often occur, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of environmental diagnosis of the mammals in SHP in the Espirito Santo. Therefore, was notice an insufficient data survey, because of the relevance given to the secondary data and the lack of seasonal investigations, bringing damages to the proposals submitted of environmental compensation. This way, manners ware proposed that aim to improve the quality of these studies, which include since environmental awareness programs at the penalizing of those involved in such studies. (author)

  7. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had meat or egg) production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  8. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  9. a survey on mammals of the yayu forest in southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    representatives of vegetation types (afromontane forest, transitional rain forest and riverine ... malian diversity of the forest. ... mammals which were recorded in all the habitat .... and Rural Development, Tropentag, Zurich, pp. 1–4. 5. Olupot, W. and Sheil, D. (2011). A preliminary assessment of large mammal and bird use of.

  10. Structure and optical function of amorphous photonic nanostructures from avian feather barbs: a comparative small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of 230 bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Forster, Jason D; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Mochrie, Simon G J; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O

    2012-10-07

    Non-iridescent structural colours of feathers are a diverse and an important part of the phenotype of many birds. These colours are generally produced by three-dimensional, amorphous (or quasi-ordered) spongy β-keratin and air nanostructures found in the medullary cells of feather barbs. Two main classes of three-dimensional barb nanostructures are known, characterized by a tortuous network of air channels or a close packing of spheroidal air cavities. Using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical spectrophotometry, we characterized the nanostructure and optical function of 297 distinctly coloured feathers from 230 species belonging to 163 genera in 51 avian families. The SAXS data provided quantitative diagnoses of the channel- and sphere-type nanostructures, and confirmed the presence of a predominant, isotropic length scale of variation in refractive index that produces strong reinforcement of a narrow band of scattered wavelengths. The SAXS structural data identified a new class of rudimentary or weakly nanostructured feathers responsible for slate-grey, and blue-grey structural colours. SAXS structural data provided good predictions of the single-scattering peak of the optical reflectance of the feathers. The SAXS structural measurements of channel- and sphere-type nanostructures are also similar to experimental scattering data from synthetic soft matter systems that self-assemble by phase separation. These results further support the hypothesis that colour-producing protein and air nanostructures in feather barbs are probably self-assembled by arrested phase separation of polymerizing β-keratin from the cytoplasm of medullary cells. Such avian amorphous photonic nanostructures with isotropic optical properties may provide biomimetic inspiration for photonic technology.

  11. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small mammal species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector polygons in...

  12. Checklist of marine tetrapods (reptiles, seabirds, and mammals) of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜÇLÜSOY, Harun; KARAUZ, Emine Sühendan; KIRAÇ, Cem Orkun; BİLECENOĞLU, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of a total of 61 marine tetrapod species is presented in this paper, including 3 sea turtles, 43 sea birds, and 15 marine mammals. Distribution of each reported species along the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean, and Levantine coasts of Turkey is mentioned, associated with key references.

  13. Selected radionuclides and heavy metals in skeletons of birds of prey from eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosa, A.; Chibowski, S.; Solecki, J.; Orzel, J.; Kitowski, I.; Rozanski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Results of determination of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 40 K, 239+240 Pu, and heavy metals: Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cu in skeletons of 15 species of birds of prey from Eastern Poland were presented. The greatest amounts of 137 Cs and 90 Sr (70 Bq/kg and 33 Bq/kg, respectively) were found in rough-legged buzzards (Buteo lagopus), winter visitors, coming from former soviet nuclear test places. Concentrations of 239+240 Pu in raptors were negligible, only lesser-spotted eagles (Aquila pomarina) revealed slightly higher values. Median concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in raptors which feed predominantly on small mammals were higher in comparison to concentrations found in other ones preferring different trophy. The most noticeable was a very high lead concentration (reaching above 600 mg/kg) in birds which utilize un-retrieved hunting casualties as their prey. (author)

  14. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  15. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  16. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I; Kamilar, Jason M; Kirk, E Christopher

    2012-12-22

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal 'bottleneck' in the early evolution of crown mammals.

  17. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  18. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  19. The evolution of cerebrotypes in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Hurd, Peter L

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analyses of brain composition in mammals, amphibians and fish have revealed the evolution of 'cerebrotypes' that reflect specific niches and/or clades. Here, we present the first demonstration of similar cerebrotypes in birds. Using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering methods to analyze a data set of 67 species, we demonstrate that five main cerebrotypes can be recognized. One type is dominated by galliforms and pigeons, among other species, that all share relatively large brainstems, but can be further differentiated by the proportional size of the cerebellum and telencephalic regions. The second cerebrotype contains a range of species that all share relatively large cerebellar and small nidopallial volumes. A third type is composed of two species, the tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides) and an owl, both of which share extremely large Wulst volumes. Parrots and passerines, the principal members of the fourth group, possess much larger nidopallial, mesopallial and striatopallidal proportions than the other groups. The fifth cerebrotype contains species such as raptors and waterfowl that are not found at the extremes for any of the brain regions and could therefore be classified as 'generalist' brains. Overall, the clustering of species does not directly reflect the phylogenetic relationships among species, but there is a tendency for species within an order to clump together. There may also be a weak relationship between cerebrotype and developmental differences, but two of the main clusters contained species with both altricial and precocial developmental patterns. As a whole, the groupings do agree with behavioral and ecological similarities among species. Most notably, species that share similarities in locomotor behavior, mode of prey capture or cognitive ability are clustered together. The relationship between cerebrotype and behavior/ecology in birds suggests that future comparative studies of brain-behavior relationships

  20. Spatial distribution of bird communities in small forest fragments in central Europe in relation to distance to the forest edge, fragment size and type of forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Kočvara, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 401, OCT (2017), s. 255-263 ISSN 0378-1127 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Clearing * Dryocopus martius * Forest bird * Forest management * Generalized additive model * Habitat fragmentation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry; BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Forestry; Statistics and probability (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  1. Epigenetic memory in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  2. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  3. Music for the birds: effects of auditory enrichment on captive bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of mixed species exhibits in zoos, targeting enrichment for individual species may be problematic. Often, mammals may be the primary targets of enrichment, yet other species that share their environment (such as birds) will unavoidably be exposed to the enrichment as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) auditory stimuli designed for enrichment of primates influenced the behavior of captive birds in the zoo setting, and (2) if the specific type of auditory enrichment impacted bird behavior. Three different African bird species were observed at the Buffalo Zoo during exposure to natural sounds, classical music and rock music. The results revealed that the average frequency of flying in all three bird species increased with naturalistic sounds and decreased with rock music (F = 7.63, df = 3,6, P = 0.018); vocalizations for two of the three species (Superb Starlings and Mousebirds) increased (F = 18.61, df = 2,6, P = 0.0027) in response to all auditory stimuli, however one species (Lady Ross's Turacos) increased frequency of duetting only in response to rock music (X(2) = 18.5, df = 2, P < 0.0001). Auditory enrichment implemented for large mammals may influence behavior in non-target species as well, in this case leading to increased activity by birds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mammal Ecology Social Behaviour in Mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used as a complimentary text to accompany university courses in ecology and mam- ... is useful to have a treatment organized along phylogenetic lines. One benefit of .... Courtship sequences of butterflies, fish, newts and birds are described. ..... a more ecological approach providing functional interpreta- tions in order to ...

  5. Ecology of selected marine communities in Glacier Bay: Zooplankton, forage fish, seabirds and marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Drew, Gary S.; Piatt, John F.; Anson, Jennifer Marie; Abookire, Alisa A.; Bodkin, James L.; Hooge, Philip N.; Speckman, Suzann G.

    2003-01-01

    We studied oceanography (including primary production), secondary production, small schooling fish (SSF), and marine bird and mammal predators in Glacier Bay during 1999 and 2000. Results from these field efforts were combined with a review of current literature relating to the Glacier Bay environment. Since the conceptual model developed by Hale and Wright (1979) ‘changes and cycles’ continue to be the underlying theme of the Glacier Bay ecosystem. We found marked seasonality in many of the parameters that we investigated over the two years of research, and here we provide a comprehensive description of the distribution and relative abundance of a wide array of marine biota. Glacier Bay is a tidally mixed estuary that leads into basins, which stratify in summer, with the upper arms behaving as traditional estuaries. The Bay is characterized by renewal and mixing events throughout the year, and markedly higher primary production than in many neighboring southeast Alaska fjords (Hooge and Hooge, 2002). Zooplankton diversity and abundance within the upper 50 meters of the water column in Glacier Bay is similar to communities seen throughout the Gulf of Alaska. Zooplankton in the lower regions of Glacier Bay peak in abundance in late May or early June, as observed at Auke Bay and in the Gulf of Alaska. The key distinction between the lower Bay and other estuaries in the Gulf of Alaska is that a second smaller peak in densities occurs in August. The upper Bay behaved uniformly in temporal trends, peaking in July. Densities had begun to decline in August, but were still more than twice those observed in that region in May. The highest density of zooplankton observed was 17,870 organisms/m3 in Tarr Inlet during July. Trends in zooplankton community abundance and diversity within the lower Bay were distinct from upper-Glacier Bay trends. Whereas the lower Bay is strongly influenced by Gulf of Alaska processes, local processes are the strongest influence in the upper

  6. Assessing Arboreal Adaptations of Bird Antecedents: Testing the Ecological Setting of the Origin of the Avian Flight Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dececchi, T. Alexander; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian, mammalian, and reptilian scansors and climbers using a comprehensive set of morphological characters. Non-avian theropods, including the small, feathered deinonychosaurs, and Archaeopteryx, consistently and significantly cluster with fully terrestrial extant mammals and ground-based birds, such as ratites. Basal birds, more advanced than Archaeopteryx, cluster with extant perching ground-foraging birds. Evolutionary trends immediately prior to the origin of birds indicate skeletal adaptations opposite that expected for arboreal climbers. Results reject an arboreal capacity for the avian stem lineage, thus lending no support for the trees-down model. Support for a fully terrestrial ecology and origin of the avian flight stroke has broad implications for the origin of powered flight for this clade. A terrestrial origin for the avian flight stroke challenges the need for an intermediate gliding phase, presents the best resolved series of the evolution of vertebrate powered flight, and may differ fundamentally from the origin of bat and pterosaur flight, whose antecedents have been postulated to have been arboreal and gliding. PMID:21857918

  7. Assessing arboreal adaptations of bird antecedents: testing the ecological setting of the origin of the avian flight stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Alexander Dececchi

    Full Text Available The origin of avian flight is a classic macroevolutionary transition with research spanning over a century. Two competing models explaining this locomotory transition have been discussed for decades: ground up versus trees down. Although it is impossible to directly test either of these theories, it is possible to test one of the requirements for the trees-down model, that of an arboreal paravian. We test for arboreality in non-avian theropods and early birds with comparisons to extant avian, mammalian, and reptilian scansors and climbers using a comprehensive set of morphological characters. Non-avian theropods, including the small, feathered deinonychosaurs, and Archaeopteryx, consistently and significantly cluster with fully terrestrial extant mammals and ground-based birds, such as ratites. Basal birds, more advanced than Archaeopteryx, cluster with extant perching ground-foraging birds. Evolutionary trends immediately prior to the origin of birds indicate skeletal adaptations opposite that expected for arboreal climbers. Results reject an arboreal capacity for the avian stem lineage, thus lending no support for the trees-down model. Support for a fully terrestrial ecology and origin of the avian flight stroke has broad implications for the origin of powered flight for this clade. A terrestrial origin for the avian flight stroke challenges the need for an intermediate gliding phase, presents the best resolved series of the evolution of vertebrate powered flight, and may differ fundamentally from the origin of bat and pterosaur flight, whose antecedents have been postulated to have been arboreal and gliding.

  8. Landscape-moderated bird nest predation in hedges and forest edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martin; Schlinkert, Hella; Holzschuh, Andrea; Fischer, Christina; Scherber, Christoph; Trnka, Alfréd; Tscharntke, Teja; Batáry, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Landscape-scale agricultural intensification has caused severe declines in biodiversity. Hedges and forest remnants may mitigate biodiversity loss by enhancing landscape heterogeneity and providing habitat to a wide range of species, including birds. However, nest predation, the major cause of reproductive failure of birds, has been shown to be higher in forest edges than in forest interiors. Little is known about how spatial arrangement (configuration) of hedges affects the avian nest predation. We performed an experiment with artificial ground and elevated nests (resembling yellowhammer and whitethroat nests) baited with quail and plasticine eggs. Nests were placed in three habitat types with different degrees of isolation from forests: forest edges, hedges connected to forests and hedges isolated from forests. Nest predation was highest in forest edges, lowest in hedges connected to forests and intermediate in isolated hedges. In the early breeding season, we found similar nest predation on ground and elevated nests, but in the late breeding season nest predation was higher on ground nests than on elevated nests. Small mammals were the main predators of ground nests and appeared to be responsible for the increase in predation from early to late breeding season, whereas the elevated nests were mainly depredated by small birds and small mammals. High predation pressure at forest edges was probably caused by both forest and open-landscape predators. The influence of forest predators may be lower at hedges, leading to lower predation pressure than in forest edges. Higher predation pressure in isolated than connected hedges might be an effect of concentration of predators in these isolated habitats. We conclude that landscape configuration of hedges is important in nest predation, with connected hedges allowing higher survival than isolated hedges and forest edges.

  9. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  10. Grassland birds wintering at U.S. Navy facilities in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Bryan, Pearce D.; Ruddy, Amanda J.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland birds have undergone widespread decline throughout North America during the past several decades. Causes of this decline include habitat loss and fragmentation because of conversion of grasslands to cropland, afforestation in the East, brush and shrub invasion in the Southwest and western United States, and planting of exotic grass species to enhance forage production. A large number of exotic plant species, including grasses, have been introduced in North America, but most research on the effects of these invasions on birds has been limited to breeding birds, primarily those in northern latitudes. Research on the effects of exotic grasses on birds in winter has been extremely limited.This is the first study in southern Texas to examine and compare winter bird responses to native and exotic grasslands. This study was conducted during a period of six years (2003–2009) on United States Navy facilities in southern Texas including Naval Air Station–Corpus Christi, Naval Air Station–Kingsville, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Waldron, Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Orange Grove, and Escondido Ranch, all of which contained examples of native grasslands, exotic grasslands, or both. Data from native and exotic grasslands were collected and compared for bird abundance and diversity; ground cover, vegetation density, and floristic diversity; bird and vegetation relationships; diversity of insects and arachnids; and seed abundance and diversity. Effects of management treatments in exotic grasslands were evaluated by comparing numbers and diversity of birds and small mammals in mowed, burned, and control areas.To determine bird abundance and bird species richness, birds were surveyed monthly (December–February) during the winters of 2003–2008 in transects (100 meter × 20 meter) located in native and exotic grasslands distributed at all five U.S. Navy facilities. To compare vegetation in native and exotic grasslands, vegetation characteristics were measured

  11. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    , increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide.

  13. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Okello, J B A; Siegismund, H

    2010-01-01

    populations, the level of genetic differentiation found here is comparable to that among pan-African populations. Overall, correlations between conservancy area and indices of genetic diversity suggest buffalo populations inhabiting small parks are showing signs of genetic erosion, stressing the need for more......The Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) is one of the dominant and most widespread herbivores in sub-Saharan Africa. High levels of genetic diversity and exceptionally low levels of population differentiation have been found in the Cape buffalo compared to other African savannah ungulates...... active management of such populations. Our findings raise concerns about the future of other African savannah ungulates with lower population sizes and inferior dispersal capabilities compared with the buffalo....

  14. Magnetic Orientation in Birds and Other Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    The use of the geomagnetic field for compass orientation is widespread among animals, with two types of magnetic compass mechanisms described: an shape inclination compass in birds, turtles and salamanders and a shape polarity compass in arthropods, fishes and mammals. Additionally, some vertebrates appear to derive positional information from the total intensity and/or inclination of the geomagnetic field. For magnetoreception by animals, two models are currently discussed, the shape Radical Pair model assuming light-dependent processes by specialized photopigments, and the shape Magnetite hypothesis proposing magnetoreception by crystals of magnetite, Fe304. Behavioral experiments with migratory birds, testing them under monochromatic lights and subjecting them to a brief, strong pulse that could reverse the magnetization of magnetite particles, produced evidence for both mechanisms. However, monochromatic lights affect old, experienced and young birds alike, whereas the pulse affects only experienced birds, leaving young, inexperienced birds unaffected. These observations suggest that a radical pair mechanism provides birds with directional information for their innate magnetic compass and a magnetite-based mechanism possibly mediates information about total intensity for indicating position.

  15. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; David, Reginald E.; Jacobi, James D.; Banko, Winston E.

    2001-01-01

    Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures. Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Avian recovery is difficult to implement in Hawai‘i because a variety of challenging biological factors limit bird populations. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats. Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline. If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations

  16. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  17. WT Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    A new method for monitoring of bird collisions has been developed using video and audio registrations that are triggered by sound and vibration measurements. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. After the successful proof of principle and evaluation on small land-based turbines the system is now being designed for offshore wind farms. Currently the triggering system and video and audio registration are being tested on large land-based wind turbines using bird dummies. Tests of three complete prototype systems are planned for 2005.

  18. Evidence of hawking (falconry) from bird and mammal bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the archaeozoological and archaeological evidence for hawking, or falconry. The methods and history of hawking in Europe are described, after which five types of evidence for hawking are discussed. These are illustrated with material from the Slavonic stronghold of Oldenburg in

  19. Ecological aspects of social evolution: birds and mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, D.I; Wrangham, R.W

    1986-01-01

    ... out. They examine how social organization is shaped by the interaction between proximate ecological pressures and culture-the social traditions already in place and shaped by local and phylogenetic history...

  20. European birds and aposematic Heteroptera: review of comparative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Svádová, K.; Fousová, P.; Fučiková, E.; Ježová, D.; Niederlová, A.; Kopečková, M.; Štys, P.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of defensive mechanisms in 11 European aposematic species of Heteroptera against various passerine predators was analysed. Bird species differed in their reactions to aposematic preys: small insectivorous birds generally avoided aposematic bugs, but granivorous birds as well as large

  1. Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases. General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    designed for blood- less castration of cattle or sheep; has been used for eutha- nasia of birds by cervical dislocation. Encrustation — forming a crust...ian populations. Cattle graze the adjacent area. There are no residential or industrial buildings within 1 mile of the site. Human visitation is...infections between birds and mammals. Strains isolated from birds will usually kill rabbits and mice but not other mam- mals. Strains isolated from cattle

  2. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  3. Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Carnitine is indispensable for energy metabolism, since it enables activated fatty acids to enter the mitochondria, where they are broken down via beta-oxidation. Carnitine is probably present in all animal species, and in numerous micro-organisms and plants. In mammals, carnitine homoeostasis is

  4. The Mammals of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The knowledge of the fauna of Suriname is of essential importance in the study of the neotropical Mammalia. The first publications containing information on mammals of Suriname appeared very early in the history of European exploration of South America. Such publications were relatively numerous in

  5. The Mammals of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984, 19(4). Book Review. The Mammals of the. Southern Mrican. Subregiol1. Reay H.N. Smithers. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 1983. 736 pp. Price RIOO. A major new work ... of wild horses with separate profIles of two subspecies of mountain ... broader problems of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history which ...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small terrestrial mammals (woodrats, myotis, muskrat, mink) for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in...

  7. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole,Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n= 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse,Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus andNotiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  8. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  9. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  10. Morphometric identification of small mammal footprints from ink tracking tunnels in the Brazilian Cerrado Identificação morfométrica de pequenos mamíferos usando tubos de pegadas no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. T. Palma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for identifying and inventorying rodents and marsupials inhabiting forests and grasslands of Brazilian Cerrado is presented and discussed. Ink tracking tunnels were designed according to the size of target species and used to build a reference collection of small mammal footprints composed of 1408 footprints belonging to 251 individuals from 30 species (21 rodents and nine marsupials. Sherman traps and ink tracking tunnels were used to conduct inventories in gallery forests. Footprints obtained in ink tracking tunnels were digitalized and compared with those in reference collection using Discriminant Analysis (DFA. DFA allowed good footprint differentiation, even among congeneric species. In DFA analysis, the first two axis were related to size and arboreality. The efficiency of ink tracking tunnels was higher (track-success = 31% than conventional trapping (trap-success = 14% in inventories. Ink tracking tunnels gave a good description of the small mammal community of gallery forest by detecting rodents and marsupials of different habits, including trap-shy species. This paper also discusses advantages and limitations of ink tracking tunnels use in inventories and ecological studies, and concludes that this technique can be efficient in long-term studies and in rapid inventories as a complementary technique for trapping.Um método alternativo de identificação e inventário de roedores e marsupiais de florestas e áreas abertas do Cerrado é apresentado e discutido. Os tubos de pegadas foram projetados de acordo com o tamanho das espécies alvo e usados para construir uma coleção de referência de pegadas de pequenos mamíferos formada por 1408 pegadas pertencentes a 251 indivíduos de 30 espécies (21 roedores e nove marsupiais. Armadilhas Sherman e tubos de pegadas foram usados para conduzir inventários em matas de galeria. As pegadas obtidas nos tubos foram digitalizadas e comparadas com as da coleção de refer

  11. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  12. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  13. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  14. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  15. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  16. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  17. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAYANANDA, Salindra K.; GOODALE, Eben; LEE, Myung-bok; LIU, Jia-Jia; MAMMIDES, Christos; PASION, Bonifacio O.; QUAN, Rui-Chang; SLIK, J. W. Ferry; SREEKAR, Rachakonda; TOMLINSON, Kyle W.; YASUDA, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how ‘location factors’ such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m) within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments. PMID:27265653

  18. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salindra K. DAYANANDA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how ‘location factors’ such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments.

  19. The Origin and Diversification of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-10-05

    Birds are one of the most recognizable and diverse groups of modern vertebrates. Over the past two decades, a wealth of new fossil discoveries and phylogenetic and macroevolutionary studies has transformed our understanding of how birds originated and became so successful. Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic (around 165-150 million years ago) and their classic small, lightweight, feathered, and winged body plan was pieced together gradually over tens of millions of years of evolution rather than in one burst of innovation. Early birds diversified throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous, becoming capable fliers with supercharged growth rates, but were decimated at the end-Cretaceous extinction alongside their close dinosaurian relatives. After the mass extinction, modern birds (members of the avian crown group) explosively diversified, culminating in more than 10,000 species distributed worldwide today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. No Correlates for Somatic Motility in Freeze-Fractured Hair-Cell Membranes of Lizards and Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, C.; Forge, A.; Manley, G. A.

    2003-02-01

    It is not known whether active processes in mammals and non-mammals are due to the same underlying mechanism. To address this, we studied the size and density of particles in hair-cell membranes in mammals, in a lizard, the Tokay gecko, and in a bird, the barn owl. We surmised that if the prominent particles described in mammalian outer-hair-cell membranes are responsible for cochlear motility, a similar occurrence in non-mammalian hair cells would argue for similar mechanisms. Particle densities differed, however, substantially from those of mammals, suggesting that non-mammals have no membrane-based motility.

  1. Endothermy in birds: underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Isabel; Seebacher, Frank

    2009-08-01

    Endothermy is significant in vertebrate evolution because it changes the relations between animals and their environment. How endothermy has evolved in archosaurs (birds, crocodiles and dinosaurs) is controversial especially because birds do not possess brown adipose tissue, the specialized endothermic tissue of mammals. Internal heat production is facilitated by increased oxidative metabolic capacity, accompanied by the uncoupling of aerobic metabolism from energy (ATP) production. Here we show that the transition from an ectothermic to an endothermic metabolic state in developing chicken embryos occurs by the interaction between increased basal ATP demand (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and gene expression), increased oxidative capacity and increased uncoupling of mitochondria; this process is controlled by thyroid hormone via its effect on PGC1alpha and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) gene expression. Mitochondria become more uncoupled during development, but unlike in mammals, avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) does not uncouple electron transport from oxidative phosphorylation and therefore plays no role in heat production. Instead, ANT is the principal uncoupling protein in birds. The relationship between oxidative capacity and uncoupling indicates that there is a continuum of phenotypes that fall between the extremes of selection for increased heat production and increased aerobic activity, whereas increased cellular ATP demand is a prerequisite for increased oxidative capacity.

  2. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  3. An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Avery

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and observational techniques to assess the small and large mammal species diversity of the area were conducted during 1989. This study documents the definite occurrence of 63 mammal species in the park, seven of which are exotics. The presence of a further five species requires confirmation. Interesting insight is gained into how direct censusing and owl pellet analyses augment each other in establishing the presence of small mammal taxa of an area.

  4. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  5. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  6. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  7. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...

  8. Audubon Bird Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…

  9. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat....... In another species, environmental conditions are not a good predictor of movements, and possibly effects of timing constraints or food type play a role. Two manuscripts focus on the effects of human-induced habitat alterations on migratory behaviour. One compares the movements of partial migrants in urban...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...

  10. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km \\2\\) Bottlenose dolphin \\1\\ 0.455 Atlantic... criteria and thresholds in a final rule on the unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental... analysis assumed the marine species populations were 100 percent small animals. The criterion with the...

  11. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The blastema and epimorphic regeneration in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ashley W; Muneoka, Ken

    2018-01-15

    Studying regeneration in animals where and when it occurs is inherently interesting and a challenging research topic within developmental biology. Historically, vertebrate regeneration has been investigated in animals that display enhanced regenerative abilities and we have learned much from studying organ regeneration in amphibians and fish. From an applied perspective, while regeneration biologists will undoubtedly continue to study poikilothermic animals (i.e., amphibians and fish), studies focused on homeotherms (i.e., mammals and birds) are also necessary to advance regeneration biology. Emerging mammalian models of epimorphic regeneration are poised to help link regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. The regenerating rodent digit tip, which parallels human fingertip regeneration, and the regeneration of large circular defects through the ear pinna in spiny mice and rabbits, provide tractable, experimental sys